Spain: April 1526, 16-20

Pages 638-654

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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April 1526, 16-20

16 April. 386. Commander Herrera and Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp.
After his letter of the 26th ult., nothing new has occurred; and as the Duke of Sessa is now writing to His Imperial Majesty, in answer to the despatches brought by the last courier, he (Herrera) will be brief on this occasion. Is waiting to see how the French King will fulfil his engagements, and what answer is returned [from Court] to the ambassadors' despatch of the 16th March; (fn. n1) everything is at a standstill, and all state business laid aside, as if there were no Princes in the world. Therefore all the Imperial ministers and agents in Italy are expecting the Viceroy's arrival, in compliance with the Emperor's late orders.
He (Herrera) has heard that the Pope's secret Council, composed of Jacopo Salviatis, il Vichardino (Franc. Guicciardini) and the Datary (Mattheo), have often discussed the propriety of the Pope signing the proposed agreement with His Imperial Majesty before or after the Viceroy's arrival [in Italy]. They have decided to wait for it, probably because they are not yet sure of the French King having ratified the treaty. Recommends Augustin Folleta (Foglieta), who is a good servant of His Imperial Majesty. Solicits letters in his favour to the Bishop of Mazara and Archbishop of Granada (Fr. Pedro Ramiro de Alva), who refuse to pay him his pensions.—Rome, 26 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "Herrera."
(Cipher:) All those who are not His Imperial Majesty's good friends are trying to persuade His Holiness that the Emperor's aggrandisement will be to his detriment. So much have they done in that way that the Pope actually believes it, this being the reason why he is doing everything in his power to prevent the intended journey. The true servants and faithful vassals of His Imperial Majesty, on the other hand, think that the Emperor's visit to Italy is much needed, and that, in order to facilitate it, a league on the best possible terms ought to be made with these potentates; for if the conditions were not, at first, such as might be desired, yet, once in Italy, His Imperial Majesty might easily have them improved, and, in fact, do anything he pleases on that score. In order the better to overawe those who are opposed to the Emperor's aggrandisement, it would be advisable to remit to the Archduke [in Germany] a good sum of money wherewith to raise troops and bring them down upon Italy when required, which measure would, no doubt, make these people a little more obedient to His Imperial Majesty's commands. If the Emperor wishes to be better informed of the affairs of Italy, he (Herrera) offers to go to Court and report thence verbally, since there are many things which cannot well be committed to writing.
(Common writing:) The Imperial ambassadors at Venice, and also Lope Hurtado, write to say that the King of France is at Bordeaux; he has not yet ratified the articles of the treaty, and it is believed that he will not. The Papal court is full of these rumours, and courtiers make all manner of speculations about them, remarking that the Queen of France was not in the King's company, the cause of the separation being unknown. (fn. n2) (Cipher:) The writers need scarcely add that the Romans show great joy at this news.
(Cipher:) Since the above was written, he (Herrera) has received intelligence that Cardinal de Aux (Auch), who is at Avignon, managed to get into his possession his despatch from Sienna; he had it copied and sent to the Pope, who, being unable to make out the cipher, forwarded it to Venice, there to be deciphered. Though he (Herrera) knows for certain that the duplicate of the said despatch has reached the Imperial hands, yet he feels very uneasy lest it should be deciphered and read, though he must observe that, until the present time, those who undertook the task at Venice have been unsuccessful. Should they ultimately succeed, he (Herrera) will do his utmost to ascertain the fact, and, if possible, to secure the decipherings before they are brought to Rome, for which purpose he has secretly written to Alonso Sanchez, the Imperial ambassador at Venice.
Again begs to be allowed to go to the Imperial presence, that he may inform His Majesty, by word of mouth, of the state of affairs in Italy. After the departure of the courier, bearer of this letter, he (Herrera) intends leaving for Genoa, there to wait for the arrival of the Viceroy [of Naples], and inform him of what occurs; after which he will wait for His Majesty's orders unless the Viceroy wishes him to return with him to Rome.—Data ut supra.
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. Commander Herrera and Secretary Perez, 16 April."
Spanish. Original. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 3.
17 April. 387. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador at Rome, to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist. d.
Since the departure of Salinas, the courier, nothing new has occurred. The news of the French King's liberation was long in coming; it has not even been officially announced to the Pope or to the French ambassador at this Court, a circumstance which makes people wonder, and increases the discontent of others, who build hopes for the future, it being publicly rumoured that up to the 29th of March last the King of France had not ratified the treaty, with a variety of other things more or less disagreeable.
