Spain: February 1532, 21-29

Pages 388-403

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

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February 1532, 21-29

26 Feb. 904. The Emperor to cardinal d'Osma, his confessor.
S. E. L. 1,558,
f. 91.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 205.
Turks.—French intrigues to alienate the Pope from him.
As the Pope knows what is going on in the divorce case of the queen of England he can no longer have any doubt that it is high time to pronounce judgment according to law. He (Loaysa) is to do all he can to persuade His Holiness to do what is wanted. The ambassador (Mai) is fully instructed to help him in this charge.
Quarters of the Italian army.
Augsburg, 26th February 1532.
Addressed: "To the cardinal of Osma. From Ausburg, 26th February 1532."
Spanish. Original minute in the hand of secretary Idiaquez. pp. 3.
26 Feb. 905. Rodrigo Niño to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 1,309,
ff. 261—2.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 203.
(Cipher:) After his despatch of the 24th inst. he (Niño) heard in the most secret manner that this Signory are in receipt of letters from England and Germany, assuring them that a league is about to be made between the kings of France, England, and Poland, the duke of Sassa (Saxony) the landgrave [of Hesse] and the lord of Russia, of which league the duke of Bretanberg (Wurtemberg) is to be general-in-chief, for the purpose of attacking the validity of the election of the king of the Romans, maintaining that it was not canonically made because there is, as they say, a constitution of the Empire confirmed by a Papal bull expressly forbidding three emperors of the same family to be elected. It would appear that to this end the king of France had remitted 50,000 crs. [to Germany], and the king of England 30,000.
Has also learned that this Signory has had letters from their own ambassador with the Turk, in date of the 9th and 15th ultº stating that the Grand Turk was daily expecting at his court ambassadors from the duke of Sassa (Saxony), and landgrave of Hesse; and as, if this intelligence be true, it is possible that the masters of those ambassadors might also have been requested to join the said league, begs His Majesty to send him instructions respecting the manner of treating with these people, though he has no doubt they will not stir against Your Majesty.
About Rincon's mission to the Vayvod and to the duke of Sassa (Saxony) he has no more news than what I sent some time ago; but it is most likely that if the mission has really taken place, it has been for the purpose of entering into some negotiations of this sort, for it is very remarkable that it should have taken place especially after the said duke of Sassa had sent an embassy to the king of France.
(Common writing:) Every day preparations are being made here to fit out a fleet of vessels against the maritime powers of the Turk. The last advices from Constantinople are that their fleet will go straight to Malta, and thence to Sicily, where they will try to enter some port.—Venice, 26th February 1532.
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original mostly in cipher.
28 Feb. 906. King Henry to the Pope.
S. E. L. 857, f. 7.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 209.
Beatissime pater, &c. Graviter admodum molesteque accepimus, nec minus quam pro rei indignitate par est dolemus, quod subditus istic noster, doctor Carne, adversariorum quorumdam artibus et pertinatia, nimis improba quidem illa, a legitimo excusatoris munere impediatur. Est certe illud longe preter expectationem a mente in istam sedem nostram et tamen utcumque tolerabile foret, si nos dumtaxat, nostramque injuriam hoc malum recideret. Ceterum cum hac ratione jura omnia cum divina tum humana violentur, naturalis autem equitatis et justitiæ ratio pervertatur, et pietatis denique effectus, quam subditus Principi debet, frustretur, vestræ prudentiæ ac solicitudinis pastoralis esse arbitramur, qua re sedulo ut plus apud tribunal istud vestrum justitia, equitas et naturalis quædam pietas quam fraudes et aliorum potentia valeant. Non hic libet commemorare, ut quotidie ad aures S[anctitatis] V[estræ] acclamatur, quam justis fundamentis dicti subditi nostri petitiones nitantur, et de voluntate nostra approbante ea quæ excusatoris nomine ab eo gesta sunt satis jam pridem per literas nostras, quas ad eum dedimus, eidem de S[anctitate] V[estra] constare nequaquam dubitamus; et tamen prohibere subditum nostrum quominus erga nos principem suum id offitii prestet, et benefìcii quod subditus in principem naturali quodam jure collocare tenetur, et quod publici interest ut ab omnibus erga ceteros prestetur, illud vero sinon est contumelia et non tolleranda injuria V. Serenitas etiam atque etiam viderit nos interim quod unum possumus, quodque antea sepissime fecimus, rogamus S[anctitatem] V[estram] quam possumus vehementissime, pariter et reverendissimos dominos cardinales in Consistorio existentes ut non amplius deferant dictum subditum nostrum pro legitimo excusatore admittere, et causam nostram benigno et paterno quodam favore prosequi, quo nomine gratiam apud Deum optimum maximum justitiæ assertorem et vindicem, simul et apud mor-tales omnes laudem et gloriam S[anctitatis] V[estræ] magnam aut dubio promerebitur, quæ felicissime ac diutissime valeat. Ex Regia nostra Londini, die xxviii. Februarii MDXXXI.
