Spain: December 1530, 1-15

Pages 831-847

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1, Henry VIII, 1529-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1879.

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December 1530, 1-15

1 Dec. 520. Cardinal Santa Croce to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 850,
f. 164.
B.M. Add. 28,582,
f. 112.
Wrote a few days ago to the High Commander of Leon what was then known of Don Pedro de la Cueva's embassy, and what in all probability would be the Pope's answer. Having guessed right thus far, will now venture to prognosticate that the Council will not take place. Such is his firm belief; therefore he entreats the Emperor to consider well before a reply is made, whether now that the Pope's memorandum is forwarded, it is better to have regard to the inconveniences and dangers pointed out in that paper, and let the blame of the non-assembling of the Council fall on those who suggest them, or to insist on the demand without any certainty of success: his own impression is that unless the king of France for his own particular views consents to it, the Council will not assemble, &c.,—Rome, 1st December 1530.
Signed: "F. Cardinal S. +."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ, Catholicæ Maiestati."
Spanish. Holograph, p. 1.
1 Dec. 521. Clement VII. to the Signory of Venice.
S.E.L. 1,308,
f. 122.
B.M. Add. 28,582,
f. 110.
Copy of the brief about the Council.
Latin. Contemporary copy. pp. 3.
4 Dec. 522. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u.-Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P.Fasc.,
c. 226, No. 47.
The bishop of Rochester (Fisher) has lately written a book in favour of the Queen, which is here enclosed. (fn. n1) The Queen prays Your Majesty to forward it immediately to the Pope, and at the same time remind His Holiness of the promises mentioned in my last despatch. (fn. n2)
On Tuesday, the eve of St. Andrew, the duke of Norfolk invited the Papal Nuncio to come and see him at his house, and on his arrival there told him that the King had desired him to request that he would write to His Holiness about the Cardinal's hat for the Auditor of the Papal Chamber (Ghinucci). Having said this, the Duke took the Nuncio apart, and told him that the King felt great surprise at his not having been informed of the letters received from Rome, and was still more surprised and annoyed at what His Holiness had said to his ambassadors on the subject of a last monition of excommunication (reaggravatoyre) and the dismissal of the Lady from Court. This (the Duke added) was a most outrageous measure on the part of His Holiness, and such as he (the King) had not deserved on any grounds, since he had always shewn himself a dutiful son of the Church, and had never offended him intentionally in any respect. The Duke went on for some time in the same strain, praising the King's conduct in the affair, and so forth, &c.
The Nuncio apologised, and said that respecting the first point, whereof the King complained, his reason for not informing him immediately of the contents of the letters received from Rome was to avoid as much as possible the violent and threatening language with which the King was in the habit of loading him, and also that the Pope, hearing of the King's manner of proceeding [towards his Nuncio], had expressly instructed him not to give himself further trouble about vindicating his conduct. The Pope felt that he had more than sufficiently acquitted himself of his obligations to the king of England, and had only to consider now his duty to God, and his own conscience, and how best to ensure justice to the parties concerned. With regard to the other point, the Nuncio said the Pope had lately written that he could not possibly allow any further delay in the affair, he was so pressed to see justice done that he must not only attend to the two points above mentioned, but also prepare a definitive sentence in the Queen's case.
The Duke thanked the Nuncio very much for thus acquainting him with the Pope's views and intentions, a summary of which, written in cipher, he said, the King had already received [from his ambassadors at Rome], and after many courteous words, begged him to act on this occasion the part of a good ambassador, and avoid sending unpleasant reports. Also to write that very same day by the courier, whom the King was sending to France, and thence to Rome.
The Nuncio tells me that on this occasion the Duke did not scruple to affirm, and actually to take his oath, that the King had only learnt four days before that cardinal Therbes (fn. n3) had been pushing his affairs at Rome, or that a brief had been issued against himself at Bologna, and yet it is now more than six weeks ago that the King himself knew of the brief, and complained of it to the Nuncio.
The latter is well aware, and agrees with me, that what I have written to Your Majesty is a positive fact, namely, that mild treatment only hardens these people, but severity softens them. As long as His Holiness acted graciously towards them they kept abusing and threatening him in the most outrageous manner; now that he has begun to tighten the reins they are as mild and humble as possible. The Nuncio, therefore, has written to His Holiness more forcibly than he ventured to do before, that for the maintenance of his authority in this kingdom, as well as for other sufficient reasons the Queen's case ought at once to be brought to a final conclusion. His letter [to the Pope] accompanies the present one; I pray Your Majesty to have it forwarded [to Rome] together with the book [of bishop Fisher] above mentioned, and if Your Majesty would be pleased again to remind him of this business, I have no doubt that the recommendation in the present state of things would be much more efficacious than it has been hitherto, now that the trial is in a more advanced stage.
