Spain: June 1538

Pages 479-495

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 5 Part 2, 1536-1538. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1888.

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June 1538, 1-30

19 June. 205. Cardinal Siguenza to the Empress.
S. E., L. 44,
B. M. Add. 28,590,
f. 179.
Your Majesty's letter of the 8th inst., containing an account of what passed and what business was done at Niça, came duly to hand. If I am called upon to give my opinion on the whole, I must say that no news that has come thence is satisfactory save perhaps the certainty that His Majesty, the Emperor, will soon return to these his kingdoms.
Your Majesty asks what I think of the state of political affairs, and although matters of such importance as these are cannot be well judged of from a distance, yet, in obedience to Your Majesty's commands, I will state in a few words what my impression is. As the fit time for an invasion of Navarre by the French is getting closer and closer, and as even if they should make great haste they will not be ready before the month of August, at which time the harvest will be already in and the grain stored, so that the enemy's hope on that score will naturally fail; as His Majesty, the Emperor, well informed as he must be of the French plans, cannot fail to make such a truce as will incapacitate king Francis from fulfilling the offers made to his brother-in-law, (fn. n1) it strikes me that, for this year at least, there is no fear of an invasion of Navarre. This notwithstanding, I am of opinion that, putting aside any difficulties, however great, money must be procured and sent to Pamplona and Perpignan that the fortifications there commenced may be prosecuted so as to place those towns in a state of defence. With this one step, without alarming the rest of Spain, Your Majesty may wait for the issue of the Nizza conferences; if good, there is no harm in fortifying places on the confines of Your Majesty's kingdoms, and, if unsuccessful, you are prepared for all events.
I think I have stated my opinion on the matter consulted to the best of my understanding, yet I cannot put an end to this letter without thanking Your Majesty for the singular favor lately bestowed on Juan Vazquez, whose long and continuous services well deserved such a sign of Royal approval.
The gout is still preying upon me; it has now seized my right arm, so that I cannot possibly use my hand, and must employ that of a clerk as secretary. I beg to be excused.— Siguença, x. June 1538.
Signed : Fr. G. Cardinalis Seguntinus.
Addressed: To the Sacred, Catholic Imperial Majesty of the Empress and Queen, our lady.
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
June. 206. Diary of the Emperor's Interview with King Francis.
S. E., L.
B. M. Add. 28,590,
f. .
On the 25th of April the Emperor embarked at Barcelona with all his court to come to Nizza, and hold there an interview with Pope Paul. He sailed off on the same day with 20 galleys of Andrea Doria, and eight of Spain. Contrary winds obliged him to put up at Cadaques, (fn. n2) whereat, and on the neighbouring coast, he had to remain no less than four days, without being able to enter the gulf [of Lyons]. Having attempted several times to do this without success, he was compelled to return to the place where he had anchored at first. On the ensuing day he set sail again, and with a slight wind sailed all night until, perceiving that the sea was boisterous, and the weather foul, and that he could not possibly cross over, he gave orders for the whole fleet to go to Marseilles. The next and following day he stood out at sea one league from that port (Marseilles), and on Sunday, the 5th of May, in the morning, again set sail with 14 of his galleys, having ordered that the 14 remaining should go to a river close there to water. Whilst at the Pomegas, (fn. n3) off Marseilles, we discovered ten galleys of the king of France, which, as we afterwards heard, had just arrived from the Levant, where the Turk, hearing that king Francis was about to make peace with the Emperor, had attacked and defeated them, capturing three, and taking the baron of San Blancaste, (fn. n4) who was in command, prisoner. The rest of the French galleys had escaped.
