Spain: March 1532, 1-31

Pages 403-418

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


March 1532, 1-31

3 Mar. 914. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.
S. E. L. 858,
f. 147.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 227.
Wrote by the last post that His Holiness, upon my shewing him the draft of the memorandum of which I sent Your Majesty a copy, gave immediate orders to his secretary (Sanga) to draw out a shorter and more concise minute, which in reality will serve the very same purpose. He was to shew it to cardinal Ancona (Accolti), and if approved bring it back to him. Sanga did as he was bid; he went to the Cardinal, shewed him the minute he had drawn in compliance with the Cardinal's instructions, and brought it back with his approbation. What passed in the meanwhile I cannot say, but when Sanga returned, and His Holiness again examined the draft, he said: "I cannot possibly sign a brief of that sort. It seems to me very preposterous and harsh to excommunicate a king without having first admonished him. Let another brief be made out requesting the king of England to treat the queen of England as his true and legitimate wife and to separate altogether from that Anne, his mistress, until sentence be definitively pronounced, and if he disobey then it will be time for me to fulminate the censures of the Church against him."
A brief so worded and a copy of it were sent to the Emperor for approval, that he may forward it to the Papal Nuncio in England, who will put it into the King's hands. If, however, this should produce no effect another brief shall he applied for excommunicating the King, &c.
The English ambassador who left in November post haste has returned to Rome. I hear he brings nothing substantial from England, but maintains his former opinion, viz.: that the King, his master, is nowise obliged to appear, &c. He has presented certain conclusions to that effect which he offers to dispute, and of which I would willingly have sent a copy, as well as of the brief itself, had not the ambassador (Miçer Mai) told me that this estafette will only take two letters.
The queen of England has written to His Holiness complaining of the delays in prosecuting this cause, and has ordered me besides to join in her just demands, which I have already done, and will do whenever I have an opportunity.— Rome, 3rd March 1532.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the Catholic Majesty of the Empress and Queen, our Lady.'
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
6 Mar. 915. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c. 227, No. 11.
The letter which Your Majesty was pleased to write to me on the 27th ulto was duly received, and the Queen delighted to hear of the provision made in order to thwart Dr. Bonart's foul practices.
With regard to the Vayvod's agent I have heretofore advised Your Majesty of his doings [in England]. He was first introduced here by the king of France, to whom this one had written on the subject, as I had occasion to inform Your Majesty. (fn. n1)
Respecting the threatened invasion of the Turk I have hitherto avoided as much as possible such subjects of conversation, as I had no particular charge or instructions on that score. If I have occasionally alluded to it since, and stated my own private opinion, it is merely for the purpose of answering the frequent interpellations of these people, or justifying Your Majesty's conduct in the affair, knowing, as I do, that this king once, at supper, had positively said, and repeated over and over again, that it would be very wrong and very anti-Catholic on the part of Your Majesty and of the king of the Romans merely for cupidity's sake, and lust of the kingdom of Hungary, (fn. n2) to push Christendom to the brink of perdition—as the King himself once told me. I have tried, whenever there was an opportunity, to remove the false and erroneous impressions of this king, and prove to him by your peaceful settlements with the duke of Milan and the Venetians that neither Tour Imperial Majesty nor your brother, the king of the Romans, had ever been actuated by motives of cupidity and ambition. And as to my own private conversation with Mons. de la Pomeraye respecting the Swiss, I should think that the French ambassador can derive no possible advantage from what I said to him, for unless he chooses to disguise the truth he must own that I openly declared to him on four different occasions that in this last Swiss affair I was by no means satisfied, owing to the damage they had lately caused at Geneva, and their endeavouring to infect it with their Lutheran pestilence.
An attempt is now being made in this Parliament to abrogate the authority of archbishops over other prelates, and give it to this king as sovereign chief of the English Church. The earl of Vulchier (Wiltshire) is the principal advocate of this measure, and has been heard to say before a portion of the assembly that he is ready to maintain at the risk of his life and property that no Pope or prelate can exercise jurisdiction, promulgate laws, or enforce ordinances in this country: at which proposition, bold as it is, we must not be surprised, since both he (the Earl) and his daughter (Anne) are considered to be true apostles of the new sect.
