Spain: September 1525, 1-10

Pages 309-327

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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September 1525, 1-10

4 Sept. 191. Cardinal Wolsey to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1553,
f. 158.
Is persuaded that the Emperor will grant his request respecting the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, as it is also the request of the King, his master. The knights of that Order have at all times rendered great services when at war with the Infidel. They have no home now. Begs he will give them some other island or place where they can live.—Londini, ex meis Edibus, 4 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "Thom. Card. Eboracensis."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred and Victorious Majesty of the Emperor."
Latin. Holograph. p. 1.
4 Sept. 192. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 236.
Has written by the Lieutenant of the Sumaria of Naples, who is to cross over to Spain in a few days, and will also be the bearer of the present letter. What he has to add to his former intelligence is: That the Imperial galleys, those of Genoa, and the two of the Pope, anchored at Savona on the last day of August, where, owing to the pestilence still reigning in this city, they will remain until the Duke of Bourbon is ready to embark. Busbaci, the Pope's Courier, came in one of them, and brought him (Soria) the Imperial letter dated the 15th, together with those for the Duke of Sessa, Prothonotary Caracciolo, and Alonso Sanchez, all of which he forwarded to their respective addresses. That which came for the Doge and Community, and wherein the Emperor expressed his sorrow and sympathy for their present tribulations owing to the plague, he (Soria) personally delivered into the hands of the Doge, by whom it was received with all possible reverence and gratitude.
Lope Hurtado was taken ill at Chamberin (Chamberi), but has since recovered and gone to Pavia, there to meet Marquis of Pescara, Antonio de Leyva, Hieronimo Morone and the Abbot of Najera, and devise the best means for the payment of the 100,000 ducats and selecting quarters for the Imperial army. The Duke of Milan was willing to pay the money, though the citizens made some difficulty. The Abbot was going to Monferrara, (fn. n1) for the purpose of securing quarters for 2,500 lances, and obtaining, if possible, a supply of money from the Marchioness. Prothonotary Caracciolo had gone to Venice, there to negotiate in union with Alonso Sanchez.
Has got in store all the biscuit which the galleys may want for four months; but they have arrived in so deplorable a condition that they cannot possibly be got ready for sea before a fortnight, although the Duke wishes to embark as soon as possible, and has sent him (Soria) the Emperor's letter bidding him to put 10,000 ducats at his disposal. This he will do in a day or two out of the 24,800 of the last exchange, in addition to the 3,000 advanced on a former occasion. But he (Soria) begs leave to observe that although Stefano Grimaldi has already paid the two first instalments, he will find much difficulty in making up the remainder, his credit in this city having completely failed, in consequence of what has happened [in Spain] to his brother Nicolao. If, therefore, the said Grimaldi fails to pay that sum, he (Soria) will not have money in hand to pay the galleys. Will strain every nerve in this affair so that the Duke's departure may not be postponed from want of means, but it would be advisable for Giovanni Battista Grimaldi to write a pressing letter to his brother Stefano on the subject.
Hears that Commander Ycart summoned the Pope's galleys from Coliure (Collioures), almost against their will, and when at Savona would not allow them to return home, without previously consulting with the Duke of Bourbon. The latter has written to say that they are to be retained in the Emperor's service, and escort him on his voyage to Spain, and that he has written to Home for permission. Paulo Victoris (Vettori), who commands them, is gone thither for the same purpose.
The Duke of Sessa writes that the Italian intrigues have, in a great measure, ceased for the present; but the Abbot of Najera and Alonso Sanchez maintain a contrary opinion. It is to be hoped that with the arrival in these parts of Lope Hurtado, everything will soon be satisfactorily settled.
Pestilence has again broken out at Rome; and His Holiness takes up his quarters in the Belvedere, in consequence of some of his household having died from the disease. It still continues in Genoa, and the city is to be cut off from intercourse within four days so as to prevent its spreading. On the arrival of the Duke [of Bourbon] at Savona, the Doge and he (Soria) intend to visit him. It is reported that the Marquis del Guasto is to go over to Spain in his company.
When the galleys of Portundo went to Spain, he (Soria) was obliged to engage 150 seamen of this coast to serve the oars on board of them, on condition, however, that when their services were no longer wanted they should be dismissed and allowed to return home. And since the said Portundo is now in Castille, and has taken service with the Emperor, he ought to be persuaded to dismiss and pay up the said crews, as they may be easily replaced by others.—Sestri di Ponente, 4 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Genoa, the 4th of September. Answered."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
8 Sept. 193. The Marquis del Guasto to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 46.
As the Marquis of Pescara is writing to His Imperial Majesty at length, to inform him of the present state of affairs [in Italy], and what turn they are likely soon to take, there is no need for them (fn. n2) to repeat what the Marquis has said already. He (Guasto) has, in a former letter, reported about Saluzzo. Cannot say whether the issue was successful (aportò bien), but whatever could be done was done. The Count of Jinebra (Geneva) is to send this very day one of his men to take possession of that marquisate; and there is every reason to believe that he will be satisfied [with this token of the Imperial munificence], and consent that a portion at least of the Imperial forces about to be withdrawn from Piedmont should be quartered on his new estate, so that the defence of the land [against the enemy] be as easy as was the taking possession of it. (fn. n3)
Should have wished to accompany M. de Bourbon [to Spain], as there is nothing he wishes for so much as to appear before the Imperial presence; but the present state of affairs, and the complications that are likely to result—if his apprehensions be true—have prevented the accomplishment of his wishes, as he (Guasto) has always preferred the Emperor's service to his own personal convenience and pleasure.—Verzel (Vercelli), 8 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "El Marques del Gasto."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and very Catholic Majesty, etc."
