Spain: April 1526, 21-30

Pages 654-677

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1, 1525-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1873.

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April 1526, 21-30

22 April. 393. Count de la Mirandola (fn. n1) to the Ambassador Lope de Soria.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 172.
Most Magnificent Sir.—I have just received intelligence from the same place (questo medesmo loco) that the Pope is collecting 12,000 Switzers and as many Venetians. I have it from such a source that there is every reason to think the report true. They are about to fortify Modena with a wall 100 perches (pertiche) in circumference, and Count Guido Rangon obtained, last Wednesday, a brief for that purpose. I am not sure of being able to send the above intelligence to Milan or to Don Lope Ortado (Hurtado), as your Worship desired me to do, being, as I am, on the eve of my departure for Genoa. I have therefore thought it best to communicate it to you.—Rodo, 22d of April 1526.
Addressed: "To the Imperial Ambassador in Genoa."
Indorsed: "Copy of what the Count de la Mirandola writes to the Ambassador Lope de Soria."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
22 April. 394. Lope Hurtado de Mendoça to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 139–40.
Milan being quiet, and Mons. de Bourbon not expected so soon [in Italy] owing to the Imperial galleys not venturing to go out for him, he (Lope Hurtado) not to lose time, came to Turin to make the inquiry on the damages caused by the Imperial troops in Piedmont. Was very well received by the Duke and Duchess [of Savoy].
On the ..... of March (fn. n2) last the Infanta [Duchess] was confined of a daughter, who died two days after.
The Duke is at Chameri (Chambery), trying to arrange matters with the people of Ginebra (Geneva) and Losana (Lausanne), which towns are now for the Switzers. He has hopes of success at a Diet which was being held, and must have begun (fn. n3) on the 5th instant.
When he (Lope Hurtado) left Milan, on the 24th of March, the Marquis [del Guasto] and Antonio de Leyva were trying to raise money for the Germans. The quartering of the troops caused much uneasiness, as the country people could not bear it any longer.—Torino, 12th of April 1526.
Post data.—From the inquiry now being made in Piedmont of the devastations said to have been committed by the Imperial army ever since the first war, it appears, in reality, that many people were murdered and much property destroyed [by our men], even to the amount of many thousand ducats. The statement has been drawn up by the Communes themselves, and attested by proper witnesses. But were His Imperial Majesty to order the Abbot of Najera or any other of the Imperial officials in Italy to institute a similar inquiry on the atrocities and murders (muchas bellaquerias y muertes) perpetrated here at Turin and at other places in Piedmont upon our soldiers, there might be a considerable account to set against theirs, in discharge and acquittal of the injuries which our men have caused them.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Lope Hurtado, 22d of April."
Spanish Original. pp. 3.
23 April. 395. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 178.
Since his last of the 17th instant nothing new has occurred.
(Cipher:) On the 19th letters came from Capino, whom the Pope sent to the King of France by way of Switzerland and Venice. The intelligence communicated to him (Sessa) by the Pope is that the French King was very much pleased with Capino's visit. He had a long conversation with him on general matters, and more particularly on the subject of his late illness at Madrid, the King complaining that he had not been well treated there. (fn. n4) It was then Holy Week, and the King put an end to the conference, promising to renew it after Easter. His (Capino's) impression, from what he had heard, was that the ratification of the treaty would not take place; that the French showed a determination not to give up Burgundy; and that frequent couriers went to and fro between the King of France and the Viceroy of Naples.
Such is, in substance, Capino's account of the conference, as the Pope related it to him (Sessa). Some of the courtiers add that the King of France had not expressed his opinion so openly as he would otherwise have done, because he was unwilling to declare war at present, but that his intention, nevertheless, was to come to a rupture as soon as an opportunity occurred. He (the Duke) has reasons to suspect that the negotiations are now more active than ever they were. What confirms him in his suspicions is that the Pope shows much discontent at the past, and says that His Imperial Majesty has not, and never will, show a desire to become his friend, whilst there is nothing he (the Pope) wishes for so much as to be closely united to the Imperial cause. Couriers from Venice come daily to this city, and Alberto di Carpi is as busy as ever. Some people think that it is the Pope who solicits the French to make a stir, whilst others assert that the contrary is the case, and the Pope swears that he is being solicited continually. However this may be, one thing is certain, that the negotiations are warmer than ever. He (the Duke) will not fail to advise of what occurs, without, however, expressing any opinion or making any engagements, since he does not know what line of policy to follow. Those who profess to be good servants of the Emperor are divided in opinion; some of them—led away by their own passions and inclinations—recommend a rupture with His Holiness, and the seizure of everything he possesses; others think that His Imperial Majesty should, by all means, secure his friendship and alliance.
The ambassadors of the Duke of Milan have frequent audiences with the Pope. He (Sessa) has heard from a very good source that he said the other day to one of them: "If the King of France talks about the Duke being deprived of his Estate, I will immediately turn my back on the negotiation, for my chief aim is, and has always been, to maintain the Duke."
(Common writing:) Very bad news from Hungary. The Turk is about to invade that country on three different sides, war having actually commenced at one part of the frontiers. The Turks had thrown two bridges over the Danube. Everyone considers that kingdom utterly ruined unless some help be immediately provided. King Louis has only 200 horse at his disposal, and is sadly in want of infantry and money. The Pope is holding congregations and devising all manner of means to help the King with money, and has publicly declared he will do his utmost to discharge his conscience both with God and with the world at large.—Rome, 23 April 1526.
Since writing the above, he (Sessa) has heard that the Duke Francesco Sforza, being in want of provisions [for his troops], and unable to maintain them for more than two weeks longer, has applied for help to Count Guido Rangone, and offered him the most advantageous conditions if he will only come to his assistance with all the forces at his disposal, and also induce the Pope to send the Marquis of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga) to Piacenza, for, once there, the Milanese (he says) will take courage and rise against the Imperialists, and he (Sforza) will be enabled to revictual his castle. Though these and other similar reports seem devoid of all foundation, and are undoubtedly the invention of mischievous people, the Duke and Commander Herrera mentioned them to His Holiness, who laughed heartily, protesting he had never heard of such projects, nor could he imagine that such a desperate and foolish plan could ever have been in contemplation. There can be no doubt, however, that no Italian Prince will now dare to move unless they first have proper pledges from France. Due notice of the said reports shall be sent to the Marquis del Guasto and to Antonio de Leyva, that they may take proper measures.