The duke of Norfolk went four days ago to visit Dover for the purpose of having a harbour made there, and saving the town from the encroachments of the sea. He may possibly also have gone thither with a view to fortify the place, for I am told that he has taken with him a number of engineers, some of those who have lately been inspecting the fortresses and the frontiers of Scotland. My own idea is that both the works in contemplation at Dover, and the inspection of the fortresses are only excuses to ask a grant of money from Parliament. (fn. n3) The Duke returned from Dover this morning, accompanied by the bishop of Winchester (Gardyner), who, I hear, has not left matters quite so comfortable at the Court of France as his master, the King, could have wished, so much so that I am assured that one of the Privy Councillors said the other day: "If the Bishop talks now as he wrote from the French Court, the Queen's business will go on well. "The King was only waiting for the arrival of the said Bishop to send to France as ambassador of his own Master Valopt (Sir John Wallop), captain of the castle of Calais; whether to reside at that Court or merely on some extraordinary mission I cannot tell,—London, 6th March [15]32.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys.
"Addressed: "To the Emperor.
"French. Holograph partly in cipher. pp. 3.
7 Mar. 916. Cardinal Loaysa to the Same.
S. E. L. 25,
f. 211.
Your Majesty will forgive me if I write one hundred times the same thing. I have said twice, and I repeat it again, that in that Diet [of Ratisbone] and in the affairs of Germany Your Majesty must not be too much bent on finishing what you have in hand and so being able soon to leave the country, but only on getting through your business most completely, and carrying out the enterprize which you so gloriously undertook. At any rate, if you cannot leave that nation in the grace of God, leave it at least in your own.
These entreaties I make again in this my letter, and will repeat as many times as I write, because such I take to be for your interest and your reputation, which I value more than my own life. Without it I would neither he bishop of Siguença, nor even Pope, and may God confound me if I ever feel in my heart differently from what I write. I will always say: "No Castille, no wife, no children, except after having finished our State affairs."
Here no one thinks or talks except of this dreaded invasion of the Turk.—Rome, 7th March 1532.
Signed: "Fr. G[arcia] Carlis Seguntinus."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
12 Mar. 917. Dr. Ortiz to the Same.
S. E. L. 858,
f. 48.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
Your Majesty's letter of the 26th February was duly received.
As the ambassador [Mai] cannot fail to have written, our time is taken up with disputing in Consistory certain insolent conclusions of the English ambassadors tending to prove that the excusator of the king of England may be admitted without a special mandate from his master. This is a question which His Holiness and his Consistory had already decided by two decretals, so that the Rota, disregarding entirely the letter which the King sent in lieu of mandate, decided that the trial should be proceeded with at once.
If the brief which His Holiness has now addressed to the King be insufficient to separate him from that Anne, by means of whom the Enemy of Mankind has captivated him, and thus make him return to his lawful wife, as is his duty, wish to know whether a second brief excommunicating him is not to be asked for from the Pope, &c.
Great diligence has been used in Spain in everything relating to this trial, for the most reverend archbishop of Compostella, president of Your Majesty's Royal Council [in Castille], has lately forwarded to us most important papers. Besides the determinations of the Universities, which came some time ago, he has now sent a letter signed by several prelates, as well as the conclusions of the universities of Salamanca, Alcala, and Valladolid, all of which, if any further question arose in the case, would be of great use, as shewing the opinion of the Spanish doctors and canonists.
We have also received the evidence (probanças) procured at Valladolid, Toledo, Burgos, Seville, and Malaga, as well as in Madrid and Santiago of Galicia, besides the copies of many deeds and papers relating to the marriage settlements of queen Katharine with prince Arthur, and also with the present King. As the bishop of Mondoñedo (fn. n4) writes, the evidence is so valuable that one of the witnesses, Catalina de Guevara, declares upon oath that the Queen was a maiden when she married the present King.—Rome, 12th March 1532.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty of the Emperor and King, our Lord."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
12 Mar. 918. Muxetula to the Same.
S. E. L. 859, f. 68.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 232.
To remove all pretences for the king of France arming as he is doing, and stirring up some event that may forward his schemes here in Italy, His Holiness has decided to send him a message purporting that since it is rumoured that the Grand Turk is personally coming to invade Germany at the head of a powerful army, and that Your Majesty is equally well prepared to meet him, no more forces are required for the defence of Christendom. As far as Italy is concerned a fleet only is wanted, as the attack cannot be made otherwise than by sea, and therefore he (the Pope) begs him to send his galleys, promising to return them, and if any should be lost to pay the cost. (Cipher:) In this manner does His Holiness intend removing all occasion for the French king coming down to Italy with an army under colour of defending it against the Turk.—Rome, 12th March 1532.