D. S. V. Devotissimus atque obsequentissimus filius, Dei gratia Angliæ et Franciæ Rex, fìdei defensor ac Dominus Hiberniæ, Henricus.
Indorsed: "Epistola Regis Angliæ nuperrime oblata S. D. N. sacro Domino nostro."
Latin. Contemporary copy.
28 Feb. 907. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Wien. Rep. P. Fasc.,
c. 227, No. 9.
Since my last despatch this king has had a motion made in Parliament to reduce the annats paid to the Pope on vacant benefices, which he says he wants for himself as sovereign of all the Clergy in his kingdom. He likewise proposes that the right of nomination, which undoubtedly belongs to the Apostolic See, should be suppressed, but the English prelates will not consent to this. He has, moreover, intimated to the Papal Nuncio that it is not himself who brings forward these measures, but the commoners who hate the Pope most wonderfully, and that if His Holiness choose to do something for him he (the King) will be extremely thankful, and do wonders in opposing the Turk; otherwise he will do nothing to help him.
Having lately called on the duke of Norfolk respecting the business of the deputies, who took their departure for Flanders the day before yesterday, he shewed me eight or ten plans for the construction of certain castles and fortresses on the frontiers of Scotland, and among others that of a citadel to be raised at Baruike (Berwick) in the form of that of Tournay; the said Duke boasting that within a very short space of time that town would be made one of the strongest in Christendom. I cannot say whether it be really the fear of the Scots which makes these people thus prepare for war, or whether all this military array is only an excuse for asking money from the people, as I have already informed Your Majesty, and that both the King and the Commons understand each other on this point. The Scotch king-at-arms, about whom I wrote in my last despatch, is still here soliciting a safe-conduct for the ambassadors of his nation whom king James wishes to send to France; they are three in number, one bishop and two lords among the principal of that kingdom. And as 1 have been told by the landlord, at whose house the said king-at-arms is lodging, the Scotch ambassadors are going to France for the purpose, among others, of negotiating the marriage of their master (king James) to one of the daughters of Francis, a scheme which by no means meets with this king's approbation, and which he would be glad to defeat.
The Queen yesterday sent me word to say she had heard the King felt sure that the Pope would again prorogue the trial of this divorce case until Your Majesty should return to Spain, and that should such be the case she considered herself as irretrievably lost. She accordingly begged me to entreat Your Majesty to write again to the Pope, with such dignity and affection (si royalemant et affectueusemant) that, putting aside all dissimulation and the vacillation for which he is so notorious, he should at once give sentence in this case, for she has suffered already so much that she cannot possibly endure any longer.
Since my last nothing has been done in Parliament.— London, 27th February [15]32.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor.''
French. Holograph partly in cipher. pp. 3.
28 Feb. 908. King Henry to pope Clement.
S. E. Roma, L. 857,
f. 9.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 209.
Duplicate, with some slight alterations, of the Latin letter under No. 906.
Latin. Contemporary Copy.
28 Feb. 909. Miçer Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 857,
f. 198.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 206.
