Spain: October 1534, 1-15

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1886.

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, 'Spain: October 1534, 1-15', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535, (London, 1886) pp. 267-282. British History Online [accessed 26 May 2024].

. "Spain: October 1534, 1-15", in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535, (London, 1886) 267-282. British History Online, accessed May 26, 2024,

. "Spain: October 1534, 1-15", Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 1, 1534-1535, (London, 1886). 267-282. British History Online. Web. 26 May 2024,

October 1534, 1-15

3 Oct. 93. Count Cifuentes to the Emperor.
S. E., L. 862,
ff. 71, 72.
B. M. Add. 28,587,
f. 46.
On the 25th inst. by express messenger I advised His Holiness' death. (fn. n1) Nothing new has occurred since, and Rome is quiet. True, common people have been rather riotous against certain merchants of this city, named the Strozzi, relatives of the last Pope (Clement VII.), owing to the dearth of bread, which was exclusively attributed to them, and that the mob at one time wished to set fire to their houses, and carry away what wheat they had in store. Everything, however, was made right by the College of Cardinals, the conservators of Rome, Ascanio Colonna and myself, by our quieting the rioters, and ordering that all the wheat which the Strozzi had in store should be distributed among the poor; owing to which measure, and to the appointment of Micer Bernardino, whom Your Majesty knows, Rome is for the time tranquil.
On the 2nd inst. the funeral ceremonies of the late Pope commenced. I am told that on the 13th the cardinals will go into conclave. Your Majesty's letter and my own credentials I sent to the College. Their answer was such, that if they only act according to their words, matters will go on well.
Letters to be written to these cardinals, thanking them for their journey to Rome. The French cardinals will arrive to-morrow, or the day after. They are accompanied by Renzo da Ceri and Stephano Colonna. Trent and Saltzburg will be here in two days' time. I have not secured rooms for them within the Palace, but they will be comfortably lodged at Capua's, and in another set of rooms I have prepared for them. These two Germans will be of much use, coming from a country like Germany, now a prey to heretical doctrines. If it be true, as asserted, that the French cardinals Bring with them 100,000 ducats in specie, and as many in ecclesiastical pensions, to be spent or distributed in this next election, they will have a good chance of having their candidate, whoever he may be, elected. I, however, attach no faith to the report, though coming from two different quarters.
Elsewhere in the estates of the Church some movements are reported, but hitherto of no importance.
The ambassador is to see that no meetings of men take place. Letters to this effect are to be prepared, both for him and for the duke of Urbino. The "fuorusciti of Florence" are collecting in the duchy of Urbino, and they say have in Venice all the money they may want for enlisting men in the duchy, &c. The duke of Urbino winks at it and dissembles. The duke Alessandro de' Medici complains, and asks me to help him.
The ambassador must already have heard about this. The Venetians are completely satisfied with the explanation given. The Venetians, as it would appear, feel suspicious at Your Majesty having sent count Nassau to France for the purpose, as they think, of entering into some agreement with him.
Let him report, and should the King's agent speak in his presence about the election, he (the Count) must, according to time and circumstances, and with all possible tact and discretion, bring forth the authority of the Holy See in all church matters, as he has done on all occasions. (fn. n2) What I mentioned in my despatch of the 20th ult. about Ana de Bolans (Anne Boleyn) being just now on bad terms with the king of England, must be a hoax, for I have letters from Your Majesty's ambassador (Chapuys) residing in that country, in date of the 27th August, in which nothing is said about it, though both he (Chapuys) and the Imperial ambassador in France (Hannaërt), announce the arrival from England of Casale for the purpose of aiding in the election of a Pope favourable to the kings of France and England; and Casale himself has actually come. After doing here what he can do, he is to go to Venice, and reside there as English ambassador.
