Spain: October 1525, 1- 15

Pages 349-366

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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October 1525, 1-15

1 Oct. 217. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 1–2.
(Cipher:) On the 28th of September last Prothonotary Caracciolo and he (Sanchez) wrote in common, reporting the conversation they had held with a secretary of the Republic. The Prothonotary being now ill in bed, he (Sanchez) writes alone to say that the negotiation does not advance in the least, as they (the Venetians) are waiting for their ambassadors at that court to obtain, if possible, some reduction in the sum demanded; perhaps, too, to gain time and prepare for events.
This Signory have received letters, dated the 12th September, from their ambassador in England (Orio), informing them that one of the conditions of the treaty just made there with France stipulates that in case of His Imperial Majesty refusing to take money for the French King's ransom, England is to assist France and make war on Spain. The same ambassador writes that the King of England is about to send another embassy to Spain, with instructions to demand the fulfilment of certain conditions and stipulations, without which he (the King) will not consider himself bound to the league and confederation. The ambassadors are, moreover, to beg and entreat His Imperial Majesty, in mild words at first, to set the French King at liberty. (fn. n1) In consideration for this service and others the French are to pay the King of England 800,000 ducats, partly as agreed in the last treaty, and partly for other motives.
The Marquis of Pescara and others of His Majesty's servants now at Court must already have reported about these Italian intrigues, which seem to be just now more active than ever. He (Sanchez) knows no more of these matters than what he has from time to time reported, except that couriers between this city and Rome are very frequent, and that the Signory hold often secret councils. The Duke of Sessa, in particular, writes, in date of the 24tb, that the ambassador of this Republic had been with the Pope upwards of two hours, which, coupled with the delay in the present negotiation, and the very recent treaty between England and France, makes him (Sanchez) suspect that there is something going on against His Imperial Majesty's interests.
The French ambassadors have this very morning held a conference with the Signory, which has lasted upwards of one hour, and has been more secret than usual. Nothing has transpired yet.
(Common writing:) The Prothonotary is still suffering from fever; tomorrow will be the fourteenth day of the attack; the doctors, however, give hopes of recovery.—Venice, 1st Oct. 1525.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 1 Oct."
Spanish. Original. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 2.
3 Oct. 218. The Friar to the Bishop of Lodi. (fn. n2)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
f. 15.
Has communicated to the Imperial ambassador (Alonso Sanchez) the contents of the Bishop's letter of the 25th September last. He (Sanchez) returns thanks for the intelligence conveyed in the said letter, but would very much like to know what he means by saying that Switzers are coming down upon Italy, followed by others "we do not dream of." The ambassador sends to inquire who those people are. Begs him to return an answer as soon as possible on that point, and to explain the meaning of those words, that he may inform the Imperial ambassador, who says that if he (the Bishop) will only reveal what he knows on the subject, he has no doubt whatever that all and every one of the Emperor's ministers and agents in Italy will assist and reward him in the most satisfactory manner.—Venice, 3 Oct. 1525.
Indorsed: "Copy of the answer made to the Bishop of Lodi by the Ambassador Alonzo Sanchez."
Italian. Copy in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. p. 1.
4 Oct. 219. Hieronimo Morono to Lope Hurtado.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
f. 8.
The Duke [of Milan] is fast recovering his health, but will not be able to attend to business for a long time. He (Morono) is also getting better, and hopes to be free from his complaint in four or six days at the most. Is making all possible haste in collecting the remainder of the 100,000 ducats. A good portion of that sum has already been paid, notwithstanding that the Imperial troops are still quartered in the Duchy, against the Emperor's express orders brought by Don Lope, and the promises so often made to the Duke [of Milan], his master. He can assure Don Lope that, in accomplishing this, both he and the Duke have performed miracles; but as miracles do not often occur, (fn. n3) it is doubtful whether they will be able in future to raise the money required towards the payment of the stipulated sum. He (Morono) is quite certain they will not, unless the Imperial troops at once evacuate the Duchy and take up their quarters elsewhere before the country people are completely ruined and exhausted.
Considers it his duty to make such protests, because, having done hitherto all he could for the support of the Imperial army, he would not have it said, in the event of the Duke failing in his promise, that it was his fault.—Milan, 4 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "Hieronimo Morono."
Addressed: "To the most Magnificent, my most Honoured Sir, Lope Hurtado, etc."
Indorsed: "From Signor Hieronimo Morono, 3 Oct."
Italian. Original, with seal in green wax. pp. 2.
4 Oct. 220. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 10–15.
Has received the Imperial despatch dated the 23d of August last, and is thankful for the approval it contains of his conduct and services.