Besides what relates to the suit I tried to ascertain what the opinion of that Englishman's mind was, for the Pope said to Miçer Andrea del Burgo one day in rather obscure terms (confusamente) that it would be well if we could disengage him from France and separate the interests of the two kings. (fn. n1) I spoke to Salviati one day as if it came from him (the Pope) and inquired whether that could be accomplished, as it came very apropos of what we were then discussing. Salviati told me that for the present he saw no way to it, for they were trying whether they could do Your Majesty's wishes by fair means (a buenas). that is to say, that the Queen should be the King's wife, and live in good harmony (en buena gratia) with him. They were, however, afraid of being deceived and wished to make sure. This Salviati said to me in confidence, charging me to keep the thing secret and not say a word about it to anyone, not to the Pope himself. As far as I can gather from Salviati's conversation I conclude that if they were sure that the French and English were in earnest the Pope would intercede with Your Majesty to let him grant a further delay. However, as this proposal of Salviati did not satisfy me, I waited upon His Holiness, and begged him to declare to me what Dr. Benet's errand was. He told me, after commending the most profound secrecy, that at his departure from Rome the Doctor had stated to him that the cause now being tried was of such nature and quality that he (the Pope) could not help doing justice. Such (said Benet) was his opinion as a doctor at Law, and he could not help regretting that the. King, his master, for such a caprice as the love of a woman should create such a disturbance in the World. The Queen (added the Doctor) makes so fitting a wife to him that had he not married her, he ought to marry her now, and bear in mind that should the English succeed, as in times of old, in subduing the French, they might become the arbiters and lords of the World. They (the English) were greatly mistaken, for it was in Your Majesty's power at once to gain the alliance of the French by merely putting on a good face, and contenting them with some trifle, however small. The King (continued the Doctor) ought to recollect the old enmity which formerly existed between his kingdom and France, and that if Your Majesty decide to lean towards the French and please them anyhow, they will undoubtedly be the first to take up arms against him. I should not wonder, he added, if the Emperor, goaded by so many dishonourable practices as the English have introduced in these negotiations not only as concerns the Queen, but by soliciting the French to bring in unauthorised changes, should one of these days vent his wrath upon us.
Dr. Benet says that he related the whole conversation to the King word by word, and that the King called the duke of Norfolk, who happened to be in the royal chamber, and said to him: "Do you recollect what I told you once respecting the Emperor? The Pope himself now sends me a message to that effect."
This notwithstanding the negotiation dropped altogether, and there was no more said about it. The King believes he is in the right; he no longer loves the Lady as much as he did. The duke [of Norfolk] and Dr. Stefano (Stephen Gardiner] seem to think that the King ought on this occasion to abandon his pretensions.
I said to the Pope that he ought to command us, the Imperial ambassadors, to press for a sentence, in order that the last-named personages, and others well inclined, might do good office and undeceive the King. I told him that I knew as a fact that the King himself wished secretly for a sentence that might deliver him at once from his toilsome burthen without loss of reputation, for certainly it is a wonder to me how Stephano (Stephen Gardiner), formerly a scandalous and hot-brained fellow (tan loco y escandaloso) could ever be converted to the good cause as he now appears to be.
The Pope told me further that when Benet went away he said to him very distinctly: "If you, Master Benet, do not bring back with you a proper mandate and powers to appear for your king at this trial, I shall be obliged to go on with the proceeding's and pronounce sentence. I have laden my conscience with so many delays that I cannot possibly longer forbear from doing justice."
Now it appears that on Benet's arrival at Rome for the second time, the Pope perceiving that he had brought nothing with him, told him the above or something quite similar, and that the Doctor replied very confidentially that as soon as Your Majesty had left Italy and returned to Spain the mandate should be sent. The Pope knows this to be a new trick (tacañeria) of the English, because they know very well that His Holiness does not wish to drive things to extremity, but wants a settlement that may be good for both parties, and they fancy that they can lose nothing by obtaining a delay. The Pope, however, as he tells me, replied to Dr. Benet that his answer did not satisfy him at all, and besides that he could not attach faith to his words unless he saw it in the King's handwriting I tried as much as I could to confirm His Holiness in his opinion, and besought him to issue orders for a prompt decision in the affair of the excusator, whether the trial is to proceed at Rome or not, because I believed that when the king of England and his Council see that justice is done in the accessories, they will be afraid that the same will be done in the principal, and will desist. I also told His Holiness that this last seemed to me a device of the English to gain time &c. He ended by promising me most solemnly that justice should be done without further delay. May this last promise be better fulfilled than were those of last year!
