Spain: August 1525, 16-31

Pages 291-309

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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August 1525, 16-31

16 Aug. 173. The Milanese Ambassador in Venice [Francesco Taverna] to Hieronymo Morone.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35
f. 186.
They (the Venetians) know through the same individual that a treaty of truce has lately been concluded between England and France. The return of Chancellor d'Alençon is expected, who had gone [to England] to obtain the signature of the treaty. Indeed letters from Flanders announce that he (the Chancellor) had passed through and was returning to England.
Should peace be concluded between the Emperor and France, and they (the Pope and the Venetians) excluded from it, they must for the present show no hostility to the Emperor, but dissemble, and rather appear to be his friends
Italian. Copy in Sanchez' hand. p. 1.
16 Aug. 174. The Emperor to the Sieur de le Sauch, his Ambassador in England.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Rep. P. C. Fasc.
223, No. 100.
Cher et bien aimé &c. You will see by the enclosed memorandum the overtures made to us by the English ambassadors and what we have answered on each point. As the matter itself is so important for the favourable issue of our affairs, common as well as private, We command you immediately after its receipt to communicate it to the King our good brother, and to Monseigneur the Legate, for although a similar memorandum has here been given to the English ambassadors, it is important that the King should be informed as soon as possible of our intentions, that he may forthwith send full powers to his ambassadors to renew our old friendship, make peace [with France], and, if necessary, prosecute war.
We have also ordered that a copy of the articles of the truce made in the Low Countries without our consent should be put in the hands of the said ambassadors, declaring at the same time our intention not to have the said truce ratified unless the King of England be willing to approve of it, as We would not for the world do anything that might turn out to my good brother's detriment. On the other hand a general abstinence from war between ourselves, the King of England, our ally, and King Francis is now being discussed and negotiated here [at Toledo], with the advice and intervention of the English ambassadors present at the conferences, and therefore, when concluded, will be submitted to the King's approbation, that he may ratify it. And as a proof that We do not intend to treat separately with the French We will have the same sent to the Low Countries, there to be published, causing all previous agreements to be declared nul and void.
You will take care to inform us of every new occurrence in London, and likewise of whatever the French ambassadors residing at that court may negotiate separately, although We have no doubt that just as We here communicate with the English ambassadors and tell them all We know in the matter, you will be equally acquainted there with all the stages of the negotiation.—Toledo, 16th of August 1525. (fn. n1)
French. Original draft. pp. 2.
17 Aug. 175. The Milanese Ambassador in Venice [Francesco Taverna] to Hieronymo Morone.
M. Re. Ac d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 64–5.
Encloses duplicate of his despatch of the 8th. (fn. n2) Has nothing to add, except that having called on the Signory and pressed them to give an answer respecting the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand's) claim, they have agreed to pay down a portion of the money owing [to him], although they have not fixed either the time or the sum. With regard to the differences, if any should arise, they consent to have the matter referred to a third person.—Venice, 17 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Imperial Ambassadors in Venice. 17 Aug."
Spanish. Original. p. 1.
18 Aug. 176. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 174–8.
(Cipher:) Notwithstanding what he (Sanchez) said in his last concerning a certain lull to be observed in the intrigues and plots of these Italian confederates, he (Sanchez) is always on the alert. On the 12th instant, Hieronymo Morone despatched a courier to the Milanese ambassador [Taverna] residing here [at Venice] with verbal instructions, but no letters from the Duke. The courier arrived on the 15th, and on the same day the ambassador said to him (Sanchez) that he had received a letter from Morone, written wholly in cipher, but had not yet had time to decipher it. He (Sanchez) having again inquired about its contents two days later, the Milanese ambassador answered that they were unimportant and referred exclusively to certain business of Moron's with a gentleman of this city. (fn. n3) His suspicions being raised by this apparently evasive answer, he (Sanchez) contrived to get into his own hands a letter which the Milanese ambassador was actually writing to Morone, in answer to his of the 12th. But the letter being mostly in cipher, and nearly five pages long, he had no time to decipher it or copy its contents, as he had to return it three hours after. He, however, managed to copy the part that was in common writing, which he now encloses. (fn. n4) Strongly suspects that some new intrigue is going on, for otherwise the Milanese ambassador would have communicated to him (Sanchez) the substance of the letter, as he has done at other times. On the contrary, very far from this, be was silent and reserved in the extreme; for, having inquired of him whether there was any news from France or England in Morone's letter, the ambassador replied there was none, which he (Sanchez) does not believe, as there can be no doubt that something is going on in those countries against the Emperor's interests, and that Hieronymo Morone knows of it. Besides, as will be seen by that portion of the ambassador's letter which he (Sanchez) managed to transcribe, the rest in cipher must have referred to news from those countries (France and England), which the Milanese ambassador adroitly kept from him, whereas up to this day he has carefully imparted such intelligence as he received from those courts. The Milanese ambassador's letter to Morone went [by post].
