Spain: December 1530, 15-31

Pages 847-864

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 1, Henry VIII, 1529-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1879.

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December 1530, 15-31

17 Dec. 539. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor
K. u. K. Haus-
Wien.Rep.P.Fusc .,
c. 226. No. 50.
I have recently sent Your Majesty a book by the bishop of Rochester (Fisher), who has since finished another,† (fn. n1) replying to all the fresh arguments of the opposite party. There is nothing the Bishop would like so much as to be able to get copies of all the tracts written in favour of the King, that he might reply to them. I have, therefore, at the Bishop's suggestion and request, written more than once to Messire Mai [at Rome], to try by every possible means to get copies of the writings presented by the other side to the Pope. I have no doubt that Messire Mai will do all he can in this matter; but it would considerably quicken his zeal and better countenance this request to His Holiness if Your Majesty would write to him about it. I have been told that the King, hearing that the placarded proclamation (escripteau), of which I lately sent Your Majesty a translation, has led to the people now discussing freely this matter of his divorce, (fn. n2) on which they had hitherto kept perfect silence, and that this very proclamation has considerably increased their desire to see the book mentioned (fn. n3) in it, and that it has also led to a defamatory libel against the chancellor of Canterbury, being posted on to the door of the cathedral and elsewhere; or fearing, perhaps, lest the author of the pamphlet might in reply to the said placard publish to his prejudice many of the practices and schemings (plusieurs practiques et autres choses) that have been afloat here, he (the King) has issued an order that all similar placards shall be burnt. This I know for certain, and therefore in my opinion no time should be lost in taking the necessary steps which I recently pointed out to Your Majesty, the Queen herself renewing her petition on this head.
The book mentioned in the placard is said to be the work of an English priest (prestre) resding abroad (della la mer ), and addressed to the King himself touching the divorce affair, and other matters connected with him and his kingdom, the whole question being treated in a masterly and most complete manner. But for this book, which tells the truth too plainly to please the King — the assembly of doctors convened here this last summer, as I informed Your Majesty, for the suppression of certain books would never have been held, for the King, the Lady (Anne), and her father would only have been too glad, in order to spite the Pope, that any Lutheran books, specially directed against him, should have been published here. (fn. n4) It was also principally on account of this book that the merchants mentioned in my last despatch, and among them a brother of its author, were condemned publicly to throw them into the flames.
I hear on most reliable authority that the King, being afraid that the said priest (presbytre) will write still more boldy against him, and hoping to make him retract what he has already said in this matter, has offered him several good appointments and a seat in his Council, if the will come over
The Queen has been told that in spite of the bold front which the King puts on he is in reality very much afraid that judgment will be given against him " a contumace" and has therefore appointed proctors (procureurs) to appear for him at the trial [in Rome]. I hardly know, however, whether to believe this or not, my information on this last subject not being quite so authentic.
On the arrival of the news of Your Majesty's journey to Flanders the King at once gave orders for the frontiers to be placed in a state of defence, and sent the master of the artillery to Calais immediately.
The news of the taking of Strigonie (Gran) has not been at all welcome to the King, who has accordingly caused a report to be circulated through Court that the Turks had actually succeeded in relieving Buda.
The herald (Guyenne) has been here for five or six days, accompanied by a trumpeter (ung trompette). He has come to announce the rejoicings and tournaments to take place at Paris on the coronation of the Queen, and to invite thither those who would like to try their skill. Thinks the herald will find the King better disposed to bring forward a new queen here than do honour to the queen of France. — London, 17th December 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Holograph. pp. 2½.
19 Dec. 540. Don Pedro de la Cueva to Commander.
S.E.L. 849,
B.M. Add .28, 582,
The negotiation about the cardinals' hats goes on well, at least as far as the archbishops of Santiago (Tavera) and Seville are concerned, for I do not believe that Toledo (Fonseca) will get his.
Gambara will be ready to start between this and to-morrow.
Most of the cardinals have been exceedingly amiable with me, and done all they could to forward the negociations. I should think that letters of thanks to Monte, Cesarini, Exidio, (fn. n5) and Medici would not be amiss, as well as to Ancona and Sancti Quatuor, the latter of whom has not yet accepted the 2,000 ducats presented to him — Rome, 19th December 1530.
Signed; " Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Addressed: " To the most Illustrious, &c."
19 Dec. 541. Clement VII. to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. Conc,
y Disc. Ecl. L. 2,
f. 4.
BM. Add. 28,582,
f. 163.
His two previous letters since the arrival of Don Pedro de la Cueva must have informed him (the Emperor) that not-withstanding the many difficulties standing in the way of the Council, he has resolved to do his will in that respect and omit nothing likely to result for the good of the Faith or the welfare of Christendom. Has accordingly addressed himself to all the Christian princes explaining the reason for the convocation of the said Council, and exhorting them "advoler concorrere nella opinione della Mta.V. et mia."
The bearer of this will be prothonotary Gambara, his governor of Bologna, for whom he asks credence. — Rome, 19th December 1530.
Indorsed: "To His Majesty; from the Pope and in his own hand, 19th December. With prothonotary Gambara about the Council."
Italian. Holoyraph. p. 1.
20 Dec. 542. Don Pedro de la Cueva to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 850,
f. 167.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 165.