The viceroy of Naples writes that he has despatched regent Figueroa, who is to arrive to-night, to help and counsel me in this new election. God grant that his presence here may not prove an obstacle to Your Majesty's plans, because the arrival at the present moment of an officer without credentials from Your Majesty is likely to be detrimental under present circumstances. Had the Viceroy any remarks to make, he might have addressed me in cipher, or sent one of his own clerks, not a person of such importance as regent Figueroa is. I am the more astonished at all this, that I have carefully transcribed and sent him what Your Majesty wrote to me on the subject.
Signed: "El conde de Cifuentes."
Spanish. Original. pp. 4½.
3 Oct. 94. The Same to the High Commander.
S.E. Roma, L. 1310,
f. 137.
B.M. Add. 28,587,
f. 45.
On the 27th ult. Andrea Doria was at Naples with the fleet; he was to sail for Rome next day.
With regard to the defensive league against the Turk, nothing can be done until the election of a new Pope.
The same intelligence has reached us through Soria's letters. The ambassador, however, is to dissemble and not show contentment at it, for fear the Venetians and the Duke [of Urbino?] should be offended. Through the intermediate action of the king of the Romans, the danger in which Luigi Gritti now lies, the King's negociations with the Vayvod, and the agreement lately made with the dukes of Bavaria, matters both in Hungary and in Germany may be satisfactorily settled.
State of the relations between the Sophy and the Turk.
Let the ambassador say what terms they want, and what pension both father and son had from France, and then the Council will decide. Is waiting for an answer to what he wrote respecting Renzo de Cheri [da Ceri] and Giovan Paolo, his son. They are both very pressing, and wish to know whether their offers of service will be accepted or not.
The Luquese still pretend that as they have no seaport of their own, they cannot effectually aid an enterprise with galleys; they say they have no money either, but that if the other Christian princes help, they themselves will not be found wanting. Don Gaspar [de Guzman] has since gone to them, and they have promised some money.—Rome, 3 Oct. 1534.
Indorsed: "Summary of a letter from count Cifuentes at Rome."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
9 Oct. 95. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
S. E., L. 1310,
f. 139.
B. M. Add. 28,587,
The same intelligence has been received here through the Venetian ambassador. In answer to Your Majesty's letter of the 4th Sept., I beg leave to state that by letters from Constantinople of the 29th of August and 3rd of September, intelligence has reached this city that the war between the Sophy [of Persia] and the Turk continues still. The latter was hastening thither at the head of a numerous army, and was to take up on the road thither Habraym (Ibráhim) Pashá. A battle would soon be fought. The Venetians hoped the Sophy would be victorious, in which case the Signory might arrange better their matters with the Turk.
We feel confident that Doria will act justly in this affair, and attend to the claims of the Signory. Two galleons and some "fustees" of Andrea Doria. among which are some belonging to Malta, (fn. n3) surprised and sacked the other day, on the coast of Sardinia, a village called Saça, and captured 300 persons. It would appear that among the spoil some merchandize belonging to Venetian traders was taken, at which the Doge (Andrea Gritti) is greatly discontented. It is added that Doria's galleons and other vessels, amounting in all to 12 sail, will go next to a place called Satula.
Barbarossa has entered Tunis.
A secretary of the Vayvod (Zapolsky) has arrived here on his return from a mission to the kings of France and England. Through count Guido, who is a personal friend of his, I have been able to obtain a summary of what the Secretary has done and negociated in those countries, which comes to this:—He has been unable to obtain help or assistance of any sort from those kings, and he is now about to return to his master empty-handed; nor has he any hopes for the future. Though the Vayvod has asked in England for the hand of the Princess [Mary], and in France for that of the sister of the prince of Navarre, all is empty air and moonshine. The Secretary says that it would be much better for his master (the Vayvod) to enter into some agreement with the King of the Romans than cling to the hopes which those kings give him. Such had been his counsel and advice when he last had occasion to write home, telling his master that he has nothing to expect from Francis or Henry, and had better settle his disputes with the King of the Romans. The Secretary's despatch went by another servant of the Vayvod, owing to his having been taken ill here, in Venice. I have written to the King of the Romans to have the Secretary's despatch intercepted, if there be still time.
