Spain: February 1528, 11-29

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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'Spain: February 1528, 11-29', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529, (London, 1877), pp. 588-603. British History Online [accessed 24 June 2024].

. "Spain: February 1528, 11-29", in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529, (London, 1877) 588-603. British History Online, accessed June 24, 2024,

. "Spain: February 1528, 11-29", Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529, (London, 1877). 588-603. British History Online. Web. 24 June 2024,

February 1528, 11-29

11 Feb. 341. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar A. 42,
f. 136.
The bearer will be Esteuan Spindola, who is about to leave Genoa for Spain. He belongs to one of the principal families of that city, is a good servant of His Imperial Majesty, and a partisan of the Adorni, and, therefore, will be able to report much better than anyone else can about the state of affairs in that city. He goes for the purpose of kissing the Emperor's hands und offering his services and those of his brother, Agostino, the governor, now a refugee (foraxido) here, at La Mirandola. He will say how he and his friends, and indeed most of the principal citizens, are trying to proclaim the union, and appoint Andrea Doria "gonfaloniero," and that they have applied to the King of France for permission, promising him considerable help in money. Whether Spindola and his friends have made, or intend making, a similar application to His Imperial Majesty, is more than be (Soria) can say, but (cipher:) in his humble opinion, if the application has really been made, the Emperor ought not to grant it, for evidently the intention of the petitioners is to get the government of the city into their own hands, and then turn against the Emperor; whereas, if the King of France grants their request, and the union is proclaimed, there will be plenty of opportunities to punish the citizens for their disloyalty, and make them disburse double the sum paid to the King of France for his consent. Should the union not take place, and Genoa return to the obedience of its legitimate master, then in that case it will be easy to obtain from the citizens a considerable sum of money wherewith to pay a number of galleys, for when he (Soria) resided there as Imperial ambassador, a yearly income of 5,000 ducats, besides 25,000 down, was offered to the Doge (Antoniotto Adorno) if he would consent to the union, and the ambassador himself was tempted with a good bribe. In whatever way this is effected, His Imperial Majesty should have there a trusty governor, who may keep the citadel and the ordinary galleys at his service.
(Common writing:) Leyva wishes him (Soria) and the Doge [of Genoa] to go to him at Milan, but tins is impracticable owing to the great distance, and to the roads being occupied by the enemy.
Has done all he could to ascertain the number and quality of Lautrech's troops. He has with him the 400 lances he brought from France—all young and inexperienced soldiers, —5,000 Germans and 800 Switzers, besides 2,500 infantry, composed of Gascons and Frenchmen, to whom he has since added 2,000 Italians. His artillery consists of 23 pieces of ordnance, of all calibres. Mons. de Valdemout (Vaudemont), whom they call King of Naples, is also with him, and it is asserted that the Marquis of Saluzzo (Michaele Antonio) and the Duke of Urbino are to join him with about 3,000 foot and 400 lances; but all these forces put together will be no match for our army the moment it leaves Rome.
It is a great pity that there is not at present in that city a person of such reputation as fitly to represent the Emperor and watch over his affairs. (fn. n1)
Hears from Lucca, and also from Sienna, that Pirro Colonna and a son of Cardinal Farnese had been in treaty with some citizens of Orbieto to carry away or kill the Pope one night. The conspiracy, they say, was discovered, and some of those engaged in it executed. The news, however, requires confirmation.
Leonelo di Carpi, the brother of Alberto, a near relative of the Count de la Mirandola, is now here, owing to Novi, which he formerly owned, having been taken possession of by the Duke of Ferrara. The said Leonelo is a good servant of the Emperor, and ready to obey his orders.
Andrea del Burgo writes from Ferrara in date of the 10th, enclosing news from that locality, and Sanchez also forwards intelligence from Hungary and other parts. Twelve of the Venetian galleys returning from the Sardinia expedition had entered Leorna (Leghorn), but they were in such bad condition, and so destitute of men and crews, that they could not put to sea for a long time. Of the 6,000 Corsicans (Corços), soldiers or sailors, who went to Sardinia, upwards of 4,000 had died from hunger and the plague. The remainder were at Casar (Casale), closely invested by the Viceroy of that island, who certainly would not let one of them escape.