(Cipher:) As early as the 21st of July last he (Sanchez) informed the Emperor of the conversation he held with the Bishop of Lodi, and the reasons he had then to accept his services. Wonders that no answer has been made to this portion of his letter. The Bishop, it is true, has not, up to the present time, made any important revelation, except speaking in very bad terms of Hieronimo Morono, and his dealings. (fn. n4) However, as we all know the character and nature of the said Bishop, and that he is not considered a very wise prophet, he (Sanchez) attached no great importance to his words, believing him to be principally moved by his hatred of that secretary. Yesterday a friar, through whom the Bishop communicates, and who is a person whom he (Sanchez) thoroughly trusts, showed him a letter, of which the enclosed is a copy. He (Sanchez) dictated the answer, which also accompanies this, (fn. n5) that His Imperial Majesty may judge of this man's professions and the reliance to be placed in his words. The Bishop has a daughter [in Venice] who said the other day to the friar that her father's journey to Switzerland had no other object than to be out of the way should the Duke of Milan die of his present illness. (fn. n6) If so, it is evident that the Bishop's stay in that country is nowise connected with the intrigues now going on in Italy. However, as the Abbot of Najera has frequently written to say that the dealings of the confederates are no longer a secret, and his information on the subject agrees with that communicated by the Bishop, he (Sanchez) has not hesitated to forward a copy of his letter to be submitted to the Emperor's wise consideration. Has also sent a copy of it to the Marquis of Pescara, inquiring, at the same time, whether the information they possess comes from a reliable source, or has been communicated to them [at Milan] through some agent of the Bishop of Lodi, who, being a very shrewd man, is quite capable of deceiving all of us at once. Has likewise consulted the Marquis how he is to deal with the Bishop, and what promises he is to make him in the Emperor's name should the revelations which he seems inclined to make turn out true.
He (Sanchez) has informed his colleague, Prothonotary Caracciolo, of what is going on, but, at the Marquis' request, he has concealed from him all particulars [respecting the Duke of Milan and the suspicions entertained about him. This he has done more to obey the Marquis' commands than because he thinks his colleague capable of divulging the secret, he being such an honest man, and so faithful a servant to His Imperial Majesty, that were the accusations brought against the Duke to turn out true, he [Caracciolo] would not hesitate, though a native of that duchy, to look upon him as his greatest enemy.
Seeing, however, that the Abbot of Najera kept continually writing to him about the said intrigues; that the French ambassadors were holding frequent conferences with this Signory; and that if the Emperor's ministers did not openly and at once declare their suspicions they might give opportunity for the French party at Venice to increase in number, it was decided that—Caracciolo being unable to attend owing to bad health—he (Sanchez) should go alone to the Signory and address them in the following terms:—
(Common writing:) He reminded them of the Emperor's moderation after so signal a victory, and of the mild and courteous terms in which he and his ministers had addressed the Italian States, and particularly Venice, at a time, too, when reproaches might have been made and claims established. Far from it, the Imperial ambassadors' language had been everywhere both polite and conciliatory, especially at Venice, the Emperor having sent thither him (Sanchez) and so highly qualified a person as Prothonotary Caracciolo to represent him. (Cipher:) Both had heard of the plots and intrigues that were on foot against the Emperor's interests in Italy, and although,—considering their proverbial wisdom in all State affairs, and the many promises they had made him and his colleague, the Imperial ambassadors, no great importance could be attached to the rumour,—yet they felt it their duty to say that the Signory was supposed to be concerned in the said plots, and to have given occasion to the massacre of certain Spanish infantry near Saluzzo, on the 15th of September last. Besides which the movement of troops and military preparations in the territory 'of the Signory, at a time when there was no necessity whatever for them, and when the Emperor was thinking of reducing his army and withdrawing it altogether from Italy, made them suspect there was some truth in the report. They might, however, have understood from the negotiations now pending, and from their answer to the secretary who called on Prothonotary Caracciolo on the 27th of September last, what the Emperor's real intentions were, and how favourably disposed he was towards them.
Their answer, after many complimentary and gracious words to himself and Prothonotary Caracciolo, was: That we ought to attach no faith to reports, but believe only what we saw with our own eyes. They had always been, and would continue to be, His Imperial Majesty's dutiful servants, knowing, as they did know, his good and benevolent intentions towards them. Far from making any military preparations, they had considerably diminished their army, and would have disbanded it altogether had they not heard of certain movements of troops in Germany, and seen the Imperial generals in Italy do their utmost to keep their forces together.
He (Sanchez) replied that the Emperor being absent from Italy could not judge of events except from the report of his ministers, who most certainly had informed him of various plots and intrigues now going on between the Italian Princes; and which, coupled with the massacre of his infantry at Saluzzo, had obliged him, from fear of further excesses, to keep up his army on a war footing.