The cardinal of York died on St. Andrew's Day about 40 miles from here, at a place where the last king Richard was defeated and killed. Both lie buried in the same church, which the people begin already to call "the Tyrants' grave." (fn. n4)
Many are the reports current as to the cause of his death. Some say that for several days after his arrest he would take no nourishment whatever, and that after that he either took, or was given, something to hasten his end. On Monday the captain of the guard arrived to conduct him to London, and both supped together cheerfully enough. Soon after, however, the Cardinal was taken violently ill, so much so that it was thought he could not live through the night; yet he lingered till Wednesday, and died like a good Christian, protesting, at the time of receiving the Holy Sacrament, that he had never undertaken anything against his master, the King. There has been a great deal going on at Court since his death; but his ecclesiastical benefices have not yet been disposed of. It is believed the King will retain them for some time, and pocket the revenues.
The King has recently granted permission to the Rodians (knights of St. John of Rhodes) to settle at Martha (Malta), as I hear from the knight who came over on this business. (fn. n5)
With regard to the translation into English of the papers of the Universities, which the King, as already stated, ordered to be made, I am told that the idea has now been abandoned, owing to their containing expressions and propositions open to criticism. They have had instead an attestation printed in English, and widely circulated to the effect that the eight (fn. n6) universities named in a former despatch have voted in favour of the King. A Spanish translation of it is here enclosed. I should like to have got hold of the book itself, which I hear was also in print, but the King has ordered every copy of it to be burnt. (fn. n7) I beg leave to be excused if the fear of omitting facts, which may hereafter be of some importance, makes me report on superfluous things. (fn. n8) —London, 4th December 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Indorsed: "Received at Cologne on the 18th."
French. Holograph, pp. 5.
4 Dec. 523. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 850,
ff. 127–8.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 113.
(Cipher:) After my despatch of the 28th ult., we heard that the Pope—who was very much concerned at the mention of the Council—had said to some of his most intimate friends: "It is very hard that after making enemies of the kings of France and England the Emperor should have me dragged before a Council." On another occasion he is reported to have said: "After the many tribulations and penalties as I have had to undergo for the Emperor's sake, nothing is left for me but to go through this Council and hell." As this poor man is disliked by his own people (who consider the Council to be their ruin) we thought at first that these words were put into this Pope's mouth intentionally; but we have since learnt that some of the cardinals have actually sneered at the proposal of a General Council, and offered to bet ten to one that it will never take place. (fn. n9)
Relates another long conversation which he, Don Pedro [de la Cueva] and Andrew del Burgo had with the Pope on this very subject.
(Common writing:) Instead of Capua, who is ill with the gout, the governor of Bologna (Gambaro) seems to be the person now designated to go to Your Majesty.
Affairs at Geneva. The Swiss Lutherans are decidedly the allies of the king of France, as if a most Christian king could make alliance with heretics, who have desecrated churches and monasteries, pulled down crucifixes, and the images of Our Lady and the Saints!
In consequence of the Lutherans having taken possession of that town an ambassador from the duke of Savoy (Carlo III.) has come to implore the help of the Pope against the people who have seized his towns and overrun his dominions. He brought a letter of introduction for me, and said he had seen Antonio de Leyva at Piacenza, and that he had offered to march immediately against the Lutherans of Geneva if Your Majesty and His Holiness would give him some infantry as he had none under his immediate command.
(Cipher:) The Pope told me in secret that Fernando Gonzaga is much afraid that the marquis del Guasto (Vasto), wants the charge he holds. Replied to him that he might reassure that captain; the Marquis had come from Naples to Rome on a complimentary visit to Don Pedro de La Cueva, and for nothing else.
(Common writing:) The cause of England is proceeding, and the English ambassador has been to complain to the Pope of his having been summoned to appear. No doubt he thought that the suspension of 20 days was to be perpetual. I said to His Holiness that the ambassador was as unreasonable in this as in the principal cause. Still they go on threatening and saying that what we (the Imperialists) consider to be for the best solution of the case is decidedly for the worst. (fn. n10) I will go on prosecuting the cause according to Your Majesty's orders.
From Spain they have sent the marriage treaty between prince Arthur [and queen Katharine], which comes very opportunely, and contains all that is wanted. They have not sent me that of her marriage with the other brother (Henry), which is also much wanted, nor the bull of dispensation [for this second marriage]. I have written again to the president [of the Council of Castille] who, however, sends word that Dr. Ortiz is coming soon. I pray Your Majesty to hasten the dispatch of the remaining papers.