The Duke of Ferrara has already contributed his monthly quota of 6,000 ducats towards the League, and has the 100 men-at-arms in readiness for Lautrech.—La Mirandola, 11th February 1528.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 8.
12 Feb. 342. Don Ugo de Moncada to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 147.
Wrote last on the 16th of December, informing His Imperial Majesty of the preparations made for the defence of Naples. Since then the danger has increased, it being now certain that Lautrech with all his forces is on this side of the frontier. Has despatched to the Abruzzi the Prince of Main (Amalfi), a chivalrous man (gentil caballero), and a good servant of His Imperial Majesty, who with his own company of men-at-arms, and that of Count de Motella, composed of 130, besides 800 Spaniards and 200 light horse, has undertaken to make head against the enemy in those parts. Fifteen hundred Germans from among those who came from Spain with the late Viceroy [Lannoy] have since been added to that number, so that for the present every preparation has been made to meet the enemy.
A copy of Leyva's last letter to him is enclosed as well as one received from the King of Hungary. (fn. n2) The latter had given a peremptory order for the raising of fresh levies to the amount of 15,000 men; but on the other hand the Switzers, at the instigation of the Kings of France and England, were also preparing to come down.
Has given orders for two old galleys that were in the dockyard (tercenal) to he refitted, and two new ones to be built, so that they may be of service this summer.
Renews his application for a successor in the command, a person of authority and experience, who may take charge of the Emperor's affairs, civil as well as military.
At the solicitation of the Prince of Orange and the rest of the Imperial commanders who wished to have a resident at the Pope's court, Juan Antonio Muxetula, president of the "Camera della Sumaria," will be sent to Orbieto, there to hasten the fulfilment of the conditions stipulated with His Holiness at the time of his liberation. He (Muxetula) is an excellent and very learned man, who is sure to give satisfaction, and has hitherto served with fidelity and zeal. The post of Regent of the Chancery, now vacant by the death of Miçer Marcello Gazella, might be given to him as a reward for past services, and a sort of encouragement in the delicate mission with which he is now charged.—Naples, 12th February 1528.
Signed: "Don Ugo de Moncada."
Spanish. Original almost entirely written in cipher. No deciphering appended. Duplicate, pp. 12.
12 Feb. 343. Hieronymo de Frantso to Secretary Pero Garcia.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 149.
Has received his letter of the 1st December, and given the enclosed to the Princess of Sulmona. (fn. n3) She has sent Torpia, the chamberlain of her late husband, to Court to attend to her affairs.
On general affairs he can only refer him to Don Ugo's letters. Lautrech's army has 'already crossed the Tronto and taken possession of a small town called Civitella. Every effort has been made to procure money for the Germans, who are really insatiable. If on the 29th of each month they are not paid they are sure to mutiny. The Prince has just taken to them 50,000 cr. (scuti), which have been procured with the greatest difficulty through bleeding every vein of our body. With these, and 20,000 more which Miçer Antonio Sanseverino is to give for a cardinal's hat, it is to be hoped that two months' pay will be issued to the lansquenets, and the whole army induced to quit Rome.—Naples, 12th February 1528.
Signed: "Hieronymo de Frantso." (fn. n4)
Addressed: "To the most magnificent lord, Signor Pero Garcia, Secretary, and of the Emperor's Council."
Indorsed: "From the Lieutenant of the Sumaria. 12th February 1528. Answered."
Italian. Original partly in cipher, pp. 4½.
12 Feb. 344. Count de Noya to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 153.
Avails himself of the departure of Archbishop don Juan de Centellas, bearer of the present, to inform His Imperial Majesty of the state of affairs at Naples generally, and particularly at Taranto, for the defence and repair of which (in la custodia et reparations di cui) he has been appointed by the Viceroy and Collateral Council.—Taranto, 12th February 1528.
Signed: "El Conde de Noya."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From Count de Noya. 12th February 1528."
Italian. Original, .. 1.
12 Feb. 345. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 154.
Will be brief, as his letter of the 8th inst, sent byway Naples, will most likely be delivered at the same time as this.
The Prince [of Orange], the Marquis del Guasto, and the Duke of Malfe (Amalfi) arrived last night. Immediately after the Prince spoke to the captains of the lansquenets, who hearing that two months' pay would be issued to-day, and two more, one every month, declared their determination to march at once against the enemy. As to the Spaniards, though no money was distributed to them, and they considered this an injury, they made no difficulty whatever, so that in five or six days at the most we shall all be out of Rome and in pursuit of the enemy, who, they say, has already crossed the Tronto, and taken possession of some villages within the territory of Naples.