No sooner did our galleys see them than prince Doria gave orders for those in the rear to make haste and advance, whilst he himself, with the rest of the fleet, went towards land, intending to take the French galleys in the middle. The French, guessing at Doria's intention, fled before us as fast as they could, ours chasing them, upon which the Emperor's bastard galley, being one of the foremost, chased and took one of the enemy's. That in which Mr. de Granvelle was gave chase to another, which surrendered immediately to him. The High Commander of Leon (Covos), with his galley, went in pursuit of the enemy's captain-galley, but it fled to a harbour on the coast, under the protection of the guns of a small fort. (fn. n5) Four more French galleys went into another harbour further up called Cibdad. (fn. n6) As to the fourteen remaining Imperial galleys which, as above stated, were ordered to go far out to sea, they likewise did some execution, for they captured two more of the enemy's, so that out of the ten French galleys coming from the Levant, four were taken and six escaped. The Emperor, owing to the truce by sea made with king Francis previous to his own embarkation at Barcelona, would not take the other six galleys, which he might easily have done. Neither would he have taken the abovesaid four had he not suspected that there were Turks on board, as had happened on many occasions before; so next day, in the morning, he caused them and their crews to be released without taking anything from them. True is it that there was nothing in them to take away, for a more miserable set of wretches could not be conceived, the crews having received no pay for nine months. The captain of one which was chased and taken happened to be killed by a cannon shot; that was the only casualty, and the Emperor regretted it much.
After releasing the French galleys as above stated, whilst our fleet was passing before Frejus, three consecutive shots were fired upon the Imperial galleys. We pursued our voyage to Villafranca, and on our passing before Niça (Nizza) the whole of the galleys hoisted flags and standards in the most gallant manner and in good order, the city and castle answering our salutes with repeated salvoes of artillery. In this manner was Villafranca reached, and we landed on Thursday, the 9th of May, fifteen days after our embarkation at Barcelona. Here we found the duke of Savoy (Carlo III.) and several gentlemen of his suite. The Pope being then at Saona (Savone), the Emperor sent thirteen of his galleys, with his Master of the Horse and several gentlemen of his court, to greet and compliment him. The Pope then went on board the galley destined for him, and four days afterwards came here [to Villafranca], on his way to Nizza, when the rest of the Imperial galleys went out to sea to meet him, and all together fired many salvoes of artillery, the reception being most magnificent. At Nizza, the galley in which the Pope was approached a pier (puente) which had been expressly constructed for him to land and go to the lodgings prepared for him; but observing that his apartments were not in the castle, as he fully expected, but in the city itself, he refused to land at the appointed place, and some doubt or other having crossed his mind, gave orders that the galley should convey him some distance away on the side of France that he might take his lodgings at a monastery of Observant Friars without the city all the time showing manifest anger against the duke of Savoy (Carlo III.) who, perceiving that of all his estate he had only preserved Nizza and its castle, would not run the risk of losing that also, by placing it in the Pope's hands, not knowing whether the latter would, or would not, pass it over to the Emperor. On the other hand the Duke has not allowed the Spaniards to go into the castle, nor have they been admitted into Nizza save a few of the courtiers. Strict guard is, moreover, kept, and there is such confusion and so much scandal among the natives, and among the numberless Frenchmen and other foreigners who crowd the streets of Nizza,—the former proclaiming aloud everywhere that they will tolerate Frenchmen but no Spaniards or Imperialists—that in point of fact no door is closed for the French, whereas we Spaniards are received no-where. The Duke is shut up in his castle, he can do nothing; the citizens and the mob have it their own way, and as besides the 3,000 men, all natives of Nizza, who guard the place, they have enlisted a number of foreigners, they are able to do just as they like.
The day after the Pope's arrival the Emperor went by sea to visit him, taking all his galleys with him. He landed opposite the above-mentioned Franciscan convent with his courtiers, but without any escort whatsoever. In this manner he went to the Pope and remained with him full three hours, returning to Villafranca after his visit. It was not until then that the Emperor became aware of the danger to which he had exposed himself by not taking a sufficient escort with him, and therefore it was resolved that his next interview with the Pope should not take place at the Franciscan monastery, so close to French territory, but that the Pope himself should come on this side of Nizza, where, in the middle of certain kitchen gardens (huertas) under some orange trees, a tent was pitched made entirely of rich tapestry. Thither the Emperor went, mounted on a very fine steed, taking with him 500 hackbutiers as an escort, the galleys and the courtiers following him along the shore as close to it as they could. Then came the Pope, and both he and the Emperor remained three or four hours together discussing. During the last two hours of the interview a most heavy rain came down, which considerably drenched all those who were outside. It was a curious thing to see how sorrily the ornaments and plumes, as well as the silken dresses of the courtiers, and the simple taffeties (tafetanes) of these Romans looked after the rain. (fn. n7) The Pope and the Emperor were not much better treated, for the rain poured on and inside the tent under which they sat, so that they were also wet to the skin, though it must be said that when they came out, and saw the pitiable figure of the gentlemen and courtiers outside, they could not help laughing.