A very pretty excuse indeed. You must be aware that in the last [Turkish] fleet there came an ambassador of France. He was sent to Marseilles in a galley by Barbarossa, accompanied by another ambassador from the Turk. The king of France shows sorrow and repentance at this coming of Barbarossa. He is very angry with Hieronymo Lasco for pretending to be his ambassador, and speaking to the Grand Turk (Solyman) without his knowledge, and has written a letter to Luigi Gritti requesting that Lasco should be punished.
Letters from the duchy of Würtemburg state that a secretary of the king of France, who had been residing there for some time, was actually going to Luigi Gritti with 6,000 cavalry.
He must go on urging the despatch of this affair until the whole matter in dispute be fairly settled. The business between the King of the Romans and this Signory is in a fair way of being satisfactorily settled. It would already have been so, had not the cardinal of Trent (Clesi) taken with him [to Rome] one of the King's commissaries.
So it is, and the Emperor is much pleased. Letters from Innspruch state that a marriage has been arranged between a daughter of King Ferdinand and a son of the duke of Bavaria.
The Signory are not over sorry at the death of the last Pope, but, nevertheless, wish for the election of an impartial one. They would be glad if the choice should fall on Farnese. I have tried my best with the Doge and Signory respecting their arming against the Turk. Four days ago the senators met, and sent me an answer, couched in very general terms, making those excuses and specious arguments of which they are so fond, though I must say that they ended by promising to arm a few galleys against Barbarossa, should he venture to come to these seas. Besides, I hear from a good quarter that this question of the armament has been frequently discussed in their Senate; some of its members opining that they had better join Your Majesty at once with a well-appointed sea-force, whereas others—and they are the majority—think that this cannot and ought not to be done unless a pre-concerted agreement be entered into between Your Majesty, the King of France, and the rest of the European potentates.
The Emperor's wish is that the duke Alessandro be maintained in Florence. The "fuorusciti" of Florence have lately attempted, in union with their party within the city, to recover their ancient liberties.
A letter from the Papal Nuncio residing at the court of the King of the Romans contains the following intelligence. It is there said that the Hungarians entered a place where Luigi Gritti had strengthened himself. After slaughtering almost all the Turks in it, with the exception of a few, who proved to be Christians, the Hungarians seized Gritti and kept him in prison. It was thought that they would shortly put him to death, inasmuch as he had himself slain the bishop of the place. Gritti's two sons had managed to. escape, for when their father threw himself hastily into the place, they preferred to fly, and did so. This intelligence was brought by two Hungarians, who came here to Venice riding post. I do not affirm these facts; for the King [of the Romans], who has couriers posted at various points on the road, has not yet heard of it.—Venice, 9 Oct. 1534.
Indorsed: Summary of letters from ambassador Soria to the Emperor, 9 Oct. 1534. Answered at Madrid, 14 Nov., by Waury, the bearer. (fn. n4)
9 Oct. 96. The Same to the High Commander.
S.E., L. 1310,
f. 139.
B. M. Add. 28,587,
f. 73.
Wrote on the 10th, answering the Emperor's letter of the 4th ulto. Since then another of the 29th has come to hand, intimating that prince [Andrea] Doria had been ordered to sea with his 25 galleys. Barbarossa having gone by way of Tunis, the Prince is to return to Genoa for winter quarters; but will, it is said, go out to sea again next spring. Deeming this a favourable opportunity to bring before this Doge and Signory the expediency of joining their galleys to those of the Emperor, and sweeping the sea of corsairs and pirates, he (Soria) failed not to represent to them the great efforts the Emperor was making to attain that object. Their answer was so vague and so disheartening that he (Soria) considers it highly imprudent under present circumstances to renew the application. They could not (the Doge said) openly take up arms against the Turk, bound as they are for their own safety to keep up with him on apparently good terms. His (Soria's) impression is that the Signory will not join in an enterprise of this sort, and that the matter ought not to be further urged on them, because were they to imagine that his suggestions proceed directly from him (the Emperor), and that by denying the application they may incur his displeasure, they would become our enemies, for "he who does the wrong never forgives." At present, as intimated in his (Soria's) last despatch, they are rather suspicious of count Nassau's visit to the court of France.