Yesterday the light cavalry and certain companies of Spanish and Italian infantry that were quartered outside Rome came in. They will leave to-morrow for Palestrina under the command of Hernando Gonzaga, who takes with him some pieces of ordnance for the purpose of attacking Valmontone, where Giovanni Battista Conte, lord of that place, has taken up a strong position. This being done, the rest of the Imperial army will join, and all together march on Naples.
Antonio de Sanct Severino, newly created cardinal, brought 20,000 ducats; which, added to the 50,000 of the Prince, make up the sum of 70,000. The Legate (Campeggio) win give the 5,000 or 6,000 more that are wanting for the complement of the 145,000, but only on condition that the army evacuates Rome, which has been agreed to.
It is believed that the forces of the confederates in this neighbourhood will try to outflank our army, so as to cut off provisions, &c., but every precaution is being taken to defeat their plans.
In order to march more quickly no artillery will be taken, with the exception of one gun and two half guns. The rest shall be sent by sea to Naples or Gaeta, wherever it may be most wanted.
The Prince of Melfi (Anmlfi), who came to Rome for the purpose of serving the Siennese with his 100 riders, Burgundian fashion (ginetes á la Borgoñona), has been appointed to the command of the van, and therefore will lead this army to Naples.—Rome, 12th February 1528.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacræ., Cesaæ., Catheæ. Majti."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Rome. Perez. 12th February."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
12 Feb.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 175.
346. The King of Bohemia and Hungary to Alonso Sanchez.
We do not think that the reinforcements (socorro) can be in Italy before the middle of Lent, owing to the difficulty of making levies in provinces so far situated from the seat of war, for although some might be raised much nearer, the men in general are not so well disciplined and obedient to their commanders as could be desired. This notwithstanding, you shall soon have in Italy a very efficient force under the Duke of Brunswick, but care should be taken by you (Sanchez), and the rest of the Emperor's ministers in Italy, that these new levies be properly provided for, as you must well know how it is with these soldiers, and that if food and money are not regularly issued to them they will desert and procure them from the enemy. It is also very necessary that the Emperor appoint a general-in-chief whom all may obey without scruple of any sort (sin pundonor alguno), for whenever the command of an army is in many hands, causes of discord arise, which bring on destruction and ruin.
With regard to the fresh letters of credit which the Emperor is said to have remitted, amounting to 100,000 ducats, We know nothing yet. Triple that sum would hardly be sufficient for the support of these men and of those already in Italy during a campaign, of four months. As to Lope de Soria and other of the Emperor's ministers in Italy presuming that We can, with an empty treasury and a war of our own to maintain, help Leyva in the least, it is out of the question.
We shall be glad to see what Moncada and Leyva have to say to our plans for a future campaign.—Strigonia (Gran), 12th February 1528.
Spanish. Copy in the hand of Sanchez's secretary, pp. 2.
13 Feb. 347. The Bishop of Trent (fn. n5) to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 176.
(Cipher:) His Majesty, the King of Bohemia, has written to Madame Marguerite of Flanders, inquiring whether it is true that new letters of credit have arrived from Spain. He is daily expecting an answer in the affirmative, as he cannot persuade himself that the Emperor will forget him at such a critical moment. You yourself ought to work with your usual diligence to this effect, since you know that the sum hitherto received will hardly be sufficient to take these Germans half-way to their place of destinatioa—Strigonia (Gran), 13th, February 1528.
Italian. Copy entirety in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, .. 1.
14 Feb. 348. Count Aranda (fn. n6) to the Emperor.
S. E. C. d. C. L. 13,
f. 7.
B.M. Add.28, 577,
f. 182.
On hearing of the challenge sent by the Kings of France and Engkml, his first thought was to offer his personal services. Is now prevented by illness from leaving the house, but nevertheless he and ids family are at the Emperor's disposal, fully trusting that he will make use of them.—Epila, 14th February 1528.
Addressed: "To His Catholic and Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed: "From Count Aranda. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. 1.