Respecting Capino, the Duke has nothing to advise, except that he has arrived at Rome. He came by way of the Switzers, (cipher) to whom, it appears, the French King had already announced his liberation, which shows that he takes more notice of them than of all others.
(Common writing:) Nothing new from England. It would seem as if there, as well as here, all were waiting for the expiration of the six weeks' term to see if the conditions of the treaty will be faithfully executed or not.
The Pope still shows the same inclination, as before, to be closely united to His Imperial Majesty. Uncharitable people say that he is not in earnest. He (the Duke) considers it his duty, as a faithful vassal of His Imperial Majesty, to express his own opinion on the subject. He (cipher) believes the Pope to be anything but pleased at the turn affairs have taken; he often complains of his own ministers, declaring that were it not that he trusts in His Imperial Majesty's well-known benignity, he should be driven to despair. His own confidential people are continually singing a litany of wrongs, among which they include Ferrara, Sienna, the edicts (pragmaticas), and a hundred more matters of the same kind; and they lay particular stress on the fact of His Holiness being disrespectfully talked of here, and much more so in Spain. All this put together engenders animosity and bad feeling, and the more people try to dissemble the more this ill-will grows upon them; they are only biding their time. He (the Duke) thinks that, in order to secure success for the future one, of two means must be adopted: either to weaken and reduce these people to such condition that they may never again, by themselves or their abettors, injure the Imperial cause and dominions in Italy; or else to make such an arrangement as may be the source of mutual and lasting confidence. Which of the above means may be the most expedient remains for the Emperor to decide; but whichever is adopted, he (the Duke) maintains that no time is to be lost, because, if the Pope be allowed to retain the same temporal and spiritual power as hitherto, whilst nourishing the unjustifiable hatred he bears to His Imperial Majesty, people will naturally consider this a justification of the scandal. His studied silence; the steps taken to strengthen his territory and amass large sums of money; his close relations with all those whom he considers to be his friends; and his secret negotiations, if they do exist, with His Imperial Majesty's known enemies, are all signs of a danger which it is prudent to avert. He (the Duke) considers it his duty to give his own opinion and advice in these matters, though it may be disregarded, as in past times.
(Common writing:) In the bull In Cœna Domini promulgated this year, he (the Duke) has observed certain expressions and passages which are not in the preceding ones, and which appear principally directed against the Royal ordinances lately promulgated in those realms. Having inquired from the Pope the cause of such innovation, he [the Duke] was told that it was a general measure, and since Princes were using their own jurisdiction in ecclesiastical matters, the Church was justified in defending her own with such spiritual weapons as she had at her command.
Certain Imperial solicitors and notaries have been arrested of late and confined to prison for having presented at Court some of the warrants and Royal ordinances above alluded to, and one among the rest for exhibiting at Court a Royal warrant, ordering Arnao de Velasco, the Dean of Santiago, to desist from the action he had brought against Pero Bermudez, a gentleman of Galicia. He (the Duke) has done everything he could for their liberation, and has already succeeded in some cases, though two of them have complained of ill-treatment besides, which is not to be wondered at, considering that the governor of the prison where they were confined is a coarse, haughty man, not a Spaniard at heart, but a decided Guelph.
(Cipher:) On Good Friday last, the 30th of March, His Holiness spoke to him on the subject of the Duke of Ferrara. He had been several times requested by his ambassador to prorogue the brief of security granted to him some time ago; and, lately, a Ferrarese, who had long been a familiar of his own, came on the Duke's behalf to solicit the speedy termination of his master's affairs, suggesting, as the ambassador had previously done, that it was far better for the two parties to come to an agreement on all matters at once. His Holiness answered that he was willing to grant his request, and that, considering him a good vassal of the Church and a friend, he was ready, upon the restitution of what he (the Duke) most unjustly held, and which belonged by right to the Apostolic See, not only to grant him his request, but to give his own niece in marriage to his son, from which he might infer that his interests and those of his family would be sufficiently taken care of in future.
This the Pope told him (Sessa), that he might know how matters stood between him and the Duke of Ferrara, intimating, at the same time, that although the latter was doing his utmost on all sides, the negotiation would come to nothing.