I have mentioned in another despatch that the duke of Ferrara had prevented the English ambassadors from procuring seals in his dominions, (fn. n11) and now I am told that the duke of Mantua (Federico Gonzaga) has done the same.
Rodrigo Niño writes to me that he does not think it advisable to take out the brief which had been agreed upon to allow the universities of Bologna and Padua to give opinion in the case, for he fears they will give it against us. I am of the same mind, for certainly there is more to lose than to gain by the attempt, especially as it is well known how the opinions they already have were obtained. Their activity and the money they spend procure them as many opinions in their favour as they want. I hear that the English ambassador, searching in the Papal library, has found some authority which is antagonistic to his plea, and that he is very much crestfallen (cabezcaido) in consequence. I shall find out what it is.
(Cipher:) Miçer Visconti has been at Loretto and at Venice, and taken his departure for France. Cannot learn what he did in Venice, but his journey under present circumstances gives matter for reflection. That it is more or less connected with Francis' plans about Milan I have not the least doubt.
The Pope said the other day that he had letters from his Nuncio in France announcing that the King agreed to the Council, but objected to the place of its meeting, viz., Mantua or Milan, and proposed Turin instead. He had, moreover, complained to the Papal Nuncio of the Pope wishing him to contribute money in order to take the Imperial army out of Italy. It was no business of his, he said; let the Pope who sent for the Imperialists provide money to send them away.
(Common writing:) With regard to the latter subject, the contribution, I can only say that the Cardinal (Pompeo Colonna) has promised to send us 30,000 ducats almost immediately, and the remaining 20,000 before Christmas.
(Cipher:) Burgo called the other day on the duke of Albany, and had a conversation with him respecting this same contribution. Next day the Duke came to me, accompanied by the Escuyer François, called count de Pontremoli, (fn. n12) and as Don Pedro [de la Cueva] and Burgo were with me at the time, we discussed general politics. The Duke shewed us the letters he had received from his master, the King, and gave me the enclosed copy of them. (fn. n13) Beyond this he said very little indeed on the subject, so little that we all wondered when he was gone what he could have come about; for on his first arrival at Rome he had told us distinctly that his instructions were to promote the general enterprize against the Turk, but that he knew nothing of the particular defensive alliance, though he expected an answer from France soon, &c.
(Common writing:) The ambassador of the duke of Ferrara called also on me, and said that his master had offered to contribute, but had not yet specified the sum; that (he said) would very much depend on the Pope's decision respecting the agreement (concordia) that had been proposed.
Marriage of the duke of Mantua. Waits for the arrival of count Nicola (sic) who is to bring Your Majesty's commands; meanwhile the proceedings have been stopped.
Malatesta is gradually disarming, he has only 200 men at Perugia.
Spoke to His Holiness concerning prothonotary Gattinara; (fn. n14) he promised that his opponent should be compelled to make terms (concordia) as he (the Pope) would not allow of any suit against him.
Gave the Pope the other message about the marriage of Monferrato and he promised to attend to it, but said that up to this hour nobody had said a word to him about it. He knows, however, that the Dowager Marchioness had stated that she did not choose to marry her daughter in France, not even to the duke of Orleans, and they say that when this answer was reported to the King he was exceedingly angry.
Sancti Quatuor hesitated about accepting the present of 2,000 ducats which Your Majesty has sent him; the Pope, however, will persuade him to take them, for he has been heard to say that if a suitable estate is for sale in Naples he will buy it immediately in order that he and his family may become at once your vassals, (fn. n15) and lest people should think that he refuses the gift to escape serving Your Majesty.—Rome, 4th December 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
5 Dec. 524. The Same to the High Commander. (fn. n16)
S. E. L. 850,
f. 129.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 128.
The Council will be convoked if nothing occurs in the meantime to prevent it. It is not to be concluded therefrom that these people like and approve of it; on the contrary here, and everywhere else, as I presume, the great argument is that it is only intended for the pacification of Germany, to reconstitute the strength of the Empire, and make Your Majesty greater than he is, &c.
Relates his conversation with the Milanese ambassador.—Bishop of Faença, &c.
L'Elu Baiart (the Pope says) has left France for Flanders on a mission, as it is presumed, to Madame Margaret. For God's sake, if there is to be a conference or interview between the Emperor and the king of France let us know beforehand, that we may take due measures for informing the Pope. Let it not be like the last time, when for want of proper notice on our part the Pope heard first from the French what was going on at Cambray.
A courier has this moment arrived from Ocaña with the news that the archbishop of Saragossa had died, or was on the point of dying.—Rome, 5th December 1530.