16 Feb. 349. Don Ugo de Moncada to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 156.
Wrote last on the 12th February. (fn. n7) Since then advices have come from Rome, in date of the 13th, stating that the Imperial army was on the point of marching out of the city, The Marquis del Guasto with the cavalry, and part of the Spaniards and Italians, was to advance first, and attack Valmontone. The rest of the army was to take the same route, and, according as the enemy's position might be, march towards Pulla (Puglia) or the Abruzzi.
The 16 Venetian galleys which were with the confederated fleet came yesterday in sight of Yscla (Ischia), but were soon obliged by stress of weather to run into the Freto of Procita, (fn. n8) where they are still. It is reported by a Neapolitan, who came in one of them from Liorna (Leghorn), that all are going to Corfu to be refitted. Andrea Doria was at Genoa.—Naples, 16th February 1528.
Signed: "Don Ugo de Moncada."
Addressed: "To the Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty- From Don Ugo. 16th February."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
19 Feb.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 130.
350. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
On the 6th inst. Lautrech was still at Requenate (Recanato). He made no advance that day, as was reported, owing to the bad state of the roads for the transport of artillery. No news whatever, either from Rome or Naples. The Imperialists had not yet left. Cannot persuade himself that the Spaniards, at least, will refuse going to the assistance of Naples.
(Cipher:) There is here such a rumour afloat about Coradin, the colonel of the Germans, who was formerly at Cremona, being in treaty with the leaguers to go over to them with several companies of lansquenets, that he (Sanchez) considers it his duty to inform His Imperial Majesty thereof. The rumour is so general, and has lately gained so much ground, that he is inclined to believe it, the more so that it has now been ascertained that when Cremona was besieged by the confederates under the Duke of Urbino, he (Coradin) had secret intelligence with him, whereby the surrender and loss of that important fortress were facilitated.
(Common writing:) It is said that this Signory is making new levies for the purpose of laying siege to Milan, or, in the event of the Germans coming down soon, defending their own territory, (cipher:) which, they say, is very scantily provisioned, the last harvest having been very poor.
(Common writing:) Of the German reinforcements no news has yet been received, but this Signory must have some better sources of information, since the abovesaid warlike preparations can have no other object; besides which, the message sent to their proveditor-general at Corfu to place his eight or ten galleys at the disposal of Lautrech, confirms it.
(Cipher:) Miçer Andrea del Burgo writes to say that the Pope is actually in favour of the League, and waiting only for an opportunity to declare himself. He (Sanchez) shares this opinion. Whatever may be His Holiness' assurances in public of his desire for peace, and willingness to fulfil his engagements, there can be no doubt that his urging Lautrech on to the invasion of Naples, his not paying the money owing to our army ; his not delivering Civittà Castellana as agreed; his ill-humour against the Duke of Ferrara, and even against Cardinal Cibo, who brought him over to the League and concluded with him the treaty which His Holiness now refuses to ratify, are evident signs of his decided leaning to the side of our enemies. It is, indeed, asserted that the Cardinal (Cibo) is exceedingly angry at the Pope's not choosing to ratify a treaty made with his approbation and by his express commands brought by a special messenger from Sanct Angelo, and that he is only waiting for the recovery of the Papal Vice-Legate, who is now unwell in the Bolognese, to repair to Orbietto and represent in consistory the reasons he had for concluding the agreement.
Leyva still holds his ground in the Duchy, but should the enemy lay siege to the capital, and the German reinforcements tarry in their march, he will be in great danger, not so much from the confederates as from the Milanese themselves, for he has not a farthing to spend, nor provisions to feed his troops.
(Cipher:) Hears from the Bishop of Trent at Buda that His Highness the King of Hungary is daily expecting the answer he (Sanchez) sent him on the 15th ult.., and holding a diet there, from which he expects a good contribution in money in case the Turk, yielding to the solicitations of certain people, should take it into his head to help the Vayvod and invade his patrimonial estates, which is very probable, for a gentleman of this city told a friend of Sanchez that King Ferdinand would not be able to come [to Italy], as he would soon have work enough on his own hands.
(Common writing:) News has come that Lautrech left Requenate on the 6th and marched upon Fermo, the last town in Romagna, there to decide on which way he would advance into the kingdom of Naples, though it is rumoured here that part of his forces has already crossed the river Tronto.
The fleet of the confederates that was in Sardinia has come to Liorna (Leghorn). It threatens to go to Naples.