(Common writing:) Yesterday the said ambassador informed him (Sanchez) that he had heard from the Duke of Milan, in date of the 14th instant. The Duke (he said) had intelligence from Spain of the 18th July last, by a gentleman of the Duke of Bourbon, to the effect that peace was on the point of being made between His Imperial Majesty and the King of France. That His Majesty was to marry the Princess [Isabella] of Portugal; the French King Madame Eleonor (the Emperor's sister); Monsieur de Bourbon was to espouse Madame d'Alençon the sister of the French King. (fn. n5) This last was daily expected [in Spain], as was also the Pope's Legate. That with regard to this Venetian business, Lope Hurtado brought full powers for him (Sanchez) and Prothonotary Caracciolo to have it settled at once. He (Hurtado) was to leave Spain on the 23d. The ambassador added that the Duke, his master, had written to him to call on the Signory, communicate the above intelligence, and persuade them to come to terms with the Emperor, and pay what they owed him, as the only way to avoid trouble and vexation. He (the Duke) was shortly to receive his investiture, the deed of which had already been drawn out. With the Legate's arrival in Spain the affairs of Rome would be satisfactorily arranged, and therefore there' remained no plausible cause for refusing the Emperor's conciliatory terms.
Sanchez has since heard that the Milanese ambassador saw the Signory and read to them the contents of his master's despatch. Being asked whether he thought the Emperor would be satisfied with the sum proposed by them here at Venice, the ambassador replied that he could not tell, upon which they observed: "If the Emperor has peace so much at heart, how is it that the Marquis of Pescara is continually increasing his army, procuring money to pay the troops, and making all manner of military preparations? This can only be intended for one of two contingencies, defence or offence. The Emperor has nothing whatever to fear from us; and therefore it is natural for us to suppose that all these preparations are intended against our Republic." The ambassador replied: "I know nothing about the Emperor's designs, but think the Marquis is acting very prudently and like a clever physician, who, perceiving mild medicines to be of no avail, is preparing stronger ones for his patient."
To this last observation the Signory answered in general terms, protesting their fidelity and so forth. They thanked the Milanese ambassador for the intelligence and for the Duke's good wishes. But they are evidently anything but pleased with it, and much in suspense about this affair of the marriages and the preparations of the Imperial army. Such, at least, is the opinion of the Milanese ambassador and his own, to which may be added that he (Taverna) seldom goes to the Council Hall, and, therefore, (cipher) if there be any secret negotiations between Milan and Venice, they must be conducted through one of the Signory's secretaries.
The Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) writes about the 4,000 Germans who are to come down under the leadership of George Fraundesperg (Fruntsperg). By the tenor of his letter, received on the 17th inst., he (Sanchez) concludes that they are not yet in readiness, and therefore it is doubtful whether it would not be better to apply for the passage of these troops through the Venetian territory and their necessary victualling on the road, as has been done at other times, rather than ask for a safe-conduct and letters of transit, as the Infante recommends in his letter. He (Sanchez) is of opinion that the application ought not to be made at present; for if it is, these people are sure to grow exceedingly suspicious of His Imperial Majesty's intentions, and so will the Pope, who, according to what the Duke [of Sessa] writes, is in great fear, especially ever since he has heard of the agreement made between His Imperial Majesty and the King of France. Indeed, both the Pope and the Venetians will suspect that this German infantry thus arriving in Italy at the request of the Marquis de Pescara, is for no other purpose than that of attacking and subduing them.
1525. The above considerations have induced him (Sanchez) not to apply at present for a pass, lest the Pope and Venetians should take umbrage, and determine, through fear and suspicion, to bring their plans into execution. He sees no occasion for it at present, especially as the troops are not yet ready for marching. Has written to the Marquis [of Pescara], informing him of his determination. — Venice, 18 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Alonso Sanchez, 18 Aug."
Spanish. Original. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 5.
20 Aug. 177. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 188.
The Venetians and the rest of the Italian potentates continue Plotting against His Imperial Majesty. This investiture of the Duchy, so graciously bestowed on. Francesco Sforza, is nothing to them, and they are negotiating with France more actively than ever.
The Signory is daily increasing its forces, and the Marquis of Pescara has had letters from Lyons, stating that 1,500 French lances were approaching the frontiers of Italy. Nevertheless, he (the Abbot) cannot persuade himself that the Kings of France and England can lend a willing ear to these Italian intrigues. But as France and England are now allies, it is very possible that both may assist Italy, whilst only one of them comes to a rupture with His Imperial Majesty. Besides they may secretly give money to [the Italians], that they may carry on war against the Emperor.
The Marquis [del Guasto] does all he can to keep the Imperial army concentrated, and is fortifying the places we possess in the duchy.
Count of Geneva and the claims of the Duke of Savoy.—Milan, 20 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. Abbot of Najera, 20 Aug."
Spanish. Holograph partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 196). pp. 4.
21 Aug. 178. The Bishop of Trent to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 202.
His Serene Highness the Archduke [Ferdinand] must now be at Olma (Ulm), or in the duchy of Bitinbergo (Wurtemberg), at the head of 6,000 infantry and 1,000 horse, and preparing to march upon Alsatia and Fereto (Ferrette), to chastise the peasants of those districts, (fn. n6) who are still in revolt against his authority. Out of the said forces under the Prince's commands, 4,000 foot and 400 cavalry are paid by the Suabian League.