To this they replied that neither the Emperor nor his ministers had anything to fear in Italy; the most important affairs were being discussed elsewhere, and they trusted that, with the Emperor's assistance, all matters would be satisfactorily arranged for the service of God and the welfare of Christendom at large. (Common writing:) The Turk's increasing power and threatening attitude made it more necessary than ever that war should cease in Europe. They swore that this last allusion of theirs had not been made on account of certain malicious reports lately current about them, or from a wish to prove their innocence, but because they had been of late in great perplexity owing to some of their own privateers having recently captured some Turkish vessels, in consequence of which the Turk had ordered 40 galleys to be fitted out, and was preparing a large fleet to come down upon their coast next year.
(Cipher:) The above is, in substance, what passed at the conference. With regard to the negotiation now pending they said nothing in particular, except that they were well disposed to accept any reasonable terms, as they had often assured them [the ambassadors], and had lately sent word by their agent at Court.
That the Turk is now on bad terms with this Republic there can be no doubt. He (Sanchez) has heard so from various reliable sources. The capture of the vessels happened near the island of Cyprus. The Turk is very angry on that score; and it is rumoured that this Signory is about to send an ambassador [to Constantinople] to calm him down.
(Common writing:) Richard Pace, the English ambassador, left this three days ago. He is returning home in bad health, with permission of his King.
Prothonotary Caracciolo is much better, though not entirely free from fever. The physicians are confident of his speedy recovery.—Venice, 4th of October 1525.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 4th Oct. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 9.
5 Oct. 221. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 24–8.
His last was of the 19th October. Letters have since come from England, dated the 3d September, concerning the peace and alliance made between that country and France. The one which the Pope has shown him (Sessa) states that both parties, at His Imperial Majesty's request, had come to a mutual agreement, without prejudice to the Imperial interests, or the withdrawing of England from the league and confederation sworn to the Emperor. Such is, according to the Pope, the substance of the treaty, of which, he says, the particulars are unknown to him; (cipher) but he (the Duke) cannot help thinking there is a good deal more in it than the Pope wishes to publish, for he has heard from a good source that the King of England has written to him (the Pope) to procure, by all means in his power, the liberation of the French King without any dismemberment of territory, adding that the same demand is to be made in Spain by his own ambassadors, who had been instructed to make the greatest efforts to accomplish it. Indeed, the proclamation lately made in France is only a confirmation of this news, for it is said therein that France and England are to be friends of friends and enemies of enemies; besides which, the satisfaction of the Pope and of some of his ministers on this occasion clearly shows that they consider themselves more secure now than before. They openly say that His Imperial Majesty never has liked and does not now like them; (fn. n7) notwithstanding which, His Holiness goes on with his fine words, giving out that whenever His Imperial Majesty wants his services, he will not be found wanting.
He (the Duke) is very much afraid that the intrigues of the confederates are more active than ever, and that the Archbishop of Capua knows little or nothing of their doings, the whole matter being in the hands of the Pope himself, of the Datary (Gianmatheo Giberti) and of Alberto di Carpi. With the arrival [at Rome] of the Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber [Ghinucci], and of Gregorio Casal—who are shortly expected as ambassadors from England—the Italian potentates have an open field for their intrigues. Their return to this city shows that the confederates rely upon the assistance of that country, since their departure from hence some time ago is known to have been for that purpose. The disappearance of Gismundino (fn. n8) has increased their suspicions, and the Pope frequently complains of certain people at the Imperial court, who (he says) are the cause of his being driven to despair, and have done him much harm. (fn. n9)
Has not lately seen the ambassador of the Duke of Milan (Marco Foscari) as often as he used before. The Venetians are continually sending here couriers, who return with an answer in great secresy. What reply they have made to the demands of the Imperial ambassadors he (Sessa) need not allude to in the present despatch; suffice it to say that they seem to place all their confidence in the negotiations now pending; for they say that if the Emperor refuse to liberate his prisoners on such conditions as are now offered by France, it is quite evident that peace will be indefinitely postponed, and Madame d'Alençon's journey to Spain of no avail, whereas if the French King be liberated, things will remain very much in the same state as before. In short, they (the Venetians) are sure to do their utmost to keep matters in confusion.
To the Italians who came lately from France the Marquis of Pescara gave the reception they deserved; it is to be hoped that in future all such would-be reformers will meet with a like retribution.
Cardinal Colonna has left Rome, and retired to an abbey of his 12 miles off, either from some idea that the Pope has not sufficiently rewarded his services on the last [Papal] creation, or from other motives. The fact is that he [the Cardinal] has been spending the greater part of the summer in retirement, giving out that he cannot return, because, as a good and faithful servant of His Imperial Majesty, he does not consider himself secure at Rome. The Duke has called on him, and tried all he could to allay his fears; but though he [the Cardinal] has promised to return, it is doubtful whether he will or not, for his relatives and friends, instead of calming him, are continually increasing his suspicions of the Pope. (fn. n10)
(Common writing:) The Siennese have taken no notice whatever of his warnings. He [the Duke] had sent to them a clerk (letrado) of his, with a copy of His Imperial Majesty's decision. They alleged that the letter was a forgery (subrretiçia), and that Cardinal Colonna had written to say that they were not to obey his (Sessa's) orders, as they were contrary to the Emperor's wishes. Upon their refusing to obey orders, and put a stop to the judicial proceedings instituted against the outlaws (foraxidos) and absentees (confinados), the clerk drew up the enclosed protest (fn. n11) in the Duke's name, and the Siennese in their turn appealed. The Marquis of Pescara has since been informed of this conduct of theirs that he may act accordingly.