Six or eight days after this conversation with His Holiness, the said ambassador of Ferrara called upon him (Sessa) and showed him a confidential and private letter of the Duke, his master, in which he said, among other things, that, being a faithful servant of His Imperial Majesty, he wished to reveal all that passed between His Holiness and himself, that he (Sessa) might write to Spain in his favour. The ambassador then showed another letter from his master to the same purpose, representing the Pope as the initiator of the negotiation, and adding that since he (the Duke) was expected to be a loser by it, it was not to be wondered at if he tried to get the best possible terms. He had but a scanty hope for the future when he was asked to give up what he owned by right, &c.
This very letter the ambassador of Ferrara had read to the Pope before coming to him (Sessa); but he had been so badly received, and so harshly answered, that he had determined not to bring the matter under discussion again. He (Sessa) believes that the ambassador came to him craftily (cauteloso), only producing those two letters to see what he could get. Answered him in the mildest possible terms, offering to inform His Imperial Majesty of the whole proceeding, but making no engagement of any sort. Has since remarked that the ambassador goes more frequently to the Palace, and suspects that the negotiations have been reopened. What they really are about he cannot at present say; but his opinion is that were the Pope to give in a little in some of his demands, the Duke of Ferrara would, without much difficulty, come to some agreement with him, notwithstanding all his promises and engagements to the contrary, for he has always been known to lean to whichever side is most favourable to his own interests.
(Common writing:) Cannot in conscience help informing His Imperial Majesty of the news he has received from the duchy of Milan and from other districts nearer Rome of the excesses committed by the Imperial troops. They are of such nature that he would never dare to mention them were they not openly known and proved. He has been assured that from 8,000 to 10,000 ducats are levied every day, without including in that sum the soldiers' pay and many other extortions which ruin the inhabitants. The discontent grows everywhere; and he (Sessa) knows of men who get by this means five, ten, twenty, and even fifty ducats per diem. He should consider himself guilty were he not to acquaint His Imperial Majesty with the discreditable behaviour of the army, which, moreover, requires much supervision and discipline, since it is by no means as efficient as it ought to be should it be wanted for active service.
(Cipher:) The Venetians have changed their ambassador [here]. The Imperial ones residing at Venice write that he is more of a Spaniard than the last. (fn. n3) That will be sufficient, for his predecessor was a Frenchman at heart. The secret correspondence between them and the Pope is daily becoming closer; both are at work in France, and England is not asleep.
(Common writing:) Cardinal Colonna is still at his abbey of Subiaco, in the same mood as before. He goes about surrounded by a body-guard, which he might well dispense with; and Ascanio proceeds judicially against Cardinal Cesarino. He has refused to accept the terms which he (Sessa) proposed to him; notwithstanding which, every attention is paid to his suit, and his interests are protected as if they were His Imperial Majesty's.
Respecting the state of things at Sienna, Commander Herrera will report, since it is part of his duty.
Received, some days ago, the two letters of the 24th ulto. and 12th inst., to which no answer is required. On the 12th another came, dat. the 30th March, concerning the absolution in the case of the Bishop of Zamora. Went immediately to the Pope, and told him minutely the whole affair. He at first made some difficulty, but promised to give the required absolution; though the matter, he said, being a consistorial one, he had first to consult some cardinals about it. He therefore held a congregation, and resolved, against the opinion of the majority, to grant the required absolution. Encloses the brief. The demonstration made by His Imperial Majesty on this last occasion has been very much applauded here; and it would not be amiss for the Emperor to make some sort of return for these little favours; because nothing whatever was done at the time of the dispensation brief, though it was graciously granted at a time when matters were rather unsatisfactory. He (Sessa) knows that they noticed it, and were very much hurt. His Imperial Majesty is the most prudent of men, and has doubtless sufficiently pondered on these matters; yet it is his (Sessa's) duty to remind him of it.
Congratulates the Emperor upon his marriage. Begs for the bishopric of Zamora for his own brother, Don Juan de Cordoba.
(Cipher:) The above was written when the ambassador of the Duke of Ferrara came to him (Sessa), and showed some uneasiness at what Prothonotary Caracciolo had written to His Imperial Majesty about him. He said, moreover, that if the Duke, his master—from his not being maintained in his possession by the Emperor—was ultimately obliged to give up Rezzo and Rubiera to the Pope, he very much preferred giving those towns away with his own hand than through a third person. On hearing which, he (Sessa), not to excite suspicion, feigned to believe the ambassador's words; but knows for certain that whenever the Pope chooses to have him on his side, an agreement will be made. The ambassador added that his master had sent a gentleman of his household to congratulate the King of France upon his liberation. He (Sessa) knows from a good source that the Duke is already beginning to place all his confidence in that quarter, a thing not to be wondered at, if the habits and practices of that house be taken into account.