On this subject of count Nassau and his embassy to France, the general report here is that he (the Count) is soon expected at the French court. He might be there already, had he not feigned illness on the road in order to wait for the arrival there of the Grand Master [of France] Montmorency, who was journeying to Court in a sedan chair, in very indifferent health, and surely not in a condition to negotiate the important State affairs in which both were concerned. It was considered certain that a marriage would be soon concluded between the Emperor's daughter Maria and the dauphin of France, to whom the duchy of Milan would be given as a dower, the duke Francesca Sforza getting the duchy of Bourbonnais in exchange. Such is the general impression in this city. The senators have often met in private, and discussed the matter at length; the result of the conferences being that they do not believe the Emperor capable of despoiling the duke of Milan, who is married to a niece of his; (fn. n5) much less give the duchy to the French, and thereby afford them a footing in Italy, when his sole object has always been to restore peace to this country. Some of them, who occasionally speak with him (Soria), are not so explicit. All, however, agree that, according to information received from France, count Nassau is now taking to that country important proposals on the part of the Emperor. Told them that the Count had no particular mission: having to traverse France in his journey to Flanders, he had been instructed to visit the King and Queen of that country. They replied that their ambassador at the Imperial court had, it is true, written in that sense, and assured them that count Nassau would never treat whilst in France of anything to the Signory's detriment. Such (they said) had been the Emperor's words to their ambassador, but still they could not help remarking that such words in the Emperor's mouth indicated that other affairs would be discussed there. Nevertheless, their ambassador at the court of France had written that the King had said to him several times, "Were I to show "you a paper I have here in my bosom, you would see most "wonderful things the Emperor is now negotiating with me." This, after all, might have been said on purpose and by way of deceit, in order to instil suspicion and fear into the minds of the Venetians, and make them listen to what he has to say, for it is reported that he has actually promised them new dominions in Italy, &c., if they will only make some agreement with him. (fn. n6) Nor is this Signory at all tranquil in the possible event of the Emperor and king of France coming to an understanding and being friends, because (they say): "We shall be again requested to join the League, which will "be for us a matter of great anxiety; for if we accept our "possessions, our merchants in Turkey will be placed in "jeopardy; we shall lose our trade with those countries, and "be besides put to great expense; and if we refuse to join "the League, that may give the king of France, and the "Emperor also, occasion and motive to pick up a quarrel "with us," &c.
The Signory has seen with pleasure the appointment of pope Farnese. They have chosen eight of their elders to offer congratulations, &c. They are to leave next January. There is no doubt, however, that these Venetians will solicit a new secret league with this Pope, as they did with the last, especially after the fear and suspicion which Nassau's late mission to France seems to have aroused among them.
Luigi Gritti was really murdered by the Hungarians who besieged his house. It is also reported that two of his sons were slain on the occasion. This, however, is not certain; nor has the news been confirmed of his brother Georgio having also been slain at Buda in an attempt to relieve Luigi. Although this Doge seemed to hate his two sons on account of their serving the Turk, yet he shows such a sorrow at the loss he has lately sustained, that he (Soria) could not do less the other day than offer his condolence in the King of the Romans' name. A letter to that effect might come from Spain; he (Soria) knows the Doge and Signory will be pleased at it. No one here, in Venice, is sorry for Luigi's death, for all were envious of so much grandeur, and besides disliked the idea of being continually taunted with the intimate friendship which the two sons of this Doge (Andrea) entertained for the Turk. Yet, on the other hand, they are not at all glad at king Ferdinand getting such a supremacy in Hungary.