Asks for leave to go to Court. Church provision. No hope at present of His Holiness giving the Infante (Archduke) the promised 10,000 ducats.
Concerning the revenues of the Crusade, he (the Duke) has not advanced one step in the negotiation. What the Papal Nuncio [in Spain] has lately written on the subject has done much harm. The principal reason given for the Pope's refusal is, firstly, that the concession applied for is one of great importance for His Imperial Majesty; and, secondly, that the collectors of such revenues in Spain are guilty of all manner of extortions and excesses. The Nuncio writes that His Imperial Majesty admits the existence of the evil and promises that it shall be looked into and redressed, but the Pope persists in his refusal, though he undertakes to devise some means for the conciliation of all interests. However this may be, his (Sessa's) impression is that the Pope (cipher) is only trying to gain time till he sees what turn things will take; he and the confederates will wait for the Legate's return to remove the mask altogether, unless they find that the issue of the negotiations is likely to turn to their advantage.
Has received the bills of exchange for 20,000 ducats, which will be presented, and, when paid, applied to the use for which they are destined. (fn. n12)
Jubilee and concession of indulgences. Hospital of Nuestra Señora de Gracia in Saragossa. D. Francisco de Mendoza. Incorporation of the priorate of Exea.
With regard to the jubilee for a period of three months, a hint was thrown out some time ago that one half of its produce should be applied to the works of St. Peter. Has not consented to it, as it would be a bad precedent hereafter.
The Duke of Ferrara left on the 25th ult., well accompanied (bien acompañado). He obtained the brief he wanted; (cipher) but he (Sessa) thinks that if during his absence they can do him any harm [at Ferrara] they are sure not to let the opportunity pass.
During these last days there has been great talk of new cardinals being created. The legitimation of the Datary has been achieved, and it is the general topic of conversation. Many are the candidates; (cipher) and it is very much feared that if the present intrigues go on, cardinal's hats will be sold for more than their weight in gold. He (the Duke) knows of many who would willingly pay double for them, for this merchandise, like the others, has much increased in value.—Rome, 5 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and the two Sicilies, our Lord and Master."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Rome. Duke of Sessa, 5 Oct."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 8.
8 Oct.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 31–4.
222. Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
After his (Sanchez') letter of the 4th inst. the ambassador of the Duke of Milan residing at Venice showed them (Caracciolo and Sanchez) a letter from Hieronymo Morono, dated the 1st, purporting that Scipione Atellano, after spending several days among the Grisons, whither he had been sent for the purpose of negotiating an agreement between them and the Duke (his master), had been obliged to come back without accomplishing his object. The Grisons had been on the point of expelling him (Atellano) from their territory, and rising in arms, as they would not hear of peace unless Chavenna (Chiavenna) was restored to them. In this emergency it had been thought expedient by the Bishop of Veroli (Ennio Filonardo) and by the said Atellano to have the truce prolonged till the 1st of November, thus giving time for the fury of the Grisons to abate. Accordingly the Bishop, accompanied by six ambassadors of that nation, had gone to Milan to see what could be done towards the extension of the truce. They found the Duke, however, unwilling to give up Chavenna (Chiavenna), though ready enough to prolong the truce, alleging that he was not in a condition to negotiate owing to the bad state of his health; upon which the ambassadors of the Grisons withdrew, saying they had no powers to prolong the truce, but would consult their masters.
The said Morono adds in his letter that the Grisons having since violated the truce, the Duke of Milan had issued orders for the victualling of that fortress [Chiavenna]; and as this could not be effected without some act of violence, he (Morono) thought it advisable that the Signory should be informed in time, the more so as the Grisons intended to send one of their own people to Venice. He therefore begged the Duke's ambassador to call on the Signory, and ascertain from them what sort of assistance they would give in case war broke out between the Duke of Milan and the said Grisons.
The Imperial ambassadors have since learned that the Duke's ambassador (Faverna) had called on the Signory, and had been told that they (the Venetians) were willing enough to interpose their authority and influence with the Grisons; but as to helping the Duke in case of war with them, that was a thing they could not promise to do. They very much wondered at the Duke of Milan and Morono introducing such questions at such a time. They disapproved of the Bishop's journey to Milan, and knew that the Pope also had taken great offence at it. (fn. n13)
Such was the Signory's answer, as communicated to them (the Imperial ambassadors) by the Duke's agent; and though very likely Morono has already written to the Marquis of Pescara on the subject, they have thought it advisable to inform His Imperial Majesty also.