Just as he was about to close this letter intelligence came that the whole of the Imperial army, Germans as well as Spaniards, has left Rome for Naples. May this news turn out true.—Venice, 19th February 1528.
Signed : "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty, in the hands of Secretary Soria."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 4.
19 Feb. 351. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 163.
(Cipher:) After his despatch of the 12th was sent off, on the same night, there came a letter from Leyva, inclosing his answer to the questions put by the King of Hungary. It was dated the 1st, and he (Sanchez) forwarded it without loss of lime. Has since heard that his packet has safely parsed the frontier, which is no small event in the present state of the roads.
A courier has arrived with letters from France of the 7th inst. The intelligence is that a gentleman of the French ambassadors' retinue had escaped from the Imperial Court, He had met the governor of a town on these frontiers, and related to him how the ambassadors of the League had publicly declared war, and how the Emperor had ordered the said ambassadors to be arrested. Hears that the moment this Signory heard the news, there was a talk of doing the same with him (Sanchez), but after some discussion it was resolved to wait for further particulars and confirmation of the news. Is prepared for any event, and has taken his measures in such a way that even if he should be confined to a dungeon the Emperor's work will be done all the same.
(Common writing:) Has been told that two of Perez's letters to him have been intercepted, of the 17th of January and 7th inst. In the latter of the two that Secretary announced as certain the departure of the Imperial army within three days in pursuit of the enemy.
(Cipher :) Has likewise heard, though he does not vouch for the truth of the report, that when the brother of the Duke of Lorraine, Mr. de Vaudemont, went up to the Pope [at Orbieto] to ask for the investiture of the kingdom of Naples, the Pope's answer was that he would first consult the King of France about it. Lautrech having equally pressed him (the Pope) to declare for the League, he has consulted his cardinals, who have resolved to write a letter to the Emperor, exhorting him to grant [the Pope and the confederates] fair terms, as otherwise he would be compelled to join the League. This information may be relied upon as communicated by a person in high position, and who has never told him (Sanchez) an untruth.
(Common writing:) No positive news of the Imperial army; some maintaining that it has already left Rome, whilst others say it has not. Lautrech has not passed Fermo, but the Venetian proveditor and the light horse are at Termini in the Abruzzi.—Venice, 19th February 1528.
Signed : "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty (to be delivered into the hands of Secretary Pero de Soria)."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 3.
20 Feb. 352. The Emperor to Pope Clement VII.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 80,
f. 127.
The Apostolic Nuncio [in Spain] can bear testimony to his (the Emperor's) good intentions, and say how very much grieved he has been at the Pope's long detention, and the evils and inconveniences that have resulted therefrom. Is rejoiced at his liberation, which would certainly have taken place much sooner had not Lannoy's death hindered the execution of his orders. The delay in replacing the Viceroy had no other cause but his wish to select a person of reputation and parts, who might conjointly with his Nuncio testify to his sentiments of affection and 'respect towards the Holy See efface any scruples that His Holiness might entertain, and repair the faults arising out of the Viceroy's death. Has now decided to commit that charge to Don Ugo de Moncada, a person of trust and experience, well acquainted with the integrity of his motives. Begs credence for him.—Burgos 20th February 1528.
"De mano del humilde hijo de Vuestra Santidad."
"Yo el Rey."
Spanish. Original draft, .. 1.
20 Feb.
S. E. L. 1,454,
f. 70.
B. M. Add. 28 577,
f. 183.
353. The Emperor to Philibert de Chalon, Prince of Orange, and Don Hugo de Moncada.
Empowers them to go to Rome and tender obedience to the Pope in his name. "Quum ea semper nostra erga Apostolicam sedem pietas fuerit, ut Romanum Pontificem, qui Christum agit in terris, nee secus ac patrem colere ac observare curaverimus, nuper quidem audierimus Beatissinmm in Christo Patrem D. Clementem Septimum Sed. Rom. ac universalis ecclesiæ Pontificem Maximum, qui de nostro animo atque voluntate secus fortassè cogitans ab amicitia nostra recesserat, &c."—Burgos, 20th February 1528.
Latin. Original draft, .. 1.
20 Feb. 354. The Emperor to Secretary Perez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 83,
f. 317.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 184.
His letter of the 11th December last has come to hand. Thanks him for the information it contains, and also for his advice on matters concerning the army. Don Ugo de Moncada has been written to on the subject, and will inform him (Perez) of any arrangement that is to be made.