Thank God the Prothonotary (Gambara) leaves to-night. May he reach the Imperial court without accident, though he seems to take with him a good chapter of them, besides books to found his arguments upon, and a few more treacherous doings (ruindades) whereof Your Lordship shall hear when we next meet. Begs that the very moment the Council is decided upon an express courier be dispatched with the news that he him self may leave Rome, for he would rather pay down a good round sum to be with the Emperor than lead the luxurious life of these clerigos bellacos.— Rome, 20th December 1530.
Signed: "Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Addressed: "To the most Illustrious His Lordship the High Commander of Leon, &c."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 1½
20 Dec. 543. Clement VII. to the Emperor.
S. Pat. Re. Cone, y
Disc. Eel. 2, f. 1.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 168.
Makes his excuses for not granting all the cardinals' hats he promised to the Emperor. He cannot create fresh ones now without displeasing in some manner the Sacred College. Yet if the Emperor will choose one of the four he once recommended besides the one whom he (the Pope) has "in petto " he will, at his recommendatoin, do his best to have them accepted. It will then be necessary to consider what plausible excuse can be given to the importunities of the king of England, or how, after opening the gate to new elections, he can possibly shut it again against the rest of the Christian princes. —Rome, 20th December 1530.
Addressed: "Charissimo in Chro filio nostro Carolo, &c."
Indorsed by secretary Idiaquez: "To His Majesty." From the Pope, XX December 1530. On the cardinals' hats.
Italian. Holograph. pp. 2.
20 Dec. 544. Cardinal D'Osma to the Emperor,
S. E. R. L. 849,
f. 123.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 170.
Relates how the bull of pope Adrian was confirmed, and adds that in the last Consistory much was said in praise of the Emperor.
A proposal was also made in the name of the Queen of England that an injunction be sent to the King, her husband, not to many any other woman whilst the divorce case is pending before the Rota, and not to cause scandal by his too intimate intercourse with his mistress (su amiga). It was further proposed that the Pope should forbid all judges dependent on his (the King's) favour from taking any part in the suit. The decision was postponed until the next Consistory, in order to give time for the cardinals well to consider their votes.
The English ambassadors on the other hand took great pains to persuade the Pope and the cardinals to create the Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (Girolamo Ghinucci) cardinal at that same Consistory, and it seemed at first that the application could not be denied. However, the Imperial ambassadors opposed the measure so dexterously that the Auditor was not elected. Hopes they will in future be equally successful in preventing the creation of that bad man who is trying for the divorce of the Queen.
The governor of Bologna (Gambara) started yesterday.—Rome, 20th December 1530.
Spanish. Holograph. (fn. n6) pp. 4.
20 Dec. 545. Jo. Ant. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 134.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
Prothonotary de Gambari (sic ) left to-day posting. As I am informed, the object of his mission is only to represent to Your Majesty the inconveniences that may arise from the celebration of the Council, which His Holiness all the same agrees to convoke, determined as he is to fulfil Your Majesty's wishes in this respect.
Explains at full the Pope's fears that the Council may do more harm than good, and then adds:
Genoa and Lucca have not yet sent in their contributions; they make all manner of difficulties, and when pressed by me and other Imperial agents, they answer that they have no money. I have written to Andrea Doria and to ambassador Figueroa about it. On the other hand, Rodrigo Nigno, to whom I wrote, that he might push on the affair in Venice, answers that he has no instructions from Your Majesty to that effect.
Thirty thousand ducats that came from Naples have been sent to the camp, and thus the infantry now quartered at Siena will be able to enter the lands of the Church, — Rome, 20th December 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cesareæ et Catholicæ Maiestati."
"Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
21 Dec. 546. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 849,
f. 135.
B. M. Add.28,582,
f. 175.
The enclosed from Don Fernando [Gonzaga] will sufficiently explain the state of the army. Notwithstanding the agreement made with the captains of the [Spanish] infantry that on the receipt of two months' pay the men should evacuate the territory of Siena, and that at the end of this month of December they should receive another, according to the general practice observed with the Germans (Tudescos), they have yet refused to obey orders, claiming a right to remain where they are (living at the expense of the inhabitants), unless they receive another month in advance, which is a thing that has never been done in time of peace. I am persuaded that this is no fault of Don Fernando, who is certainly a gallant soldier, yet I cannot help thinking that being, as he is, fond of popularity, he does not choose to re-establish discipline in all its rigour except with the consent of the captains, among whom there are some who always stand by their men against Your Majesty's interests, &c.
As I know the condition of Florence, and what the Pope's wishes are, I have been designated by His Holiness to go thither and report. As soon, therefore, as my business here is at an end, I intend to go thither, and will not fail to inform Your Majesty of the result of my inquiries. As far as I can see, His Holiness does not care to have supreme authority in that city, nor to assume the title which his agents proposed to give him, not even that of vicar, &c. — Rome, 21st December 1530.
Signed: "Jo. Anto. Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacra C. C. M."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
21 Dec. 547. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c.227, No. 51.
By my despatch of last Saturday, Your Majesty was duly advised of current events up to that date. That same evening more defamatory libels were stuck at the door of the cathedral (la grande eglize), not only against the archbishop of Canterbury and his chancellor (son chancellier), but also against the King himself and his Privy Council on occount of this divorce, setting forth the evils which might arise therefrom. The placards were immediately removed and destroyed, so that the people cannot have read them.