(Cipher:) Hears from a reliable source that a courier has arrived from England, though the Pope and all the rest deny the fact, and keep the matter secret. They cannot, however, conceal the fact, for Casale, the ambassador, who is rather quick-spoken (caliente de boca), and wishes to pass for a man of importance, occupied in weighty matters, went, the other day, so far as to say that the King, his master, and the King of France are closely united and have both decided that Burgundy shall not be given up to the Emperor; they are to make war conjointly and in such a manner as to obtain the release of the French hostages, and count upon Italy siding with them. He (Sessa) owns that the Pope's dissimulation in this particular is to him a matter of greater concern than the out-spokenness of the English ambassador, for there is undoubtedly some very serious business on hand. He is the more confirmed in his suspicions since, in the last three or four audiences, the Pope has expressly declared to him that he was gradually losing all hope of ever becoming, as he wishes to be, the friend of His Imperial Majesty, for (says he) "So little notice is taken of me [in Spain], and the answer to my applications is so long delayed, that all my best hopes are completely vanishing," from which declaration he (Sessa) concludes that the negotiations of the confederated Princes are closer and brisker than ever; otherwise His Holiness would not speak out as he does, and declare his sentiments so openly.
(Common writing:) The Pope has often requested him to write to Court about Micer Angelo de Bebiena (Bibiena) and his abbey of Santa Maria de Ossera (in Galicia), which abbey he has held for many years, owing to the resignation made in his favour by his uncle, the Cardinal of Sancta Maria in Porticu [Antonio di Bibiena]. He (the Pope) says that the monks of the congregation of St. Bernard do not send him [Bibiena] the rents of the said abbeys, on the plea that he is a Frenchman [at heart]. He [Sessa] can certify that such is not the case; on the contrary, he considers the said Micer Angelo to be a good servant of His Imperial Majesty; and although it is true that he holds property in France, which he inherited from his uncle, it cannot be said of him that he has secret understandings in France, nor is he the sort of man to mix in politics, being chiefly occupied with his studies and living an honest and quiet life.—Rome, 23 Apr. 1526.
Post data.—Has received letters from the Marquis del Guasto and from Antonio de Leyva in confirmation of the report about the Duke of Milan having applied to Count Guido Rangon for assistance, almost on the same terms as those specified above. They add that Fabricio Marramao, who commands the Italian infantry, had been solicited to go over to the Papal service with all his force. Every possible diligence shall be employed to arrive at the truth of these negotiations; it remains for His Imperial Majesty to decide how his servants are to act.
A report is likewise current here that His Holiness is about to send again to the King of France Count Hugo di Popoli (Pepoli?), (fn. n5) a gentleman of Cologne, and Captain of Men-at-arms to the said King [of France]. In short, negotiations are very far advanced, and a rupture is imminent. But few doubt of this.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies, our Lord and Master."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. Duke of Sessa, 23d Apr."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 7.
23 April. 396. Knight Commander Herrera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 174–6.
As the Duke (of Sessa) has written, he (Herrera) need not trespass on the Emperor's attention further than to say that he is waiting anxiously for instructions. Wrote on the 17th, announcing his intention to start shortly for Genoa; but afterwards changed his mind, thinking he had better wait for the Viceroy's arrival in that port, and see what course he was likely to pursue. As no news has come of the Viceroy's arrival, he (Hurtado) has not moved from Rome.
(Cipher:) Has been informed that the Duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este) is about to come to terms with the Pope, if he can, (fn. n6) without the Emperor's knowledge, and that negotiations are very far advanced between the parties.
(Common writing:) Has also been told by persons much devoted to the Imperial service that there was a plan for relieving the castle of Milan. This intelligence he (Herrera) communicated to the Duke [of Sessa], when both agreed to interrogate His Holiness about it. They did so, and the Pope gave them the answer which the Duke sent by the last post.
As he (Herrera) was writing the above, letters came from Milan confirming the above intelligence about the castle and the relief in contemplation; but as the Marquis del Guasto says he has informed His Imperial Majesty of these particulars, there is no need for him (Herrera) to allude to them.
(Cipher:) He can only say, with due respect, that the Emperor's service in Italy is very much neglected, especially in Lombardy, where the army is so badly paid and is so discontented that a mutiny is apprehended. (fn. n7)
(Common writing:) What the French King's intentions may be, and whether he will keep his word or not, is more than he (Herrera) can say, as stated in his last despatch. Most people here believe that he will not fulfil the conditions of the treaty.
The governor of Bresa (la Bresse) (fn. n8) is already on his ground (en su tierra), waiting for the delivery of Burgundy to the Emperor. God grant that the King of France fulfil his engagements, for although some here would be very sorry for it, many more would like to see him break his solemn promise.—Rome, 23 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "Herrera."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Rome. Commander Herrera, 23 Apr. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. p. 1½.
24 April. 397. The Abbot of Najera to Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 202.
In consequence of a rich town officer (oficial) of this city (fn. n9) refusing to open the door of his house to certain bailiffs who came for the purpose of levying a fine (espesa) and collecting the tax lately imposed for the maintenance of this Imperial army, there has been a slight disturbance [in Milan]. Not one of the gentlemen (gentiles hombres) took part in it, only the mob (populacho); so that shortly after things were right again. Hopes the Milanese will not try it a second time, for, if they do, they must be severely punished. There were only three or four wounded on both sides (the people and the troops). This is the plain truth. Should badly-intentioned persons send a different account, they are not to be believed.
A promise has been made to the citizens not to ask them for any more money for the maintenance of this Imperial army; but if we are to keep our promise, it is necessary that His Imperial Majesty immediately provide the means. An express is being despatched this very day [to Spain] to ask for remittances; in the meantime your Worship must try and procure us money.—Milan, 24 April 1526.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "Al Embaxador Don Lope de Soria."
Indorsed: "A copy of the Abbot's letter to me [Lope de Soria], 24 Apr. 1526."