Immediately after Benet's arrival he had an audience of the Pope, and then dispatched couriers to England. If there be more between them than what I have just related perhaps we shall hear of it on the return of those messengers. I will try to get at the truth, for I am not at all satisfied with the answer which the King and the Duke are reported to have made to Dr. Benet.
The English ambassadors and the French cannot be at present on good terms with each other (stan muy divisos) for Dr. Benet in France first, and afterwards in England, complained that the French had not helped him here at Rome as they had promised to do, and that the king of England had felt it exceedingly, and written to the Most Christian King about it, in consequence of which the latter had sent fresh orders to his ambassadors to press the matter accordingly, though the Pope and the cardinals believe that what they are doing is merely out of compliment and in order to save appearances.—Rome, 28th February 1532.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To His Imperial Majesty."
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
28 Feb. 910. The Council of State to the Emperor.
S. E. L. No. 638,
f. 88.
B. M. Add. 28,585,
f. 205.
Approved and let it be done so. The orders about the money shall be complied with. Çuaçola and he (the writer) are of opinion that the first thing to be done is to procure 50,000 crs. here [at Ratisbon], the rest may be got from Genoa.
An answer has already been sent. The answer to Andrea Doria will not be ready until to-morrow, as there is much to be done to-day.
Granvelle was much occupied before dinner working as he himself will explain. I myself was drawing minutes of despatches for Rome, also arranging conjointly with that councillor the distribution of grants lately made by Your Majesty. We have told Don Fernando what Your Majesty's intentions are respecting him. To-morrow we hope the whole of this business will be at an end, but there are two or three things on which we should like to hear Your Majesty's pleasure. The first is the affairs of Monbardon and Chalayn. These two individuals are in possession of two estates in the marquisate of Corato, which had been formerly conferred on Mr. de Baubry (Waury). Peloux came yesterday to us to complain that we were taking away from Monbardon what Your Majesty had given him. We propose that an estate called Joya (sic) be given to him instead, for although this last was destined for the princess of Sulmona, we will look out for something in compensation for that princess.
Respecting Chalayn, since the estate is to be allotted to Baubry (Waury), according to Your Majesty's orders, it seems to us that he might have instead 400 ducats pension on Pie de Monte.
Respecting all these individuals (Monbardon, Chalayn, and the rest), let it be done as proposed. Montfort will speak to you in an affair of his, the payment of a debt. Send us report, &c. As to Pechin Pelu, we cannot but regret that he has not a larger grant of land; but Your Majesty may believe us when we say that there is nothing else to give him. Perhaps he might have as a further grant that of a house in Naples, which Dr. Narciso wanted for the establishment of a college [of Medicine]. It has been valued at 2,500 ducats; but will not sell for half that sum. If Your Majesty approve of the change he may have that in addition to the pension of 1,000 ducats a year, which he already enjoys.
Instead of the 1,000 ducats pension to each of the princes of Salerno and Bisignano, we suggest that 2,000 be granted to each on the "pagamientos fìscales" of their respective estates.
The letters have been signed, and with regard to the Hungarian horse, Don Fernando liked them very much, as he must have told you. The king of the Romans is now sending one of his servants to Rome with despatches. As the letters to the Pope and to Mr. Mai and the rest will not be ready against the departure of the messenger, the enclosed have been prepared for the ambassador, wherein mention is made of the 100,000 ducats [promised by His Holiness], as well as of the Hungarian horse.
It was the right thing for Caracciolo to do. We shall see what is to be done. Letters have been received from Prothonotary Caracciolo importing that the five Catholic cantons are beginning to stir against the other eight, and that he believes the animosity will go on increasing. On the other hand, the Lutheran preachers say that they count upon the assistance of France to maintain their creed. In consequence of this the Prothonotary wrote that he was hastening the departure of the Verulan (Ennio Filonardo, bishop of Veroli) for Switzerland.