Signed: "Jo. Anto Muscetula."
Addressed: "Sacræ Cesr Cath. Mti."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
14 Mar. 919. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.
S. E. L. 857,
f. 106.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 235.
[Copies word for word his letter to the Emperor, and then adds:]
The ambassador who resides in England for the Emperor (Eustace Chapuys) writes to me that on the 16th of January the king of England assembled his Parliament (començó á, tener Cortes) for the purpose, as was generally reported, of looking into the divorce case. I have often represented to His Holiness how much he is in duty bound to put an end to this trial by pronouncing sentence, &c.—Rome, 14th March 1532.
Signed: "El Doctor Ortiz."
Addressed: "To the most high the Empress and Queen, our Lady."
16 Mar. 920. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 859, f. 70.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 239.
All the cardinals of this congregation without exception have been of opinion that a legate should be sent to France and England to ask the kings of those countries, in His Holiness' name, and in that of the whole Christian Church, to co-operate against the Turk. In order, however, that the said co-operation be not used as an excuse to create disturbances in Italy the former of those kings is to be earnestly requested to lend his fleet for the purpose, and to contribute besides a sum of money to the expenses of the war.
The Pope at first was not in favour of a legate being sent on the plea that whoever was appointed would arrive too late, and that the commission was of such a nature that it could be very easily entrusted to his nuncios in those countries. Other considerations have since moved him; he has now made up his mind to send Salviati. Whether he will persevere in his intention or not is more than I can say. —Rome, 16th March 1532.
Signed: "Jo. Ant. Muscetula.
"Addressed: "Sacræ Cesæ Cath. Mti."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 3.
[? Mar.] 921. Miçer Mai to Secretary Covos (?).
S. E. L.857,
f. 132.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 245.
Said in my last that after disputing the conclusions of the matrimonial cause of England I was told that the Rota had nothing more to do than sum up and report the proceedings (refferir el procesado), though not their own votes nor their resolution in the matter. It is indeed the case that their vote itself is of no importance at all (no vale nada). when an affair is brought to Consistory; yet it is a thing that carries great reputation, and very seldom, if ever, has Consistory been known to decide against the vote of that tribunal. (fn. n5) That is the reason why the English have tried to take the cause away from us (sacarnosla). not only on account of this particular article but of those that may come hereafter, and also as a precedent for the main cause (y tambien por la causa pincipal). For four consecutive years have they tried to get that, and I have stood in their way to prevent it, persuaded as I am that the salvation and success of the whole cause lies in the Rota. Auditors are generally well-trained and honourable lawyers, who pride themselves on being men of high character, and live in that reputation, because they all hope to become cardinals or be promoted to other ecclesiastical dignities. They are men of experience; they know how to draw correct inferences (indiciar). they understand the reports that are made, and can point out the doubtful clauses, whereas in the Consistory all this ceases: many of the cardinals are no lawyers at all; others are partial or good for nothing (vanos). and some there are who for the sake of the pontificate at which they madly aim seek no other object but that which may be profitable for this end. (fn. n6)
I have done my best with the Pope to persuade him not to allow such a state of things. On two or three occasions I have hinted to him (and I fancy that he has understood me right well), that he himself might die, and that we could not be so sure of the next Pope, and that this might be the cause of the election being made with greater heat and simony. I have repeated to him the very same arguments of late years, and seeing that nothing was brought into Court save the complaints (querellas) of the English, told him plainly that I also would bring my own complaint [before the Rota], and that since in proceedings he had hitherto given every facility (arbitrio) to the king of England, that in the indictment at least, if he would not give equal facilities to the Queen, he was bound to do justice as he had promised. Upon which Muxetula, the Regent, who was present, suggested certain measures, but I told him I would accept none without an express order from Your Majesty, and that since the English wanted to take the cause out of the Rota I began to suspect that all was not right.
The Pope then ordered cardinals Monte and Anchona to meet and report on the case. I called on them to inform them about it, but with all my efforts I could not persuade them to let the Rota give their opinion on these points, a thing which is quite unprecedented. Muxetula and I, and the two cardinals, then went to the Pope. I told them my mind, and gave such arguments and proofs as I thought were conclusive; they adduced theirs; the discussion grew warmer, and we were on the point of a serious quarrel (reñir). At last Muxetula and I went away, and they (the cardinals) remained with His Holiness.