Indorsed: "To the King. From the Marquis del Gasto, 8 Sept. 1525."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
8 Sept. 194. Pope Clement VII. to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. Cap. c.
Pont. L. VI.
ff. 517–24.
Clemens P.P. VII. Cum sciamus Maiestatem Tuam propter celsissimum gradum in quo a Deo es collocatus, propterque illustrissimæ familiæ tuæ amplitudinem, quando uxorem ducere voluerit (cuius rei jam tempus adesse videtur) non multas tanto coniugio dignas inventuram, cumque ex eo ipso numero fieri posset, ut illa quam Tu delegeris Tecum consanguinitate vel affinitate coniuncta sit: quod illustrissimum genus Tuum latissimè pateat, et omnes fere Principes aliqua cognatione complexum sit, ne forte hæc res tam pium, tam salutare Christianis omnibus consilium impediat, motu proprio ex certa nostra scientia ac de Apostolicæ potestatis plenitudine, Tecum ut quocumque consanguinitatis vel affinitatis gradu, excepto tamen primo, matrimonium libere et licite contrahere possis, diapensamus, &c.—Romæ, viii. Sept. MDXXV. Be. El. Ravenensis.
Addressed: "Carissimo in Christo filio nostro Carolo Romanorum et Hispaniarum Regi Catholico in Imperatorem electo."
Latin. Original. p. 1.
8 Sept. 195. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 238.
Considering that the inhabitants of Spain do not bear with patience the Emperor's absence from that kingdom, especially when unmarried, and without sons and heirs to his crown; considering that the only way of ensuring their affection is for the Emperor to take a wife, who may give him succession, and calm the fears of the said Spaniards "ne res illa impediat ut hujusmodi matrimonium. liberum sit, quomadmodum Sacri canones jubent, te a quacumque obligatione, conditione, pactione aut juramento cujuscumque etiam predecessoribus tuis Imperatoribus, aut parentibus, aut omnino, etc."
Latin. Original. p. 1.
9 Sept. 196. Lope Hurtado [de Mendoza] to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 240–3.
By his letter to the Grand Chancellor, from Chambery, His Imperial Majesty has no doubt been informed of his arrival in Savoy, and how glad the Duke was to see him, and hear what he had to say in the Emperor's name. As soon as he recovered from his illness, he (Hurtado) took his departure for Turin, where the Infanta [Beatrix] now is, by whom he was better and more graciously received even than he had been by the Duke [her husband]. Thence he proceeded [to Milan], where M. de Bourbon and the Marquis of Pescara are residing, and delivered the letters and instructions he had for each of them. The former is preparing for his journey [to Spain]; he left on the 6th for Pavia, and went thence to Genoa, where he is to embark and sail for Spain, about the middle of this month, if the weather be favourable.
(Cipher:) About other matters contained in his instructions he (Hurtado) is much afraid that the Emperor's wishes and orders cannot be executed to the letter, for things are not now in Italy as they were when His Imperial Majesty decided to send him on, as may be gathered from the intelligence which both Pescara and Leyva have from time to time sent home. In Piedmont, for instance, as there was no other means of removing the men-at-arms quartered there, the following expedient has been adopted. An agreement has been entered into with the Duke's agents residing in this city (Vercelli) and with the Count of Geneva, that 700 of them shall be fed at the Duke's expense during one month, at the expiration of which time the Marquis [of Pescara] has given his word of honour, either to send them to other quarters or to provide money for their support. Meanwhile, to prevent any excesses on the part of the Imperial troops, the Marquis of Pescara has made an agreement, of which he (Hurtado) encloses a copy, stipulating the number and quality of the rations which each man-at-arms is to receive daily, &c. It is, therefore, urgent that, at the expiration of the said period of one month, during which the troops, as above stated, are to be maintained at the Duke's cost, His Imperial Majesty provide means for their support, as there is no money left at the Imperial camp, the last remittances in bills not having had effect.
Respecting the dismissal of a portion of the Imperial army, he (Hurtado) is of opinion that in the present state of Italy this cannot be attempted, especially at a time when intrigues are so active, and the Duke of Milan's health is so precarious. Rather than diminish the army, it ought to be increased, if means can be found for doing so. The remedy which he (Hurtado) brought from Spain is so slow, and so uncertain, that both the Marquis of Pescara and Antonio de Leyva see more danger in it than hope for the future. They have, however, such a desire of being useful to His Imperial Majesty; they are so united, and Leyva, in particular, so obedient and full of deference to the Marquis, that there is no fear of any movement taking place among the Italian powers which cannot immediately, and at once, be suppressed. The better to accomplish this, and to be prepared for the event, it is urgent that His Imperial Majesty provide them with money, which the galleys, now about to convey M. de Bourbon to Spain, might bring back. This, the Marquis observes, would be equal to life.