On Sunday, the archbishop of Canterbury (Warham) summoned to his house the bishop of Rochester (Fisher), who found there the bishop of London and Drs. Lee and Faugs (Fox) waiting for him, all of whom most earnestly besought him to retract what he had written in favour of the Queen, and take the side of the King, who, they said, had sent them (the Bishop and the two doctors) to convince him by argument of the error of his opinion. The Bishop replied with much prudence and moderation that the matter was in itself so clear that no arguments upon it were needed, and that besides, the Pope being the sole judge and arbiter, the case could only be properly argued before him, certainly not before the Bishop [of London], or anyone else. Upon which the Bisliop and the others, seeing that they could neither convince nor draw him into controversy, accused him of being self-willed and obstinate, and said that he would, in spite of all he could say, be compelled to argue the question, as the King had determined to appoint six doctors on his side, and six more on the Queen's, to debate the case, and also two impartial judges who, after hearing what each side had to say, should decide the question one way or other.
The debate is to take place on the 12th of January, for which day the greater part of the prelates of this kingdor; have been convoked, and Parliament, which had been prorogued till the 2nd of February, is also to meet on the 16th, and from this circumstance, as well as from the contemplated meeting of the prelates, and many other incidents, more or less open to conjecture, the general opinion here is that the King is quite bent on carrying out his evil designs (sa mauldite entreprinse.) Indeed, many people of note about the Court say as much, and it is evident that the Lady herself believes it, for she has lately adopted as her device: "Ainsi sera groingné qui groingne." The people seeing that mischief is likely to ensue, and also fully believing in some idle prophesies, to which they attach much faith, and which foretell that about this time this kingdom will be destroyed by a woman, are greatly agitated at it ; indeed some worthy English merchants have come to consult me about removing their goods to Flanders or Spain and settling there. Besides which three or four of the Queen's agents (procureurs) in Parliament have also come within the last eight days to ask me whether any sentence or other provision had arrived from Rome, on which they could ground their opposition. I have given them all the information I could, but they fear, as well as I do, that their opposition will be of no avail without further action. One bad sign just now is, that the archbishop of Canterbury, formerly of the Queen's Council, has recently leant to the other side, and the Queen has sent me word that he (the Archbishop) drew up the other day two documents, one being an appeal to the General Council about to be celebrated, and the other a certain protest. The Queen could not learn anything further concerning the said documents, but I think that the Archbishop [of Canterbury], as legate of England, and therefore entitled by common right, and also by a special privilege belonging to this kingdom, to conduct the divorce case, has now protested against its having been first entrusted to the two legates (Wolsey and Campeggio) without his consent, and then taken out of their hands, and advoked to Rome, and that he is claiming now to exercise his right and appeal from the inhibitions and censures which the Pope has hitherto passed, or may intend to pass, in this matter. As the Archbishop is naturally timid, and as old age has somewhat abated his constancy and discretion, he cannot be much relied upon.
I have written to the bishop of Rochester (Fisher) and other members of the Queen's Council to avoid by all means being drawn into arguing this case, and if they are compelled so to do to protest that they are not therein acting as advocates, servants, or councillors of the Queen. All have engaged to do so, and for greater security I will obtain from the Queen a public instrument disavowing them, and having their names removed from her Council.
The Pope has been so dilatory and so dissembling in all this business that he is not in favour with either side; for the King armed with these seals[of the several universities] which the Pope might have prevented his getting, does not care a straw for his authority, against which he is actually having papers written; indeed many think that during the next session of Parliament some bill will be voted to exempt this kingdom from Papal rule. Those again who are on the Queen's accuse (fn. n7) His Holiness of having encouraged the King in the first instance and allowed the university of Bologna to give him their seal, of which they think more than of any other. Indeed it does appear to them as if the Pope had delayed coming to a decision in order to give this King time to prepare his case, which is hardly credible, though it is not improbable that lately in his conversations with the English ambassadors respecting the demands put forward by Messire Mai, he (the Pope) may have made statements calculated to encourage this King to precipitate his design.
The Queen is amazed at what is now happening, and not without cause; she would be even more startled were I not doing my best to keep a little hope alive in her. It would tend greatly to her benefit and comfort if some provision from Rome, or at least the opinions of those universities which have decided for her, as well as the attestation of the 48 votes at Paris, could he brought over in time by some person of quality and position, who should present them to the King with some words of remonstrance.
As I have before written to Your Majesty, it is most desirable that a last monition threatening excommunication (reaggcation) against the King, and also a formal interdict for the kingdom, should be obtained at Rome; for then on these grounds, without incurring reproach for the rupture of peace or friendship, Your Majesty could easily make effectual war upon the English, for they would by this measure be judicially deprived of all commercial intercourse with Flanders and Spain, by which means the country would greatly suffer, and the people's disaffection to the King and Council be greatly increased.