P.S.—Has this very evening solicited the briefs for England, but His Holiness as well as the rest of the world seem to be bewildered at the idea of the Council. He has, however, promised that to-morrow, without fault, the business shall be attended to.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original, p. 2.
6 Dec. 525. Clement VII. to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. L. 2,
f. 2.
Conc, y Disc. Ecles,
f. 131.
Will write more fully by the messenger he proposes to send shortly. This is only to say that he has written to the Christian princes, as he (the Emperor) will hear from his Legate, and that trusting to his prudence and kindness, he has decided to follow his advice implicitly in this matter of the Council. (fn. n17) —Rome, 6th December 1530.
Addressed: "Charissimo in Christo filio nostro Carolo, Romanorum Imperatori semper augusto."
Indorsed: "To his Majesty. From the Pope in his own hand. On the matter of the Council."
Latin. Holograph, p. 1.
6 Dec. 526. King Henry to the Pope. (fn. n18)
S. E. L. 2,016,
f. 192, v.
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 132.
Published in Burnet's History of the Reformation, vol. vi., p. 41, as well as in Brewer, Letters and Papers, &c., vol. iv., part 3, p. 3055.
6 Dec. 527. The Emperor to the Empress.
S. E. L. 496,
f. 75.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 137.
Wrote many days ago, and had the enclosed despatches made out, but waiting until something definitive could be said respecting the various affairs We have in hand, the sending off of this present messenger has been naturally delayed.
Respecting matters of Faith, all our labours and fatigues, which I can assure you were considerable, have been in vain. Not only do the Lutherans persist in their errors, but they are so obstinately bound to them, that although the better to persuade them the convocation of a General Council and other measures was offered to them, they have refused to live in the meantime as Catholics, and the negociations are accordingly broken off. The duke of Jassa (Saxony) and the rest of the Lutheran princes went away without taking any resolution, and I remained in order to close the Diet, and see what could be done to help and assist those who have remained true to their Faith, and to endeavour to bring the others to a knowledge of the erroneous nature of their doctrines. The Diet was closed on the 22nd ult., and all that has been done comes to this, that the Catholic princes and electors there assembled have resolved that a General Council shall, with the Pope's permission, be assembled as soon as possible, &c. It was also agreed there that should the Turk invade Germany, they will furnish 40,000 infantry and 8,000 horse, paid for six months; and should the war last longer or become offensive against the said Turk, 20,000 foot and 4,000 horse for three years.
After settling other affairs relating to the administration of Germany, and arranging with the electors for the election of my brother, Ferdinand, as king of the Romans, I left Augsburg on the 23rd. (Cipher:) It has been agreed that instead of the election taking place, as before, in Francfort, which is now afflicted by the plague, and especially full of Lutherans, it should be held at Cologne, where I purpose being before Christmas, the day fixed for the election. From thence I shall go to Aquisgran (Ayx la Chapelle), two days' journey beyond where the coronation will take place, the King returning to Germany, whilst I go to my estates of Flanders to wait for the Pope's answer to my request about the Council. According as this may be, I will decide what is best for the convocation of the said Council, and get through other business, so as to be quite free towards summer, and return to Spain as soon as possible. My journey must be by sea, and from these parts of Flanders, which is not an easy matter, since besides the perils of the navigation, the king of England is ill-disposed towards me, and I am not over sure of France either. Even if I should prepare a large fleet, I might be obliged, by stress of weather, to touch at the one coast or the other.
Italy, thank God, is peaceful just now. True, we are occasionally troubled by the Spanish infantry, 5,000 or 6,000 in all, who are so undisciplined that they are continually mutinying and creating disturbance; (fn. n19) but we are now in treaty with the Pope as to how and where they are to be quartered, and as soon as the money to pay their arrears shall be collected, they are to march to the frontiers of Hungary.
The better to promote the election of my brother, I have been obliged to spend various sums, which expense, added to a personal debt of mine to the Belzares (Welzers), compels me, much against my will, to dispose of part of the money received for the ransom of the sons of Francis. You will give orders that out of the 1,200,000 paid for that object, 200,000 should be laid aside for this purpose.—Spira (Spires), 6th December 1530.
Signed: "Yo el Rey."
Addressed: "To the most Serene, most High, and most mighty Lady, Empress and Queen, my dearest and most beloved wife."
Spanish. Original, pp. 3.
6 Dec. (?) 528. The Same to the Archbishop of Toledo. (fn. n20)
S. E. c. d. c. L. 21,
f. 301.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 141.
Thanks him for his letter of the 15th of August.
Affairs of Spain.
Is glad to hear that he takes so much interest in the cause of the queen of England.