They are signed. Send letters to sign on the Ureña (fn. n2) business, and refer to what the Empress writes on the subject.
I have read the answer. This morning I gave the king of the Romans the memorials presented by the Count Palatine that he might confer with him respecting the and his own (the Palatine's) private business; I cannot yet say what has been done in it.
After that I went to the Legate, at whose house I met the archbishop of Brindisi (fn. n3) (Aleander), and exhibited to both of them the papers about the Council and the answer to the Estates. (fn. n4) They have found them correct and much to their satisfaction.
I have likewise explained to them the points on which the Lutherans of Nüremberg insist, and consequently the said Legate and Archbishop have come to the conclusion that they ought to be submitted to the deliberation of the Diet (aux Estats). Supposing these requests of the people of Nüremberg were not granted, and a peace ultimately concluded without reference to matters of Faith, should there be mention made at the Diet, of the necessity of a General Council in order to arrive at the said peace. Both the Legate and Archbishop said that if consulted they would willingly give their advice thereupon, knowing very well that if the Diet gives its consent it will be with a view to the meeting of the Council. (fn. n5)
I have laid all this before Your Majesty's Council of State, and it has been resolved that the demands of the Lutherans be put down in writing to be presented at the Diet, and its advice asked in conformity with a paper that I intend putting into the hands of the said Legate and Nuncio to-morrow.
The whole of this seems well done, and I approve of it. It has, moreover, been resolved in Council to prepare instructions for the ambassadors who are to go to Switzerland, most of this morning's sitting having been taken up with discussing the articles of the said instructions.
I have likewise given to the Legate the answer [to his note] with the corrections ordered by Your Majesty, and spoken to him respecting Your Majesty's motives and wishes, he (the Legate) having shewn much satisfaction in consequence.
French. (fn. n6) Original. pp. 3. The answers on the margin are in the Emperors hand.
911. Advices from Flanders, Germany, and Italy.
S. E. L. 848, f. 23.
B. M. Add. 28,585,
f. 59.
Letters from Brussels of the 2nd and 3rd of February say that the Emperor was in good health, and waiting for Queen Doña Maria to take charge of the government of the Low Countries. He was to go to Gand (Ghent) for the Diet.
The king of the Romans arrived at Lintz on the 28th of January for the purpose of discussing the affairs of the Turks and Lutherans. The Emperor had listened to what Gambara had to say respecting the Council and the conditions imposed by the Pope, the principal being that the Emperor should be present, and that the meeting should be in Italy and only and exclusively for matters of Faith, that is to say, for the Turk and the Lutherans. The Emperor had consulted his brother thereupon, and an answer was daily expected.
The Pope's familiars (estos del Papa) tell me that there is a good chance of the landgrave [of Hesse] being brought back to his allegiance to the Emperor if His Majesty will only pardon him. Also that the Lutherans who had asked for the meeting of a General Council, seeing that there was no sign of it, had commenced to cool down.
From England the news is that the King's fury had somewhat subsided, and that he no longer threatens as before to proceed "de facto." It was generally believed in London that the Parliament that was to meet, as they say, to deliberate on the divorce case would do nothing but vote a supply of money.
Here, at Rome, an excusator has appeared on behalf of the King and Kingdom, saying that the suit was arduous, and that the King was not obliged to appear, nor could he come to Rome without manifest danger to his person and royal estate. This I contradicted, and there was disputation and report to the Rota, and to the cardinals in Consistory one by one, the English doing the same. God permitted that we should gain our point, and the demand of our opponents was rejected; they are not to be admitted in future without proper mandate from their king and powers for the whole cause.
I have been assailed through the Pope and the Most Christian King with a proposal respecting a suspension of all proceedings for two years. I have told them that I will never consent to it, but that I have nevertheless consulted the Emperor, who, I hope, will approve of my resolution.
Mr. de Praët has left again for France.