According to a letter of Scipione Atellano which this ambassador of the Duke has received, the Bishop of Lodi (Ottaviano Sforza) was actually at Coira, treating with the Grisons and Swiss, that, in case of the Duke's demise, they might appoint him in his room, pretending that he is by right entitled to the duchy [of Milan].
Have also been told by the ambassador of the Duke that when the messengers from France came to notify to the Signory the peace just concluded between that country and England, they expressly said that the peace had not only been signed by the Queen Regent (Louise de Savoy) but had obtained the sanction of Parliament and of the whole kingdom of France.
(Cipher:) They hear, moreover, from Rome, and through a good channel, that the Cardinal of England (Wolsey) had stated to the Venetian ambassador residing in London that by making the said peace they (the English) did in nowise intend harm to His Imperial Majesty.
The Pope's Nuncio has lately been exhorting them (the Imperial ambassadors) not to throw any obstacles in the way of a definitive settlement with this Republic. He has also applied to the Signory for a similar purpose, showing, in the Pope's name, every desire that all matters at issue should be satisfactorily arranged. The ambassadors have thanked him for his good intentions, assuring him that nothing will be left undone on their part to bring the negotiations to a favourable issue.
His Imperial Majesty has already been informed by a letter of his (Sanchez), written and signed during the illness of his colleague (Caracciolo), that the King of England was about to despatch a new ambassador (Dr. Lee) to Spain, to beg and entreat that the King of France should be released on payment of a due ransom in money. In case of refusal the ambassador was to enforce the point strongly. And the King [of England] had written to the Pope and to the Venetians, begging them to instruct their respective ambassadors at the Imperial court to assist his own with all their might. Both the Pope and the Venetians have done so.
Intelligence has likewise reached the Imperial ambassadors that a certain Glaudio (Claude), secretary to the Regent of France, had been sent by her to notify to this Republic that she had summoned to Lyons the Duke Maximiano (Massimiliano Sforza) and Monsieur de St. Pol, intending to give them the command of 600 lances and 6,000 infantry, besides 6,000 Switzers, destined for the invasion of Italy in the event of the Duke of Milan's death. Glaudio, they say, has since left this city (Venice) and gone to Rome. If the news be correct, the Marquis of Pescara, who is near at hand, must know best and will act accordingly. One thing however is certain, that, even supposing the 80,000 ducats offered by the Venetians, in consideration of the larger sum demanded of them, were to be accepted, they are sure not to pay that sum immediately, but try and find some expedient to gain time.
The above intelligence, however, though emanating from a trustworthy source, is not entirely to be relied upon, some people of this city pretending that Secretary Glaudio has not come to Venice, and that it was the French ambassadors who received the above news.
Since the above was written the ambassador of the Duke (Taverna) has again called on the Signory about the matter of the Grisons. They have plainly told him that they will use every means in their power to bring the affair to a satisfactory issue; but that they do not intend, in case of refusal, to threaten or coerce the Grisons, much less to take up arms against them.
Prothonotary Caracciolo has lately much improved in health, and is therefore able to sign this letter.—Venice, 8th Oct. 1525.
Signed: "El Protonotario Caracciolo," "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Ambassadors of Venice."
Spanish. Holograph (in Sanchez' hand) mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 7.
9 Oct. 223. Jonglet to Madame.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 105.
Has not replied sooner to her letters of the 19th of Sept. last, because, two days before the arrival of the same, Richart Boullengier left with despatches for Mechlin (Malines), in which he (Jonglet) had answered their contents as well as he could.
Knows nothing about the conditions of the peace between France and England. The Legate says that the English ambassadors in Spain as well as in the Low Countries have been instructed to communicate on the subject with the Emperor and with Madame.
With regard to the Portuguese marriage and the alteration made in Peñalosa's instructions, he (Jonglet) has not failed to make such representations and excuses as the Emperor and Madame directed him to make by their instructions, &c.
Has no news to give, but as Wattelet, the bearer, is returning to the Emperor in Spain, he would not let him go without a few lines.
The Papal ambassador says he has letters from Rome informing him that His Holiness knew nothing about this present peace; that there was the best understanding between the Emperor and him; and that neither of them, the Pope was sure, would treat without the knowledge of the other. The Papal ambassador maintains that His Holiness is very well disposed to peace, and that, in order to secure it, he is about to send to Spain, as his Legate à Latere, Cardinal de Salviatis.
The French ambassador is still here. The peace has not yet been sworn to. Fancies that the ratification and oaths are purposely delayed until it be known how the Emperor's affairs turn out.
Begs for his speedy recall. (fn. n14) —London, 9 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "Jonglet."
Addressed: "A Madame."
French. Original. pp. 2.
11 Oct. 224. Prothonotary Caracciolo and Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassadors in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 37–8.