Spanish. Contemporary copy in Soria's handwriting. p. 1½.
26 April. 398. Knight Commander Herrera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
ff. 231–6.
Since despatching the letter of the 23d April, written conjointly with the Duke of Sessa, and sent by way of Genoa, a duplicate of which is enclosed, he (Herrera) has heard from a reliable source (cipher) that the Pope is about to send, as his Nuncio and ambassador to France, a Florentine named Uberto Acuarole. (fn. n10) Has heard likewise that Count Pedro Navarro has been ordered by the Pope to go to Florence and see whether that city could not be put into a state of defence. The Count has inspected the fortifications and traced out new ones. The works have already been begun; and although it will take some years to complete them, great activity is being displayed. The Florentines are not much pleased at this, because they fear the Pope wishes to take possession of their city and territory.
(Common writing:) The Patriarch [of the Indies] is, as it would appear, throwing impediments in the way of a pension of 2,000 ducats which His Imperial Majesty granted, some time ago, to the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg) on the bishopric of Burgos. In the same manner, Micer Agostino Folleta (Foglieta), who has another annual pension of 500 ducats on the archbishopric of Granada, and 500 more on Mazzara (in Sicily), has not yet received a quatrino. Both are good servants of the Empire, and particularly attached to Spain. Takes leave to recommend their suits to the Emperor. The father of the latter (Foglieta) lives at Naples and holds the office of Regent of the Sumaria in that kingdom. He can on the shortest notice expedite his claim.—Rome, 26 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "Herrera."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Rome. Herrera, 26 Apr."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on the margins and between the lines. pp. 2.
26 April. 399. The Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva and Abbot of Najera to Lope de Soria.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 201.
On St. George's day a question (quistion) arose between the Germans in the advanced posts (guardia) of this castle and the people (pueblo) of the city, originating in one of those accidents so frequent wherever soldiers are quartered side by side with the citizens. We ran to the spot, and the quarrel was soon appeased.
Last night, at the 23d hour, the garrison of the castle sallied out to skirmish with our men. The alarm was sounded, when some young men of the city, who were no doubt looking out for something of the sort, took up arms and attacked us just at the moment that the enemy was falling upon our outposts. We met both attacks, and gave the assailants such a reception that they were glad to leave us alone, for, knowing that it was in our power to destroy them completely, the citizens soon after sent a deputation asking for mercy; and perceiving that it was only the populace [of Milan] who took part in the affray, and that there was no gentleman among them, we consented to pardon the rioters, and punished only a few of the ringleaders.—Milan, 26 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "El Marques del Guasto," "Antonio de Leyva," "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa."
Indorsed: "Copy of the letter which the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva and the Abbot wrote to me [Soria] on the 26th."
Spanish. Copy in Soria's handwriting. pp. 2.
26 April. 400. The Emperor to Knight Commander Herrera.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
f. 304.
The King. Commander Miguel de Herrera, our Chamberlain, Councillor, &c.—We have received your letters, in date of the 29th December (1525) and 26th March, to which We need not reply, having already done so in our letter to the Duke [of Sessa].
The manner in which the said Duke and you are conducting the present negotiations deserves all our approval; but since His Holiness refuses to accept the treaty, with the amendments and additions which We have considered necessary, there is no need for you to press him any further until the arrival of Don Hugo de Moncada, who is to start in all possible haste, and take our final resolution on such difficulties and objections as His Holiness may be inclined to raise.
As the inquiry that you were to institute about the late occurrences at Sienna must already be terminated, and your report drawn up, you will leave Italy and return home on the receipt of the present letter.
Respecting all other matters We refer you to our letter to the Duke of Sessa.—Seville, 26 April 1526.
Spanish. Original draft, docketed by Gattinara. p. 1.
27 April. 401. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 83,
ff. 301–3.
The King. Illustrious Duke, our Cousin, &c.—Your letters of the 19th December and 16th March last have been duly received. Our answer is as follows:
Your negotiations with the Pope have been conducted in a manner that gives us much satisfaction; but since His Holiness refuses to accept the treaty, as sent from hence, We think that you ought not to press him further on that subject until the arrival of Don Ugo de Moncada, whom We shall shortly despatch with a suitable answer to all and every one of His Holiness' objections; and as the said Don Ugo will leave this very soon, fully instructed as to what he is to do in this affair, there is no reason for His Holiness to delay the settlement of the said treaty until our own arrival in Italy, nor until that of our Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy), which cannot take place so soon, owing to his having to stop in France longer than We at first calculated. However, should His Holiness feel inclined to give us an answer in the meanwhile, We have ordered Commander Herrera to return posthaste with it.
What We said in our letter respecting Cardinal [Pompeo] Colonna was not intended to cause His Holiness any uneasiness or displeasure, but merely to bring about the Cardinal's return to Rome, without our appearing to know the reason of his voluntary absence. Such was our purpose in view of what you and Commander Herrera wrote to us about it; but since it appears that the said Cardinal refuses to go back, We think you ought not again to mention the subject to His Holiness.
We have also seen the Pope's answer respecting the Cardinals' hats. You will drop the subject, and let him do as he pleases.
We are very glad to hear that Jacopo de Salviatis shows such affection to our service. Thank him in our name, encourage him for the future, and tell him that whenever the opportunity occurs for granting him a favour, We shall be glad to reward his services.
The agreement made with our secretary, Alonso de Soria, respecting his archdeanship of Belchite, has been very much to our satisfaction. We now write to Cardinals Rangone and Cesarini, thanking them for their good offices and the interest they have taken in the affair.
We have also seen what you and the Commander said to Cardinal Campeggio in respect of presenting the son of Doctor Carvajal, (fn. n11) of our Council, for the abbey of San Giovanne del Poyo (Poggio). The Cardinal, however, has not written to us in the terms he told you (como os dijo). We therefore order you again to speak to him, and say that We will never consent to an ecclesiastical benefice in our own gift being bestowed upon a foreigner, since the renunciation which Juan Battista de Divicis made in his (Campeggio's) favour had evidently no other object than that of setting up against the said Carvajal a more powerful and influential adversary.