A courier from that Court bringing news of the 26th, 28th, and 29th of February says that the festivals and rejoicings for the coronation of the Queen were delayed until the 11th inst., that Madame [Leonor] had been unwell, but was now better. A secretary or ambassador of the duke of Ferrara had pressed the King for the arrears of pension due to his son Don Hercole, and for the dower of Madame Renée. So importunate was the Secretary on the subject that the King got very angry with him, though they say that at last matters were arranged by means of the Grand Master, &c.
Indorsed: "News from Flanders, Germany, and Italy. (fn. n7)
28 Feb. 912. Additional Articles.
S.E.L. 857,f. 7.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 210.
Besides the aforesaid petitions, exceptions, and protests, the English excusator states, that it being a notorious fact that the Turk is preparing an army and a fleet to invade Christendom, it is not safe for his master, the King, to go to Rome and appear in judgment.
Also that before the suit now pending between the said king and queen of England there was, and is still, some danger of war between the Emperor on one side and the King and his allies on the other, that being another reason why he should not be summoned to Rome, and if summoned should not appear.
Latin. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
29 Feb. 913. Cardinal d'Osma to the high commander of Leon.
S. E. L. 25,
f. 201–5.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 212.
Wrote by a courier of the Pope who left yesterday, and as he has order to make all possible haste, so as to be in Hungary before the day of St. Gregory, when the Diet is to be held, will not repeat what was said in that despatch.
Nor is there any need to comment on the affairs of Switzerland as the ambassador (Mai) has already written, or will shortly write at full length when their agent at this court has ended his business, and is ready to depart. Has done all he could for the speedy conclusion of the affair that brought him here, and fancies that he will leave in a couple of days. All speed is required, for the Pope told him (Loaysa) the day before yesterday that the French ambassador had complained that he (the Pope) and the Imperialists were contriving to alienate the Switzers from him, which was a direct infringement of the treaty of Cambray. His Holiness answered very properly that neither he nor the Emperor had any such design. It was true that in order that the Catholic cantons might defend themselves more effectually against the Lutherans His Imperial Majesty had shewn a desire of helping them with men and money; so had the Most Christian King done, promising his help, though it was the Emperor alone who had at last sent them a trifling succour. "Between that (said the Pope) and trying to alienate the Switzers from France there was a wide difference."
Such was His Holiness' reply to the French ambassador, and, therefore, his (Loaysa's) opinion is that the utmost speed ought to be used in making some sort of alliance with the five Catholic cantons for the good of the Faith and the preservation of peace in Italy. There is no danger of people arguing that we go against the treaties made with Catholic princes, for one of the articles of Cambray stipulates that the king of France shall not interfere in future in the affairs of Italy, and it is for this very purpose, and to ensure peace that an alliance with the five Swiss cantons, who hold to their Faith, is so very desirable.
In the English business he (Loaysa) is doing all he can, and certainly is very sorry at the delays which are every day interposed. If everyone felt, as he does, the cause would be in a better state. His Holiness has evidently made a mistake; he fancied that the many delays he has granted would be beneficial; they have on the contrary been most detrimental, instead of curing the King they have aggravated his disease. When he (Loaysa) reflects on the many injuries that are daily inflicted on the Queen of England he cannot help thinking that no reparation to her honour can come from the hands of men, but that God will ultimately take up her defence and have the case determined without secondary considerations of any sort, punishing those who have been the cause of her sufferings. Will nevertheless do his best; the ambassador (Mai) in the meanwile is working, but as his last severe illness has left its traces, as he is indolent by nature, and besides his words are not so wise as they might be, he (Loaysa) fears that his endeavours will not meet with success. The said ambassador (Mai) will no doubt make a good vice-chancellor [in Spain], but here at Rome for the sort of negotiations entrusted to him he is by no means fit. (fn. n8)
The marquis del Gasto [Vasto] has been staying nine days at Rome in consequence of his suffering from sciatica (mal de ijada). He lodged at his (Loaysa's) house with 15, and some say as many as 40 retainers, as Fray Vicente informs him. He left yesterday for the Imperial camp with the intention of punishing the many scoundrels, who by their robberies and excesses throw discredit on the Emperor.