Respecting George Fraundsperg (Fruntsperg) it is quite true that he is now in the neighbourhood of Saltzburg, at the head of 10,000 infantry and 1,000 horse, partly his own bands, and partly the Duke of Bavaria's troops, sent to the relief of the Cardinal, besieged in his castle by the revolted peasants. The last advices from that locality are that a settlement (compositione) of some sort was soon expected, or else a most violent conflict, for some of the villages about Saltzburg had already accepted terms. There is no talk, however, at present of the said George crossing over to Italy with his bands, for he has been for the last six weeks—and is still—engaged in that Cardinal's service.
It is also true that the Viceroy [of Naples] sent to Germany one of his stewards, named Spaña (Spagna?), for the express purpose of raising there 3,000 infantry to serve in Italy, and that the said Spaña came to this city, whence he applied for a permission to pass through the Venetian territory. But shortly after the said Spaña received counter-orders from his master, the Viceroy, enjoining him to desist from his commission, and join him in Spain. The letter was brought, as it is generally believed, by Meneses, the Prince's gentleman courier, lately returned [from Spain] from a mission to the Emperor. The said Meneses, who passed through Trent, told him (the Bishop) how matters stood, and what reasons there were for sending a counter order. His Worship (Alonso Sanchez) must know what those reasons are. Besides, letters have been received from court, with the intelligence that a peace is likely soon to be concluded, with the acquiescence of that most Illustrious Signory, (fn. n7) and that several marriages are to take place, such as those of His Imperial Majesty, the most Christian King of France, the Duke of Milan and Monsieur de Bourbon.
It is no less a fact that to-morrow or after we expect the arrival here of 500 infantry to chastise those revolted peasants who only the other day murdered Micer Piero de Bussi (Pierre de Bussy), and also to compel the submission of many others in this bishopric and towns of the Archduke's dominions, who have refused to comply with the ordinances of the Diet unless certain grievances of which they complain be previously redressed.—Trent, 21 of August 1525.
Indorsed: "Copy of paragraphs of a letter dated the 21st of August, from the Bishop of Trent (fn. n8) to Mossen Alonso Sanchez."
Italian. Contemporary copy, in the handwriting of Sanchez' Secretary, p. 1¼.
21 Aug. 179. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 203.
The Emperor's letter, dated the 25 July last, has come to hand, as well as those for the Doge and Community, and for the Viceroy of Sicily, concerning the export (tratas) of wheat granted to this Signory in consideration of and as indemnity for the damages caused in their territory by the infantry in the King of France's escort. He (Lope de Soria) failed not, on the delivery of the said letters and grant, to represent to the Doge the great annoyance which the disorderly conduct of his soldiers on that occasion had given the Emperor, and his anxiety to make a suitable compensation. The Doge and Community have gratefully received this new proof of the Imperial benevolence and justice, and assured him (Soria) of their constant fidelity and obedience.
All the despatches that come for the Duke of Sessa and Counts of San Severino (fn. n9) and Monteleone (fn. n10) have been forwarded to Borne by express. The Duke will take care that these last are sent to Naples.
The capitulation signed here between the King of France and the Viceroy [of Naples, Charles de Lannoy] has not been fulfilled in many of its articles. For on the 16th of July last Andrea Doria captured, close to Savona, the carack called "Arca," which he (Soria) had engaged for the Imperial service, and took her with him to Villafranca de Niza. He also captured a brigantine coming from Barcelona, and put to the oars in his own galleys all the passengers and crew thereof, besides which he is continually annoying the Lord of Monego, attacking his towns on the coast, and preventing his officers from collecting the usual customs' dues on vessels coming from the coast of Provence, all of which he (Doria) does in utter contravention of the clauses of the said capitulation which engage that no harm shall be done by sea or land to the territory of this Republic, within which Monego and its immediate neighbourhood are comprised, the said Lord of Monego being a Genoese by birth, and a good servant of His Imperial Majesty. As the duties on all vessels coming from Provence constitute the principal part of that Lord's revenue, measures ought to be taken for his protection, as well as for the speedy liberation of the men taken on board the Barcelona brigantine.
Has carefully attended to the provision of biscuit for the fleet. Out of the 4,000 cwt. ordered by the Emperor 2,000 are already in store, and the remainder shall be ready against the arrival of the galleys. The Duke of Bourbon is anxiously expecting them, and writes to say that, immediately on their arrival, he will prepare to embark for Spain.
Respecting the six caracks which he was ordered to get ready on the 25th of June last, before the departure of the French King was known at Court, he (Soria) purposely delayed the execution of the order until its confirmation should reach him from Spain, inasmuch as—circumstances having materially changed since—they might no longer be wanted, and, moreover, the fleet of galleys which they were to join was not immediately expected in Genoa. So urgent, however, were the letters of the Duke of Bourbon and of the Marquis of Pescara on this point, that he (Soria) engaged for that service the "Arca" afterwards captured by Andrea Doria, and another Genoese carack called "Llomelina," whose crew has actually been paid up and dismissed, in conformity with orders received from home. He is, however, afraid that the Duke will require one or two more for his horses and baggage, freighted at the Emperor's expense; and if so, he is doubtful whether it will be His Majesty's pleasure that he should engage them on his own account, though the cost cannot be very great.