Even in the case of the proposed treaty not being to His Holiness' taste, there was no reason whatever for delaying, as he has done, the concession of the Crusade revenues at such a time as this, for he knows quite well that our intention in applying for it is solely to procure funds wherewith to wage war on the Turk; but since His Holiness delays to grant our application, he must not complain if We do not assist the King of Hungary, as We should otherwise have done; and certainly any calamity likely to fall upon Christianity owing to this invasion of the Turk will be placed to his account rather than to ours.
Nor is His Holiness justified in refusing the incorporation of the priorate of Exea, since it is in our patronage and We consent to it, as likewise the Cardinal who bears the title of such prior. Should the Pope still persist in his refusal, the said incorporation will be made at a future period; and in the meantime We will not allow the said priorate to pass into other hands.
The same may be said respecting the priorate of San Marçal, which has been incorporated without our consent and against our rights and those of the Marquis de Falces, as patrons. You will ask His Holiness to annul and cancel the said incorporation.
We are glad to hear about the Pope's Nuncio, residing at our Court. We consider him an affectionate servant of ours, and shall treat him as such.
For the difference now existing between Cardinal Cesarini (Alessandro) and Ascanio Colonna We are sorry, because both are good Imperialists. You will try to conciliate them there, because were the affair to be brought before our Court We could not help deciding according to justice, especially as the Cardinal has sent us many proofs of his right.
We have ordered the 400 ducats which you borrowed for the expedition of couriers to be immediately repaid to you. It was no fault of our Grand Chancellor if your bills were not honoured at once, as he has nothing to do with our finances.—Seville, 27th of April 1526.
Addressed: "To the Duke of Sessa, our Vice-Gerent in Rome."
Spanish. Original draft, docketed in Gattinara's own hand. pp. 4½.
27 April. 402. The Emperor to the Abbot of Najera, Imperial Commissary in Lombardy.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 198.
The King, &c.—Your letters of the 14th, 26th and 28th Feb., 10th, 14th and 16th March have been duly received. We thank you for your good services and for the zeal and activity you have displayed.
Respecting the wants of the army We intend to provide for them soon and in a most efficient manner. Don Ugo de Moncada is about to be sent to Rome on a very important mission. He will pass through Milan, and take with him money and instructions until the arrival of the Duke of Bourbon, whose departure, however, has been delayed for want of galleys to convey him. In the meantime no change is to be made in the army or in matters concerning that Estate.
The Milanese ambassadors came, and We listened to their complaints. They were told that until the Duke is put on his trial no change will be made in the affairs of that Estate. Their business will be shortly attended to in a manner that will leave them no cause for complaint, for you know how much We feel the miseries and troubles to which that Estate has unavoidably been subjected.—Seville, 27 Apr. 1526.
Addressed: "To the Abbot of Najera, our Commissary General of the Imperial Army in Lombardy."
Spanish. Original draft. p. 1.
7 April. 403. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 189.
Wrote on the 18th (fn. n12) by duplicate what had occurred up to that date. His despatch went by way of Milan, under cover to the Abbot, the duplicate by Genoa to Lope de Soria.
(Cipher:) This Signory, on the receipt of letters from their secretary [Andrea Rosso], who left this for France on the 28th of March, despatched a courier in all haste (volando) to Rome. On the ensuing day they sent another, having received fresh letters from the said secretary, in date of the 4th inst. In answer to these two messages, sent respectively on the 16th and 17th inst., no fewer than four despatches have come from Rome between the 19th and 23d inst., the bearer of them having ridden the distance in less than 36 hours. Has been told that the negotiations which the Pope and this Signory are now carrying on with France are the cause of this frequent correspondence. They have lately decided to send on the agreement with their signatures appended, and try whether the French King will sign it also. Has been informed that the contents of the agreement are nearly the same as they were when King Francis was a prisoner [in Spain], viz., that the Pope is to furnish 400 men-at-arms and 6,000 foot; the Venetians 1,000 men-at-arms and 10,000 foot; whilst the King of France will put in the field 400 men-at-arms and 10,000 Switzers, besides a proportionate number of light cavalry and artillery. The whole of which armament has no other object, as reported, than to drive the Imperial army out of Italy. With regard to Milan, they have agreed to maintain Francesco Sforza in the Duchy, or else to give it to his brother Massimiliano, this being a matter on which neither the Pope nor the Venetians seem to have any choice. Naples to be given to whomsoever the Pope chooses. Has likewise been told that His Holiness stipulated that in case of any clause being added to, or withdrawn from, the above agreement between him and the Signory, he (the Pope) will not be bound to its observance. (fn. n13) This last condition, however, has not been expressly mentioned in the proposed treaty, though it is an understood thing between them; and the Venetian secretary in France has been instructed to act accordingly.
Such appears to be the substance of the agreement which, according to the best information, has been forwarded to Andrea Rosso for the French King's signature. He (Sanchez) cannot say for certain whether this information be correct or not, but has no doubt that something of this kind is in contemplation. He is the more induced to believe this that the Bishop of Bayus (Bayeux) had, on the eve of St. Mark, a long audience, of one hour and twenty minutes; that the day before he (the Bishop) was received at the College Hall for a whole hour; and that on St. Mark's day the Senators held what they call the Council of Pregadi (Su Consejo de Pregay)—a rather unusual thing on such a festival—when the treaty of league was read and signed. Besides which, the delay on the part of the French King in fulfilling the conditions of the last treaty is to him an abundant proof that the above practices of the confederates and many more he, perhaps, does not know of, are substantially true.
Has written by this post to the generals in Lombardy and to the Imperial ambassador at the court of France (Praet), informing them of what has occurred, as well as of the report—which obtains much credit among the lower classes here—that the Signory is soon to take up arms against the Emperor.
Hears from a trustworthy source that Capino wrote ...... (fn. n14) His Holiness proposing to prevent the Emperor's journey [to Italy], and saying that if he (the Pope) did not devise the means of doing so, he, the King, would.
(Common writing:) The Signory, it is asserted, have had letters of the 7th March announcing that the Turk has decided to invade Hungary with a force much superior to any that has ever yet left Turkey for an expedition [against Christianity].
Prothonotary Caracciolo is still confined to his bed with fever, though somewhat better than he was some time ago, that being the reason why he does not sign the present despatch.