Indorsed: "Despatch for Castille.—Spira, 6th December."
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of secretary Idiaquez. pp. 3.
7 Dec. 529. Don Pedro de la Cueva to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 850,
f. 168.
B. M .Add. 28,582,
f. 142.
At this very moment, whilst with the Cardinal in his room, secretary Sanga called, bearing himself very scornfully and saying that His Holiness has letters from the Vasionensis (fn. n20) to the effect that Your Imperial Majesty would not give sentence in the affair of Modena. Such, at least, was his belief. The Pope (he said) would be extremely sorry if Your Majesty refused to arbitrate in this affair, and Sanga begged us to write, &c.—Rome, 7th December 1530.
Signed: "Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Addressed: "To the most Invincible Emperor, our Sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 1¼.
7 Dec. 530. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 849, f. 9.
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 143.
Relates various conversations he has had lately with the Pope concerning the Council. Most of the cardinals, as the Pope assured him, were against the Council, and hated the very name of it. Some of them even had tried to dissuade him from it; others wished to know how they were to vote. Not one of them approved of it, and yet he (Mai) talked them over in such a way that all voted for it, &c.—Rome, 7th December 1530.
(fn. n21)
Signed: "Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Addressed: "To the most Invincible Emperor, our Sovereign Lord."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 3.
7 Dec. 531. Jo. Ant. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 146.
Gonzaga is pleased to hear the agreement lately made with His Holiness respecting the quartering of the Imperial army. He cannot, however, withdraw his troops from the Sienese territory unless he gets money to pay their arrears.
The Pope has written to him (Gonzaga) announcing his determination to convoke a General Council, according to His Majesty's wishes.—Rome, 7th December 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muxetula."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
7 Dec. 532. Divorce.
S. Pat. Re. Trat. c.
Ing. L. 4, f. 128.
Opinion of the college of St. Bartholomew, in the university of Salamanca, respecting the matrimonial cause, or an answer to the 14 doubts (dubia) springing therefrom. Signed at Salamanca on the 7th of December 1530, before Antonio de Valencia, bachelor in decretals, and by Apostolical authority public notary, and the following witnesses, expressly called for the purpose: Diego Velez, layman of the diocese of Burgos; Fernando Miguel, and Matheo Perez, all natives of this city.
Follow the signatures: Francisco Tello-de Sandoval, Rector.—Doctor Collado.—Jhoannes de San Millan, magister.—Lictus Sotomayor; Lictus Pobladura; Licti Pedrus de Salazar, Ludovicus Briceño, Franciscus de Montalvo, Beltrandus de Galarza; Petrus Guerrero, magister. (fn. n22)
Latin. Original, pp. 30.
13 Dec. 533. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 848,
f. 21.
B. M. Add. 28,579
f. 277.
With the news of the Turk forwarded by cardinal [Pompeo] Colonna, he (Mai) went to His Holiness, accompanied by Cardinal [d'Osma], [Don Garcia de Loaysa], Don Pedro [de la Cueva], and Muxetula. Went thither thus attended in consequence of the duke of Albany and the Venetian ambassador having said in public—and also repeated it to His Holiness—that the Turk was no longer to be feared, and that they both wished to know what the Imperial ambassadors thought about it. According to their informant, the Pope on hearing this had observed that this Turkish affair was one to be taken in hand radically (de raiz), and that it was necessary to deliberate first whether war was to be openly declared against him, or whether an agreement (concordia) of some sort should not be entered into. To the latter opinion the Pope himself seems to adhere, for in the audience which he gave us (the Imperial ambassadors), he expressed himself in nearly the same terms.
Preparations to attack Bracciano. This time most in earnest.
The Mantuan ambassador, &c.
There is a report that the duke of Milan [Francesco Sforza] is about to enter into an agreement with the Switzers. His ambassador (Morone) confirms the fact, and says that he intends sending some one to the Emperor to ask for his advice and permission on this head, and has already consulted His Holiness, who not only approves of the measure, but encourages him to it. (fn. n23)
Has heard of the riot (sedition) at Genoa, and of Bartholomeo Spinola making levies on the frontiers of the Duchy [of Milan]. All this is owing, they say, to the tyranny of Andrea Doria, who is very much hated in that city. The other day one of his relatives publicly insulted and wounded a citizen, and yet the would-be assassin escaped without punishment.
Leyva and Scalenga have written to say that they will take good care that the Jew (fn. n24) does not pass through their territory without being arrested and searched. From Rodrigo Niño, who was told to have him closely watched in Venice, we have no answer yet, neither has Andrea del Burgo heard from Trent, whither similar warnings have been sent.