The Queen, fearing lest I should when the action for the divorce begins ask for my recall, as I should much like to do, has begged me to dismiss all thought of leaving this country, as she says she will have more need of my services than ever. 1 do not know how can stay here, nor of what service I can be in the midst of the boiling vortex likely to be opened here, and, therefore, beg to know Your Majesty's pleasure about it (fn. n8)
There remains but little to say, excepting that the King has offered to the son of the Princess' governess, who is a relative of his, the archbishopric of York, on condition of his being one of the two neutral judges above mentioned, and complying with the King's wishes in that respect; but he has declined the appointment, saying very candidly that he considered he had already sinned against his conscience, when in obedience to the King's commands he had tried to forward the Kings case at Paris. I hear that the King has sent the Grand Equerry, the brother of the Lady, and another gentleman of his Chamber named Maistre Brun (Brown) to France to be present at the Queen's coronation (et pour decourer les joustes), and has provided each of them with ] 1,000l. sterling for their expenses.
It would not be amiss, seeing that people's minds here are a good deal alarmed, to spread a report of some commotion in Flanders, (fn. n9) and say that the governors there are on the look-out to prevent the English [merchants] from withdrawing their goods and property from that country, without, however, causing them further annoyance, as this measure alone would be amply sufficient to promote discontent and rebellion here. — London, 21st December 1530.
Signed; "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
Indorsed: "Received the 30th."
French. Holograph mostly in cipher. pp. 5.
[17] Dec. 548. Queen Katharine to the Pope.
K. u. K. Haus- Most Holy Father,
Hof-u.-Staats Arch.
Wien, Rep.P.Fasc.,
c. 226.
The great need in which my troubled affairs stand of Your Holiness' redress and help (upon which the service of God and my own repose, and the salvation of my soul, as well as that of the King, my Lord, depend), obliges me to be thus importunate with Your Holiness that I may be heard on that very account, even had I an ordinary claim to ask what I have so long and so affectionately prayed for, and so frequently urged; much more now that the justice of my cause is so great before God, who knows my perfect sincerity and innocence (limpieza), do I hope that Your Holiness will see that God, in His great mercy, wishes to declare it. In public I believe Your Highness to be well informed that there is no learned or conscientious person (fn. n10) acknowledging the power and authority of that Apostolic See who does not say and maintain that the marriage between the King, my Lord, and me is indissoluble, since God only can separate us. I cannot then do less than complain that my petitions, both true and just, should have been so long disregarded by Your Holiness. One thing only comforts me in the midst of my tribulations, which is to think that God wishes to punish me for my sins in this world, and that therefore Your Holiness, His vicar on earth, will not forgive me. I humbly beg Your Holiness to have pity on me, and accept as though I had been in purgatory the penance I have already suffered for so many years, thus delivering me from the pains, torments, and sudden fears (sobresaltos), to which I am daily exposed, and which are so great and so numerous that I could not possibly bear up against them had not God given me strength to endure the same ; God, in whom all my hopes are concentrated, sure as I am that He will not abandon me in this cause, in which justice is so clearly with me.
The remedy [I allude to] lies in the sentence and determination of my case without any delay. Any other course short of that will do more harm than good, as appears quite evident from the evils which the delay has already produced. Should the sentence be still deferred, Your Holiness will perceive that the delay in this matter will be the cause of a new hell [upon earth] the remedy for which will entail more disastrous measures than have ever yet been tried. (fn. n11) I have been informed that my enemies demand a new delay. I beg Your Holiness not to grant it to them, for, in so doing, the greatest possible injury will be done to me, sure as I am that everything proposed in that quarter is for the worst, as it might come to pass justice would suffer through it, and that from the purgatory in which I now am I should be cast down into a temporal hell, from the bottom of which I should be continually raising my voice to God, and complaining of the small amount of pity and mercy Your Holiness has granted me. Again I beg and entreat Your Holiness not to allow any further delays in this trial, but at once pronounce final sentence in the shortest way. Until this be done I shall not cease importuning Your Holiness, as did the Samaritan to Jesus Christ, on whom her remedy depended.
Some days ago Miçer Mai, the ambassador of His Imperial Majesty, and my solicitor in this case wrote to say that Your Holiness had promised him to renew the brief which Your Holiness issued at Bologna, and another one commanding the King, my Lord, to dismiss and cast away from him this woman with whom he lives. On hearing of it, these "good people" who have placed and still keep the King, my Lord, in this awkward position, began to give way, considering themselves lost. May God forgive him, who was the cause of the briefs not being delivered, for the news only of the preparation produced a most marked improvement in my case; besides which, had the potion, though disagreeable to their palates, been administered at the right time, that which I hope Your Holiness keeps in store for them would have been comparatively sweet. I am, therefore, deeply grieved at the injury which was inflicted upon me by the withdrawal of the promised briefs; but I bear all this with patience, waiting for the remedy to the evils of which I complain. This can be no other, I repeat, than the sentence I am expecting every day and hour.
One thing I should like Your Holiness to be aware of, namely, that my plea is not against the King, my Lord, but against the inventors and abettors of this cause. I trust so much in the natural goodness and in the virtues of the King, my Lord, that if I could only have him two months with me, as he used to be, I alone should be powerful enough to make him forget the past; but as they know this to be true they do not let him live with me. These are my real enemies who wage such constant war against me; some of them that the bad counsel they gave the King should not become public, though they have been already well paid for it, and others that they may rob and plunder as much as they can, thus endangering the estate of the King, my Lord, to the risk of his honour and the eternal perdition of his soul. (fn. n12) These are the people from whom spring the threats and bravadoes preferred against Your Holiness; they are the sole inventors of them, not the King, my Lord. It is, therefore, urgent that Your Holiness put a very strong bit in their mouths, which is no other than the sentence. With that the tongues of the bad counsellors shall be stopped, and their hope of mischief vanish; the greedy thieves shall no longer devour him on whom they have been feeding all this time; they will set him at liberty, and he will become as dutiful a son of Your Holiness as he was in former times. This to me will be the greatest charity that ever Your Holiness bestowed on a human being; it will restore peace and happiness among the Christian princes, and set a good example [for the future] to the whole of Christendom. (fn. n13)
Indorsed: "A copy of what Her most Serene Highness, the queen of England, writes to the Pope."