He (Hurtado) went to Milan and spoke to Hieronymo Moron; but could not see the Duke, who was described to him as being very ill, having had intermittent fever for more than 50 days, besides occasional fits, and having lost the use of both his hands. He (Morone) told him that, whatever people might say to the contrary, the Duke, his master, was, and will always be, a faithful servant of His Imperial Majesty. But notwithstanding the above protestations of fidelity, people wonder how it is that Morone does not allow his master to be seen; from which they naturally infer that he bears no affection to the Emperor, and cares little for his displeasure. Some time before his (Hurtado's) arrival at Milan, the said Morone asked the Abbot of Najera for the deed about the Salt, as he said that the Duke, his master, was ready to sign it. The Abbot complied with his request, and handed it over to him; but although Morone has often promised since to return it with the Duke's signature, he has not yet done so, and Hurtado, after five days' stay, had been obliged to quit Milan without obtaining that for which he had so often applied.
Up to the day of his departure 20,000 ducats have been paid [by the Duke]. He has promised to pay, shortly, 14,000 more, and to discharge the remainder gradually.
(Cipher:) However, those who know him (Morone) believe that the payment will not take place, as he has promised, this month; whilst others maintain that he will not give the whole sum. The Duke is very ill. Morone told him (Hurtado) that he feared much for his life; and that were God to take him, His Imperial Majesty might rely upon his (Morone's) fidelity. He would forthwith surrender the the castles and fortresses he (the Duke) holds in his hands, as he has often assured him that, in case of death, his estates were to be placed at the Emperor's disposal.
(Common writing:) Prothonotary Caracciolo left this for Venice on the last day of August. No hope is entertained of his success in the pending negotiation.
He (Hurtado) has handed over to the Marquis of Pescara the letters-patent appointing him Commander-in-Chief (Capitan General) of the Imperial armies in Italy, and delivered also the Emperor's verbal message. The Marquis, after returning thanks for the favour, begs that, since he is to have the same salary as Prospero Colonna, the conditions inserted in his nomination, and which were not stipulated in that of the said General-in-Chief and others of his predecessors, should be removed, for otherwise he cannot (he says), without detriment to his honour, accept the appointment, such as it has been made. He offers, however, to serve His Imperial Majesty as effectually as he has done hitherto.
Concerning the duchy of Sora, whereof His Imperial Majesty has made him a grant, he finds that the term at which he is to receive the investiture is rather long, and he should like to have it shortened.
In the affair of Carpi, he seems to be satisfied with the explanation given in the Emperor's letter of the 12th ult., hoping that in the meantime he will render such services to the Imperial cause, that he may be more amply remunerated; but he still insists upon resigning the post of General-in-Chief, unless His Imperial Majesty consents to have the conditions of his nomination altered, for people put all manner of constructions upon them more or less disadvantageous to his person. The Marquis deserves much for what he has done, and is now doing, for the Emperor's service. (Cipher:) Antonio de Leyva has told him (Hurtado) that he knows for certain that both the Pope and the Venetians have lately tried to gain him over to their cause, an act of dishonesty and knavery which ought not to remain without due punishment.
The Abbot of Najera and he (Hurtado) remain at Vercelli at the request of the Count of Geneva, to arrange matters concerning the army's quarters. That being done, he (Hurtado) will go to Turin to visit the Infanta [Beatrix], and give her all possible satisfaction respecting that affair, for there is nothing she wishes for so much as to see the Imperial troops out of the Duke's territory. He thinks, however, that no words will be sufficient to appease her, and especially the Duke, who is anxious to come back to Turin, owing to the plague having broken out in Savoy, though he dares not do it as long as the Imperial troops are quartered on his estates.
Simon de Tagis (Taxis?) the postmaster at Milan, has under his orders a youth named Bartholomé [de Taxis], a relative of his. He (Hurtado) has heard the latter say that, two days before the ambassador's arrival at Milan, Hieronymo Moron ordered him to post to a fortress on the Lake of Como, and tell the Governor, in his name, that if by chance he had detained, or had there with him, a certain Gismundo (Sigismondo), secretary to Alberto di Carpi, who was going to France on important business of the Pope and of the Duke, his master, ho was to let him go free. If not there, he was requested to have a search made for him among the Grisons; if captive, he was to pay the ransom demanded; if dead, he was to secure his letters, which were of the utmost importance, at any price asked for them. The said Bartholomé told him (Hurtado) that although he had faithfully executed Morone's commission, and every search was made for Gismundo, he could not be found, dead or alive.
He (Hurtado) has also been told by the Duke of Savoy that the Pope, the Venetians and the Duke of Milan had made a league. At first he took no notice of the report, but now he begins to think there may be some foundation for it, and that His Imperial Majesty ought to write to the Duke, begging him to tell Hurtado all he knows about it. People here make all manner of conjectures, owing to the circumstance of the Emperor's allies not being mentioned in the articles of the truce, at which they are generally discontented.