I know well that this article will be won with the Rota or without it, but I fear for the future, because the English are so full of calumny (calumniosos) that every day a new intrigue will be made. Muxetula says: "Let us put up with that; after all the cause is at Rome, and that is a good deal to say;" but I have no patience. I have sent for all the proctors and advocates (letrados) of Your Majesty, and also for those of the Queen, that we may study the affair together. To-morrow or after they will report to Mucgetula (sic) and to me. I am quite sure that justice is on our side, and yet I have reason to fear that somehow or other it will not prevail, for their wicked intentions and doings are so manifest that I am really alarmed for the future. (fn. n7)
I see that time passes, and that on the 1st of July the holidays begin, yet I consider this article of as much importance as the whole of the cause put together, and prefer risking two months of vacations rather than losing the whole. (fn. n8) After hearing, therefore, what the lawyers have to say I will return to the Pope, and to these cardinals, and see what can be done. Will not consent to what they (the English) claim unless I am positively told to do so, for after all, bad as it is, the delay is better than the dangerous precedents I have alluded to.—Rome. (fn. n9)
Spanish. Contemporary abstract. pp. 5.
20 Mar. 922. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
K u. K. Haus-
Wien.Rep. P.Fasc.,
c. 227, No. 12.
Since my last, in answer to Your Majesty's letter of the 18th ulto., I have duly received those dated Mayence (Maintz) the 9th inst., the contents of which have been a great source of consolation for the Queen, in view of the great affection you bear her and the care you take of her wretched affairs. She had, indeed, almost lost all hope of the suit terminating favourably, when Your Majesty's letter came to comfort her in the midst of her tribulations and sufferings, since perceiving the continual suspensions and delays obtained by the opposite party, and the calumnies propagated by her enemies—who boldly assert and boast that no sooner will Your Majesty be back in Spain than they will do what they like with the Pope and the rest—she was, as I said before, almost in despair She has accordingly charged me to beg and entreat Your Majesty verily to write to His Holiness that he may accelerate the definitive sentence in her case.
As to acquainting Her Majesty, the Queen [dowager] of Hungary, with events in this country, I have not failed to send her advices from time to time, and will continue to do so, in compliance with Your Majesty's commands. I will do the same with regard to Mons. de Libzerke (fn. n10) in all matters relating to Your Majesty's interests.
Lately the King has personally attended three different sessions of Parliament, and played his cards so well (et a ioue son roule de sorte) that the article of the annats, about which I wrote to Your Majesty by my despatch [of the 28th ulto.], (fn. n11) has passed, notwithstanding the opposition of all the bishops and of two abbots: almost all the lords (grans), who were 30 in number, voted in favour of the article with the single exception of the earl of Arundel, so that the majority was in reality for a Bill calculated to reduce considerably the Pope's annual revenue in this country. I pray to God that this disorderly behaviour may not be the source of worse evils for the Queen's case, which, however, has not yet been brought before Parliament. Nor has any other important measure that I know of been discussed or announced. It will be known on Saturday next what their intention is, for Parliament will then be prorogued until St. George's Day (23rd April). Yesterday the safe-conducts were granted for the Scottish ambassadors now going to France, namely, for a bishop, and one secretary only with their respective suites (the other lords who were to accompany the embassy remaining behind), and to-day (the 20th) the king-at-arms who came for the said safe-conduct will return [to Scotland] accompanied by another one from this king. (fn. n12)
Two days ago, by the command of the queen of Hungary, I called upon the duke of Norfolk, and spoke to him on behalf of certain merchants of Dunkerke, whose ships had been plundered at sea. The Duke assured me at once that prompt redress would be made, but this cannot be done (as he says) before the recess of Parliament, with which he is so much occupied at present that he cannot possibly attend to any other business. The delay, however, is more annoying to the French ambassador than to us, for besides the uncertainty of the settlement (his hopes not being quite so strong as mine), the sum he has to claim exceeds 10,000 frs. whereas all the losses sustained by Your Majesty's subjects does not amount to 200. But I must observe that scarcely had I explained my business to the Duke than he began to speak about the descent of the Turk, which, he said, was most certain; adding that the king of France had, to his own knowledge, actually made very considerable offers to co-operate in the resistance to the Infidel on certain conditions to be accepted by Your Majesty. These were that the ransom money paid for his two sons should be returned, or else the kingdom of Naples made over to him. On these terms (the Duke said) the king of France would undertake to defend that country and the rest of Christendom also against the attacks of the Infidel. (fn. n13) My answer was, that on the subject so often discussed of the defensive alliance against the Turk, I had nothing to add to my former statement. As to the terms to which he (the Duke) alluded, I was sure the king of France was too virtuous and too wise a prince to propose such conditions considering the sincere friendship existing between you two. Upon which the Duke observed that he also believed the king of France to be incapable of such an act, and yet he had heard the news from a quarter which though not sufficiently authentic, was still worthy of credit He could, however, point out to me other more credible facts, such as the promise made by the Swiss at the King's request of raising 10,000 infantry whenever he should want them for any foreign war; and upon my inquiring where he thought the said Swiss might be wanted, the Duke answered with some hesitation: "Perhaps the King wants them to march against the Turk."