Spanish. Copy. pp. 4.
21 Dec. 549. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c.227, No. 52.
The Queen has only just sent the letters for Your Majesty and for Rome, which she has long been intending to write and I now enclose them. (fn. n14) She charges me to write also in the same sense; but seeing the earnestness with which Your Majesty has always sought to bring this affair to a conclusion, I think that hardly necessary. The Queen, moreover, believes that it would be much in her favour if people's minds here could be roused by the means proposed in my two last despatches; I beg therefore to know Your Majesty's pleasure concerning this, and to receive instructions.
The Auditor of the Rota whom the Pope is now sending to Scotland as Nuncio, as I have already informed Your Majesty, after having stopped for a long while in France, arrived here three days ago accompanied by the secretary of the duke of Albanie (Albany) and a Scotch gentleman. He is going thither for the reform of certain excesses committed by ecclesiastics and laymen against the authority of the Apostolic See. He has no charge whatever, as he assures me, to speak to the King regarding the divorce; only if the King of his own accord should bring the subject forward the Auditor has been sufficiently well warned by me to avoid saying anything which might be prejudicial to the Queen. Will keep him well informed of all that is being done here in this particular, that he may write to the Pope and also to his colleagues in the Rota. It seems that the King does not feel much confidence in the friendship of Scotland, for on the return of the bishop of Durham and other deputies who went thither to settle the dispute between the two countries, he (the King) immediately dispatched a number of men to repair the old frontier fortresses there and raise new ones.
An English monk of the Order of St. Augustine, who has for a long time lived with Luther and others of his sect, has lately arrived here with a safe-conduct, to work in the King's interest; he goes about Court in a secular dress, holding intercourse chiefly with an Italian of the Order of St. Francis, one of the principal writers in favour of this king.
Brian and Dr. Fox returned from France yesterday evening, and Dr. Benoit (Benet) also came from Rome, which has led some people here to suspect that the Pope has not granted all this king's demands.
Great satisfaction has been shewn here at the peace with Switzerland, especially as the king of France was the author of it, and both parties are indebted to him on that account. The treaty with the king of Denmark does not seem to have been so welcome.
Jehan Jocquin has received leave to return; he will be succeeded here by the sieur de la Pomeraye. Jocquin has been at Court for three or four days trying to obtain for his master a permission to export a certain quantity of corn from Bordeaux, and also to lodge a complaint against certain Englishmen who have actually captured two French vessels. He has been told that the permission for the export of corn could not be granted at the present time; but that they would see what could be done in future. Regarding the seizure of the vessels, as it was executed by fishermen in unarmed boats, the King could not take any steps against them as he was only pledged to see that no one took up arms here against the French.
Speaking to me recently about the enterprise against the Turk, Jocquin said that it was mere folly to suppose that either his master or this king would take it up; they would certainly not go in person for fear of endangering their own kingdoms, neither would they contribute in money, as they had no wish for Your Majesty's further aggrandizement. This Jocquin said openly, without even an attempt at palliation or reserve. May God bring them both to a better mind
Regrets to be obliged again to bring his private affairs before the Emperor, &c.—London, 21st December 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph. pp. 3.
21 Dec. 550. Cardinal d' Osma to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 849,
ff. 121–2.
B.M. Add. 28,582,
f. 177.
Has written to the Emperor in full detail, recommending certain measures. His Lordship had better cast his eye over that despatch, and should there be anything worth notice, let it be submitted to His Majesty's consideration.
His Holiness has told him to send to Castille for a lawyer of noble blood (que sea noble) in order to make him at once auditor of the Rota. He [d'Osma] has written to the president [of the Council] to look out for a man of learning and parts. Believes that Miçer Mai has done the same.
His Lordship's letter from Spires, the 7th inst., has been duly received, and by this time his own, relating the negociations about the Council, must have reached its destination. I believe this matter to be in a fair way of settlement, and that the Council will be certainly convoked. But, nevertheless, I am of opinion that His Imperial Majesty must do all he can to win over the friendship of Christians as well as of heretics, because in no way can this do harm, however prosperous the issue of the Council may be, whereas if it turns out badly it may be profitable, for when conscience is perfectly free the good of the State must be attended to. (fn. n15)
With regard to the appointment for Flanders, I can only say that His Imperial Majesty must look out for virtue and nothing else. I wish that Nassau was far away from the chamber and conversation of our angel, (fn. n16) and I say the same of all the rest who hang about the Emperor. I cannot say whether in the event of his being nominated to Flanders what we save in one way will not be lost in the other, for to say the truth, this man, wherever he may be, can only be a perpetual source of embarrassment (inconvenientes).
In the death of Madame [Margaret] (fn. n17) I can see no other advantage for the Crown than the annual pension of four millions (fn. n18) which she received from Castille, unless the Emperor transfers them to queen Mary, who, I hear, is entitled to the pension as well as her deceased aunt.