A secretary of the vayvod [of Transylvania) has been for some time, and is still staying, at the English embassy. He has had an audience from the Pope, who says that his master wishes to be recognized as king of Hungary, and asks for many more things than was at first expected. As the ambassador (Mai) is likely to write about him, he (Loaysa) will limit himself to observing that if the Vayvod's proposals are honourable they ought to be accepted, since a good peace both with the Vayvod and with the Lutherans is far preferable to war.
Yesterday a Consistory was held by extraordinary, to decide an incident of the matrimonial cause. That the thing may be better understood he (Loaysa) will enter into some details, and take matters from the beginning A year ago there came here an Englishman, who entitles himself excusator for the King and kingdom, demanding that the cause should not be tried here [at Rome], but be committed to certain judges free from suspicion in England or in some town nearer to that country. The excusator's allegation is founded on two principal arguments: firstly, that the case in itself is so grave and important that it cannot rightly be decided or sentenced through a procurator; and secondly, that the King is prevented from coming personally to Rome, not only owing to the danger which his kingdom would run through his absence, but because the road to this city is not free and secure; whence it is that he asks that the process and sentence be revoked to England. This point the excusator of the English wishes for a public disputation, before the College and auditors of the Rota, and they have so far succeeded that yesterday the proctors and advocates of both parties appeared in Consistory ready to dispute the case. There were, however, such altercations that nothing could be done, for the English excusator brought no less than 30 different conclusions to maintain, one each day, and the advocates of the Queen said that they would not accept the debate on so many points, which, after all, were simply so many calumnious propositions for the sole purpose of delaying the sentence. The only question to be debated (said our advocate) was whether the English excusator was to be admitted or rejected. When the Pope heard of this he ordered all [the lawyers] out of the room, and when they were gone deliberated as to the form to be observed in the debate. Much difference of opinion prevailed on this point, until at last it was decided by the majority of those present that only one of the conclusions should be disputed, as all the rest were superfluous. Cardinals Monte and Farnese, who were present, did good service on this occasion; other cardinals (specially those of the French party) were in favour of the excusator's proposition. One of them maintained that the Englishman ought to be heard on all and every one of the conclusions he had brought in print; but he (Loaysa) opposed him so vigorously and with such convincing arguments, expatiating on the many injuries done to so holy a lady as the Queen, and the little consideration shewn to His Imperial Majesty—who asks only for what is just and could not be refused even to an Infidel— that he really believes the majority decided to vote with him in consequence. Among other arguments he (Loaysa) made use of the following one: "Three have been the results of so many delays: 1st, the King is now living publicly in adultery. 2nd, the Queen has been deprived of all her rights by sheer force. 3rd, the King has lost all shame, and disobeys the Holy Apostolic See. The more delays are granted the more bad effects will ensue.
Cardinal Colonna has laid a tax on the wine that these cardinals import for their own use from Naples and Sicily. That is a sort of novelty with which this College will not easily put up. Daily complaints on this head are made to him (Loaysa), as if he could do anything in the matter. Begs him to see that the College of Cardinals be attended to in these trifles, since its members are not treated as they ought to be even in other matters of greater importance. Indeed, owing to the Emperor himself appointing to the churches and benefices under his patronage, the Pope has not actually at his disposal one ecclesiastical benefice worth 500 ducats, whereas the king of France distributes well nigh 80,000, or as Tarbes pretends 200,000, among Italians.
Don Francisco Manrique, &c.
Property left in Naples by the bishop of Salamanca deceased. The Pope says that it belongs to him by right, and is very much offended at cardinal Colonna not allowing the Apostolic Chamber (Camara) to take possession. Cannot help thinking that His Holiness has reason to complain. He ought at any rate not to get such dry answers as that given to Don Alonso Enriquez, of Seville, and since innumerable petitions are daily addressed to the Pope by us it seems but just that his pleasure should be done in matters to which he has decidedly a right.
El Troyano, and Soria.
Naples.—Wine and provisions for the cardinals. They ought to come free from export duty, as Sancho Bravo assured them in the Emperor's name that they would be. Believes all the fault lies with Geronimo Peregrin, who has contracted for 4,000 butts of wine free of duty, it being publicly asserted that the Cardinal [Colonna] has a share in the profits.