(Common writing:) The Pope, at the instigation of most of the Cardinals who have taken cognizance of the affair, has kept back the brief for the absolution of those concerned in the Bishop of Zamora's execution. He (Sessa) has made the greatest efforts to get it, but in vain. The Pope, however, has told him in confidence that if the names of the parties are only sent to him, and His Imperial Majesty intercedes in their favour, he will have it sent without any further difficulty.
In the case of Montaragon sentence has been given against Don Pedro de Urrias. (fn. n4) The Pope was very angry when he heard of it. Has promised him (Sessa) and Commander Herrera to have the sentence annulled.
The rumours about the Turk's armaments have ceased for the present.
Touching the affair of the Crusade, he (Sessa) cannot help repeating that the same difficulties still exist. He will much regret if—having always told the truth on that score—the opinion of people [in Spain] who know nothing at all about it, should prevail against his own experience and advice. Let His Imperial Majesty have his (Sessa's) correspondence examined, and if there should be anything contrary to what he has stated from the beginning, let him be punished as he deserves.
The Pope has appointed Andrea Doria to be Captain-General of his galleys. He is to have eight in ordinary, six of his own and two of the Church, besides two brigantines, with a yearly stipend of 36,000 ducats.
Has delivered into the Pope's hands the Imperial letters, presenting D. Luis de Cardona to the bishopric of Barcelona. The Pope's answer was that he had already appointed Cardinal Cortona to that Church; but if the Cardinal consented to transfer his rights to D. Luis, he should offer no objection.—Rome, 17 Apr. 1526.
P.S.,—Begs for the payment of 400 ducats borrowed from the merchants [of Rome] towards the expenses of three different messengers, who, by three different routes, took his despatches of the xvi. December last; one of them is Pero Hernandez, his servant.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Sovereign and Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. The Duke of Sessa, 17th Apr."
Spanish. Original. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 11.
18 April. 388. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 149–57.
Wrote on the 10th, (fn. n5) conjointly with Prothonotary Caracciolo, his colleague, of what had occurred up to that date. Duplicates of their letter have since been sent by way of Milan and Genoa.
Three days ago the Signory heard from their Secretary, who, as stated in the ambassadors' joint despatch, had gone to the French court. His name is Andrea Rosso, and he writes, in date of the 24th and 27th March, to say that on the former of those days he had an audience of the French King, who received him graciously, asked him about the Doge and other patricians whom he knows to be friendly to his cause, and told him how very grateful he was for the services the Signory had done him, and the efforts made for his liberation, as well as for the treaty of league and alliance concluded with the crown of France, which, he added, had contributed more powerfully than anything else to his liberty, owing to the jealousy the Emperor had conceived of the said treaty. The King went on to say that if the Venetians only persevered in their intentions, France would never be at enmity with them. They were to conclude the league [of the Italian powers] and try to persuade the Pope to join the said league, though he had not much confidence in His Holiness, who (he said) was always wavering. If, however, the Pope could be induced to join the league, they [the Venetians] were to conclude it at once.
The Secretary's answer was that his mission for the time was limited to offering his respects and kissing His Majesty's hands; that as he was bearer of certain credentials he would present and explain them on another occasion. He (the King) was to consider that if the Emperor became sole master in Italy, as there was reason to think probable (fn. n6) ........ His most Christian Majesty would not be secure in his own kingdom. The Secretary then tried to ascertain whom the French King wished to have as Duke of Milan. The King answered he was satisfied that it should be Francesco Sforza; and then inquired about the castle of Milan, its defences, provisions, &c.
The above intelligence has been communicated to the ambassadors by a trusty person on whose veracity they place great reliance, and who from time to time gives them most valuable information. On the 26th, Cappin, the Marquis of Mantua's secretary, whom the Pope had sent to France, arrived [in Venice], and related how, before he saw the French King, he [Cappin] had a conversation with Andrea Rosso; and that when he was admitted to the Royal presence, the King repeated to him the very same words he told Rosso, and that Cappin's commission, as given by the Pope, was equal in all its parts to that intrusted by the Venetians to their Secretary.