Believes that His Imperial Majesty will be pleased with the French King's departure for Spain. No better plan could be suggested, and the Viceroy (Charles de Lanoy) deserves much credit for having thereby promoted the Imperial interests.
The negotiations lately established with all secresy by the Italian Princes seem to have experienced a check of late; and yet the Venetians show signs of fear, and are busy fortifying their frontiers and making all manner of military preparations. (Cipher:) These are the people who, from fear of being deprived of the territory which they unjustly hold, are continually striving to create dissensions between His Imperial Majesty and the King of France. Should they at once be deprived of their forces, all Italy would be at peace, and the Emperor might firmly establish his rule as befits such a Prince. Otherwise it is in their power to kindle war at their pleasure, and expel from the country all those whom they consider as their adversaries, so great being their ambition and their cunning that they will always find the means of placing His Imperial Majesty at variance with the rest of the world.
He (Soria) has frequently alluded in his despatches to the necessity of reducing the city of Marseilles. As long as that port belongs to France, no security can be expected for the Imperial dominions. It is a nest of pirates and cruisers, who flock there from all parts of the world, and who, owing to the convenient situation of that port in the Mediterranean, plunder and capture the Spanish vessels bound for Italy and the Levant. Were Marseilles brought under the Imperial rule, the whole of the coast of Provence would be made secure, and the Spanish merchant navy could navigate the Mediterranean in perfect safety.
1525. (Common writing:) Pestilence still reigns in this country, though not with much violence. The Duke of Bourbon and the Marquis of Pescara are at Vercelli, expecting every day the arrival of Lope Hurtado, who, they say, has been detained in France by Madame the Regent.
The Duke of Milan is better, and Micer Andrea del Borgo also.—Sestri di Ponente, 21 August 1525.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 21 Aug."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp.
180. The Same to the Same.
Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 207.
Since he wrote on the 21st he (Soria) has seen Stefano de Grimaldo, who says he will have great difficulty in making up the 24,800 ducats of the last exchange, as his credit is affected in consequence of what has happened to his brother Nicolao [in Spain]. He intends, however, to pay the second instalment very soon, and consequently has begged for a few days' respite to pay the third. He (Soria) thinks that this ought to be granted, for otherwise he might, if his credit fails him, become utterly bankrupt and leave the city. Has already received the first instalment, and is sure that the payment of the second will be made within three or four days at the utmost. Not having, however, received orders as to the employment of the said money, he (Soria) is rather perplexed. Both the Marquis of Pescara and the Abbot of Najera maintain that the said funds are exclusively destined for the army. Encloses copy of a letter just received from the Abbot asking for the money. He (Soria) does not consider himself justified in sending it, unless expressly ordered to do so.
On the 23d, at night, news came here how an Italian captain, named Antonio di Udena, who with 500 men was marching towards Monago, had entered a village of this republic, called Honeya (Oneglia), and sacked it completely, carrying away the inhabitants as hostages, and making them pay heavy sums for their ransom. They say that the Captain has a commission from the Duke of Bourbon; but certainly it may be safely asserted that if the General-in-Chief has given him one, it was not to enable him to perpetrate such misdeeds in a friendly country.
1525. Pestilence having broken out in the carack where the Lieutenant of the Sumaria [of Naples] and Hieronymo Severino intended to cross over to Spain, it is believed that they will not embark in her, but wait for another opportunity.—Genoa. Sestri de Poniente, 23 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Genoa. Lope de Soria, 24 August."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 3.
22 Aug. 181. The Bishop of Trent to Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 208.
Wrote yesterday in answer to his, enclosing whatever news he had about the infantry now being levied in Italy by a steward of the Viceroy [of Naples], and how the enlistment had been suspended, and the steward himself recalled. But after his letter was closed, advices came from the Marquis of Pescara, saying that the condotta was not to be abandoned altogether; on the contrary, hopes of the levies being continued ought to be given out, for fear of the men disbanding and enlisting under the enemy's banners. The steward was moreover directed to go to the Archduke's, where he would find every facility for his commission.—Trent, 22 August 1525.
23 Aug. 182. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 209.
Since his letter of the 22d the Bishop has to advise that a captain, named Coradino, has brought a commission to raise 2,000 infantry for the Imperial service, who, after obtaining permission, are to pass through the land of the Grisons.
News has been received from Saltzburg, stating that the army under Micer Forio Frunospergere (Georgio? Fruntsperg), a captain in the Cardinal's service, was close to Talena? and had begun to batter its walls with artillery. The people inside the town defended themselves with great courage. The captains of the army had promised two months' pay to the soldiers, one for the assault, the other to preserve the town from sack. If things turn out well, as he expects, he will not fail to give advice.—Trent, 23 August, 1525.
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed. "Copy of letter from the Bishop of Trent to the Ambassador, Alonso Sanchez."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p 1.