Cardinals Saltzburg and Trent (Clesi) left Rome on the 20th to return home. The latter writes that he will do his utmost to bring the difference between this Republic and the king of the Romans to a conclusion.
Cardinal Luzera (fn. n7) is soon expected here in this city.
In consequence of the information furnished by him (Soria) to the king of the Romans and to Andalot (fn. n8) respecting the Vayvod's servant, the latter was arrested on his passage through the Tyrol, and his papers seized. It would appear from them that the Vayvod is, or has been, in secret negotiation with the kings of France and England. His secretary, whose arrival he (Soria) mentioned in his despatch of the 9th inst., (fn. n9) is still here, in Venice, waiting for prothonotary Casale, who went to Rome the moment he heard of Clement's death. Casale is English ambassador to this Republic, and it has been settled that he is to accompany the Vayvod's secretary on his journey back, and there represent the kings of France and England, his own brother (Sir Gregory Casale) coming here to replace him during his absence. But the death of Gritti and the recent troubles in Hungary are likely to alter these plans. Will take care, however, and watch the movements of the Secretary, that he may, like the other one, be arrested on his return.
Did likewise inform the king of the Romans of a Turkish spy, named Ludovico di Martinengo, who was going to Austria, that he might be arrested and examined. Martinengo was stopped, and when interrogated confessed the truth. Fearing, however, that he might be sentenced to death, he snatched a dagger from one of those present, gave himself four thrusts, and ultimately cut his throat with it. It is a great pity, for this individual might have revealed plenty of useful things, he being a very learned man (persona muy sabia) and a comrade of Juan Mida, he who lately went to Spain, under colour of serving the Emperor. Though a friend of Martinengo, and somewhat related to Angoulema (?), he (Soria) is almost certain that he has gone to Spain for the purpose of spying out the Emperor's movements and reporting. This Mida, his deceased friend Martinengo, and another one who went to Genoa for the purpose of joining Barbarossa, are birds of the same feather (fn. n10) It is a great pity that ambassador Figueroa did not seize and question that one [Mida], no doubt the same man whom the Vayvod's secretary left behind him here. Figueroa thought, no doubt, that he had done enough by having his papers seized, as well as the letter of count Abbatis de Villanova, which he (Soria) had already managed to see here [in Venice.] It is evident that the letter was written for the sole purpose of colouring the man's mission; but in reality the man had a verbal message to deliver, the pith and soul of the whole intrigue. (fn. n11) It appears that when the man returned from his errand, he said to his comrades and to those who had a hand in the intrigue,—among them Lorenzo Gritti, a brother of Luigi and of Giorgio, now here in Venice,—that count Abbatis [de Villanova] was playing a double game with them, and had been the cause of the seizure of the papers, and that they themselves had miraculously escaped from the hands of the Spaniards. Owing to that the Count was one night arrested in his lodgings, and taken to prison by a captain of justice, placed in a barge with his servants, and landed at a port on the coast belonging to the king of the Romans, with precise orders for him not to return here, or to the territory of the Republic, under pain of death. (fn. n12) As the man (Martinengo), who committed suicide, declared that he had been sent by the Count, the King considers it advisable to get hold of this one, and therefore he (Soria) has despatched one of his own servants to that effect; indeed, the plot is so well laid that the man will be very lucky if he can escape. He (Soria) is only afraid that this man knows but little of what his comrades are about, and that they employed him because they heard he was acquainted with him (Soria), and would the more easily catch him in their trap. He [Soria], knowing very well what their aim was, dissembled for a time, in order to make sure of them. It will be advisable, therefore, when Angoulême's relative, who is now gone to Spain, makes his appearance at. Court, to have him arrested and examined. Surely many important things respecting these people's treacherous proceedings may be learned through him, for he is a man of wit and talent a friend of Abraym (Ibráhim) Basha, and of Luigi and Giorgio Gritti. As to count Abbatis, he (Soria) has known him for many years. He is a knave and a scoundrel (tacaño); at present he has lost the use of his hands and feet through a fit of the gout, and if he has entered into this intrigue, it is merely to get a livelihood through it, for he is very poor. Most likely he knows nothing more of it than what others tell him. Perhaps, after all, in joining the conspiracy against the Emperor, the Count's object has been to do service and sell his information in order to get a reward. However, as he is sure to be taken prisoner sooner or later, we shall know then what the whole gang are about.