On the 28th Andrea Rosso saw the King again, when the King confirmed what he had said on a previous occasion; namely, that a league and alliance should be made between France, the Pope and the Venetians, but he wished the negotiations for the said league to be conducted in France, for which purpose each of the confederates was to send his ambassadors. That he (the King) wanted their help expressly to conquer the kingdom of Naples, but must have securities in France that such help would be forthcoming and that the Italian Princes would fulfil their promise, for he would not be left at the mercy of Italy, and be once more deceived. The Secretary, Andrea Rosso, replied that the necessity was one of the moment (presentanea); the castle of Milan had provisions only to the middle of May; the Signory had in its service 1,000 men-at-arms, besides 6,000 foot and light horse. The Pope had also a good number of troops ready, so that, with a very small assistance on his part, it would be easy to expel the Imperialists from the Estate of Milan, since they were not yet masters of the principal castles. That since the King had ambassadors at Rome, the best thing to do was to send them full powers to treat there [in Italy]; for as to the Italian powers sending their agents to France, as the King had proposed, it was out of the question; the distance was too great and the negotiations would be indefinitely protracted; in the meantime the castles of Milan and Cremona might fall into the hands of the Imperialists, and all would be lost.
The King, however, persisted in his former resolution, saying that the negotiations were to be conducted in France; he was to be helped in conquering the kingdom of Naples, and must have securities in France that the conditions of the league should be kept.
The above is said to be the substance of Secretary Rosso's despatch to the Signory. He says, besides, that at his conference with the French King, Memoransi [Anne de Montmorency], the Grand Master of France, and Brion were present; that the King spoke well of His Imperial Majesty, and said that he (the Emperor) was determined to come over to Italy this summer, not later than July; that he was not to bring any Spanish infantry, but only about 6,000 Germans who were now in Catalonia. He counted mostly upon Germany and upon his present force in Italy, but had little or no money at all. The King further stated to the Venetian Secretary that, during his captivity, his mother, the Queen Regent of France, had collected, by means of taxation and otherwise, upwards of 1,500,000 cr. (escudos), with which war might be maintained during a considerable time. Of the Princes, his sons, he should take no heed for three years. He told him more still: He said that in order to hinder the Emperor's journey to Italy he had ordered considerable armaments to be got ready in Britanny, and that for that purpose it would be very convenient if the Signory would send its fleet to join his. That the Emperor had made up his mind to make his brother the Infante (Archduke Ferdinand) King of Tuscany, and himself to remain in Italy for three years after being crowned as King of the Romans. (fn. n7)
The above and other news he (Caracciolo) hears from the above-mentioned individual who saw Rosso's letter to the Signory. Cannot vouch for the truth of the information, except that it comes from a very reliable source. However this may be, there can be no doubt that what Andrea Rosso has written from France cannot be either pleasant or agreeable to the Emperor; for the day after his despatch was received here [in Venice], this Signory sent a messenger to Rome; and he (Caracciolo) has since heard that they will not return an answer to the French King before they have ascertained the Pope's views and sentiments.
Has heard also that Andrea Rosso has written to say that the French King told him he intended to dissemble as much as possible with the Imperial ambassadors residing at his Court, and recommended the Signory to pursue a similar course. (fn. n8)
His Imperial Majesty knows best what has passed between him and the French King. He will know whether he is likely to fulfil or not the conditions of the treaty, and therefore can be a better judge in these matters. His (Caracciolo's) conviction is that if the King tries these people he will find them disposed, as well as the Pope, to favour his views. It might be that the King's avowed intention to get possession of the kingdom [of Naples] has aroused their jealousy; (fn. n9) for in that case—and the conquest of Naples being achieved—they (the Italian powers) would be placed at the mercy of France. Perhaps the King, in order to satisfy the Italians, would consent to give them some small share in the spoil; but in either case it will not be difficult for the French King to secure the affections of these people. Of one thing, however, His Imperial Majesty must be sure, that whatever provision is intended for Italy must be at once quick and ample, or else with few friends and scanty means there can be but little chance. (fn. n10)
Must not forget to mention that the ambassador of the Duke of Milan residing at Venice (Taverna) told him yesterday that if the Emperor consented to leave his master in possession of his Estate, the Signory would make no difficulty whatever about the other clauses in the treaty. This last conjecture he (Sanchez) has not heard from anyone but the above-named ambassador; he therefore does not know what to say about it.
Both Prothonotary Caracciolo and he (Sanchez) have repeatedly recommended to His Imperial Majesty for the office of President of the Sumaria of Naples, now vacant, a worthy individual, through whose means they get most valuable information. They have received no answer to their applications; but as people of his rank and qualities cannot be dismissed with mere words, they earnestly request a reply to their joint application, especially as the said office can be given away without injury to the Emperor, and it is but just that it should be bestowed on persons who, like him, have rendered most important services.