Since Licte La Corte is dead let another man come in his stead, who may not be such a street-runner (cosario) as he was, but a peaceful, learned, and good man, for, to say the truth, I had occasion to be displeased at his restless disposition.
Don Pedro de la Cueva has met with the reception to which his birth, merits, and the Order to which he belongs entitled him. I have done all I could for him, firstly, because I knew his father and his brother the Count well; and, secondly, because I soon perceived that he loved our Emperor sincerely, and was ready to sacrifice himself for his service.
The Pope wishes Muxetula to go again to Florence and report about the state of affairs in that city.
(Cipher:) The governor of Bologna (Gambara) now going as Nuncio to the Emperor is, I hear from very trusty people, the most vicious man in all Italy. If so, how can the Pope wish for a General Council? If they tell him that there are five difficulties (inconvenientes) likely to arise from it, and, therefore, that there are so many reasons against its convocation, he (Gambara) is sure to increase those to the number of 10, and that is why some of the well-meaning cardinals are really scandalised at his being sent by the Pope on such a mission. (Common writing:) But since His Majesty thinks that it is for the better service of God to have this Council convoked, and has made up his mind on this point, let all obstacles be surmounted and ah.objections the Nuncio makes waived, and let us at once have an express messenger with the Emperor's final decision without waiting for Gambara to bring the answer back. I am convinced that were His Majesty to sign a, paper in his own hand renewing the assurances so frequently made, that in this Council the authority, both spiritual and temporal, of the Apostolic See, and the honour of the Pope, will be safeguarded, and that whatever determinations have been taken in previous councils respecting our Faith will be respected, the convocation would be made at once. (Cipher:) But for God's sake let the Emperor try by all means to make the king of France persevere in his purpose as he has lately written, because I cannot help suspecting that the Pope still expects Tarbes to do something through his master, the King, to impede and effectually prevent the celebration of the Council.—Rome, 21st December 1530.
Signed: "Fr[ater] G[arcia], Car[dinalis] Oxomien[sis]."
Addressed: "To His Lordship the High Commander of Leon, secretary to His Imperial Majesty and of his Council."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
23 Dec. 551. Secret Consistory of Cardinals.
S. E. L. 2,015,
f. 120.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 181.
On Friday the 23rd of December a secret consistory was held in the Apostolic Palace at Rome, in the usual room called "del Papagayo," &c.
Published by Brewer, vol. iv., part 3, p. 3060, from an English abstract by Bergenroth.
23 Dec. 552. Luigi Gritti to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 857,
f. 75.
Has lately written expressing his devotion to Christianity, but is very much afraid that owing to the taking of Buda by the Turks those letters have not reached their destination. Repeats now the contents of the said letters that the Emperor may judge of his affection and good-will. Has been unjustly accused of having renounced the faith of his fathers because of his having lately been in commercial correspondence with the Turks, and because having been sent some time ago to Hungary on very important business, he deemed it desirable to report to the Emperor on the immense preparations the Turk is making, as much by land as by sea, and such as this our present age has never seen. Knows no other cause for the said warlike preparations than the persistance with which Ferdinand, the Emperor's brother, has been assailing and molesting Jean [Zapoli], the king of Hungary, who being now under the guard and protection of the Turk (Solyman) has naturally called upon him to defend his kingdom, and the Turk is, therefore, preparing to invade Christendom next spring. And although he (Gritti) has suffered considerably along with king Jean, from the invasions of the said Ferdinand, and from the Emperor's subjects, and is aware of the bad opinion which Christian princes have of the said king Jean and of himself, this notwithstanding, he has not abandoned the Christian religion nor preferred his own individual advantage to the common weal of Christendom.
Takes this opportunity to inform the Emperor of the military preparations of the Turk, that as a Catholic prince at the head of Christendom, he may take his measures to save Christianity from the impending danger. This might be at once effected if the said king Jean were reinstated in his kingdom of Hungary, and Ferdinand and the Emperor's subjects prevented from invading it. Has written also in still plainer terms to the king of Poland (Sigismond), who as he (Gritti) thinks will promote this business at the Emperor's court.
Has made up his mind not to remain long in Hungary, but to return to Constantinople and then report to the Turk on what he has seen and observed in these parts. Should he learn, that the Emperor is willing to behave kindly towards the said Jean and his kingdom, he promises to do what is fit and pertinent in such an affair.—Buda, 23rd December 1530.
Signed: "L. Gritti."
French. Original. pp. 2.
23 Dec. 553. The Abbot of Llor to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 852,
f. 113.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 183.
Sent a letter of Cardinal Egidio by the courier who was murdered. In that letter the Cardinal alluded to his services in the cause of England. Has since written more fully on the same subject.
Has taken, and is still taking, great pains to learn on what grounds the adversaries found their assertions, and has lately gained to the Queen's side a great personage who promises to give advice and do other service in the divorce case.
Most persons here [in Rome] deserve and inspire but little confidence.
Indorsed: "To the High Commander, from the Abbot of Llor; 23rd December and 14th March" (sic).
Spanish. Abstract of a despatch for the Emperor's perusal. p. 1.
24 Dec. 554. Don Pedro de la Cueva to the Emperor.
S. E.L. 849, f. 13
B. M. Add. 28,582
f. 184.