The said Don Ugo writes to say that His Holiness wishes to send him by land the General [of the Franciscans], accompanied by one of his own chamberlains, and that a safe-conduct has accordingly been obtained for their passage through France. If our ambassador (fn. n9) [to the Pope] has not yet made his appearance in Italy it is owing to his waiting for an answer to the letter asking whether his presence will be agreeable, In case he does go, We command you to attend him whenever he visits the Pope, &c—Burgos, 20th February 1528.
Addressed : "To Secretary Perez at Rome."
Spanish. Original draft, .. 1.
20 Feb. 355. The Marquis of Villena to the Emperor.
S. E. C. l. C. L. 16,
f. 407.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 185.
Knows full well that the Emperor has done more even than was reasonable to expect in order to procure peace. He is perfectly justified in the eyes of God and men, and of his Spanish subjects especially. Hopes that God will favour his cause as the just one, and give him strength to punish a second time that proud and overbearing King of France, and the ill-advised King of England. Illness has prevented him from writing sooner.—Escalona, 20th of February 1528.
Signed: "El Marques."
Addressed: "To His Imperial and Catholic Majesty the Emperor, our Lord."
Indorsed: "From the Marquis of Villena. (fn. n10) Answered." Spanish. Holograph, .. 1.
22 Feb.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 158.
356. Alonso Sanchez, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to Chancellor Gattinara.
(Cipher:) The Bishop of Trent advises that the Turk is again making great preparations to invade Hungary. The news is grave, and appears to be true, if reliance is to be placed in the rumours current in this city. Yet it is very strange that, whilst the Infidel is stirring with such formidable power, so many Christian Princes and Potentates should persist in making war on the Emperor, and perhaps too in inciting against him the cruel enemies of our Faith.—Venice, 21st February 1528.
Signed : "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the Illustrious Sir the High Chancellor."
Spanish. Original in cipher, .. 1.
22 Feb. 357. The Same to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42.
f. 161.
The fleet of the confederates at Leghorn is broken up; the Venetian galleys come to Corfú; the French go to Marseilles ; Andrea Doria with his to Genoa. All go to be refitted, so that for some months at least nothing is to be apprehended from the enemy's forces.
(Cipher:) Has again had letters from the King of Hungary of the 30th ulto., and from the Bishop of Trent of the 5th inst. Both allude to the great preparations which the Infidel Turk is making to invade that kingdom.
One of the King's secretaries writes to say that the Bishop of Trent has just been appointed High Chancellor; a very good election indeed, considering that the Bishop is a man of great ability and virtue, and has proved on every occasion a zealous servant of the Empire.
Enclosed is a copy of Leyva's answer (fn. n11) to the King [of Hungary].
(Common writing:) It is reported that this Signory have sent orders to their proveditor at Corfú to sail for Pulla (Puglia) with all the galleys under his command, to winch end 1,500 soldiers and sailors are to be added from this city. They have likewise resolved to name two proveditors, one for Friuli and the other for the Vicentino, for fear of the Germans coming down and attacking those provinces.
Advices have been received from Orbieto of the 11th inst, that on the morning of that day the Spaniards and Italians had left Rome, and that the Germans were to leave in the evening. Pedro Navarro and the Venetians were already in the kingdom of Naples, close to Aquila, which some say has surrendered to them.
The Pope has given a cardinal's hat to Miçer Francesco Cornaro, but the preconisation is not to take place until Easter, when several more cardinals will be created; all this for the sake of the money which His Holiness no doubt destines for our enemies, since he is so backward in fulfilling his engagements with us.—Venice, 22nd February 1528.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty (to be delivered into the hands of Secretary Pero Garcia)."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 2.
22 Feb.
S. E. C. d. C. L. 16,
f. 314.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 186.
358. Doctor del Barco to Francisco de los Covos, the Emperor's first Secretary.
Three days ago received his orders commanding him to arrest all French, English, Venetians, and Florentines who might stay in, or pass through, the towns of Yecla (fn. n12) and Almansa. Has taken the necessary measures to have his (the Emperor's) orders executed.—Almansa, 22nd February 1528.
Signed: "Dr. del Barco."
Addressed: "To my most magnificent Lord and Master Francisco de los Covos, &c."