Yesterday the ambassador had written thus far when somebody came and informed him that the Signory had received letters from their Secretary, Andrea Rosso, of the 2d, 3d, and 4th inst. Whence the letters were dated or what their purport was he (Sanchez) could not tell, except that having the day before yesterday despatched a courier to Rome with the news of the 28th, the Signory sent, yesterday, another messenger with the news contained in the last. The only thing he has been able to ascertain is that Rosso dined with Secretary Robertet, who told him: "The Signory must not imagine that now the King of France is delivered from captivity, he is to treat as if he were still a prisoner in the Emperor's hands," whence he (Sanchez) gathers, if the report be true, that the King of France perseveres in his intention of not keeping his engagements.
(Common writing:) After nearly two months' illness, his colleague, Prothonotary Caracciolo, was the other day so much troubled with sciatica and lumbago (dolor de hijada) that he took the Sacraments and made his will. Since then he has been much better, and last night he slept very well. Fever has left him, although he is still very weak. Owing to which reason, he (Sanchez) would not trouble him with any of the above matters, and therefore signs this letter alone.—Venice, 18th April 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. Alonso Sanchez, 18th April."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 8.
19 April. 389. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 162.
Wrote on the 14th inst., pointing out the danger in which the Imperial army was for want of money and provisions. Again begs His Imperial Majesty to provide for the safety and maintenance of what it has cost so much treasure and blood to establish. This courier is sent for no other purpose than to carry the enclosed ciphered letters of the Marquis (del Guasto) and Antonio de Leyva, whereby His Majesty may know the state of things here.
The fortifications of Parma and Placencia (Piacenza) continue with great activity, and it is reported that those of Modena have also begun. No Spaniard or foreigner belonging to this army is allowed to enter any one of those three cities; and at Piacenza they would not, some days ago, let the body of the Marquis of Pescara pass. It is believed that it is the fear of the Italian infantry which is on the frontiers of this Estate, towards the mountains, in that part of the country called the marquisates of Malaespina, which induces them to keep so strict a guard over their fortresses.
No news have been received about the galleys that went from Genoa in quest of the Duke of Bourbon. It is to be presumed that they have made their voyage in safety.—Milan, 19th April 1526.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. From the Abbot of Najera, 19th of April."
Spanish. Holograph. p. 1¼.
20 April. 390. Lope Hurtado to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 170
Since his last from Turin he has come to Chambery, to give the Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele) some account of his doings, as well as to state his reasons for not having commenced previously the inquiry into the damages committed by the Imperial troops, &c. The Duke appears very much pleased at what has been done and at the provision made for the future. As his services have been great, and his professions cannot but be sincere, he (Hurtado) begs His Imperial Majesty to grant the Duke all possible favour, and not to allow more troops to be quartered in Piedmont, as this would be to destroy his Estate entirely.
Unless His Imperial Majesty gives an immediate answer to the Duke's letter and his (Hurtado's) that go by this courier, respecting the reprisals (represarias) and the quartering of the Imperial troops, as arranged between the parties, he (Hurtado) is very much afraid that the Duke will still suffer injury. Returns to Torino, to put an end to and close the inquiry. Will write from thence his opinion on the whole matter.—Chambari, 20 April 1526.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Lope Hurtado, 20 Apr."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
20 April. 391. Minute of Answer of Chancellor Gattinara to the above.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 171.
His Imperial Majesty has duly received the ambassador's letter, as well as the memorandum of those who ask for reprisals. (fn. n11) The Emperor sends his orders to the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, as may be seen by the enclosed. Should any of the plaintiffs not comply with the rules established in similar cases, and attempt to take their revenge on the lands and subjects of the Duke of Savoy, in that case he (Hurtado) is to seize their persons and keep them in close confinement until it shall be the Emperor's pleasure to have them punished as they deserve. Meanwhile he is to finish the inquiry in the manner that has been prescribed, and return with it [to Spain], in order that His Imperial Majesty may decide on the whole. (fn. n12)
20 April. 392. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 164–7.
His last letter was of the 26th March. On the 12th inst. the six galleys that are to escort and bring back the Duke of Bourbon sailed for their destination. Two of them belong to the Sicilian fleet; one is Il Gobo's, whose son is on board; and the rest belong to this Community of Genoa. The command of the whole has been intrusted to Don Francisco de Requesens, who is to be Captain-General until the Duke goes on board.