Has laid before the Signory a statement of the Emperor's sentiments respecting the last outrage done to the Republic in England. "My master (said Soria to them) can hardly believe the imprisonment, by the King's orders, of Venetian-born subjects living in London. He has charged me to offer his services in this and in any other business that may turn up." The Doge and Signory were very much pleased at this demonstration; they will, no doubt, write to their ambassador at the Imperial Court to return thanks in their name. What he (Soria) has heard on this subject is this: The king of England having been told that he and his subjects would suffer loss by the arrival in London of the Venetian galleons (galeazas), inasmuch as considerable fraud and smuggling was taking place, gave immediate orders for the arrest of several Venetian merchants. They were, however, soon set free, under bail to appear at a court of law, where the case is to be tried. The galleons were prevented from proceeding in their navigation, but it is thought that the King will beg them to return another year, for the trade with Venice is very profitable to him and to his kingdom.
The duke of Ferrara (Alfonso d'Este) is still suffering from intermittent fever. He has, however, sent his son Ercole post-haste to visit the Pope, and, naturally, to b him accept the compensation in money which he once offered for Modena, and the late Pope refused.
He of Urbino [Francesco Maria della Rovere] has at last married his eldest son [Guidobaldo] to the duchess of Camarino. Fearing lest the new Pope should throw some impediment in the way of that marriage, the Duke decided to have it consummated at once, and so it was. They write from Rome that pope (Paul) has not been at all pleased at it, the marriage having been made without his permission, both the dukes [of Urbino and Camarino] having been at one time or other vicars of the Church, (fn. n13) and also because it might well be that this Pope intended the duchy of Camarino to become the patrimony of one of his nephews.
The Sophy and the Grand Turk, &c.
Has just heard that the duke of Ferrara [Alfonso d'Este] is dangerously ill; indeed, physicians despair of his life, that being the reason why his son Ercole has not yet departed for Rome. (fn. n14) —Venice, 9 Oct. 1534.
Spanish. Original. pp. 5.
13 Oct. 97. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
Rep. P.C., Fasc. 228,
No. 59.
The German whom I mentioned in my preceding despatch happens to be one of the counts of Hoy, brother-in-law, and, as I hear, enemy of the king of Sweden. He has already conferred with Cromwell, but has not yet seen this king, owing to which no one here knows what he has come about.
This king having been told that there was some rumour of a future marriage between the infanta (Mary) and the dauphin [of France], sent immediately for the secretary of the French embassy at this court to propose that of his own bastard daughter to the duke of Angoulême.
It is further said that the Admiral of France (Brion) is coming here to promote this latter marriage, and that King Henry has already sent a ship well manned and armed for the passage of the said admiral, giving orders that he should be well feasted and entertained wherever he may land. I have also been told that the charge of the French secretary [who came last] is to the effect that since the king of France has not consented to revoke the edict forbidding commercial intercourse between the two countries, he should at least agree to its suspension for a length of time, that the loud complaints of his people should be silenced until the next session of Parliament, when a remedy would be applied, and a reform introduced in the constitutions and ordinances of this country, of which the king of France and his subjects complain; which constitutions and ordinances having been voted in this present Parliament cannot be discussed and amended except by the members of that body. And on this ground the suspension of the measure has, I am told, been granted. (fn. n15)
This King's worthy councillors flattered themselves that should the present Pope come to die, and a new one be elected in his room, the King's indignation against the Holy See might relent, and that he would return to the obedience of the Church. But when recently the news of the Pope's dangerous illness arrived, and the duke of Norfolk and marquis [of Dorset] said that on the Pope's death they believed that, as a Catholic Prince, the King would have no difficulty in obeying his successor, he answered, "Let no one try to "persuade me, or advise such a step, for, whoever is elected Pope, I shall take no more account of him than of any priest in this my kingdom."