(Cipher:) That the Emperor may be better informed respecting the matters contained in this present despatch—which is sent by duplicate through two different channels—the ambassador may add that he knows as a fact that one of the last couriers brought from Rome the Pope's final resolution concerning, and signature to, the contemplated treaty.—Venice, 27 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Venice. From Alonso Sanchez, 27th Apr. Answered."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (at fol. 196). pp. 6.
27 April. 404. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 184.
Wrote on the 20th inst. by Solorzano, the courier, and the next day (21st) received the Imperial letter of the 13th, the bearer of which he (Soria) despatched immediately [to Milan] with the enclosures. Gave the Doge the Emperor's letter, and told him how it had been decided that his own six galleys, added to the three Spanish ones now in these ports, should immediately sail [for Spain] to bring back and escort the Duke of Bourbon [to Italy]. Everything shall be done agreeably with the Imperial commands. The Doge has already sent orders to the captain of his galleys now at Monaco, and he (Soria) has written to Don Francesco and Don Berenguer [de Requesens] and to Gobo (Il Gobbo) to get under sail.
The Doge and Community are very thankful at their having been included and expressly named in the last treaty with France. They hope, with the Emperor's favour and assistance to be soon able to recover what Andrea Doria and other sea captains took from them during the truce.
(Cipher:) It would be doing God service if the said Andrea Doria were to be severely punished for his misdeeds. The Emperor permitting, that would be no difficult matter; and he (Soria) has a plan, which, if required, he will communicate to the Doge and to Portundo, so that the said Doria may not escape this time without the punishment he so richly deserves.
(Common writing:) This Doge had a secretary at Milan, Francesco Tusignano by name, who resided in that city, as his agent, near the person of the Marquis del Guasto and other Imperial generals and ministers. Being suspected of close relationship with some of the Duke of Milan's partisans, he received orders to quit, and returned to Genoa; though, on the application of the Doge, who made himself answerable for his behaviour, and on his (Soria's) recommendation, he was allowed to return to Milan, where, it would appear, he soon began to treat again with the rebels. On the 16th inst. a man—coming, as he said, from Crema—was arrested in the attempt to penetrate furtively into the castle. Interrogated as to the object of his mission, he owned that the besieged, unable to procure intelligence from the outside, had devised a plan for communicating with the Milanese by means of certain arrows (passadores) shot over the walls containing letters of advice, &c., and that the Doge's secretary, Francesco Tusignano, was at the bottom of it. No sooner did the latter hear of the man's arrest than he presented himself to the Marquis [del Guasto], and declared a few matters of little importance in which he had been concerned, though, being afterwards cross-examined by Antonio de Leyva, he denied everything. That Captain having uttered some angry words about him, Tusignano quitted Milan and returned to Genoa. He (Sanchez) fancies that the Doge's secretary may possibly owe gratitude to the Duke for some past favours, and that for that reason he is in communication with Sforza's partisans; but whatever his guilt may be in this matter, he (Soria) is sure that the Doge has nothing to do with it.
Must not omit a rather disagreeable occurrence which took place since his last despatch, though, luckily, it has had no bad consequences. On the arrival of the three Spanish galleys at Monaco, with the infantry on board, the Genoese captain declared that he would forthwith return (to Genoa) with his six galleys. The Spanish captains protested against such a proceeding, and asked to see the Doge's written order to that effect, and, as it could not be produced, seized on the galleys of Genoa, declaring that they should be cut to pieces or sunk rather than be allowed to go back [to Genoa], and create such disturbance in the Imperial army as that which would be caused by their return. The Doge and Community were rather angry at this, which they emphatically called "the seizure of their ships by the Emperor's soldiers;" but on his (Soria) representing that he had previously shown the Doge his own orders to Don Francisco de Requesens; that as he (the Doge) had made no objection whatever at the time, nor explained the necessity for his galleys to return to Genoa, he could not reasonably expect that the three Spanish galleys should remain alone at Monaco, and be the cause of such anxiety in the Imperial camp, where, as he well knew, the speedy arrival of the Duke of Bourbon was confidently expected. The Doge's reply was that he did not wish his galleys to be manned by Spanish infantry; but upon Soria observing that in case of an attack at sea (afruenta) his galleys could make but a weak defence, being insufficiently manned, he consented that each of his six should take 20 Spaniards on board.
The bearer of this, Hernando Yciz, (fn. n15) goes in one of the Genoese galleys; also Thomas de Fornariis, a rich and influential citizen of this place, from both of whom His Imperial Majesty will learn many particulars respecting the state of affairs here, which would take too long to relate in writing.
Enclosed is the copy of a letter received from Count della Mirandola, giving an account of certain negotiations between the Pope and the Switzers. He (Soria) does not believe that matters are as far advanced between them as the Count says; but there can be no doubt that the fortifications of Modena are being proceeded with, and those of Parma and Piacenza increased, which is an evident sign that the Pope fears that war may be undertaken against his Estates.
Begs for the title-deeds of the estate and castle of Gavi, which the late Marquis of Pescara, and, after him, the Marquis of Guasto, granted him (Soria) in the Emperor's name, as a reward for his long services. As the Duke of Milan would not surrender the castle, he was obliged to besiege it with a force raised at his own expense, and took it after a siege of four months. It is a very important fortress, being situated in the confines of Lombardy and close to the Genoese territory. Has appointed a warder (alcayde) with a competent garrison, at a cost of 500 ducats per annum, the rent of the whole estate being scarcely 1,000.
News has been received here that Andrea Doria, with his galleys and two brigantines, has sailed from Villafranca de Niça; in what direction is not known. Yesterday a servant of the Grand Master of Rhodes (Villiers de l'Isle Adam) passed by here on his way to Rome, bearing, as he said, orders for the galleys of the Order [of St. John] to go to Provence.
This Community have already begun to fit out the four caracks which are to be sent [to Spain] in readiness for the Emperor's intended visit [to Italy].—Genoa, 27 April 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 27th Apr. Answered."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (.. 188). pp. 4½.