In the Consistory held on the 28th ulto His Holiness resolved to send to Your Majesty either Capua (Schomberg) or prothonotary Gambaro (sic) to consult on certain matters, so that when the answer came the convocation to the Council could be made at once. Notwithstanding our importunities, the last-named ecclesiastic left only on the 20th inst. as I have told Your Majesty, and in all probability will take his time on the road, so that unless some pressure is put on His Holiness the whole affair will be much delayed.
Gonzaga came here to settle about removing the men from Sienese territory and quartering them here. He is to leave to-day, accompanied by a commissary of the Pope, who has been on this occasion more amiable and accommodating than usual. The discipline of the soldiers must, however, be reestablished as soon as possible, for otherwise much money will be squandered.—Rome, 24th December 1530.
Signed: "Don Pedro de la Cueva."
Spanish. Holograph.
29 Dec. 555. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus
c. 227, No. 53.
Two days before Christmas the seigneur de la Pomeraye arrived here and had an audience on Christmas Eve. On St. Stephen's Day he and Jehan Jocquin returned to Court, where they remained till yesterday, greatly feted, especially by the Lady. These festivities, however, have not interfered with their business, as they have had time to arrange for the mission of the bishop of Vaynchestre (Winchester), who starts for France to-day. I am informed by de la Pomeraye that this mission is intended partly to return the bishop of Bayonne's visit here, and partly to request the King's [of France] aid and support in obtaining permission [from the Pope] for the divorce case to be tried and decided in this kingdom, and that ambassador adds that as the king of England has this affair so much at heart his master cannot, on account of the great friendship existing between them, refuse to do what is in his power. The said Bishop is starting in all haste; he will be followed to-morrow by Dr. Benoit (Benet), who is returning post to Rome and is to stop at the court of France for the despatches which the Bishop [of Winchester] will have ready for him there to take to Rome. The King has charged the Bishop to beg the king of France to leave Jehan Jocquin here as ambassador with de la Pomeraye, and therefore Jocquin is in any case to remain here till the Bishop's return. They would be sorry to lose Jocquin here, he is just the man for them at the present time. The King has been pleased to offer de la Pomeraye apartments in his own palace at Briduel (Bridewell).
I have not been able to obtain further information respecting the object of the Bishop's mission, nor yet of the particular means which he is to propose for the advocation of the divorce trial here: but it may be well believed that he (the Bishop) will spare neither promises nor words to induce the king of France to lend all his influence either by entreaties or threats in this direction. Therefore seeing the coldness and cowardice which have hitherto been apparent at Rome, and which will now probably increase, owing to the intervention of the king of France in the affair, it seems absolutely necessary that Your Majesty should write sharply to all those concerned in this business at Rome.
The Auditor of the Rota, whom I mentioned in my last despatch as being on his way to Scotland, is still here. It would seem from the strange reception given him here as if these people were about to take offensive measures against the Pope, or else that they are displeased with the object which brought him here. He was [in London] several days before the King would grant him audience; on the 20th he was received before and after mass, but from what I can hear, the King, instead of replying to the Pope's letters brought by him, entered upon his wonted disputes and menaces, putting off his answer till after dinner, when no more was said about it. The third day of Christmas the Auditor returned to Court, and wishing to speak to the King on his way to mass, could not obtain a hearing, and hardly even any notice from the King; the French ambassadors who were proceeding to the chapel would not give him precedence, saying that he was Nuncio to Scotland not here, and notwithstanding his affirming that he was accredited as Papal Nuncio where-ever he might be passing, and in all places for which he had letters of credence, and moreover, that he had a special communication to make here from the Holy Father, the King's Council decided that he should not take precedence. Therefore the said Auditor would not accompany the King to mass, but went to the Cordeliers, and fasted on that day; he returned to Court after dinner, but could not obtain audience. The poor man is in great perplexity, and does not know what to do.
Parliament is prorogued here from time to time, as if they did not know their own mind about the measures to be proposed therein. Your Majesty's edicts (constitutions) recently promulgated in the estates of Flanders are greatly praised here; they have been translated into English, and printed to induce the people to adopt them here in full, or if not that, at least in part.
I have nothing further to advise excepting that the Venetian ambassador has told me that he had received letters from Constantinople, stating that the Vayvod had sent to the Turk to ask permission to attend a certain Diet of the Lutherans, but probably the intelligence is not new to Your Majesty.—London, 29th December 1530.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
After writing the above I have received orders from the Queen not to send this despatch until hearing from her. Today, the last day of December, she has sent some letters for Your Majesty, which are here enclosed, and has also desired me to forward the following copy of a letter in cipher, which she has received from a person in authority; it stands thus:
"I have spoken with Dr. Benet, who is a great friend of mine, and he has told me that great pains are now being taken at Rome to have your cause brought to a conclusion; but that a delegate (escusador) had come forward there on behalf of the King, claiming that in right of the privileges belonging to his kingdom the cause should be tried at another place [than Rome], since (they say) the Emperor is defending the case for Your Highness, whilst the king of France takes the other side, and between them two they own the greater part of Christendom. In consequence thereof it has been decided that Rome and nowhere else should be the place for the case to be decided. The said Doctor has told me that Your Highness' commissioner (procurador) had asked for immediate action in this case, and that at the instigation of the English ambassadors and other persons, the Pope went for that day into the country and the next feigned illness. The cause of his (Dr. Benet's) coming here, as he himself says, is to state in the Pope's name that justice must be done, but it appears that when he (Benet) made this statement to the King, the latter said he should pay no heed to such a decision, though the Doctor clearly shewed that the sentence once passed would be irrevocable. Let Your Highness then use every effort to overcome the other party (Los contrarios) through relations and friends while it is yet time, for if this opportunity be once lost it will be with difficulty recovered. I write as a faithful servant of the King, my Lord, and of Your Highness, that you should save your husband's honour from those who are daily heaping disgrace on him."