The Marquis del Guasto is in the Astesano (country of Asti) with the infantry and light cavalry of the Imperial army. He is a perfect gentleman, very much loved by the soldiers, and highly respected here as well as in France. His Imperial Majesty ought to show him favour.
The generals of this army have lately been discussing what measures might be taken in case of the negotiations between these Italian powers against the Imperial interests coming to an issue. Among other expedients proposed, one is the restoration to Genoa of the Fregosi, who promise to pay 80,000 ducats down, the present Doge (Antoniotto Adorno) having lately come under suspicion. The Marquis (of Pescara), however, asserts that he knows nothing to his (the Doge's) discredit; whilst he is sure that the opposite faction (the Fregosi) are ill-inclined, and fears that, once inside Genoa, they will do mischief. It is for His Imperial Majesty to decide how the Marquis is to act in this case.—Bersel (Vercelli), 9 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor our Lord, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Lope Hurtado, 9th Sept."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 8.
9 Sept. 197. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 245.
(Cipher:) In addition to his observations about Piedmont, and the men-at-arms quartered in that country, he (Hurtado) cannot help insisting on the necessity of providing sufficient means for their maintenance, if they are to remain in their present quarters after the expiration of the period fixed by the Duke [of Savoy] and Count of Geneva. If, notwithstanding the said agreement, His Imperial Majesty decide for the immediate evacuation of that country, the Marquis of Pescara must be written to, that he may take his measures accordingly, as it will not be easy to persuade the men-at-arms to leave their present quarters to occupy others without money or food. (fn. n4)
Has sent the memorandum which the Duke gave him some time ago, respecting the sums for which Savoy and Piedmont agreed to compound for the maintenance of the Imperial forces. The 15,000 ducats paid into his hands it will be difficult for him to return, such is the poverty of the country, and the emptiness of his coffers. As to the 12,000 which are due, he does not intend to claim them. The Marquis of Pescara thinks that if the Duke wishes for a new inquiry to be made respecting the ravages and losses inflicted by the Imperial troops, he (Hurtado) is bound to accede to his demand and help him in it. Certainly these are very great, but there is, nevertheless, every reason to think that were the Duke to be freed from the present nuisance, and the men-at-arms to evacuate his country, he would not lay much stress on past offences, for although the land is completely wasted, and the inhabitants impoverished and ruined, they see no way to recover what the soldiers took away from them; besides which it appears that a considerable number of the Imperialists have been privately slain in their quarters, which is no wonder, considering the state of despair to which the country people have been driven.
His Imperial Majesty must nevertheless feel grateful to the Duke and to the Infanta [his wife] for the patience and forbearance with which they have endured the past and present sufferings of their subjects. The Count of Geneva, in particular, has been very useful on this occasion, by tempering and calming down the anger of the people. They ought to be thanked for their exertions, for certainly each and every one of them has done what he could to arrange matters and prevent further mischief.
Begs for instructions how to act. Whether in case of the Duke not taking notice of the past, he (Hurtado) is to remind him of it; also what is to be done with the men-at-arms after they have evacuated Piedmont, where they are to be quartered; how to be paid their arrears, and fed, etc.—Bersil (Vercelli), 9th of September 1525.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. Duplicate from Bersil (Vercelli), 9th Sept."
Spanish. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 2.
9 Sept. 198. Antonio de Leyva to Lope Hurtado.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp.
In answer to his letter he (Leyva) can only say that he has applied to Hieronymo Moron for the deed [of ratification?], and has promised to send it in to-day. Whether he (Morone) will fulfil his promise or not is more than he can say.
The very day that he (Lope Hurtado) left [Milan], a man of the name of El Abatys (fn. n5) arrived, in company with one of Robertet's servants. They went up to the castle twice on two different days, after which the latter proceeded to Rome, and the former returned to France.
One of his informers tells him that the plot thickens every day. These people have seized hold of a servant of the Marquis [of Pescara], and learned from him many things [they did not know]. They have resolved in case the Duke [of Milan] should die of his present illness, to send for Masymiano (Massimiliano Sforza), and tell him to bring with him the forces that are being prepared in France, all of which is to be done immediately, so as not to give the Emperor time to take precautionary measures and so forth.
Yesterday Hieronymo Moron went to a country villa of his (maçeria), four miles from this city, to spend the day. Has heard from a reliable source that the Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere) went thither in secret, and that they passed some hours together. The news is in everybody's mouth.
Eight companies (banderas) of [Spanish] infantry have arrived at Cremona, and twelve more at Bergamo. The intelligence comes from people of those localities; he (Leyva) does not know it for certain. Has sent thither to inquire if the report be true or not. Will hear to-morrow, and advise him [Hurtado]. Thinks that before the departure of the next messenger, Hurtado and he (Leyva) ought to meet and discuss together on the affairs of the day, and on the best way of doing the Emperor's service. It is much needed under present circumstances.