28 April. 405. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 73.
On the 19th inst. a courier left this town with letters for His Imperial Majesty, wherein the precarious state of this army and Estate were fully described. Previous to that date, on the 14th, he (the Abbot) had written to say how, in order to meet the pressing wants of the Imperial army, it had been decided to ask from the merchants (mercadantes) a loan of 15,000 crowns with a proportionate interest. But that very day, after the courier's departure, something happened which spread alarm through the city; and had it not been for the prudence and courage displayed on the occasion by the Imperial commanders, might have caused its destruction and ruin.
The case was this: Soon after the departure of the courier, on the 19th inst., the Vicar (Vicario de la Provision) and the deputies of this city called upon the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva, to protest against the intolerable burdens imposed upon the citizens, and request that part of the Imperial forces, at least, should be removed from this Estate. The generals, after duly consulting about the matter with the captains and officers of this army, considering that the country is completely exhausted, and that any further demands upon the inhabitants would only drive them to despair; considering also that the troops, for want of pay, are on the verge of mutiny, decided to comply with the request of the deputies. Accordingly orders were given for four banners of infantry to go to the marquisate of Montferrato, and 10 more to Piedmont; besides which, six companies of men-at-arms and 600 light horse (who, by the way, are dying of hunger) were to be sent to the territory about Asti and to the marquisate of Cevá. The men were ready to march to their different quarters when suddenly a counter-order was given, and six more companies of infantry, taken from those stationed in the neighbourhood, were made to advance upon the city, owing to a tumultuary rising of the inhabitants, which took place as follows:
Perceiving that out of the 15,000 cr. loan only 10,000 had been obtained, and that, in consequence of instructions received from Spain on the 26th inst., 25,000 were required to meet the immediate wants of this Imperial array, it was resolved to raise that sum at any risk. Therefore, after getting 13,000 more cr. from the merchants and other wealthy citizens, on the same terms and with the same interest as the preceding loan, certain warrants were issued and distributed among private individuals and officials of this city, calling upon them to advance—each according to his means and on the same conditions—the money required for the completion of that sum. Upon the refusal, however, of some of them to pay the allotted sum, the army provost (Capitan de Justicia) sent a few soldiers to each of the refractory citizens, to stay at their houses and levy a fine (espesa), as customary on such occasions. One of those who most resisted payment happened to be a rich town officer (oficial), who not only shut himself up, but would not give admittance to the Provost guard (soldados de justicia), who tried in vain to force the doors. The neighbours coming to the assistance of the town officer, a scuffle ensued, in which the Provost's men got the worst, and were obliged to seek refuge in the quarters of the Germans, who came down armed in numbers. God Almighty permitted that Antonio de Leyva, who happened to be close by, should arrive in time to prevent seven or eight Germans, who were in the market-place buying provisions for their comrades, from being murdered by the rioters. The Marquis del Guasto also came to the spot; and between the two they managed to stop the Germans, who wanted to sack the place.
Shortly after this the city deputies came to beg for mercy, alleging that the origin of the riot was simply the belief of the people that a new tax (tallon) was about to be imposed. To remove all cause of discontent, the Marquis and Leyva promised not to make any more exactions or bring fresh troops into Milan; but they declared, at the same time, that none of the infantry in the place should be sent away, and that the Spaniards who were quartered 10 miles off, and had received orders to stop, should continue their march and encamp close to the city walls. In short, that they had taken measures for their security and the protection of the Estate.
Such being the state of affairs, His Imperial Majesty is humbly requested to provide means for his army, as there are no resources left, and the credit of the generals is entirely ruined. Indeed, their last expedient has been to borrow money from the captains and soldiers of this Imperial army. Antonio de Leyva himself lent, the other day, 2,000 cr., which he took on bills payable at Naples at 15 days' date, and has, besides, pledged silver-plate, jewels and costly articles of dress, to the amount of 2,000 more. The Marquis del Guasto, though greatly in debt just now, has likewise pledged some of his own jewels and wearing apparel. In this manner the remainder of last month's pay has been issued to the Germans, to whom another will be due in two days hence. To meet which, and to be the better able to await the promised relief, it has been decided to make a fresh loan among the captains and soldiers of this Imperial army, though without much hope of success, for the people are poor, and those who earned some money in the battle [of Pavia] have long ago sent it home. This expedient was tried once before, in Pescara's lifetime, when the sum collected was so insignificant that it is not likely to succeed better now, especially as the sums borrowed on that occasion were never repaid, which is a very potent reason, for the captains and men of this army not to lend what little money they have left. Nevertheless, His Imperial Majesty may rest assured of one thing, that no means shall be spared by his generals and ministers in Italy to keep up the army.
When, after Morone's arrest, the Marquis of Pescara took possession of this Duchy in the Emperor's name, he consented that out of its ordinary revenues 50,000 cr. should be applied every year to the payment of the 200,000 borrowed by the Duke Francesco Sforza and the said Morone, his secretary. (fn. n16) It was, moreover, agreed that, for the better settlement of the said debt, a certain quantity of State lands should be sold; and as some of the creditors seemed desirous of such an arrangement, a mandate has been issued, similar to the one which appeared then in the Duke's name. Copies of both are enclosed, (fn. n17) that His Imperial Majesty may have them examined, and returned with his approval, and that these people may see that our deeds agree with our words.
Since the above was written, the Vicar (Vicario de la Provision) and the city deputies have come to the Marquis and to Leyva to complain that, although they are the faithful subjects and vassals of His Imperial Majesty, and have suffered so much in his service, they are yet so unkindly treated. They say they have had letters from their ambassadors in Spain, stating that after a most gracious audience from the Emperor, at which they presented the memorandum of the articles they wished to obtain for this city, they were told that a suitable answer should be given to their claims at the same time that the Duke's affairs were definitively settled. (fn. n18) As these people see that after so long a confinement the Duke has not yet been declared guilty, they naturally fancy that he has in no way incurred the Emperor's displeasure, and that even if he should ultimately forfeit his favour, he will nevertheless be maintained in his Estate. Hence they fear the Duke may hereafter punish them for the oath of allegiance recently given, and for other similar demonstrations made in the Imperial service. Begs, most humbly, that the said ambassadors may be kindly entertained, and impressed with the Imperial munificence, so that they may write home and confirm their friends in their devotion. This can be easily obtained without entailing any declaration from His Imperial Majesty as to what his ultimate designs respecting this Estate and the Duke Francesco may be.