Considering what Andrea Doria and other captains of the King of France have done, and are still doing, with the Spanish vessels they meet at sea, and that, notwithstanding the proclamation of peace between Spain and France, the said Andrea Doria perseveres in his piratical practices, both the Doge and he (Soria) had almost made their mind not to allow the said galleys to depart; for the said Doria, pretending that he is not included in the last peace between France and the Emperor, goes on seizing at sea any Spanish ship or merchandise he can lay his hands upon. On the 3d inst. he boarded a ship of this port that was coming from Valencia, and transferred to his own galley all the Spaniards and their goods, though the master of the vessel having shown him a safe-conduct he had from the governor of Provence, he (Doria) let the Spaniards go with their property, and allowed the vessel to proceed on her course. On the same day (the 3d inst.) one of his galleys came in sight of this port, and indeed so close to it, that some of the Genoese began to get ready to go out against her, she being at the time about two leagues from this city. He (Soria) would not allow it, for fear of giving offence to the King of France, and causing it to be said that the Emperor's subjects were breaking the peace. The aforesaid galley put some of her men on shore, and seized no fewer than 35 inhabitants of this coast, who were immediately put to her oars. So that up to this day the said Andrea Doria has done all the harm he could to the Emperor's subjects and vassals. It is further stated that he (Doria) has lately entered into a contract with His Holiness to serve him with his own six galleys and two more Papal ones, and that he is to receive annually 35,000 ducats in consideration of that service. The report is confirmed by letters [from Rome], but hitherto Doria has been, and is still, at Antibo with his own galleys.
Such being the state of things, and Doria's hostile intentions being well known, the Doge and he (Soria) were long hesitating about sending off these six Genoese galleys to escort the Duke of Bourbon on his voyage back [from Spain]. Both wrote on the subject to the Emperor, to the Viceroy of Naples, and to the Duke of Bourbon himself, but have had no answer to their letters. However, as both the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva have since written, insisting upon the departure of the galleys, he (Soria) gave the order, and they have accordingly left for their destination, although they are not to go beyond Monego (Monaco) until receiving his instructions. Hopes that an answer from Spain will come in the meantime.
The reason which the Doge and he (Soria) had for thus delaying the departure of the galleys was that as Doria and the other French captains do not seem inclined to abide by the peace, and they have 13 galleys between them, they might, if they chose, sink or capture the six of this Signory; (cipher) besides which, they could at any time visit this coast and port, which are wholly undefended, and create disturbances in the city. The reason why, on the contrary, the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva have so pressingly insisted on their departure, is because of the mutinous spirit of the Imperial army, that is without pay, and of the discontent of the Milanese on whom they are quartered. Both the soldiers and the country people hope and believe that Mons. de Bourbon is to bring a large sum of money wherewith all wants will be relieved; and in order to maintain them in that belief the Imperial generals have ordered the galleys to go as far as Monego. The truth is that the Duke's arrival is anxiously expected by all, as he will, no doubt, bring money for the army and proper provision for the soldiers' quarters, so that the inhabitants may be relieved of so intolerable a burden.
(Common writing:) Until now it was not the custom for the Genoese galleys to hoist a flag when in company with the Imperial fleet. The Doge has lately expressed a wish that his galleys should have one. He (Soria) told him that it was not right, because wherever the Emperor's flag is floating there ought to be no other, especially in Genoa, being, as it is, a fief of the Empire. The Doge's reply was that the Community having her own galleys, and paying the crews, wished them to have a particular flag, though in subordination to the Emperor's pennant.
Soria was likewise of opinion that Captain Morales, who commands the Spanish infantry on board the said six galleys, should go over [to Spain] in one of them, for there being no other captain of note in the Genoese fleet, it seemed natural that Morales should go wherever his own men went. This, however, the Doge would not grant; and the ambassador takes this opportunity to remark that whenever the Doge and the Community express a wish which is not in direct opposition to the Emperor's instructions and orders, everything is done to please them.
This Community is quite ready and willing to furnish the four caracks for His Imperial Majesty; but as the Doge is in great want of money, he would like to know the exact time at which they will be wanted, in order to save unnecessary expense.
Count della Mirandola, the father-in-law of this Doge, has been staying here a few days. On his departure he left a letter addressed to the Emperor, which is enclosed. (fn. n13) The Count is considered a faithful servant of the Empire, and has his town, la Mirandola, very strongly fortified and so situated that in case of war it may be of great use to His Imperial Majesty. Begs to recommend him to the Emperor's favour.