Fernando Gonzaga has come to Rome about the reform and quartering of the Imperial forces, a thing which is very much wanted just now. He complains that Alarcon will not lend a hand in it, on the plea that he has no direct orders from Your Majesty.—Rome, 13th December 1530.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original, pp. 3.
13 Dec. 534. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
ff. 132–3.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 148.
Prothonotary Gambara, (fn. n25) who is the Nuncio designated to go to Your Majesty, is expected here to-morrow, and they say that immediately after he will set out [for Flanders].
(Cipher) Hears from the Pope that the duke of Albany has taken off the mask. He openly told him last night that his master wishes ardently for the duchy of Milan, urging that the peace of Christendom will be ensured and firmly established thereby, and that then will be the time to treat about the Turk, &c. The Pope observed that such was Francis' immoderate passion in these matters, and so great his ambition, that he ought to be undeceived at once as to this, and recommended to study more the interests of Christianity.
It seems to me that these cardinals, though they have all voted for the Council, are nevertheless adverse to it, for they keep saying that it is a great mistake, and that no good will come out of it; that the Lutherans will no more submit to the determinations of this Council than they have to others; that instead of Lutheranism being put down other and greater heresies will spring up, &c.—Rome, 13th December 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muxetula."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original, pp. 4.
14 Dec. 535. Miçer Mai to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 849,
B.M. Add..28,582,
f. 150.
Encloses letters from cardinal Colonna received on the 4th. The news from Naples is far from good. Suspects that the Cardinal and Alarcon are not on good terms. Reports conversation with the duke of Albany, and afterwards with His Holiness, respecting the Turkish war. Among other things the latter said that it was important to consider whether peace or war was to be fixed upon. He (the Pope) thought, all things considered, that if peace could be obtained on honourable terms it was preferable to war. If we, the Imperial ambassadors, believed that the king of France would help, we were very much mistaken, because all he wants is to profit by time and circumstances so as to get anyhow the duchy of Milan. Hitherto His Holiness had amused him with fair words, now it was time to undeceive him.
Three hundred of the Pope's troops are still inside Bracciano laying siege to the castle. Two hundred more are to be sent thither, as the Pope says that it will not do to have such a nuisance close to Rome.
Four days ago the Mantuan ambassador called, and said to me that Your Lordship would be glad to hear the news brought by count Niccolo, who had just returned from Germany; that the justice of his master's (the Duke) cause was acknowledged; and yet I have heard from the Queen (Isabella) that she and Doña Giulia had been summoned to appear before a magistrate, &c.
The Milanese ambsasador (Morone) tells me that the Duke is about to make a defensive alliance with the Catholic cantons of Switzerland. His son, the Bishop, will remain here as ambassador of Francesco Sforza, for his father is old and infirm and wishes to retire.
Disturbances in Genoa principally brought on by the two Spinolas (Agostino and Bartholomeo).
The marquis Alarcon has arrived in Naples.
The cause of England is being prosecuted, and not one term is lost. The principal papers are still wanted. I write to-night by a courier to the Empress and to the president [of the Council of Castille]. I asked the Pope for the briefs of the new inhibitions and that of the separation [from the Lady]. He promised to give them provided the reporter (relator) of the cause would speak about it in Consistory. I spoke to the reporter (relator) and he appeared in Consistory, but as cardinals d'Osma and Ancona did not attend, it was put off to another day. I mention these details that Your Lordship may be informed from hour to hour of what is being done in this affair.
Antonio de Leyva and Scalenga answered my letters. Neither had yet heard of Gabriello, the converted Jew, but were on their guard. I have not yet had letters from Niño, or Burgo from Trent.
I heard the day before yesterday that letters had really been received from the king of England asking for cardinals' hats for the Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (Ghinucci) and for Casale, and that the proposition had been brought forward in Consistory and the discussion left for the next day. Called on the Pope and told him my mind about it. He promised me that he would not do it, but as a certain cardinal afterwards gave me a different account of what had passed in Consistory, I went about all night visiting those of our party (for this I dared not do in the day time from fear of the matter being divulged), and inducing them to dissuade (desviar) the electors from giving favourable votes, which most of them promised to do, although few dare to take charge of the affair from fear of making an enemy of him (the Auditor.) I have, moreover, caused Miçer Andrea to speak to His Holiness, and so has Muxetula also, so that we have good hopes of succeeding. I will go on with the affair as secretly as possible, although secrecy is almost out of the question when a matter has to be treated with so many people and in Rome—Rome, 14th December 1530.
Spanish. Original, pp. 5.
14 Dec. 536. Don Pedro de la Cueva to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 849
f. 15.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 156.