No news of the Pope, Venetians or Switzers. The fortifications of Parma, Piacenza and Modena are still being increased, by order of the Pope; and, on our side, those of several towns in this Duchy are being actively proceeded with.
Respecting this castle and the Duke Francesco there is nothing new to report. It is generally believed that the garrison has only provisions for one month. Would to God they had only food for half that time, and that the Duke would attempt to escape to Venice—as the rumour was these last few days! The report, however, cannot be true; for, besides the double guard on the trenches, which would render his escape difficult, we are positively assured that he himself is not in a condition to leave his bed, much less to ride on horseback and try so dangerous an experiment.—Milan, 24 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Postscripta.—On the 25th inst., at the 23d hour, the garrison of this castle sallied out to skirmish as usual with our men at the trenches; when the alarm being given by some of the lowest rabble (plebanos)—always desirous to create confusion and see how they can plunder — the people collected in the market-place, whence, with banners unfolded and drums beating, they marched in the direction of the castle, just at the time that about 100 of the garrison were making a sally. Hearing which, the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva hastened to the spot, and, placing themselves at the head of the Germans, gave the besieged a good drubbing, and compelled them to fall back behind their walls. The townspeople dared not approach nearer—though they occupied some of the streets and lanes leading to the German quarters—and were at last repulsed with considerable loss. The Imperialists had four men killed in this affair; a servant of the Marquis del Guasto and a page of Antonio de Leyva, besides two Germans, one of whom was slain by a shot from the castle.
Perceiving that their attempt to relieve the garrison had proved ineffectual, the townspeople begged Francesco Visconti, the head of that noble house, and other gentlemen of rank, who from the very beginning had tried, though in vain, to appease the tumult, to go to the Palace, offer their excuses to the generals, and implore pardon for them. It was at 6 o'clock of the night that the deputation arrived, when the Marquis and Leyva, perceiving that the citizens in general had taken no part in the affair, and that the conspiracy had been planned and got up solely by a few malefactors of the lowest class, readily consented to the request of the deputies on condition that all citizens should immediately lay down their arms and retire to their dwellings. Such, however, was the number of those who had taken up arms that it was day-break before the people returned to their homes and the city was restored to quietness, which gave the ringleaders abundant time to quit the place and escape the deserved punishment.
To-day, the 27th, a general pardon has been proclaimed throughout the city, and people's minds are more calm in consequence of the assurance given to them by the Imperial generals that no more forces will be brought to Milan. Orders, therefore, have been sent to the Spaniards—who, hearing of the popular rising, and fancying that our lives were in danger, were hastening from all sides to our assistance—to stop where they are. Such, with God's help, has been the result of this affair. (fn. n19) May He be praised for it!
Great have been the services of the Marquis del Guasto and Antonio de Leyva on this occasion, for not only have they been on the spot wherever there was danger, but warded off a catastrophe by placing the Germans in certain military positions, and stopping their fury, when, irritated by resistance, they wanted to rush into the heart of the city. The order which was sent to the Spanish infantry in time to stop their march and return to their quarters proved equally beneficial, for some of them had already reached the gates of this city, and, eager for revenge, as they were, nothing could have prevented their sacking and burning it to ashes. In order to guard against a similar attempt in future, and the better to disarm the people—which is the very first thing these generals have agreed to do—14 companies of Spanish infantry have been posted at different villages round this city, and at a distance of 10 or 12 miles.
But notwithstanding the above military precautions and other prudent measures adopted by the Imperial generals, certain it is that the inhabitants, oppressed as they are by the intolerable burden of a large army living upon them, and having besides in prospect this contingent of further 14 companies taking up their quarters in this city without any other food or money but what they can procure by sheer plunder, are almost driven to despair. It therefore behoves His Imperial Majesty to make such a provision that the Imperial army may henceforth live on its own resources.
Juan de Urbina, who happened to be here at the time of the rising, with only two hackbutters, has performed wonders in the defence of certain narrow streets where he took up a position. This is by no means the first feat of arms accomplished by this brave officer, who well deserves the Emperor's consideration and reward. The same might be said of Captain Corbera, who accidentally found himself in the midst of the fight, and behaved like a true soldier.
The war-cry of the garrison on the night they sallied out was Duca, Duca! Papa, Papa! Marco, Marco! His Imperial Majesty will thereby judge how far this agrees with Giulino's report. (fn. n20) —Milan, 28 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Milan. The Abbot of Najera, 24 and 28 April."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 12.
28 April. 406. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 200.
After despatching the brigantine to Monego (Monaco), with orders for the galleys to set sail [for Spain] for Mons. de Bourbon, there came letters [to him] from the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva and the Abbot of Najera, of which the enclosed is a copy, (fn. n21) relating to the late occurrences at Milan, which seem to have been of some importance. (Cipher:) Although it is therein stated that everything was quiet at Milan, there are other letters from Pavia, of the 27th, stating that citizens and soldiers were still fighting against each other; that the Milanese had taken possession of the city gates and gutted the residence of the Marquis del Guasto and Leyva; that the roads had been cut up, the country had everywhere risen against the Imperialists, some men-at-arms had even been insulted and robbed, and a few soldiers slain in their quarters. (fn. n22) Some companies of [Spanish] infantry were already posted between Milan and Pavia, and ready to enter the former city, and great commotion was apprehended. He (Soria) thinks all this is the work of the Venetians or of the Pope, perhaps of both together.—Genoa, 28 Apr. 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Genoa. Lope de Soria, 28 Apr. Answered."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. p. 1½.
29 April. 407. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 217.
The tumult is not yet completely appeased at Milan, owing to some of the ringleaders not having yet left the city, whilst others who fled are returning. The gravity of the case, and the 14 companies of Spanish infantry quartered round Milan, make them fancy that there will be no amnesty for them. Nothing will be left undone on our part to calm the minds of the people, but anything may be expected, exasperated as they are by this Imperial army, which consumes and destroys them.