This morning the Signory received letters from .Rome by a courier who left on the 8th inst., at night. The news is that the Pope has heard from Lyons that the French King is dangerously ill, and his life despaired of; that His Imperial Majesty had been to visit him, but that the King was so ill that he had not recognised him, nor Madame D'Alançon, his sister, who had come thither from France. This intelligence has been communicated to them (the ambassadors) by the Signory.
The Duke's ambassador has also had letters from Hieronymo Morono, in date of the 8th inst., reporting that a captain of his, who was governor of Musso, had repulsed an attack of the Grisons on Chavenna (Chiavenna), and slain a good number of them. The Duke [of Milan] wants to know, through his ambassador here, whether, in case of the Grisons making a fresh movement, the Signory will side with him. The answer has been as evasive as on former occasions. (Cipher:) The ambassador even thinks, though they did not tell him so in plain terms, that the Signory would be glad to see Chavenna (Chiavenna) restored to the Grisons.
The Imperial ambassadors have lately received intelligence that the negotiations between the Italian potentates are now more active than ever. The King of England is the principal promoter of them, proposing that a defensive league be made, of which he is to be the head, between France, the Italian Princes, and himself, for the purpose of preventing the Emperor's aggrandisement. It is added that both he (the King) and the Cardinal of England (Wolsey) have made overtures on the subject to the Venetian ambassador residing in London, and are now sending ambassadors to the Pope, to induce him and the rest of the Italian Princes, not excluding the Duke of Milan, to enter this new league, which is to be different and distinct from that already existing between France and England.
The above intelligence has been sent by the Venetian ambassador [in England], in date of the 11th of September; and their informer adds that, until the arrival at Rome of the English ambassadors, he does not think that this Republic will be called upon to give an answer [on the subject of the proposed league]. (fn. n15) Still, if the King of France were to die, it is questionable whether all these negotiations and intrigues would not fall to the ground. One thing, however, seems to them (the Imperial ambassadors) pretty certain, namely, that the Venetians will not pay now the 80,000 ducats promised so long ago.—Venice, 11 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "El Prothonotario Caracciolo," "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Ambassadors at Venice, 11 Oct. 1525."
Spanish. Ciphered. Holograph in Sanchez' hand. Contemporary deciphering on the same sheet. pp. 2½.
13 Oct. 225. Louis de Praet, Imperial Ambassador in France, to the Emperor.
Arch. d. Royme
de Belg. Doc. Hist.
III., f. 105.
Gives an account of his journey from Barcelona to Lyons, Has had an audience with the Regent, to which the Cardinals of Lorraine and Bourbon, Messieurs de Vendome, De Lautrek and a great many Frenchmen and Italians were present. She (the Regent) received him most graciously, took him aside and said how very thankful she was to the Emperor for visiting her son, the King, during his late severe illness, and for the reception given to Madame d'Alençon. She was persuaded, knowing the Emperor's magnanimity, that no conditions would be imposed on the King, her son, but such as he could accept, and therefore hoped that perpetual peace and friendship would soon be established between them.
With regard to the English ambassadors, there are two now residing at Lyons. This he (Praet) has learned, not from the Regent herself, who has not said a word about it, but from other people. One of the ambassadors is a Papal Auditor (fn. n16), the other Gregory Casal. The peace between England and France has been publicly proclaimed on all the frontiers of this kingdom, and, if his information be correct, not three weeks ago a sum of 100,000 ducats was remitted to England as part and parcel of their debt. He (De Praet) thinks that the remainder will be paid in paper and fine words. (fn. n17) However this may be, the said treaty appears at a most unpropitious time. The Cardinal having just sent here two Italians as his ambassadors, it would look as if his intentions were again to throw Italy into confusion. It will please His Imperial Majesty to send him (De Praet) instructions how he is to deal with the said ambassadors and others who might afterwards come from the King of England; for, as he (De Praet) has already informed His Majesty, his opinion is that the Cardinal is aiming at one of two ends; either to procure large sums of money for the King, his master, under the pretence of the war, whilst he throws the heaviest expenses upon His Imperial Majesty, or else to keep the King of France and His Majesty in a continual state of hostility and mistrust, in order by this means to ensure good treatment on either side. His (De Praet's) advice would be, before the French King is finally liberated, to obtain such securities from him, either by sheer force or by close union and alliance, that in future he may do no harm.
After writing the above, the Venetian ambassadors, (fn. n18) lately come from Spain, called upon him (De Praet). They arrived in Lyons two days before, visited the Regent yesterday, and are to start for Venice tomorrow. They tell him that Madame the Regent has requested the Signory to be the mediator of a peace and close alliance between the King, her son and His Imperial Majesty, in order to promote his liberation, etc. They knew already the conclusion of a peace between England and France, and asked him whether it had been made with the knowledge and consent of His Imperial Majesty. He (De Praet) knew not what to answer, but told them he could not for a moment suppose that the English had done anything to the detriment of the Imperial interests, and that most likely His Imperial Majesty had received previous notice of their intentions. They also told him that the Duke of Ferrara was already on this side of the Alps, on his way to His Imperial Majesty, but that it was very doubtful whether they (the French) would grant him the required safeconduct. (fn. n19) —Lyons, 15 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "Louis Praet."