Spanish Holograph, .. 1.
23 Feb. 359. Alonso Sanchez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar A. 42,
f. 165.
Since his last of yesterday morning the Signory has receive intelligence that Aquila surrendered to the leaguers on the 15th or 16th inst. It appears that the inhabitants sent away the garrison, saying that they did not intend causing harm (hacer daño) to anyone. The consequence was that the Imperialists fell in with Pedro Navarro, who was waiting in ambush in the neighbourhood, and surrendered to him.
(Cipher:) God forbid that other towns of the Abruzzi and even beyond borders should follow the example of Aquila!
(Common writing:) The intelligence from Rome is being confirmed. The Spaniards and Italians had evacuated the city; the Germans were to leave next day, as the money had arrived from Naples. (Cipher:) If so, they will be there before the enemy; if otherwise most of the kingdom, with the exception of the strong places and castles, must fall into the enemy's hands.
(Common writing:) Hears that the Signory has just lent 40,000 cr. to the Duke Francesco [Sforza] for the purpose of raising troops and waging war in the Milanese, which intelligence, if true, coupled with the actual invasion of Naples, is so alarming that he (Sanchez) loses no opportunity of writing to the King of Bohemia and exhorting him to hasten with the supplies.—Venice, 23rd February 1528.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, &c." (fn. n13)
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on the margins.
25 Feb. 360. Madame to [Don Iñigo].
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. StaatsArch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 224, No. 5.
We wrote the other day from Bruxels (fn. n14) informing you that the French ambassadors [in Spain] had taken congé of the Emperor. As in the last despatches received from you no mention is made of this intelligence, We have reason to believe that our letter has miscarried; and as it might happen that the French, who are continually taking advantage of things and events, had informed the King and Legate of this circumstance, in order the more to excite their anger against the Emperor, We deem it necessary to relate to you what passed on the occasion.
The King of France, after recovering his liberty at the hands of the Emperor, behaved, as you know, most ungrate fully towards him. Though His Imperial Majesty wished to convert him from an enemy into an affectionate brother, by giving him in marriage his own sister (Eleonor), who might have been his heir, as he had no children at the time; although there was no clause in the treaty of Madrid which he (the King) could not fulfil, he has ever since continued to break his faith and word of honour, and, immediately upon his return to his own kingdom, proceeded to attack His Imperial Majesty, and carry out manifold hostile acts by sea and land, in order to wrest from him the estate of Milan, the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, besides provoking other princes and potentates to declare war against him and pursue the same hostile course.
His Imperial Majesty, therefore, could have no call whatever to alter the clauses of the Madrid convention for the French King's advantage and profit; rather, indeed, to demand larger sums and take the revenge, which he could well do, considering the very powerful armies he has in Italy and elsewhere.
Since then, on the interposition of the King and Legate of England, who wished for peace, His Imperial Majesty, in order to please them, has waived some of his own rights, no longer insisting on the restitution of the Duchy of Burgundy, which yet notoriously belongs to him, but consenting to accept instead the sum of money offered by the King of France. Upon all other articles of the treaty the Emperor made every possible concession, so that in reality there remained no other point under discussion but the recall of his Italian army and the restitution of Genoa and other territories accidentally conquered by him.
Knowing by experience the King's bad faith, the Emperor naturally stipulated that the withdrawal of the French army and restitution of Genoa should take place before the King's sons were released from captivity, which clause the King's ambassadors peremptorily refused to grant. His Imperial Majesty then, in order to show his trust in the King and Legate of England, and at the same time his ardent love of peace, offered to place in their hands such securities and hostages for the faithful execution of that clause on his part as had once been given for the restitution of Tournay, or might be considered necessary in the present case.
The French ambassadors having rejected the Emperor's offers, on the plea that they had no mandate to accept such a condition, the negotiations were broken off entirely by their own fault, and they accordingly took leave of the Emperor on the 21st of January, announcing that on the following day (the 22nd) they would read the act of defiance and challenge which their master, the King of France, sent to the Emperor; which defiance and challenge, however, is a very unusual proceeding, coming from one who in reality is the Emperors prisoner, and has made incessant war upon him for the last six years without any previous notice, &c.