These people surrender their money with a very ill grace; Moron has felt so much the military precautions lately taken by us that there can be no doubt as to their secret intrigues. The latter can hardly hide his discontent. Hearing that the Germans under Coradino have advanced as far as the Adda (fn. n6) he last night spoke to Licentiate Bracamonte in such injurious terms [about the Emperor], and uttered so many bravadoes, that he [Leyva.] does not like to transcribe them, and leaves that task to the Licentiate himself.
No more news from Milan. Intends to leave to-morrow for Pavia. This letter to be shown to the Abbot [of Najera], as if it were for him.—Milan, 9 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "Antonio de Leyva."
Addressed: "A mi Señor, el Señor Lope Hurtado de Mendoça."
Indorsed: "To me [Hurtado] from Antonio de Leyva. Milan, 9 Sept."
Spanish, Holograph, p. 1½.
9 Sept. 199. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 47.
Wrote on the 24th of August last, and encloses the duplicate. Since then the Duke of Milan, as stated by Hieronymo Moron and others of his servants who see him daily, has been troubled with intermittent fever, having been so weakened by the disease that he is not expected to live many days, though there are not wanting malicious people who assert there is nothing the matter with him. The truth is that he has been, and is still, dangerously ill; indeed, when he (the Abbot) went to Milan on the 25th for the purpose of obtaining the ratification of the contract (el mandato contrato) made with Chevalier Bilia, his ambassador [in Spain], about the investiture of the Duchy, the Duke could not sign, though he accepted, the deed, and gave immediate orders for the 100,000 ducats to be paid out of the Ducal treasury, as first instalment on the sum of 700,000 ducats, which is the price of the said investiture. Out of those 100,000 ducats only 20,000 gold crowns have been paid; to-morrow we expect to receive 10,000 or 12,000 more, and little by little the whole sum will be paid, as it is impossible to have it otherwise. Begs His Imperial Majesty to remit an equal sum from Spain, for, considering the time the Duke will take to effect this payment, and the dilatory proceedings of the Venetians in all like matters, the wants of this army will go on increasing, and it will be impossible either to dismiss a portion of the forces, as the Emperor wishes us to do, or provide for the support of the remainder. The dismissal of part of the Italian infantry and light cavalry, however, is a thing that cannot be done at present, now that the intrigues of the Italian Princes are hotter than ever (mas caldas que nunca), as the Marquis of Pescara cannot fail to have advised. The latter has received the Imperial letters of the 12th August, and will follow the instructions and orders therein contained; but the great difficulty is to find money to keep together this Imperial army, or select fit quarters for them to be in without money. The Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele), the Infanta (Beatrix), his wife, and his brother, the Count of Gineba (Geneva), are pressing us very hard to remove [from Piedmont] the 800 lances who, according to Hurtado's late commission, and with those Princes' consent, remained in their quarters after the withdrawal of the infantry and light cavalry. But it is materially impossible now to accede to their wishes, there being no other district to lodge them in, except the lands of the Church or the Venetian territory, which would be highly imprudent to try under the present circumstances. As to this Estate [of Milan], it is so far wasted and consumed already, that were the said men-at-arms to be quartered on it, we should not get one penny of the 100,000 ducats, as Hieronymo Moron and the rest of the Duke's ministers have repeatedly threatened us with. Nor is it possible either to remove them to the marquisates of Cevà and Saluzzo, where the said men-at-arms were quartered at first, because the Marchioness having agreed to pay 4,000 crowns for the temporary support of the 250 lances, who only the other day evacuated the territory of the Church, it would be unjust to impose upon her a heavier fine. 100 of these the Marchioness agreed to feed on her own estates; for the 150 remaining, a convenient district will be chosen in this duchy [of Milan], where they may live at her expense, since, as before stated, she is to pay half a crown daily for each man. Now it is for the Emperor to consider how many of the 800 lances, now quartered on the estate of the Duke of Savoy, can conveniently be removed to Monferrado, because 300 of them, who, in pursuance to orders issued by the Duke's commissariat, marched to a district called Biella, found on their arrival the country entirely deserted, the inhabitants having fled to a neighbouring mountain with all their valuables. A week after, the people of the place, accompanied by others, to the number of 2,000, came down, broke the bridge, destroyed the mills, and cut off the supply of water from the mountains. They, moreover, slew a trumpeter whom the men-at-arms had sent to parley with them, and committed other injuries, until our men, whose retainers happened to have firearms (escopetas), attacked and drove them back to the mountains.
To prevent further hostilities, and the men setting fire to the place, the Marquis of Pescara sent down two companies of Spanish infantry, who are to remain there with the men-at-arms until other quarters are provided for them. He (the Marquis) is now trying to get out of the people of Viella the 4,000 crowns, or more, which they promised to pay before the men-at-arms were destined thither, with which money—if paid—the men will manage to live elsewhere.
The marquisates of Saluçio, Final, Çevà and Malespina are mountainous districts, and so sterile and poor that none but regularly paid infantry can subsist on them. His Imperial Majesty, therefore, must not think it strange if the men-at-arms are not sent thither; indeed, the light horse and infantry now quartered in those parts find scarcely anything to eat, and are at most times obliged to go to the Monferrato for food.