A priest has lately been arrested on the charge of having preached here, at St. Paul's Cathedral, against the divorce. Having been examined by the members of the Privy Council and questioned as to who had persuaded him to take such a course, he answered that truth, the service of God, and the honour of the King, his lord, had been his only motives. In consequence whereof I am told that the King has issued general orders for all the preachers in this country to speak in favour of his case, and that in obedience to such orders one of them, in Campeggio's bishopric, (fn. n14) began actually to preach a sermon in that sense, though with such ill-success that he was hooted and hissed by the audience, and had not the authorities of the place interfered he might have suffered much at the hands of women and other people in the church, which example, I fancy, will deter others from again preaching in favour of the divorce.
A messenger was some days ago dispatched to Rome, who is to be followed by a second this very day. The object, as far as I can learn, is to intimidate His Holiness by means of this Act of Parliament lately passed about the annats, and also to try and corrupt the cardinals and others with money and the promises of ecclesiastical benefices in England— London, 20th March [15]32.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys.''
22 Mar. 923. The Emperor to cardinal d'Osma.
S. E. L. 1,558,
f 93
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 242.
Thanks him for his good advice, &c.
Considers his presence at Rome as of great advantage to him, especially in all that concerns the queen of England and the matrimonial cause. Cannot possibly do without his valuable services just now. The Pope has repeatedly promised not to grant any more delays, but issue final sentence in the divorce case. He (the Cardinal) must press the Pope to fulfil his promises.
Cardinal's hat for Muscetula, &c.—Ratisbon, 22nd March 1532.
Addressed: "To the cardinal of Osma, &c."
Indorsed: "From Ratisbon, 22nd March, conjointly with the letter of the 26th."
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of secretary Idiaquez.
23 Mar. 924. Lope Hurtado to the Empress.
S. E. L. 25,
f. 79.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 240.
Is in receipt of her letter of the 11th inst. All diligence is being used in the business of the queen of England. The King has sent to the Court (las Casas de la relacion del Crimen y cevil) a lawyer with the report (informacion) presented by Don Esteban, and is now sending Francisco de Melo to the university of Lisbon on a similar errand. Imagines that Don Estevan will be soon dispatched and well, because the King is favourably disposed, as are also the lawyers who have the affair in hand.
Respecting Bras Tellez Your Majesty's commands shall be punctually obeyed. The Infante's treasurer has gone to Santarem for the Easter festivals; that is the reason why the 200,000 reaes cannot be cashed until his return.
Visited the King and Queen in the Empress' name. Both arrived here on the 12th. On the 13th the King had a touch of fever and ague: he is now quite well. The other day news came that a large ship from India, that remained behind at Mosambique, and was considered lost had made her appearance in the Islands, at which the King is exceedingly glad as the vessel was the largest and the richest in cargo of all those employed in the trade of that country. Those that are to sail this year are getting ready.
Fray Alonso de Carmona has come here, sent, as they say, by the bishop of Segovia, on behalf of a brother of his, the same who murdered his wife. Whether he has any other business in hand cannot tell for certain; all he can say is that he knows the man of old, and that he is too fond of mixing himself up with affairs that do not concern him, both at Rome and here. When he first came he (Hurtado) had the greatest difficulty in preventing his going to the King to discourse on the peace of Christendom as dogmatically and with as much assurance as if he had been the late cardinal of England (Wolsey). (fn. n15) To such friars as this one provincials ought never to give permission to quit their cells or kingdom.
For a long time Don Martin [de Portugal] has been trying to get this king through against the majority of votes in Council, to send him as ambassador to Rome. The King at last has appointed him. He is to cross in two large ships that are now being fitted out at Lisbon, and will depart this month or before the middle of the next.—Setubal, 23rd March 1532.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To the Empress."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
[Mar.] 925. Miçer Mai to the high commander of Leon.