23 Aug. 183. [Silvio Passerino] Cardinal of Cortona to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 210.
Although in his last letter [to the Emperor] he wrote at full length on the Barcelona business, and promised constant fidelity and obedience to the Imperial commands; though he trusts that His Imperial Majesty, through his ardent love of the Apostolic See and Church dignitaries, will soon give him possession of the said bishopric, yet, taking advantage of the departure for Spain of the Pope's Legate, Giovanni di Salviatis, and of the Reverend Apostolic Nuncio, he again repeats his most humble prayers on that score, and has begged the said ambassadors warmly to intercede in his favour; and as nothing can be more becoming to a great Prince than the exercise of justice—which His Majesty has certainly always shown towards others on similar occasions—he has no doubt but that his wishes in this particular will be accomplished, especially as nobody can doubt that the appointment to all vacancies at the Roman court belongs exclusively and is reserved to the Apostolic See. This, notwithstanding, the Cardinal will consider himself highly honoured by receiving the same at the Emperor's hands, protesting henceforwards of his constant fidelity and blind obedience to the Imperial commands, &c.—Florence, 23 of August 1525.
Signed: "S. Syl[vius] Cardinalis Cortonensis."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cæsareæ Maiestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Rome (sic). From Cardinal di Cortona, 24th of August."
Latin. Holograph. p. 1.
23 Aug. 184. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
ff. 269–71.
His (Sessa's) letters of the 12th July have been duly received. Thanks him for the news contained in them, which agrees well with what Bourbon, Pescara, Leyva and the ambassadors at Venice, Milan and Genoa have communicated respecting the intrigues of the confederated powers.
By the Imperial despatches of which Lope Hurtado was the bearer, and by later ones of the 13th inst., he (the Duke) will now be fully informed of what the Emperor's wishes are. He must assure the Pope that upon the arrival at court of his Legate (Cardinal Salviati) all matters now pending and the business about Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera shall be satisfactorily arranged. He is to try to keep the Pope in good humour, and speak to him in the mildest possible terms, not forgetting to have his eye on the Datary (Giovanni Matheo), and ascertain what he and others, who are the enemies of the Empire, are plotting against him [in Italy].
Was very much pleased with his answer to the English ambassador, when the latter inquired about Commander Peñalosa's mission to England.
The renunciation of the archbishopric of Rosano (in Sicily), made by Cardinal Colonna, in favour of Vincencio Pimpinelli, has been approved of and confirmed, merely to please the said Cardinal. He (Sessa) must try to ascertain what has passed between His Holiness and Cardinal Sanctiquatro, (fn. n11) for certainly the latter's journey to Florence under the present circumstances cannot be without mystery.
He (the Emperor) cannot imagine what objection the Pope can have to grant to the Bishop of Siguença (fn. n12) a brief similar to the one obtained by the Archbishop of Saragossa, nor what made him say that the brief in favour of the latter was the cause of the late troubles and rebellions in these kingdoms, for the Archbishop of Saragossa happened then to govern Catalonia and Aragon, and those kingdoms were entirely free from disturbance. As the administration of justice cannot be carried out without a brief of this kind, similar in all its parts to the one granted on that occasion, he (the Duke) is to do his utmost to obtain it.
Approves the sending of Commander Aguilera to Sienna.
He (the Duke) is again to solicit the Pope to send to the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) the 20,000 ducats, for, although he may be told that the peasants' rising is on the decline, it is not thence to be inferred that he (the Archduke) has abundance. Is likewise to insist with His Holiness on the grant of the revenues of the Cruzade for the purpose of waging war against the Infidel. The Nuncio has already been spoken to, and given fair hopes that His Holiness will accede to the Emperor's just request.
His (the Emperor's) journey to Italy will not take place this year; at any rate not before universal peace is solidly established. He (the Duke) may tell the Pope so, and reassure him as to his (the Emperor's) peaceful intentions.
Hospital of Nuestra Señora de Gracia at Saragossa.
Lope de Soria must already have received bills to the amount of 80,000 ducats, which, added to the 100,000 which the Duke of Milan is to furnish in consideration of the investiture granted to him, and what will be drawn from the Venetians will amply suffice for the present wants of the army.—Toledo, 23 Aug. 1525.
1525. Postscriptum in Gattinara's own hand.—Illustrious Duke, &c.—We have written to you about the affairs pending at that court, and the despatches will be ready for the courier's departure in two or three days hence; yet, in order to gain time, the present is sent by express, that you may at once announce to His Holiness the Emperor's betrothal to the very Illustrious Princess Doña Isabel de Portugal, &c.
Spanish. Original draft corrected by Gattinara. pp. 6.
24 Aug. 185. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 215–8.
Lope Hurtado de Mendoça is laid up with fever at Chambari (Chambery), where the Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele) saw him. As his physician advised him not to continue his journey, he despatched a servant of his with the letters and instructions he was bringing [from Spain] for the Emperor's generals and ministers [in Italy]. The messenger started on the 17th inst., and arrived here yesterday evening [the 23d of August].
(Cipher:) As the instructions brought by the said Lope Hurtado are so very important in the present state of affairs, and as the despatch which Alvaro de Bracamonte is now about to take to Spain requires an immediate answer from Court, both the Duke of Bourbon and Marquis of Pescara have decided not to delay Bracamonte's departure, but to send another messenger afterwards with an account of what has been done in pursuance of the said instructions lately received. The said generals, besides, are in hopes of having, in a day or two, an answer to the despatches sent by Juan Baptista Castaldo and other gentlemen and messengers who left this by sea.