French. Holograph. pp. 3.
30 Dec., 556. The Emperor to Muxetula.
S. E. L. 1,557,
f. 148.
B. M. Add. 28,582,
f. 186
Is to thank His Holiness in his name for the good resolution he has come to with respect to the Council.
Does not himself write to the Holy Father because he is waiting for the person now coming to his court. Has ordered his ambassadors at Rome to kiss His Holiness' feet in token of reverence and gratitude.
Affairs of Florence.
Hopes that the election of his brother [Ferdinand] as king of the Romans will soon take place.—Colonia (Kohl), 30th December 1530.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 2.


  • n1. See Chapuys' despatch of the 4th, No. 522, and note at the foot of p. 831.
  • n2. Lon ma dit que le Roy entendant que lescripteau dont dernierement en envoye la copie translatee a vostre maieste avoit ouverte la porte de parler tres habandonnemaat sur ceste matiere du divorce au peuple, que par avant nen ousoit sonner mot." By escripteau or placard the royal edict or proclamation is meant. See above, p. 834.
  • n3. "Et que cella augmenteroit lenvie du dit peuple de veoir le livre mentionne au dit escripteau sachant ausy que a cause du dit escripteau Ion avoit mis quelque libelle diffamatoyre centre le chancellier de Canturbery aux portes de la grande esglize et allieurs."
  • n4. "Sans le quel livre, que pour lui fere cleremant ses verites, picquoit tropt le Roy, la congregation des docteurs que se fut icy cest esté sur la prohibition d'aucungs livres dont ay pieça ndverty vostre maieste, neust jamays este faytte, car lo Roy, la dame et le pere estoint par tropt contents par depit du pape que les livres des lutheriens, speciallement parlant centre sa sainctete, fussent icy publics."
  • n5. Thus written with Don Pedro's graphy which is caco not ortho; Egidio or Ægidio is no doubt meant.
  • n6. English abstract by Bergenroth.
  • n7. "Blasphement contre sa sainctete."
  • n8. "Ne sçay le bouilli se dressant ici comme je pourrai bien demourer."
  • n9. Vehu que ces gens sont fort craintifz que l'on donnast quelque mot de commotion en 1'landres."
  • n10. "La gran necessidad que tienen mis negocios y trabaios del remedio y ayuda de V. St. de quien pende el servitio de Dios, y mi descanso y la saluacion de mi anima, y del Rey, mi señor, me hazen ser tan importuna para con V. St. que me parece debiera ser oyda y remediada, ahunque no tuviesse sino mediana justicia para lo que tan largo tiempo y tan affectuosamente he rogado y supplicado, y tantas vezes importunado a V. St. quanto mas teniendo tanta para con Dios que sabc la venlad de mi siuceridad y limpicza, corao espero que V. St. vera que Dios por su misericordia la quiere declarar, y en lo publico crco V. St. está bien inforninda que no hay persona docta," &c.
  • n11. "Y si mas se dilatare vera V. St. que [se] hara un nuevo infierno, que llevará peer remedio que el quo fasta agora han procurado de inventar."
  • n12. "Los que me hazen la guerra son estos; los unos por que no parezcan sus malos consejos que los ban bien pagado, y los otros por robar quanto pudieren ponen en peligro a su estado del Rey, mi señor, pierden la honra del (de el?) con mucho peligro de su alma, ques la mas perpetua."
  • n13. This letter of Katharine to the Pope has no date, but was evidently written as early as the month of September, though for various reasons it was not sent until December, as will be seen presently by Chapuys' despatch of the 21st, who enclosed to Charles the copy now at the Archives of Vienna.
  • n14. Katharine's letter to the Pope, having no date, may be seen under No. 548. That to the Emperor is not appended.
  • n15. "Yo pienso que este negocio del Concilio está en terminos que ya se puede tener por cierto, pero todavia soy en voto que [se] gane por servidores á christianos a hereges, por que en ningun caso por prospero que venga puede esto dañar, y en qualquiera tiempo adverse sera muy provechoso; quando la conciencia estásarva syn ningun respetto, se ha de considerar lo que al estado convyene."
  • n16. "Deseo yo que Nasao estuvyese lejos de la Camara y conversacion de ese nuestro angel, y lo mesmo deseo de todos quantos del cuelgan; pero ne sé si quedando regente de Flandes lo que acá se ahorra allá, Be dañase, porque en verdad aquel hombre do quiera que estuviere no puede ser sino manantial de inconvenientes."
  • n17. Margaret died on the 1st of December; she was succeeded in the government of Flanders by her niece, Mary, the widow of John, the last king of Hungary.
  • n18. "Cuatro cuentos [de maravedis]."