S. E. L. 857,
f. 133.
B. M. Add. 28,584,
f. 243.
This [matrimonial] cause of England does not go on at all. After I saw that the debate on the conclusions would last a long time, I myself keeping aloof, as I wrote in my last despatch, the English so far succeeded that they pleaded in only two Consistories. I then petitioned that they should not be allowed to proceed with the disputation, and this was granted. The Pope gave orders to the Commissary of the cause to hold himself in readiness, and although neither I nor the lawyers attended the two last disputes I got some one to put down in writing all that was said on the occasion It is, however, not worth recording, for the argumentation of the English is nothing but air.
Pressing to-day the informing officer to make his report in Consistory, a new difficulty has arisen, because our opponents say that they do not wish the Rota to report, as they consider it a suspicious tribunal. Finding that some of these most reverend cardinals inclined to this opinion, I lost no time and complained to His Holines and to them, and though in the exasperation of the argument I almost feared to lose my senses, still I persevered, because in reality several inconveniences may arise from such a measure as this. First of all, justice is less secure among the cardinals if they vote by themselves, or after hearing the vote of the Rota; and secondly, whatever is done in the meantime is sure to be done afterwards in the principal cause, and it is neither prudent nor wise that matters of such importance should be put to the vote (no es bien ponerlas á voces).
Immediately after the advocation was gained the English demanded that the case should be decided in Consistory without the interference of the Rota. We spoke with the greatest fervour (pusimos los gritos hasta el cielo). and we carried our point; the application was refused. I am now trying to obtain a similar refusal, because to have a case judged by Consistory is tantamount to have it decided with partiality. The Pope is the most afflicted (el mas penado del mundo) of men just now, for he wishes on the one hand to do justice, and yet on the other does not like to offend his friends, as he calls the kings of France and England. This state of indecision naturally renders the opposite party exceedingly bold, and they invent daily fresh plots (bellaquerias). I should prefer not to go on with the cause till I knew His Majesty's wishes, (fn. n16) and should like to see it committed to some worthy individual, a man of conscience in whom we could trust, because from the Consistory without the Rota I expect no good to come, on the contrary, much evil. I know very well that the Consistory is not obliged to follow what the Rota has voted, but I also know that this tribunal is of such authority, and has hitherto been so respected, that very few of the cardinals will dare to dissent from it.
On the other hand, I am very much afraid that the English ambassadors will challenge some of the auditors of the Rota, as suspicious, and that whilst we dispute whether the said auditors are or are not so, some further delay will be caused and time lost, which is what the English are looking for.
Some tell me that the English will ultimately send a mandate to appear, and decline altogether the judgment of the cause here at Rome. If so, the letters which I asked Your Majesty to send me will be of use. I fear they will put in this cause in the holidays, since only two months' time is left for the audiences. I am continually soliciting and warning the Pope about this, but he tells me not to be afraid; still I keep insisting, and will never cease to do so, for I see that somehow or other his promises always fail.
Since matters are so disposed I will omit none of the means and ways conducive to our purpose, and intend besides to press for the conclusion of this case, making use of the evidence and acts lately come from Spain, &c. In this manner the Queen's right shall be clearly demonstrated, and the Bang's unjust demands equally rejected.
After all, it has been resolved that the commissary make a report of all the incidents of the case, without alluding to the votes in the Rota, and that the auditors are not to be present at the reading of the report. I am not at all satisfied with this resolution, and am trying to have it revoked, that the whole thing may be done as on former occasions, for I consider it detrimental to introduce any change.—Rome, [March] 1532.
Indorsed: "Miçer Mai to the High Commander of Leon on the matrimonial cause."
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
26 Mar. 926. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
c. 227, No. 13.
Your Majesty's letter of the 29th ulto came to hand yesterday with its proscripts of the 3rd and 6th inst. I shall not fail to act according to the instructions contained in them.