The Emperor, therefore, has done everything in his power to obtain peace. He has not attacked the Kings dominions on the side of Spain, or elsewhere in France, notwithstanding that he (the King) has invaded Sardinia and other countries belonging to the Emperor, confined his ambassador [Granvelle] in a narrow prison, as if he were a felon, though His Imperial Majesty, after the challenge, only caused his to be arrested, but perfectly well treated, until he heard of the release of his own.
All which things put together sufficiently prove that the said King of France, far from promoting the peace of Christendom, wishes to keep it in continual disturbance, and that the money he has raised in his dominions, instead of being destined, as publicly stated, to the ransom of his sons, is only intended to carry on war against the Emperor.
You shall communicate the above to the King and Legate of England, and tell them that the Emperor will shortly send by sea a suitable personage (un bon personnage) to declare the same unto them, hoping that when they have heard his reasons they will refrain from making war on his subjects for the sake of pleasing the French, their traditional enemies.
We have been told that several libels and defamatory writings against the Emperor have been spread [in England] for the purpose of exciting the people against His Imperial Majesty, a sort of thing which appears to us rather strange. We can hardly believe that the King and Legate can be aware of this, for if they were they would no doubt speedily stop such proceedings, for certainly His Imperial Majesty is too great a Prince for such scurrilous treatment. (fn. n15) You will make inquiries about this, and if you should find the report to be true, and that the said libellous tracts are in circulation, you will not fail to apprise both the King and the Legate of the fact, that they may order them to be at once withdrawn.
You tell us in your last letter that the Legate wishes the commercial intercourse between the English subjects and the Low Countries to continue as before. We cannot conceive what made him open this subject to you, for certainly We never intended having it stopped, nor will We unless the Bang of England gives cause for it. You may say this to the Legate, whenever you have an opportunity, and let us hear as soon as possible how the King and Legate have taken your representations.—Malines (Mechlin), 25th February 1528.
French. Original draft. pp. 8.
26 Feb. 361. The Marquis de Villafranca (fn. n16) to the Emperor.
S. C. d. C. L. 16,
f. 314.
B. M. Add. 28,576,
f. 187.
There is a rumour that the King of England is making preparations for war, and intends attacking Coruña. Has written to the Governor of Galicia, inquiring whether there is any foundation for the report. Should it prove true, he (the Marquis) will go thither with his retainers and defend the country.—Corullon, 26th February 1528.
Signed: "El Marques de Villafranca."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From the Marques of Villa franca."
Spanish. Holograph, .. 1.


  • n1. Perez must have quitted Rome about the 10th of February, for his last letter from that city is dated the 8th.
  • n2. Leyva's letter to Sanchez is not in the Academy's volume, but the Kings, dated the 7th of February, is under No. 333, p. 580.
  • n3. Francoise de Montbel, widow of Charles de Lannoy.
  • n4. The same individual mentioned in Lope de Soria's letter No. 335.
  • n5. The name of this prelate, whose letters to Sanchez occur so often in this correspondence, was Bernardus Clesius or Bernard de Clos, as French writers erroneously call him. He was already bishop of Trent in Maximilian's time, and before the year 1519, as appears from various letters published by Le Glay, Negotiations, &c. In 1530, and after Charles' journey to Italy, he was created cardinal by Paul III. under the title of Sancti Stephani in Cœlia Monte. He died in 1539.
  • n6. His name was Gurrea, one of the principal families in Aragon.
  • n7. See No. 342, p. 590.
  • n8. The Fretto or Procida's Straits.
  • n9. The ambassador was Mons. de Migliau (or Veyre), whose arrival at Naples has already been recorded at page 401.
  • n10. Don Diego Lopez Pacheco, Duke of Escalona and Marquis of Villena. The letter is docketted "from the Marquis of Denia" by mistake.
  • n11. Not in the volume. It is the same alluded to in Sanchez' despatch of the 19th February, No. 351.
  • n12. Both these towns are on the road to Alicante, Valencia, and other ports of the eastern coast, at that time very much frequented by French and English traders.
  • n13. A note on the cover of this letter states: "Madame a ouvert ceste lettre inadvertemment, mais le contenu na este veu."
  • n14. This minute has no address, but it is evident from its contents that it was directed to Don Iñigo or to Madame's own ambassador in London.
  • n15. "Car la elite Majestyé n'est pas si petit Prince qu'on le deust blasonner (blasmer?) de telle sorte."
  • n16. Don Pedro de Toledo.