The Duke of Bourbon is only waiting for the galleys to get ready. We have received no account from Genoa since our last.
Antonio de Leyva went the other day to Milan for the purpose of seeing the Duke, and asking him for money and accommodation for his men-at-arms, most of whom were, and some are still, quartered on the lands of the Church. His presence, and that of Prothonotary Caracciolo, will be required here [at Vercelli] in order to advise with them as to His Imperial Majesty's orders in this last despatch brought by Lope Hurtado.
1525. The Marquis of Pescara has read, besides the Emperor's letter to himself, that part of Hurtado's instructions which have reference to his own person. He thanks His Imperial Majesty for the grant of the dukedom of Sora; the title of Captain-General of the Imperial armies in Italy; the sum of money offered as compensation for Mons. de Labrit's ransom, &c.; but it would appear that he (the Marquis) intends not to accept the said grants (mercedes), because he considers them inferior to his past and present services and much less than he expected. That of Sora because it seems as a sort of winding-up of all his former services and is only to last one year. The title of Captain-General, because, though it comes from the Emperor himself, and without his (the Marquis) having applied for it, yet it contains clauses tending rather to tarnish his honour than to increase his military reputation. Respecting Mons. de Labrit, because he considers himself wronged through the Emperor having deprived him of the price of his ransom (talla), on which he (the Marquis) counted for paying his own debts, very considerable already, and which will naturally increase now that he is not to keep the estate of Carpi. He (Najera) considers it his duty to inform the Emperor of these matters, and beg him to take into account the Marquis' many services, for certainly since he (Najera) came to Italy he has bad plenty of opportunities to convince himself that no Prince in the world had ever so faithful a servant.
By this last despatch two Imperial letters have come, addressed to him (Najera), one on the 26th of July last, brought by Lope Hurtado; the other in answer to some of his own despatches. The orders they contain shall be properly attended to.
Intends to leave tomorrow for Milan, and ask the Duke [Francesco Sforza] for the ratification of the contract (contrato) concluded in Spain with Chevalier Bilia, his ambassador; also to recover from him 100,000 ducats as part and portion of the 700,000 which he has to pay for the investiture of the Duchy just granted to him; and, lastly, to hold a conference with Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial ambassadors at Venice, respecting that part of the instructions which concerns them and the Venetians.
Humbly beseeches His Imperial Majesty to consider his Italian army, and the state of complete destitution in which it is. As the sum which the Duke [of Milan] is soon to give is by no means sufficient to pay our debts; as there is no certainty of the sum which the Venetians are to furnish, and as according to their usual practice (mañas), it is likely to come in late and considerably reduced from its original amount, it is most needful that His Imperial Majesty remit, as soon as possible, the 100,000 ducats promised from Spain, or find some other means of supplying the wants of this Imperial army.—Vercelly, 24 of August 1525.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. El Abad de Najera. Vercelli, 24 Aug. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3¼.
25 Aug. 186. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.,
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 225–6.
Received on the 22d inst. the Imperial despatch of the 25th July.
1525. Respecting the negotiation with the Venetians, he (Sessa) cannot say for certain what turn it will take now that His Imperial Majesty has sent fresh instructions to his ambassadors at the Signory. All he can say is that these latter had almost agreed to receive 80,000 ducats. It might be that, seeing things in a better state than they were some time ago, Caracciolo and Sanchez may have agreed to increase their demands. He (Sessa) cannot tell, but has no doubt the Imperial ambassadors have reported fully on the state of the negotiation and the chances, if any, of getting a larger sum.
Creation of cardinals, Church provision, and other ecclesiastical matters.
Ascanio Colonna has delayed his journey to Spain on account of the birth of a son.
Chevalier Orsino has a lawsuit, of which he intends to take advantage in the present state of things. (fn. n13)
(Cipher:) Having, in pursuance with his instructions, asked the Pope to forward to his Legate [in Spain] ample powers to settle all affairs, and especially those relating to the Duke of Ferrara, his answer was more reserved than usual, for he said that he had already written, and would write to his Legate to promote as much as he could the restitution [of Rezzo and Rubiera]. He (the Duke) thinks that if the Pope saw England enter this general movement for peace he would be obliged to give in, though otherwise unwilling to join the confederacy, (fn. n14) and wait for a better opportunity to declare himself. Such is the Duke's opinion, and it is important that His Imperial Majesty should be informed of it.
About England very different reports are current here from those His Imperial Majesty seems to have heard at his court. Letters from Lyons state that the league between England and France had been proclaimed in that city, and that there was a talk of the Dauphin [of France] being shortly married to the Princess of Wales [Mary], the conditions and so forth being already settled. No answer has yet come, either from Chevalier Casale or from Gismundino (Sigismondo), and it would seem, as he [Sessa] had occasion to say in his last despatch, that since the news of an agreement between His Imperial Majesty and the French has become almost a certainty, the Italian intrigues have considerably abated.