The article about the annats having passed the assembly of prelates and lords of this kingdom, the procurators and deputies of the towns and villages (communes) dissented, and offered as much opposition as they could to the measure though they had almost all been chosen, as I informed Your Majesty in a previous despatch, (fn. n17) at the King's wish. And although they were given to understand that in Spain, as well as in several other countries, the said annats had not been levied by the Pope's collectors, although it was clearly proved to them by the rolls and accounts that for the last 50 years nearly two millions of gold had left this country on account of the said annats; (fn. n18) although they had the King's promise that for a whole year no other attempt should be made against His Holiness' authority, inasmuch as the King himself intended treating with him and coming to an agreement during that period, the Commons, as I said, strongly opposed the Bill At last the King, perceiving that remonstrances were in vain, thought of a plan, which proved ultimately successful, viz., that those among the members [of Parliament] who wished for the King's welfare and the prosperity of the kingdom, as they call it, should stand on one side of the House, and those who opposed the measure on the other. Several of them for fear of the King's indignation went over to the King's side, and in this manner was a majority obtained, and the Bill passed, though somewhat amended from its original wording, for it says that after the expiration of one year the Pope shall only receive 20 per cent. of the annats he used to take formerly, and that in case of his refusing to consent to the reduction, the two archbishops of this country (Canterbury and York), or in their place two bishops appointed by the King, shall have the power of conferring all ecclesiastical dignities, consecrating, &c.
(Cipher:) Though the above transaction and several small details, which I omit for brevity's sake, are perfectly true and patent to everyone, yet the King and his ministers do not perhaps intend to carry things to extremities, (fn. n19) though it must be said that they are making great efforts to persuade the people that they are in earnest. To this end the duke of Norfolk, riding past the Nuncio's house yesterday, as he was going to a country house of his, alighted from his horse and said to him, that as most likely people would give diverse accounts of what had just been decided about the annats, he had expressly called to inform him of the truth, that he might acquaint His Holiness. And after begging the said Nuncio to listen to what he had to say, and protesting that nothing but the plain truth should issue from his lips, he strove hardly to persuade him that it was not the King but the Commons (le peuple) who had of their own accord brought forward the motion about the annats, besides many others against Papal authority, and that the King —who was a good and devout son of His Holiness—had marvellously worked to defend his rights and authority in this country. That with regard to the annats, the King was the sole arbiter between himself and his subjects. It rested entirely with the Pope to preserve all his annats and other prerogatives in this kingdom.
Such was the Duke's statement to the Nuncio, after swearing on his honour that he would say nothing but the plain truth, and begging him to write to Rome! The Nuncio, however, after listening to the Duke's words, could not help remarking on the conduct of the King and of his ministers in this business of the annats, which has been, as I have informed Your Majesty, so different from the Duke's statement, to which most opportune observation the latter knew not how to answer, except by saying that he did not speak of the means employed, but only of the effect produced, and so avoided any further discussion on the subject. (fn. n20)
The French ambassador has also been well primed (abbreuve) in the same line, and I suppose has been told to come to me and represent the affair in the very same language that the Duke did to the Nuncio, for at the moment I write he is leaving my room after wasting all his rhetoric on me. I fancy also that he will write to his master much as these people desire. As to the Nuncio, he tells me that he will write to Rome the whole truth, and ask for a prompt remedy [to the impending evil].
According to the Frenchman's statement the mission of the Scottish ambassadors now going to France is to ask for a wife for their master, the King. He thought, however, that they would not be able to obtain the hand of any of the King's daughters, but might get that of Vendosme (Antoine de Bourbon) or Guyse (Claude de Lorraine), or the sister of the prince of Navarre. After this the French ambassador went on to talk about Monsieur de Savoye (Carlo), whom he strongly blamed for having accepted the county of Asta (Asti), which (he said) the King, his master, could not suffer to be in other hands than his own, any more than the duchy of Milan, which (he said) was the patrimonial estate of his children. Monsieur de Savoie, he observed, was perhaps the prince who had the least title of any to the said county of Asti, and therefore the King could not bear with patience his retaining possession of it.
This last observation eliciting no answer from me the French ambassador changed the conversation and passed to another topic, &c.—London, 26th March [15]32.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Indorsed: "From the ambassador in England, 26th March. Received on the 14th of April."
French. Holograph. pp. 4.
28 Mar. 927. The Emperor to cardinal Loaysa.
S. E.L. 1,558,
f. 92.
M. Add. 28,584,
f. 239.
Has nothing to add concerning his conversation with the Papal Legate.
Thanks him for his advice. Has already acquainted the king of France with the fact that the Turks are advancing, and sent him a special agent to request that should the Pope apply to him for a number of galleys he would lend them to him. Has further asked the King to contribute in money; troops he (the Emperor) does not want. Hears that the Pope intends sending a Legate to France with that object; does not consider it necessary, but if the Pope and his Cardinals wish to send cardinal Salviati to France and England, he (the Emperor) cannot possibly raise an objection. They may send him, but let it be understood that on no account is the Legate to ask those kings for succour in men; they are only wanted to contribute money, not an army or fleet.