The Lord of Monego writes, in date of the 13th inst., that Andrea Doria had, two days previously, captured a brigantine [of this port], which was taking letters for the Duke of Bourbon, and had been freighted at Final by a servant of the said Duke, so that there can be no doubt that he (Doria) perseveres in his system of doing all the harm he can to the Emperor's subjects.
(Cipher:) His (Doria's) last contract with the Pope is, some believe, for the sole purpose of creating disturbances in this city, so as to make his own party [the Fregosi] predominant in the Community. To accomplish this end he counts upon the help of the Pope, who, in the event of the Emperor coming to Italy, will try all he can to snatch from the hands of the Emperor this port with the many conveniences it affords for his passage. As the danger of a revolution is so great, and the faction of the Fregosi so strong and powerful, he (Soria) recommends that the galleys sent to Naples should return to this port for its protection, as they can be now of no use whatever in that kingdom.
(Common writing:) Has advised in some of his former letters that the Pope was fortifying Parma in haste. The works are now completed, and those of Piacenza have begun. For this purpose he has summoned the best engineers from all parts of Italy, as well from Venice as from Florence and other places. Letters from the latter city state that during the Holy Week Count Pedro Navarro had been there, and sent for Vitelo (Chiapino Vitelli), who was at Pisa, and that between the two they had designed the fortifications of the city. The common report among merchants here is that the said Count [Pedro Navarro] has actually taken service with the Pope.
The generals of the Imperial army write from Milan on the 18th instant, announcing the discovery of a conspiracy of Count Guido Rangone, (cipher) who had been trying to seduce the Italian infantry serving in the Imperial army. In confirmation of the above report he (Soria) can add that, according to information received at Genoa, he (Count Rangone) had sent a message to the Duke of Milan offering to have the siege of that castle raised, provided he was paid his own expenses, besides the stipend of 100 men-at-arms, 200 light horse and 2,000 foot, as the Duke had promised, and was actually giving to Joannin de Medicis. Has also ascertained that the Count was collecting all the Italians lately dismissed from the Imperial army, and sending them on to the Venetian territory. Both the Pope and the Venetians would like to help the Count with money to raise a band, and as a condotiero (fn. n14) do all possible mischief in Italy. They are now in treaty with him; and it may be confidently asserted that should his services be secured, one of the Count's first enterprises would be against this city, he being a good friend of the Pope and a partisan of the Fregosi.—Genoa, 20 April 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 20 Apr."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 6.


  • n1. "A lo que se le escribió de aqui á los xxvi. de Março," says the original, which is evidently a mistake of the writer. The despatch alluded to was drawn by Sessa alone, and dated the 16th. See page 604, under No. 364.
  • n2. "E desto está llena esta Corte, y echan mill juyzios sobrello y sobre que no iba con el Rey la señora Reina de Francia, que no saben que haya sido la cabsa."
  • n3. There must be some error in this statement, for Marco Foscari continued in the embassy till the end of 1526.
  • n4. Pedro Jordan de Urries, Canon of Huesca in Aragon, who about this time disputed the abbey of Montaragon. He obtained it in 1528, after the death of D. Alonso de Só, Castro y Pinós, son of the Conde de Ebol, who held it till his death in 1532.
  • n5. The letter bears the date of the 11th. See No. 384, p. 631.
  • n6. Paper torn: "Debia considerar que si V. Mag. se hacia señor de Italia como se figuraba ..... que temia no ternia su Mag. Christma seguro su reyno."
  • n7. "Que V. Mag. designaba hacer Rey de Toscana al Señor Infante, su hermano, y estar V. Mag. tres años en la silla de Roma," ...... after which words there is a hole in the paper.
  • n8. "Que hacia y haria grangeria á los embaxadores de V. Mag. que estan cabe él, que él tambian disimulase con ellos."
  • n9. "No sé si quererse enseñorear del reino, si verdad es, les dará gelosia, pareciendoles estarian tambien á discrecion del Rey de Francia."
  • n10. "Y sepa V. Mag. que en Italia es menester hacer las provisiones muy sforçadas y recias segun los pocos amigos y la poca,"........ after which the paper is torn.
  • n11. "La memoria de los que piden represarias."
  • n12. This answer, in the Chancellor's own writing, is on the back of Hurtado's original letter to the Emperor.
  • n13. Not in the volume.
  • n14. "Los Venecianos y el Papa querrian ayudarle con alguna suma de dineros porque ficiesse gente, y como capitan de ventura moviese por Italia algunos garbullos contra el servicio de V. Mag."