(Cipher:) Encloses a letter from Alonso Sanchez, showing the state of things at Venice and the close alliance of the confederates with the Pope against His Imperial Majesty. The news is of such importance that they (Guasto and Leyva) have not hesitated to despatch the present courier in all haste, that he may reach Spain before or at the same time as the Venetian one, who, according to Sanchez, is going to France by way of the Switzers.
Two things, in his opinion, are likely to encourage the confederates in their plans. One is the idea that this Imperial army must be disbanded for want of money and quarters; the other, their confidence—nay certainty—that the French King will not fulfil the conditions of the treaty. It might well be, after all, that in order to give money rather than land—in which idea the confederates are perhaps strengthening him—the King listened to these Italians. In that case nothing will prevent them from making league together. Some say that the Duke of Ferrara is daily being urged to join the confederacy. Perhaps when he has lost all hope of serving the Emperor he might be induced to make common cause with our enemies.
(Common writing:) The Archduke has been duly informed of these Venetian and Papal intrigues, that he may be on his guard and in readiness for an emergency.—Milan, 29 Apr. 1526.
Postscriptum.—Several captains of this Imperial army and other private persons, Spaniards as well as Germans and Italians, have applied for some of the estates and lands confiscated from rebels and outlaws (foraxidos). To avoid discontent or any occasion for new tumultuary risings (motines) like the past—which very often have no other origin than the ill-will and artful suggestions (voluntad e industria) of the interested parties themselves—the Imperial commanders have given some of them to be held in administration under the Camara of Milan, and have also filled up certain vacant offices of no great importance (algunos pequeños oficios). This has been done, as already mentioned, in order to remove, if possible, all causes of discontent among the citizens of this place, subject, of course, to the Emperor's approval, and waiting for the arrival of the Duke [of Bourbon], on whom the grant devolves as Commander-in-Chief of this Imperial army.—Milan, date ut supra.
Signed: "El Abad de Najara."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. Milan. Abbot of Najera, 29 Apr."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2⅓.
29 April. 408. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 216.
Writes by one of the Pope's couriers, who goes to Spain in all haste. The Doge and he (Soria) despatched two brigantines yesterday to Monaco, with order for the galleys to sail for the Duke of Bourbon. Fancies they will leave the port this very night.
Does not write about the late occurrences of Milan, because his last despatch contained all the information that could be desired; besides which, he now encloses duplicates of letters of the Marquis del Guasto, Antonio de Leyva and the Abbot of Najera to him (fn. n23) about the popular rising in that city and other matters. Encloses also letters of the Duke of Sessa and Commander Herrera, received that day.—Genoa, 29 April 1526.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1526. From Genoa. Lope de Soria, 29th Apr."
Spanish. Original. p. 1.


  • n1. Count Giovanni Thomasso della Mirandola, mentioned in a former letter.
  • n2. There is a mutilation just at the place where the date ought to be. This Duchess of Savoy, Maria Beatriz by name, was the daughter of King Manuel of Portugal, and of Maria, a Spanish Infanta. Her sister Isabella was married to Charles V.
  • n3. "En una Dieta que tiene á V de este." The letter appears to be a duplicate of that of 7th, with some additions. See p. 628, No. 380.
  • n4. "Y en lo que mas se detenia era en contarle la enfermedad pasada, y en dolerse de no haber sido bien tractado."
  • n5. This captain, whom Guicciardini calls "Ugo dei Peppoli," served in the Papal and Venetian armies, and ultimately succeeded Orazio Baglione in the command of the Florentine army. He was made prisoner by the Imperialists in 1527. Istoria d'Italia, lib. XVIII. and XIX.
  • n6. "Anda per concertarse con el Papa a excuso de V. Mag. si él puede."
  • n7. "En especial en Lombardia, donde temo que aquel exercito no haga algun tiro de su mano, siendo tan mal pagado, y estando tan mal contento como está."
  • n8. This governor of La Bresse was the brother [-in-law?] of Gattinara, the Emperor's Chancellor. In a letter from Gasparo Contarini, Venetian ambassador in Spain, dat. Toledo the 6th or 8th June 1526, it is stated that Pope Clement VII. conferred on both brothers the honours of Cardinal. The Chancellor had a cousin named Gio. Bartholomeo, who was Bishop of Maurienne (Moriana?). See Rawdon Brown, vol. III., p. 445.
  • n9. Oficial may mean also a man exercising a trade (oficio).
  • n10. So written in the original; but Acciaioli or Acciajoli (Roberto) is no doubt meant.
  • n11. Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, author of a history of the Catholic Kings Don Fernando and Doña Isabel.
  • n12. In the original "a viii. del presente," which is evidently a mistake of Sanchez' clerk for xviii.
  • n13. "El Papa quiere que si en la dicha capitulation se quita ó añade algo, que no sea obligado á nada."
  • n14. The original is torn at this place, leaving a blank as for two or three words. It may, however, be inferred from this, as well as from other previous or subsequent despatches, that it was the King of France who made that proposal to the Pope. With regard to the contents of this letter and the intelligence it conveys, the reader had better consult, on this particular, Rawdon Brown, Venetian State Papers, &c., Nos. 1247–53. Capino, whose name is variously written Capin, Cappino, Chiapino, &c., was a native of Mantua. Guicciardini calls him Capino da Mantova, lib. XVIII.
  • n15. A servant of the Marquis del Guasto, elsewhere called Ciz.
  • n16. No doubt to pay the investiture price, which amounted to that sum.
  • n17. Not in the volume.
  • n18. See the Emperor's letter to the Abbot of the 27th April, No. 402, p. 664. The names of the ambassadors, according to Guicciardini, lib. XVII., were Francesco Crivelli and Giovanni Andrea Castiglioni.
  • n19. The Abbot, in his private letter to Soria (No. 398), as well as in that which he wrote conjointly vita Guasto and Leyva (No. 400), does not seem to attach so much importance to the rising of the Milanese as this official despatch to the Emperor seems to imply.
  • n20. The same individual elsewhere called Gilino.
  • n21. See Nos. 398 and 400, pp. 659, 661.
  • n22. "Y que en el pais habian esbalciado (sic) algunos hombres de armas." Esbalciado is not a Spanish word. I take it to be a corruption of the Italian "svaliggiato;" in Spanish desbalijado.
  • n23. They are the same already abstracted. See above, pp. 659–61.