Is to thank the Pope in his name for the great affection he professes to bear him.—Ratisbon, 28th March 1532.
Spanish. Original draft in the handwriting of secretary Idiaquez. English abstract by Bergenroth. pp. 3.


  • n1. No. 898, p. 380. "Son demenner, que sadressa par la court de France, ou ce roy avoit envoye sa depesche."
  • n2. "De vouloir pour cupidité et ambicion du royaulme de Hongrie mectre toute la chrestiente en dange[r] de perdicion."
  • n3. "Je pense quilz veuillent cumuler loccasion du dit port avec celle des dites fortresses pour pouvoir demander deniers."
  • n4. "Y segun escrive el obispo de Mondoñedo viene tan buena la provanza que ay testigo, que es una Catalina de Guevara, que contra la falsedad que se ponia á la Serenissima Reina declara como estava virgen quando se dió al Rey Enrrico octavo, y como se halló presente en ambas bodas, y sacó las sabanas de la cama donde vido lo de que da testimonio; lo qual es tambien para mayor abundancía porque la justicia desta causa siempre está cierta, aunque el matrimonio fuera consumado con Arcturo." The witness mentioned in this passage may have been the mother of the bishop of Guadix, Don Antonio de Guevara, one of Charles' chaplain preachers, who in 1537 became bishop of Mondoñedo. The one alluded to in this passage must have been D. Pedro Pacheco, who in 1545 was created cardinal by Paul III., the successor of Clement.
  • n5. "Y no sus votos, ni lo que entre ellos havian acordado, que bien que su voto no valga nada, quando la cosa entra en consistorio es de grandissima reputacion, y quasi nunca se vió que el Consistorio [decida] cosa contra lo que havia delliberado la Rota."
  • n6. "Y otros que por locura del pontitìcado no tienen otro obieto sino lo que para ellos piensan que les ha de aprovechar."
  • n7. "Esto va tan descubierto [que] me hazen temer en lo de porvenir."
  • n8. "Y quiero quando assi sea aventurar antes dos meses que quedan de vacaciones que no el todo."
  • n9. The letter has no signature or date. It is probably from Mai and addressed either to Covos or to Idiaquez, most likely to the former.
  • n10. Liederkerke? If so, he must be Jean Hannaert, Counsellor of State to the Emperor in Flanders, and later, in 1535, ambassador to France.
  • n11. See above, No. 907, p. 390.
  • n12. "A sçavoir pour ung evesque et ung secretaire avec leur train, et non point pour autres seignieurs; et doit partyr au iour dhuy pour son retourd le roy darmes que porsuyt le dit saulfconduyt accompagnie dung autre de ceux de ce roy."
  • n13. "Et en apres me dit que le roy de France avoit fait ung bel offre pour la resistence du dit turc, porveu que lon voulsist accepter les conditions questoint que vostre maieste luy rendist sa rançon, ou luy remist le royaume de Naples, et yl se feroit fort de bien le deffendre."
  • n14. That of Salisbury.
  • n15. "No sé si trae otra cosa, que este frayle conozco yo por mas amigo de negocios [de lo] que era menester, de Roma y de aqui quando vino, que no le podia estorvar que hablase en la paz de la christiandad al Rey, como si fuera el cardenal de Inglaterra, muerto."
  • n16. "Yo por mi mas querria [no] passar [adelante] en la causa hasta consultarlo con su Magestad."
  • n17. That of the 20th, No. 922, p. 410.
  • n18. "Et nonobstant quil leur fust donne detendre que en hyspagne et plusieurs autres lieux icelles annates ne se prirent, nonobstant ausy que leur fust remonstre par roullez et comptez que puys cinquante aua les dites annates avoint couste a ce royaume prez de deux milions dor."
  • n19. "Le roy et les siens nont point de regard de uouloir despenser (?) le cas tout au rebourd."
  • n20. "Le dit nonce apres auoir ouy les dits propoz luy mis en auant les façons de fere que le roy et les siens auoient tenu au dit affere des annates, questoient bien disformes aux susdits propoz, a quoy ne luy sçeut le dit due que repondre synon quil ne luy parloit point des moyens tenus ains tant seullement de leffet, et ne voulet (sic) entrer plus auant en disputes."