Two days ago letters came from Gregory de Casal, announcing His Holiness' death, at which both the King and Cromwell have been delighted. The latter especially cannot refrain from saying in public, to all those he meets, that "at last that great Devil was dead;" and it seems as if he was sorry not to be able to give that Pope a still worse appellation.
The wife of Mr. de Rochefort has lately been exiled from Court, owing to her having joined in a conspiracy to devise the means of sending away, through quarrelling (fasherie) or otherwise, the young lady to whom the King is now attached. As the credit of this latter is on the increase, and that of the King's mistress on the wane, she is visibly losing part of her pride and vainglory. The lady in question has lately sent a message to the Princess, telling her to take good heart; that her tribulations will come to an end much sooner than she expected; and to be assured that, should the opportunity occur, she will show herself her true friend and devoted servant.
The proclamation issued some days ago at this court, forbidding the circulation of news about Ireland, was for the purpose of concealing from the people the fact that Lord Kildare had actually under him 1,500 men, who had actually deserted the King's banner. It is said that the [lieutenant] governor, Mr. de Scheventon (Skeffington), had gone on board with all his men, and was on the point of sailing. But, if I am to believe what people here say about him, he would be right glad if he were prevented by foul weather from crossing; for he has written to his friends in this city that if he ever lands in Ireland he considers himself as good as lost.—London, 13 Oct., 1534.
Signed: "Eustace Cha uys."
French. Original in cipher. pp. 2.
13 Oct. 98. Aceves; his report to the High Commander from Rome.
S. E., L. 861, f. 13.
B. M. Add. 28,587,
f. 56.
Count Cifuentes, the ambassador, has, ever since the Pope's last illness, till the election of the new Pope, maintained 500 men under arms.
Sunday, the 11th inst., after dinner, the cardinals being shut up in conclave, 150 Spanish hackbutiers coming from Sicily in a state of mutiny,—perhaps, too, dismissed from the Imperial service,—entered Rome by the gate of St. Peter, traversed this city in full order, and, preceded by their drummers, came as far as the Imperial embassy. The cardinals having been informed of the fact, sent a message to the Count to make the Spaniards go away, which they actually did on the ensuing day, after receiving some money on account of their pay. They took the road to Lombardy.
About that time also the Romans themselves, being at variance with certain merchants of this city, known by the name of the "Strozzi" (los Estrozis), assembled in number of upwards of 2,000, for the purpose of pulling down and setting fire to the houses of those bankers; which they would have done had not the cardinals, when they heard of it, sent a message to the Count [of Cifuentes], who not only was able to stop the assailants, but succeeded in having the matter compromised, and placed in the hands of two of their number, besides Ascanio Colonna and the count of Anguillara. (fn. n16)
The Count, moreover, has since managed to reconcile cardinal [Ippolito] de' Medici and Ascanio [Colonna], who were by no means on good terms with each other.
In the Pope's election the Count behaved with so much prudence and sagacity, and exerted his influence in such a manner, that nobody could think he was actually working for Farnese's election, as other ambassadors have done; (fn. n17) and yet, as he knew that by promoting it he was carrying out the Emperor's views on the subject, he has favoured it as much as was in his power.
The new Pope has promised to hold a Council within a short period of time; he seems a very good man in other respects. The election was made canonically; the cardinals being shut up in conclave from Sunday night, the 11th, until the morning of Tuesday, the 13th.
Whilst the Count was thus occupied, licte Figueroa arrived from Naples, sent by the Viceroy, at which the former is much hurt.