Captain Coradin, who went to Germany for infantry, has arrived at Leco, in the estate of Milan. He brings with him 1,200 men, and has passed through the land of the Grisons, marching night and day, before the latter had time to collect their forces and stop the passes. This notwithstanding, he has met with many obstacles in his march. He is to join the other German bands, once under the command of Jorge Frensperch (Fruntsperg), who are now quartered between Novara and the Tessino, at a place called Treca [Trezzo?]. The quarters are excellent, and of their own choosing, the Duke of Bourbon and Marquis of Pescara having consented to their going thither, that they may wait patiently for their monthly stipend, due on the 24th of August, and for other reasons of their own.
The said Coradin has brought with him from Switzerland a man whom the Marquis of Pescara had sent thither to inquire if there was any stir of arms. The man, who is a native of that country, says that France is paying some of her old debts to the Switzers, and that her ambassadors and treasurers are in continual communication with Il Verulano (Bishop of Veruli), and with the Venetian ambassador. That the Switzers are to be paid in full next January, at the expiration of the truce which His Imperial Majesty and the King of England have concluded with France.
The galleys arrived at Savona on the 29th. They will thence go to Genoa, where the Duke of Bourbon is to embark as soon as possible.
Prothonotary Caracciolo left for Venice on the last day of August, to pursue the negotiations with the Venetians.
Lope Hurtado de Mendoça has passed four days at Milan without being able to visit the Duke, or obtaining the signature of the deed (estipulacion del instrumento), owing to the bad state of his health. Has returned here to Vercelli to see about new quarters for the 800 lances during one month. They are to be disposed of in the following manner:—All are to be quartered either in Piedmont or Savoy. Viela is to feed 300 of them, at the rate of half a crown (escudo) per man daily, as a punishment and fine for their last offence when the lances went to that district. 100 more are to be paid out of the aforesaid 4,000 cr. (escudos) which the Marchioness [of Saluzzo] has promised to pay. The remaining 400, the Duke, for the Emperor's service, has consented to keep and feed for one calendar month, during which the generals of this Imperial army expect to receive instructions from Court.
There is a rumour afloat that in case of the present Duke of Milan dying the Venetians would try to set up in his place his brother Maximilian, now in France. The Milanese are the natural enemies of Venice, and therefore not likely to assent to their plans. On the contrary, should the dukedom become vacant by the death of their present ruler, everyone of them—great and small—will have no other lord than His Imperial Majesty, because they acknowledge themselves his subjects and vassals, and know very well that he will protect them against all enemies. Besides, the Duke's death would put an end to the designs and plans of these Italian potentates, and even to those of the French King and of any others who oppose the Emperor's aggrandisement.
The Duke of Bourbon and Marquis of Pescara left, two days ago, for Pavia. There, as well as at Milan, and on the frontiers of France, or wherever the Imperial forces are quartered, solemn proclamation will be made of the truce lately concluded between the Emperor, France and England; immediately after which the said Duke will start for Genoa there to embark for Spain. The Marquis [of Pescara] will remain at Pavia, and Antonio de Leyva at Milan, to look to the payment of the 100,000 ducats, and see how the Duke's illness will end.
The Marquis of Saluçio, or rather the Queen Regent of France, in his name and in that of his mother, has forwarded to the Marquis of Pescara a copy of the articles of the truce, requesting that, pending its duration, matters [in that marquisate] may remain as they are at present. Yet the Count of Geneva asks to be put in immediate possession of the estate, which he alleges can and ought to be accomplished without contravening its articles.—Vercelly, 9 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
P.S,.—Some days ago, as Monsieur de Vere, the brother of Monsieur de Millao (Migliau), was coming out of Monsieur de Bourbon's lodgings at night, he was attacked, close to his quarters, and slain. (fn. n7) The Marquis has since—and is still—making every inquiry, in order to detect the perpetrators of this great crime, but hitherto no trace of them has been found.
Sigismundin, the secretary to Alberto di Carpi, who went to France on a secret mission [of the Pope], and left many days ago to return [to Rome], has not been heard of. It is generally believed that he has been slain in the land of the Grisons, unless Alberto di Carpi, whose condition and character are well known, has sent him to negotiate secretly with the Turk or with the Devil. (fn. n8)
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty"
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. Abad de Najera, 9 Sept." Spanish. Original. pp. 8.
10 Sept. 200. Hieronymo Morono to Lope Hurtado de Mendoça.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 49.
Is already in possession of the ratification which the Duke of Milan (his master) has signed of the articles agreed between His Imperial Majesty and his ambassador at the Imperial court [Bilia]. It is as ample and precise as can be desired.
As it is important that the said ambassador should present it to His Imperial Majesty, according to the Duke's promise and duty, he (Moron) is quite ready to forward it whenever it may suit him (Lope Hurtado) to send the deed back to Spain. Begs to be excused for the delay, since, besides his multifarious occupations, his time has lately been taken up with the business of the lansquenets (lanze-necchi), and with procuring the money now demanded for their maintenance. The Duke's illness has, besides, prevented him from attending to business. It was only this morning that he could read the draft [of the ratification] and put his signature to it.