French. Copy.
15 Oct. 226. Lope Hurtado, Imperial Commissioner, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 36,
ff. 41–3.
By the courier who left on the 3d inst. His Imperial Majesty must have been informed of the determination lately taken by the Marquis of Pescara, after consulting Mons. de Bourbon, Antonio de Leyva and the Abbot of Najera. On the day of the departure of the said courier, he (Lope Hurtado), Antonio de Leyva and Hieronymo Morono arrived in this town. (Cipher:) The latter (Morono), in pursuance of the purpose for which he had expressly come [to Novara], called upon the Marquis, and told him that the Pope and the Venetians had actually made an agreement with France and England for each party to contribute 50,000 ducats monthly to the expenses of the ensuing war; that the French, at the expiration of the truce, were to send M. de Sampo (Saint Pol) with 500 lances and 2,000 infantry, whilst they (the Pope and Venice) were to commence hostilities, and had already contracted for 10,000 Switzers for this end. The Pope was only waiting for the Duke of Milan's resolution in this matter, and had sent Domenico Sable (Sauli) to inquire of the Marquis [of Pescara] whether he would also join their league, and, if he would, to settle the conditions. (fn. n20)
Matters being in this state it was decided that Antonio de Leyva should seize the person of Hieronymo Morono, and convey him as prisoner to the castle of Pavia, which he has since done, escorted by the 2,000 Germans of Colonel Jacobo. After leaving Morono at Pavia, Leyva was to take up his position at Reguardo, (fn. n21) sixteen miles from Milan, where the Marquis is to follow him soon, in order to carry their concerted plan into execution. He (the Marquis) has written to the Duke (Francesco Sforza), to the Senate and to several nobles [at Milan], explaining his reasons for the arrest of Hieronymo Morono. He has also written to the Venetians exhorting them to keep quiet, as nothing was intended against them.
The measures just taken by the Marquis are here considered quite necessary for the preservation of this Imperial army, for, quartered as it now is, and the fortresses and places they occupy being well provided, there is no fear of the Emperor's enemies undertaking anything; and, if they do, their plans will be defeated. Morono's treacherous design was to drive the Marquis and his army out of this duchy [of Milan], and then seize on the strong places; but God has permitted that his treason should be discovered and punished.
His Imperial Majesty ought to be very grateful to the Marquis for the service rendered on this occasion. He (Lope Hurtado) has reason to believe, though he has not heard it from his own mouth, (fn. n22) that the Marquis is rather discontented at not having lately received more marks of the Imperial favour. He has been suffering for upwards of a fortnight, and, although better now, is still very weak and thin, for the disease was very severe and it came after tertian fever. As man's life is in the hands of God, it would be advisable to appoint a proper general to replace him in case of need. Thinks that the fittest person to succeed him in the command would be Antonio de Leyva, who is loved by the army, and has the reputation of being a good and faithful servant of His Imperial Majesty.
The day of their departure from Milan Antonio de Leyva saw a brief from the Pope, ordering the Verulano (Bishop of Veruli) to go to Bresa (Brescia), where he would find the Duke of Urbino and the Venetian proveditor with one of his (the Pope's) agents, there to confer together on the affairs of the Switzers; and, the conference over, to pass on to Switzerland, in order there to execute what may be agreed upon between them.
(Common writing:) Very little is to be apprehended from these people if His Imperial Majesty will only keep the Marquis and Antonio de Leyva well provided with money. (Cipher:) Yet the French King's illness, which is here reported as dangerous, gives those generals some cause for anxiety. They are afraid that, if the King dies, the French will not come to terms with His Imperial Majesty; whereas if the King lives, and a favourable peace is concluded, it will an easy matter for the Emperor to conquer the whole of Italy, and give these people the punishment they so richly deserve for their treacherous acts. By taking possession of this estate (Milan) His Imperial Majesty will gain more credit and profit than by any ransom or territory which the French King might give elsewhere. And since the Emperor has been spending his treasures, and risking everything in Italy for the protection and support of those whom he considered to be his good and faithful servants, now that they have turned out rebels and traitors, he ought to take possession of their estates, and principally of this duchy of Milan, where matters cannot be secure until it becomes part and parcel of the Imperial dominions. Such is the general opinion at Milan. On three different occasions the enemy has been expelled from its territory; as many times those who profess to be good servants of His Imperial Majesty have tried hard to drive away the army sent for their protection.
(Common writing:) The Doge of Genoa has behaved so well on this occasion that he fully deserves all His Majesty's consideration.