All disputes and matters of discord between the Italian potentates are suspended for a time, if not completely settled, with the single exception, perhaps, of the quarrel between the duke Alessandro de' Medici and the duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria della Rovere). The former complains that the "fuorusciti" of Florence find shelter in the state of the latter, whilst the Duke says that Medici is urging the people of Perosa (Perugia) to invade him. The Florentine "fuorusciti" wish to return home, and offer to give security that they will not interfere in politics; the duke Alessandro, on the other hand, wants some one to represent the Emperor at Florence. (fn. n18)
Since Clement's death a discovery has been made. It appears that during the conference of Marseilles king Francis promised to give one of his daughters in marriage to the duke Alessandro on condition that he (Clement) would help him to get Milan. Although Carniseca will, no doubt, report on this, it is desirable that the Emperor should know.
Begs for a reward (albricias) for the good news he has brought to Rome. (fn. n19)
Spanish. Original. pp. 4.


  • n1. See above, p. 264, No. 91.
  • n2. "Podrá poner delante el auctoridad que es razon que la yglesia tenga segun lo que ha hecho y haze."
  • n3. "Las fustas todas son de Malta, entre las quales [h]ay una galera."
  • n4. This is perhaps the first time that the name of this individual Baber, Bauri, &c. is correctly spelt and written. His real name was François de Rupt, sieur de Waury. See vol. iv. part ii. pp. 179, 395, 575.
  • n5. At this time Francesco Sforza was married to one of the Emperor's nieces, Christierna or Christine, daughter of the king of Denmark.
  • n6. "Prometiendoles estado nuevo en Italia y otras cosas, si se conciertan con él."
  • n7. The copy has "Lucena," which must be a mistake for Lucera. If so, the bishop alluded to is Andrea Matheo Palmeri or Palmieri, formerly bishop of Matera and Accerenza, who died in 1537.
  • n8. See above, p. 269.
  • n9. See above, p. 270.
  • n10. "Por que era persona muy sabia y compañero de Juan Mida, que es ido á V. Md que es el que tengo escripto, pariente de Angulema, que tengo por cierto va por espia so color que va por servir á V. Md y este y el que se ha muerto, y el que fue a Genoua para ir á Barbarroja, todos son de una liga."
  • n11. "Y fuera gran bien que el embajador Figueroa [h]oviera preso y examinado aquel [hombre], el qual dize que dejó por compañero, paresciendole haber hecho harto con hacerle tomar las letras que llevaba del conde Abbadis de Villanova, las quales havia yo tenido forma de verlas aqui, y sabia que eran por dar color al que las llevaba, pero lo cierto lo llevaba en la lengua."
  • n12. "Y por esto fue la presa, y los soltaron con firmanças (fianzas?) de representarse, y estar á justicia, y vedaron que no fuesen mas allá las galeaças."
  • n13. Habiendo sido [ambos à dos] en algun tiempo vicarios de la Iglesia. I presume that by "vicarios," gonfalonieri is meant.
  • n14. An abstract (relacion) of this letter may also be found at fol. 52 of the same volume, the 16th of the Bergenroth collection.
  • n15. "Les quelles constitutions et ordonnances pour auoir este passees par le dit parlement, ne se pouvoient traicter sy non par les mesmes, sur le quel espoir a este obtenue la dite surseance."
  • n16. The count of Anguillara (Francesco Cibo) was an Orsino.
  • n17. "Que no pareciendo que V. Md nonbrava señaladamente á Fernés, como otros embaxadores an echo (han hecho), conociendo que V. Md holgaria que asi se hiziesse."
  • n18. The following notes in Covos' hand are on the margin; viz., in front of the first paragraph: "Provision is being made." Of the second: "The Count did quite right. Let Antonio [de Leyva?] be informed of this." Of the third: "An answer to the Count is being prepared." Of the fourth: "Full satisfaction has already been sent." "He (Azeves) is to try and ascertain what truth there is in the report, in order to be ready and prepared on the arrival of Carniseca."
  • n19. "Suplico a v[uest]ra majestad que las albricias de tan buena nueva como he "traido no se me quiten." As the report is undated it is not easy to say whether it was written at Rome, or on the writer's return to Spain.