Notwithstanding our constant applications, the despatches and instructions for the person who is to go to His Majesty from Rome, have not yet been made out; and yet it is now 17 days ago that the measure was agreed to in Consistory, and the man himself appointed.
The Pope proposed yesterday with very good-will, as we are assured, two cardinals, hats for two ecclesiastics recommended by the king of England. Although His Holiness told me distinctly that the proposition was shaped in such a way that the measure would not be carried, (fn. n26) yet we have all of us been obliged to speak to the cardinals of our party to oppose the election.
Malatesta wishes to be friendly, and has made certain overtures. Whether this is caused by the fear of our army, now approaching the Perugino, or from some other cause it is difficult to say.—Rome, 14th December 1530.
Signed: "Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Addressed: "To the most Illustrious Lord the High Commander of Leon, &c."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
537. Mai to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 138.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 108.
Explains some of his expressions in, the despatch of the 7th.
Advices from France say that the secretary of the Vayvod had returned thither from England owing to the king of the latter country having referred him to king Francis about his affairs. However it is pretty sure that neither the one nor the other will give more than words.
The king of England in answer to the Emperor's request has answered that he will gladly help in this enterprize of the Turk if the divorce trial is remitted to England, or at least to France, whose king they allege is in nowise open to suspicion. They complain, however, of the Pope and say that they are not bound to help him as if the cause were his.
Encloses letters from Sancho Bravo.
At the Pope's request writes in commendation of cardinal Medici, who, it is thought, will settle down the moment he becomes rich through Church preferment. The Pope would like something for him in the archbishopric of Seville, and should the cardinal of Aux have died, as reported, (fn. n27) he would certainly make him (Medici) his legate at Avignon.
Encloses a memorial about the Turk which secretary Sanga has just sent in.
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
14 Dec. 538. Garcia de Loaysa to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 124.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 158.
What has occurred since his last is not of great importance, and yet is worth knowing. The king of England has pressingly begged the Pope to confer cardinals' hats on the Auditor of his Apostolic Chamber (Ghinucci), and a brother of Casale once his ambassador at Rome. He wrote in their favour not only to the Pope but also to all the members of this Sacred College, asking them to grant his wishes and have them elected. His Holiness actually proposed and warmly recommended them on Friday last, and seemed desirous that his Auditor, at least, should be made a cardinal He (Loaysa) was not present on the occasion, but was much scandalized at hearing of it. Believes the Auditor to be a very wicked man, and to have behaved iniquitously to the Emperor in this attempted divorce of the Queen, his aunt. Bagged Cueva, Muxetula, and Miçer Mai to speak to the Pope conjointly or separately, and tell him that should a man of this sort be promoted to such dignity in the Church his election would undoubtedly reflect dishonour on the cause of God and the Apostolic See, and that the Emperor would have good reason to wonder and complain thereof. Had the king of England solicited a cardinal's hat for one of his own subjects, a man of good conduct and learning, His Holiness would be quite right in granting his request, but as the application is made on behalf of an Italian, the king of England has no cause to be offended if it is refused.
He himself made the same remarks to secretary Sanga, and begged him to repeat them to the Pope. The latter's answer to Muxetula and to Miçer Mai was that they were in the right, and that he (the Pope) had not proposed the two candidates of the king of England with the intention of really making them cardinals. Such intention, he protested, he had never had, nor would he ever have.
Begged the ambassadors to speak to some of the elder cardinals and request them to vote against the English candidature in the Consistory which was to assemble next day. All these manœuvres are necessary to prevent the creation of these cardinals, for the Pope is in small matters the most reserved man he has ever seen; his thoughts as difficult to read as if they were couched in cipher. Has often been on the point of asking for his recall and to be sent to Naples, because it pains him to see the reserve, the malice, and the cowardice of this Pope. Has, however, refrained from doing so, because he thinks after all that in great affairs of State he may be relied upon as the friend and father of the Emperor. This in a certain measure reconciles him to his position.
Suspects that the Pope has been pleased with the application of the king of England, because should it be rejected he has good reason to refuse similar demands from the Emperor. The Pope's excuse for not doing what the king of England wants him to do is that the General Council being so near at hand, it would be inopportune now to create new cardinals; which excuse holds equally good against the Emperor as against the king of England. Other reasons, however, will be found to keep off the king of England and the Auditor.
This very day the English ambassadors came to visit him (Loaysa), and told him that their king had the creation of the Auditor much at heart, but would waive his claim for the other, Casale. (fn. n28) —Rome, 14th December 1530.
Spanish. Holograph.


  • n1. See No. 509, p. 818.