Advices from Lyons of the 14th inst. state that on the arrival of Montmorency at that city, Madame the Regent (Louise of Savoy) and the members of the Council showed at first much satisfaction; but when they heard the details of the negotiation their joy subsided; and they had come to the resolution that Madame de Lançon (D'Alençon) should go on temporising until His Imperial Majesty answered the articles forwarded from Lyons. According to the tenour of that answer she (the Duchess) would hasten or delay her journey; and in case of her going [to Spain] was to be provided with full powers from all the Parliaments and Estates of France.
(Cipher:) This last report he (the Duke) has from the Pope's mouth, and has besides read letters confirming the intelligence.
Thanks His Imperial Majesty for the orders on Naples respecting the money he (the Duke) was answerable for. The Council of that kingdom has paid the sum, but the moneys borrowed from the [Spanish] cardinals and from the Bishop of Salamanca about the same time are still due.
Pension of 10,000 ducats on the see of Toledo. Memorial of Alcalde Leguiçamo.
Brief for the Royal donative of Sicily was procured and sent, two months ago, to the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy) in the very same terms as it had been asked for.
Has spoken to His Holiness about the affairs of the minister (ministro) of the Trinity of Toledo, but has received no answer about it. Has likewise conversed with him respecting the Austin Friars, and sent the papers to the General of that order now residing at Venice.
Don Pedro de Urries left [Rome] without taking leave of him, and therefore he (the Duke) could not write by him, as he would otherwise have done. Believes that Don Pedro is the bearer of the Pope's powers to the Legate, but not having gone to the Palace yesterday or to-day, he is not sure of the fact.
With regard to the Knights of St. John, and the Emperor's wish that they should establish themselves at Malta, he (Sessa) spoke to His Holiness, as he was ordered to do; but there was no necessity, for he answered that His Imperial Majesty had the Grand Master with him in Spain, and that he (the Pope) had no other wish than to see the knights settled in a place of security.
Respecting the galleys there is nothing more to say, considering that both those of the order of St. John and the Papal ones are already in the ports of Spain, and winter has set in (el invierno es en las manos).
The Emperor's letter on the subject of an annual pension of 10,000 ducats on the see of Toledo will be presented in the first Consistory. The cardinals have assured him that there will be no difficulty about it.
With regard to the priorate of Santa Christina (in Aragon), the petition was presented with the special clause quatenus est de jure patronatus. It is now in the hands of the Datary (Giovanni Matheo Giberti), and he (Sessa) will do his utmost to obtain it.—Rome, 25 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sesa,"
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Sovereign and Master."
Indorsed: "To the King, 1525. From the Duke of Sessa, 25 Aug."
Spanish. Original by duplicate. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 4.
26 Aug. 187. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 228–9.
Wrote on the 18th, (fn. n15) mentioning his suspicion that the Milanese ambassador (Taverna) was in treaty with this Signory, and sent copy of letter from the said ambassador to Hieronimo Morone, which he (Alonso Sanchez) had managed to intercept. The same ambassador has since received another letter from Morone, and, when questioned by him (Sanchez) as to its contents, he answered that it only brought common news from Spain which everyone knew. Perceiving, however, that couriers were becoming more frequent, as likewise the visits of this ambassador [who no longer gives him information as he used to do before] to the Signory, he (Sanchez) suspected there was something wrong, and accordingly managed to get into his hands the ambassador's answer to Morone, which, being short, he had time to transcribe, and of which he now encloses a, copy. (fn. n16) Has written about this to the Marquis of Pescara, and sent him a transcript of the intercepted letter to see if anyone [at Milan] can make out the cipher. (fn. n17)
On the 20th the ambassadors of France held a long interview with this Signory; it lasted one hour and a half. Their object was merely to acquaint the Signory with the news they had received from Lyons, in date of the 12th: namely, that a treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, had been concluded between France and England. That the King of France bound himself not to alienate any portion whatever of his dominions; and that in case of a ransom in money being demanded, he of England was to help France with a loan of 400,000 ducats. He (Sanchez) cannot vouch for the truth of this information, though it comes from a person who ought to know it well. (fn. n18) All he can say is that letters from the Venetian ambassador in England, in date of the 29th last, give it as certain that an alliance had been concluded between France and England in conformity with full powers given by the Regent (Louise of Savoy) and the governors of that country.
This morning, as he (Sanchez) was going to the Signory, he met again the French ambassadors coming therefrom. Couriers to Rome are becoming more frequent every day, so that there can be no doubt that the plot is maturing.
Sends copy of a letter received from the Bishop of Trent, whereby it will be seen that he (Sanchez) was quite right in not applying for a pass for the troops.—Venice, 26 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 26 Aug."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 3½.
26 Aug. 188. Fr. Francisco de los Angeles to the Emperor.
S. E. L. No. 847,
f. 172.
Was so well received by the Pope the other day that he took courage to place in his hands a memorandum on the actual position of affairs in Italy. Has sent a copy of it to the Archbishop of Seville (D. Fernando Valdes). His Imperial Majesty may read it if he pleases.
The Pope sees only through the eyes of the Datary. Thinks that the latter erred in what he did against the Emperor; but he pleads, as an excuse, that his intentions were good, and that were he to be heard, people would not condemn him. He (the Datary) is in good odour with His Holiness, and wishes to be useful to the Emperor. Does not know whether his services can be acceptable or not, but if so, he ought to be treated as a penitent sinner (ser recibido á penitencia).—Rome, at the Monastery of Araceli, 26 Aug. 1525.