The Duke of Ferrara passed through this city (Novara) on the 4th inst., on his way to Spain, to offer his services. (fn. n23) The Pope and the Venetians are not at all contented with this determination of his; and Antonio de Leyva has heard from France that Madame (the Regent) is not at all disposed to grant him a safe-conduct. The Marquis [of Pescara] has sent orders to his troops to evacuate Piedmont, at which measure all here are very glad. The country, however, is entirely exhausted; and it is to be feared that the troops, on their departure, will commit excesses. It will, perhaps, be necessary to leave some detachment at Vercelli. The Duke is now in Savoy, owing to Genebra (Geneva) and another town of that country having attempted to join the Swiss confederation. The reason why the Imperial troops have not evacuated Piedmont sooner is that Hieronymo Morono offered the greatest opposition to their coming to this duchy; and as there were no other quarters for them, the Marquis naturally delayed the order of evacuation until that obstacle was removed. He (the Marquis) has written to the Duke [of Savoy] and to Madame (the Infanta) giving them satisfaction on this point.
(Cipher:) The Marquis has been of opinion that he (Lope Hurtado) should go to Rome to request the Pope to be quiet (que esté quedo), and persuade the Venetians to do the same. Has accepted the mission, and starts this very day on his journey. On his return [to Novara] he will not fail to inform His Imperial Majesty of the result, that his services may be employed elsewhere, the Savoy business for which he came to Italy being now at an end.—Novara, 15 Oct. 1525.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Lope Hurtado, 15 Oct."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 3.


  • n1. "A le rogar y persuadir con buenas palabras primero que libre al Rey de Francia."
  • n2. In answer to the Bishop's letter under No. 214, p. 346.
  • n3. "Ma di certo habbiamo fatto miracoli, et sappia V.S. che li miracoli non si fanno troppo spesso."
  • n4. "Mas de dezirme mil males de Hieronimo Moron y ponerme sospechas del y de sus platicas."
  • n5. Both the Bishop's letter and the Friar's answer may be seen respectively under Nos. 214 and 218.
  • n6. "El dicho obispo tiene aqui una hija la qual dixo al dicho fraile que el obispo fue en suyços, y al tiempo de su partida se dixo que queria ir por hallarse alli si 'el duque de Milan moria de la dolencia que tenia; que esto muestra, quando fuese verdad, que el obispo fue alli de su fantasia, y no enviado por las platicas que andan."
  • n7. "Y á la clara hablan que V. M. no les ha querido ni quiere."
  • n8. "Y habiendose desaparecido Gisimundino (sic) les ha doblado la sospecha, y aun no sé si el mal año. Algunas vezes se resiente su Santd que le han dado gran causa para venir en desesperacion, y se quexa de quien ya allá se han quexado."
  • n9. "A los Italianos que venian de Francia les ha dado el Marques el buen recaudo que suele, y assi confio en Dios que quantos intentaren de innovar iran con el mismo castigo."
  • n10. "Y algunos de sus deudos que no le tienen amor caritativo le encienden por dar con el del todo en el foso."
  • n11. Not in the Academy's volume.
  • n12. "Tengo la cendula de los xx mil ducados, laqual se presentará y usará della siendo menester."
  • n13. "E asi mismo dice que mostraron parecerles muy mal la ida á Milan del obispo Verulano porque engendraba sospecha con algun semblante donde se tenia sin el y sin causa, y que el Papa estaba muy sentido del dicho obispo Verulano que tan livianamente se hubiesse movido."
  • n14. A copy of this letter is in Bergenroth's collection in Brit. Mus. Add. 28,574, f. 391.
  • n15. "Que por cartas de onze lo ha scrito el embaxador de los desta Republica. El que esto nos refiere dise que fasta que los embaxadores de Inglaterra lleguen á Roma, no cree que los desta Republica respondan, ni se haga nada en le platica."
  • n16. Girolamo Ghinucci.
  • n17. "Crois que le reste se payera en papier et belles parolles."
  • n18. Gaparo Contarini and Lorenzo Priuli, who left Toledo for Venice on the 11th of August, leaving their colleague, Andrea Navagero, in charge of the Embassy.
  • n19. Published in Lanz, Correspondenz des Kaysers Karl, pp. 175–80.
  • n20. "Y que mandaba á Dominico Sable que viniese á tomar resolucion del Marques si queria ser con ellos, y siendo, para assentar las condiciones."
  • n21. Bel Riguardo, on the bank of the Ticino.
  • n22. "Suplico á V. Mag. se acuerde de mandalle hazer tales obras que él vea que V. Mag. se acuerda de sus servicios passados y presentes, que palabras ya no bastarian para él, que á lo que yo entiendo, aunque no me lo ha dicho, esta quexoso, é si V. Mag. dilatasse alguna demostracion estarlo—ia mas."
  • n23. "Dixome que iba á ofrecer á V. Mag. la vida y estado aunque pesase a quien pesase."