Cardinal of Burgos (Mendoza) and his application for leave of absence. Should he go to Castille a brief ought be obtained from the Pope declaring that nowise is he to take precedence [in Spain] of the other two cardinals created at the same time with him, namely, Seville (Manrique) and Santiago (Tavera)
[P.S.—To the High Commander.] Let the following paragraph be exclusively reserved for Your Lordship's inspection, and, if necessary, for that of the Emperor. The Pope said to me the other day that the ambassador, Miçer Mai, had asked him whether he had said more to me or to anyone else respecting the marriage of his niece (Catherina) with the duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza) than he had to him. His Holiness said: "Why do you ask me that question?" "Because I hear (said Mai) from the Imperial Court that Your Holiness has quite decided that this marriage of Milan shall take place, and if so I cannot understand what Your Holiness said to me at the time." The Pope, as it would appear, was a little embarrassed, and said: "I have not said to anyone more than I have to you; nor do I recollect speaking longer on the subject to a living person than to you." "But, most Holy Father (said Mai), you certainly did not tell me what your wishes were in that respect as clearly and definitely as some other party wrote to the Imperial Court. Those parties, no doubt, added what they thought fit to add, whereas I wrote strictly and solely what Your Holiness told me, which was merely giving hopes without coming to a determination."
I must say that the Pope was anything but pleased at this speech of Mai, for when he spoke to me on the subject I could gather that much from his words. I myself was surprised and grieved, because I saw plainly that the ambassador would have liked to know whether I was the person alluded to in his conversation with the Pope as having reported home on the marriage of his niece, and that he would ask me. Were I to answer in the affirmative he (Mai) would try to persuade His Holiness that I had also told him that we might both the better bind him to His Majesty's service. I fancy Mai learned these particulars through the letter which Your Lordship wrote to me, and of which a transcript was enclosed to the ambassador, as his secretary informed me at the time. Having there read the paragraph relating to the marriage of the Pope's niece in more explicit terms than it was confided to him he naturally became envious, and, without heeding the consequences, went to the Pope and cross-questioned him about it. (fn. n9)
With regard to the Vayvod's secretary it is perfectly true that when he came His Holiness made a congregation of 12 of his chief cardinals. The instruction which was there read consisted of three or four points. The first to beg the Pope to settle the question pending between him and the king of the Romans. The second, that peace once made between them two, the Turk would willingly make truce with the whole of Christendom. And the third, that if His Holiness would only send a Nuncio to his court it would be seen that he (the Vayvod) had always been a good Christian [the remainder of the letter is missing].
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.


  • n1. "A mas de lo quo toca al pleito procuré de saber la mente del Anglés (Benet?), y el Papa dixo confusamente a Miçer Andrea del Burgo un dia que seria bien si se lo podiessemos dividir de Francia."
  • n2. Pedro Giron, third count of Urueña, was married to Doña Mencia de Guzman, his first cousin. He died on the 25th April 1531 (?), and was succeeded by his brother, Don Juan Tellez Giron. See Haro, Nobiliario, vol. i, p. 386.·
  • n3. "Larcevesque brundusin."
  • n4. Lescript concernant le Concille veu par Votre Mate et son conseil en response aux Estaz."
  • n5. "Supposant que ceulx estaz ne les bould [voudraient?] consentir et bon heur que lon face une paix sans parler de la foy, et si lon parle du Concille necessaire pour y parvenir que en leur consultant ilz on diront leur advis bien cognaissant que comme consent la chose tendra a ce but."
  • n6. This paper is composed of two different parts, one in Spanish, probably by Covos, at the time Secretary of State to the Emperor, the other in French by Granvelle, where the line of division is, beginning with the words "This morning."
  • n7. After Muxetula's despatch of the 20th February, No. 903.
  • n8. "Crchedme que para vice-canciller es suffìciente, y tiene buenas partes,y para aqui, aunque es muy ancho, queda la vayna harto floxa."
  • n9. "De lo qual tuvo tanta enbidia que no mirando a la utilidad de los negocios se metió en estas parlerias livianas y dañosas."