Begs that the departure of the courier be postponed until to morrow morning, that he may also take the Duke's letter, which is to be ready this very night, to the Emperor.
The money applied for by Antonio de Leyva has already been remitted to him at Novara. To-morrow and the next day every effort shall be made to procure the remainder.—Milan, 10 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "Hiero. Morono." (fn. n9)
Addressed: "A lo Excelente et molto Reverendo Sr. mio el Sr. Lopis Hurtado."
Italian. Holograph. p. 1.
10 Sept. 201. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 255–8.
Wrote on the 20th of last month by a servant of the Bishop of Salamanca [D. Francisco de Bobadilla], who left for Spain in all hasté. Has since received the Emperor's despatch of the 13th August, (fn. n10) which he immediately communicated to His Holiness.
With regard to Luther, he (the Pope) agrees that the remedy to such evils, and the extirpation of so wicked a sect (malvada secta), can only come through His Imperial Majesty's hands. He is of opinion that the Diet ought to be prorogued [by the Archduke], and a person of quality and discretion sent thither to prevent any innovations of a bad sort, (fn. n11) principally those against the Church and Christian rites. Has lately shown some discontent at the articles (capitulos) granted by the Infante (Archduke) to some of the chiefs, a copy whereof he has sent to his Nuncio in Spain for the Emperor's inspection. On this plea he (the Pope) has delayed the payment of the 10,000 ducats still owing to the Archduke out of the 20,000 which the Pope offered to give in the last emergency (quando estuvo en aquel frangente pasado), although both the Archduke's agent and he (Sanchez) have since done everything in their power to get the promised money.
The powers for this Legate to sign the agreement in his name, he (the Pope) has already sent to his Nuncio in Spain. He now sends the duplicate.
(Cipher:) The Duke has already informed His Imperial Majesty of the fact that the very moment it was known [in Italy] that an agreement had been entered into between His Imperial Majesty and the French King, the intrigues of these confederates subsided, and that the Venetians had tried all their arts with the Regent, mother of the King, thinking they could influence her. The Regent had been trifling with them, in order to feed their hopes, and had at the same time been maintaining her reputation and honour with the Emperor. Now that the Venetians see the inefficiency of their intrigues, and that their game is found out, they are in greater fear and suspense than ever. The answer brought from England by Chevalier Casal cannot be a very satisfactory one, for nothing has transpired about it since his return four days ago. All are discontented with each other, and the Pope declares that he has done greater service to His Imperial Majesty since the victory at Pavia, by entering into this league, than can easily be imagined, for (he says) by doing so he has prevented war from breaking out with force. About Rezo (Reggio) and Robiera, His Holiness' sentiments remain always the same.
Has received letters from Lope Hurtado, who was ill at Chambery. Has since heard that he got well, passed through Pavia and Milan and returned to Turin.
(Cipher:) The Marquis of Pescara has sent him (Sessa) a copy of the articles of the truce, which, being shown to the Pope, apparently gave him great satisfaction. He (Pescara) writes also about the Duke of Milan's protracted illness, which (he says) has become a matter of serious apprehension for the Milanese and others. On the receipt of this intelligence he (Sessa) waited on His Holiness, and, as if it came from him, inquired what would be his advice in case the Duke should die. His answer was that to give proper counsel in such matters required a previous knowledge of Her Majesty's wishes and intentions. Were he (the Pope) acquainted with them, he would not fail to advise accordingly. Should His Imperial Majesty decide, after the Duke's demise, to take the estate for himself, he (the Pope) would lose nothing by it, but it would surely give umbrage (grandissima umbra) to all the rest of Italy, and principally to the Venetians, which was a thing to be considered. In his opinion, the person appointed ought to be Duke [of Milan] only, holding solely under the Emperor. (fn. n12) He recommended the person of Don Jorge de Austria, with exclusion of the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand). He (the Duke) has thought it advisable to inform His Majesty of the Pope's opinion on this subject, though it is to be hoped that the Duke of Milan will recover from his illness, and enjoy that which His Imperial Majesty has so arduously won for him.
(Common writing:) Has spoken several times to the Pope on the subject of the Cruzade, though without obtaining a decisive answer. Lately he (the Pope) has been somewhat more explicit, saying he was aware of that being the greatest and most important service he could render His Majesty, and therefore that he wished to know how and when he was to make the concession.
The Marquis of Pescara having lately applied for permission to quarter one hundred and fifty of his men-at-arms upon the territory of the Church, the Pope has answered him, rather out of temper, saying he thought it very hard that when Lope Hurtado had been sent purposely to remove the nuisance of the Imperial troops being quartered in the duchy of Savoy, he (the Pope) should not be treated in the same manner.
From Sienna the news is that, far from improving, things are getting worse. Those who have the government of that city in their hands, have lately imprisoned two young men of the highest nobility, and put them to the rack, in order to ascertain whether the outlaws (fuorusciti) are really plotting against that Republic or not. They have confined one Aldelo Placito, a person of great parts, and another citizen named Jullio Panellini, and have also sentenced to death and executed a nephew of the former.