Signed: "Fr. Fr. gt. gl~. m~." (Frater Franciscus Generalis Minister (fn. n19).)
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
27 Aug. 189. The Commissioners to Madame.
K. u. K. Haus- Hof-
u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 22. No. 101.
Have been told by the Marshal of Calais that the King, his master, is about to send him to Hungary upon certain business. He (the Captain) is to call on his way on Madame, and on Monsieur the Archduke, and has therefore requested them (the Commissioners) to apply for letters and passports that his journey may be accomplished in safety. Their answer has been that no letters are required, since ambassadors, and indeed all subjects of the King of England, can travel with perfect security through the dominions of the Emperor, Madame's and the Archduke's; but as the Captain insists upon having a passport and letters, the Commissioners beg that he be recommended and properly attended to, as he is a good and honourable gentleman, and has often done them good service near the person of the King whose favour he enjoys. (fn. n20) —London, 27th August 1525.
Signed: "G. de Theimseke," " Jonglet."
Addressed: "A Madame la Gouvernante des Pays d'en Bas."
French. Original. p. 1.
29 Aug. 190. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35.
f. 234.
Received, only three days ago, the Imperial letter with the instructions of what he is to do at Venice. The delay has been caused through Lope Hurtado being detained by illness at Ciambri (Chamberi). Leaves to-morrow for Venice, and once there, in company with Alonso Sanchez, will do everything in his power to execute the Emperor's commands.
Has nothing new to advise, except that the Duke of Milan's illness has much increased of late. For upwards of 50 consecutive days he has had intermittent fever accompanied by a softening of the arms and hands. However, for the last four days a slight improvement has been visible, and the physicians hope that in a couple of days more the patient will be entirely free from fever.
Every endeavour is being made here to procure the 100,000 ducats; and though it is impossible to get them at once, there is every probability of their being paid very shortly. If, however, the troops are also to be quartered on this estate, the general opinion is that both burdens will become intolerable, and that one of the two must needs be abandoned. The Marquis of Pescara, he hears, is about to write home on this particular, and Morone has left this very day for Pavia, to consult him, and devise the best means for the fulfilment of the Imperial commands.—Milan, 29th of August 1525.
Signed: "Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "Sacræ Catholicæ Majestati."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Venice (sic). Prothonotary Caracciolo. 29th of August."
Italian. Holograph. p. 1¼.


  • n1. A copy of this letter, from a transcript in the Belgian Archives, is in Bergenroth's collection, vol. iii. fol. 328, (Brit Mus. Add. 28,547.)
  • n2. Enclosed in Sanchez' despatch of the 18th.
  • n3. "Me dixo que no nada sino de cierta intelligencia que aqui tiene con uno."
  • n4. Not in the volume, unless it be the fragment under No. 173.
  • n5. Margaret of Angoulôme, widow of Charles, Duke of Alençon.
  • n6. "Per andarc in Alsacia et Fereto luogui suoi ad comprimere li villani de quelli stati."
  • n7. "Et cum intelligentia bona di quessa Illustrissima Señoria se da ley non mancharà."
  • n8. Bernardo Clesio?
  • n9. Andrea Carrafa, Conte di Sancta Severina, Lieutenant-General of the kingdom of Naples during the absence of Charles de Lannoy.
  • n10. Hector Pignatelli, Count, afterwards Duke, of Monteleone, and Viceroy of Sicily.
  • n11. Elsewhere entitled Sanctiquatuor, but more correctly "Sanctorum Quatuor."
  • n12. Don Fadrique de Portugal, mentioned in No. 134, p. 240. Bishop of Calahorra and Segovia until 1512; appointed Viceroy of Catalonia in 1520, afterwards promoted to the Archiepiscopal See of Saragossa (1532). He died in 1539.
  • n13. "El caballero Ursino trae un pleyto de que piensa prevalerse para esta Jornada."
  • n14. "No podra ál hazer que pasar por la ley que se le diere, quando no tenerse al acuerdo."
  • n15. No. 176, p. 293.
  • n16. This is in complete contradiction of what Sanchez wrote on the 18th. He there said that the letter being a very long one, and almost entirely written in cipher, he had no leisure to decipher it, and only transcribed those passages that were in common writing. Perhaps the one here alluded to was a different one, though the circumstances under which it was intercepted and copied appear to be the same. However this may be, the letter is not in the volume; and it may be presumed that it was appended, like many other papers and letters of the King, to the voluminous process afterwards instituted against Morone and the Duke of Milan.
  • n17. "Yo he dado aviso de todo al Marques de Pescara y en viado tambien traslado de las cartas que [he] intercebido, y que sisabe alguno que sepa sacar las cifra que la haga sacar."
  • n18. "Esto no lo advero pero sélo de lugar que puede saberlo."
  • n19. Otherwise Fr. Francisco Fernandez de Quiñones, of whom a further notice will be given hereafter. He was at this time general of the Franciscan friars, and had his residence in Rome.
  • n20. A copy in Bergenroth's Collection, vol. iii. f. 342, now in Brit. Mus. Add. 28,574.