  • n2. "Levesque de Rochester a dernierement accheve ung livre, &c." Different from the one printed at Alcalá, in the month of August 1530. The title of it is Gravissimœ atque exactissimœ illustrissimarum totius Italiæ ac Galliœ Academiarum censurœ efficacissimis etiam quorundam doctissimorum virorum argumentationibus explicatœ, &c., London, Mense Aprili, An. Dñi. MDXXX.
  • n3. Written Therbes in the original, and Scherbes in Bradford, p. 334, but there can be no doubt that "Tarbes" is here meant, for Gabriel de Grammont, bishop of that see in the south of France, and who had been some time ambassador of Francis in England, was created cardinal in 1529.
  • n4. "Et gissent tous deux en une mesme eglize, la quelle l'on commence desja [a] appeller la sepulture des tyrans."
  • n5. "Le Roy a ces jours ottroye aux Rodiens son placet sur leur residence de Marthe (sic) ainsi que le m'a dit le chevalier que l'estoit (sic) venu poursuyvre."
  • n6. Seven?
  • n7. "Voyant ceux-cy que en la translation de la determination des universites l' on eut peu trouver plusieurs choses pour contrerouler (sic), yl ce (se) sont desporte de ce faire, faysant imprimer en angloys une attestation qu'il [s] ont semé partout, de la quelle envoye un double a votre majesté translaté en Castillian. J'eusse bien voulu recouvrer le livre, qu' est en icelle mentionné, mays le Roy a fait commander qu'il fussent trestous brulés."
  • n8. The translation here mentioned is not appended to Chapuys' despatch; but I find instead one in Italian, described as the "Edict published by Henry VIII. in London when he broke with the court of Rome; Westminster, 12th September 1530," with the following note: "A remmettre dans la lettre du Sieur Chapuys du ler Decembre 1530. No. 47." As there is no despatch under this date (No. 46 being of the 27th November) there is sufficient reason to think that this document is the one alluded to, and that instead of ler Decembre, the clerk who docketted the document ought to have written "the 4th," which is the date of this one.
  • n9. "Y que otra vez en esta misma sentencia dijo que solo le quedaba a pasar por Vuestra Majestad, el Concilio y el Infierno, y como este pobre señor es malquisto, etiam de los suyos que todo lo tienen por uno, no dimos luego credito á esto hasta que supimos que algunos de los cardenales hacian burla deste concilio y apostaban diez por ciento que no seria (se haria ?)"
  • n10. "Todavia van amenazando que esto que pensamos que es bien, es peor."
  • n11. "Desvió los sellos que en sus tierras eran idolos (ido) á buscar los embajadores de Inglaterra."
  • n12. See above, pp. 635, 653, and 664.
  • n13. No doubt those under Nos. 505 and 507.
  • n14. Bartholómeo? See vol. iii., part 2, pp. 201, 213, 225, 231, &c.
  • n15. "Dixo Santiquatro que no crea nadi (sic) que lo dexa por no ser servidor de Va. Mt. antes quiere si le ofrescen mercar un stado en Napoles para ser el y toda su generation vasallos de V. Mt. y que no quiere mas Florencia."
  • n16. An abridged copy of this despatch is in the same volume, fol. 124.
  • n17. A duplicate copy, fol. 131.
  • n18. A transcript of this document from the Papal Archives at Rome, made by order of Philip II., is in the Berzosa Collection at Simancas, and the English abstract in Bergenroth's volume as above. See also Brewer, vol. iv., part 3, pp. 3055–6.
  • n19. "Estan tan mal dotrinados que hacen cosas muy feas y recias."
  • n20. Don Alonso Fonseca.
  • n21. The bishop of Vaison, Girolamo Selade. See above, pp. 17–25.
  • n22. On the margin of this despatch, and against each of its paragraphs, are notes in the handwriting of secretary Eraso being no doubt intended as answers to each of them. This first has the following: "With regard to this point it will be required, &c."
  • n23. The Emperor has never said a word to the King on this subject, on the contrary, whenever an opportunity has occurred, he has destroyed all hopes he might have of becoming the master of Milan.
  • n24. Marco Gabriello. See No. 513, p. 825.
  • n25. The governor of Bologna, elsewhere called "Gambaro;" more correctly "Umberto di Gambara."
  • n26. "Y aunque su Beatitud me dixo despues que no era dalle [al Rey] ninguno."
  • n27. If by cardinal of Aux François Guillaume de Castelnau, cardinal of Narbonne, and Papal Legate at Avignon in 1514 be meant, his death did not take place until 1540. See Gallia Christiana, vol. i., p. 1001.
  • n28. Printed in Heine, Briefe an Kaiser Karl V. gestchrieben von seinen Beichtvater, Berlin, 1848.