Respecting England he (the Duke) has nothing new to advise, except that people here wonder how the King of that country could possibly have concluded a truce with France in those parts, before even His Imperial Majesty had made his, which, in Sessa's opinion, is a sign that there are secret negotiations on foot between those two countries (England and France).
Prothonotary Caracciolo had arrived in Venice. The bills on Naples have been paid, with the exception of 3,000 ducats borrowed from the Bishop of Salamanca (Don Francisco de Bobadilla), and 2,000 more ducats which the Cardinals of Vich and Tortosa advanced on that occasion.
The brief for the Bishop of Siguença has at last been obtained and forwarded to him, similar in all its parts to the one of the Archbishop of Saragossa. He (the Duke) is not to blame for the delay. Another brief is being prepared in favour of Alcalde Leguiçamo. The Bishop of Salamanca has received—and is about to answer—the Imperial warrant summoning him to Spain.
The Bailiff of Sancto Stephano, one of the Pope's chamberlains, who obtained, some time ago, the priorate of Santa Christina, is continually molesting him (the Duke), saying that if the appointment to the said priorate is, as asserted, jus patronati of His Imperial Majesty, the proofs must be adduced in court; should they, when examined, be found correct, he will no longer insist on his claim.—Rome, 10 Sept. 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sesa."
Post data.—His Holiness the Pope is much offended at the treatment of his galleys in the port of Rosas [in Catalonia], He says that, when about to leave that harbour, the Spanish admiral in command of the Imperial fleet threatened to sink them with his artillery if they attempted to weigh anchor, and compelled them to take each a number of Spanish infantry on board, which they did by sheer force. Arrived at Savona, and when they were getting ready to put to sea and return to the Roman Estates, the gates of the port had been closed against them, and they had had to remain there against their will. The Marquis of Pescara has since written to ask for the said galleys; and His Holiness has consented to give them up, although it is understood that their captains will protest, and appear as if they had been pressed into the Imperial service by force.
The fuorusciti of Lucca have made a stir against that Republic, and taken one of its castles. They have the assistance of Joanin de Medicis, who, wishing to attack the Marquis of Malespina, is glad of any opportunity for collecting forces and invading the estates of his enemy. Medicis has the protection of the Papal Legate in that locality, as well as that of the Archbishop of Capua here. But as the Marquis of Malespina, who, after the battle of Pavia, was reinstated [by the Emperor] in his paternal dominions, is a good servant of His Imperial Majesty, he (Sessa) thinks that he ought to be protected against any attack. Has written to the Marquis of Pescara on the subject; for, in his opinion, no armaments or gatherings of troops, under any pretence whatever, ought to be tolerated now-a-days against His Imperial Majesty's avowed servants.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Lord and Master."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Rome. The Duke of Sessa, 10 Sept."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 7.
10 Sept. 202. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 249.
Has heard from Naples that the governor of Taranto, Felipe de Herrera is dead. Begs the Emperor to grant him that lieutenantship, which he will serve faithfully, as his servant, Iñigo Descudòs, whom he now sends to Court, will fully explain. — Rome, 10 September 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Rome."
Spanish. Original. p. 1.


  • n1. Thus written; evidently an error for Monferrato.
  • n2. Namely, the Marquis himself and Antonio de Leyva, who, conjointly with Pescara, had the command of the Imperial arms in Italy.
  • n3. "Y creo que se contentaria apartandose parte del exercito de V. Mag. de allá, que ansi ligeramente pueda defender la tierra como lo ha hecho en tomalla."
  • n4. The whole of this paragraph and the following ones are in cipher. They form part of a duplicate of the preceding letter.
  • n5. "Llegó aqui uno que se llama El Abatys con un criado de Roberteto."
  • n6. This passage is so exceedingly obscure and ambiguous in the original that I deem it necessary to transcribe it here in Leyva's own orthography, which, as may be presumed, is none of the best: "El Moron ha sentido tanto que los Alemanes de Coraryn (sic) ayan ydo acya Adu (sic) que anoche dixo al lyçenciado Bracam onte muchas palabras muy feas y muy bravas, tanto que no es bien escrivirlas por que él os las dirâ."
  • n7. "Le asaltaron junto á su casa en esta tierra, no sé quantos, y le mataron." Guicciardini (lib. XVIII.) mentions one Veri di Migliau, who went to Rome in 1527, on a mission of the Emperor to the Pope
  • n8. "Si Alberto de Carpi, segun su condicion no le ha enviado secretamente á praticar con el Turco ó con el Infierno."
  • n9. This is not the only instance of the name of this minister being written Morono, which must be the right spelling, since the letter is written entirely in his own hand, and signed by him. In most of the letters and papers of the time, however, I find his name written Moron, Morone, Il Morone, &c.
  • n10. See above, No. 94, p. 157.
  • n11. "Que no intentasen de innovar cosas de mala disistion (digestion?), y que sobretodo V. Mag. debria mandar que no se le mandase nada de las exorbitancias que piden contra la Iglesia."
  • n12. "Y que en su opinion solo se debria atender á poner persona que no fuese mas que Duque de Milan, y que no tuviese dependencia de otro que de V. Mag."