The Emperor then took leave of the Pope and each returned to his lodgings (aposento), though the Emperor's suite, who had their quarters two long miles off, had to paddle through the mud with considerable fatigue before they reached them.
Since the Pope's arrival the prolongation of the truce for three months more has been agreed on. The Emperor seems determined to quit this very shortly, in order that Doria's galleys may have time before the close of the season to return to the Levant, join the Venetian fleet in those waters, and make war on the Turk, who, they say, is actually preparing to invade by the Friul. The fleet will consist of 160 galleys and 60 large ships (naves gruesas), the Emperor having ordered that 6,000 Spanish infantry taken from the garrisons of Florence, Naples and Sicily, under the command of the viceroy of the latter country, Don Hernando de Gonzaga, go on board. It is proposed that this fleet navigate both the Mediterranean and the Adriatic seas during the remainder of this summer, making occasional descents and raids into Turkish territory, until the Emperor decides otherwise.
The king of France arrived at Villanova on the. . . . . of. . . . . . . (fn. n8) where lodgings had been prepared for him. He comes with great pomp and splendor and with a large suite of courtiers, for he has with him his Queen (Eleanor), and an infinite number of ladies, his own son the Dauphin, (fn. n9) the duke of Orleans, the prince of Labrit and his wife, (fn. n10) and several other noblemen. He has 8,000 Swiss to guard his person. Cardinal de Lorraine (Jean) and the Grand Master of France (Montmorency), came the other day to Nizza, which they entered with great sounding of trumpets and much concourse of people. They were very well received by the citizens and conducted to the quarters previously destined for them. The day after king Francis sent here [to Villafranca] two of his galleys, having on board the ambassador of the Muscovites, a nation beyond the kingdom of Poland, who was coming to visit His Imperial Majesty on the part of his master. The ambassador, as it appears, had left his country six months before, but on his road to Nizza from Genoa, where he had embarked, he happened to fall in with certain Turkish fustees scouring the sea close to this coast, and the galley in which he rode was captured. The fustees going to Marseilles, and being admitted into that port, king Francis redeemed for 700 ducats the Muscovite ambassador now residing at the French court, whilst Moorish and Turkish pirates are allowed shelter in French ports.
As soon as king Francis arrived at Villanova His Majesty the Emperor sent the duke of Alburquerque (Don Beltran de la Cueva), the High Commander of Leon (Cobos), Monseigneur de Grandvelle, and several other gentlemen and knights with them, all very handsomely and richly accoutred, and wearing rich gold chains round their necks, to visit him in his name. They rode in three galleys, but on their way to Nizza met with seven of the French coming to Villafranca for the same purpose, on board of which were the cardinal of Lorraine, the Grand Master of France, and many more French gentlemen, on whose arrival a salvo of artillery was fired, the Imperial galley returning it, On their landing the Emperor ordered the duke of Najera (fn. n11) and the High Commander of Alcantara to go and meet them at the foot of the stairs, and to conduct them to the room where he himself was. They were joyfully received by the Emperor, who ordered that an abundant collation should be served to all. After which, and having previously held a short conversation with the Cardinal and with the Grand Master, the Emperor invited them to a private collation within his own chamber and then dismissed them, and they went away satisfied and contented at having had an excellent collation and good drinking. (fn. n12)
Again did the Imperial galleys fire their guns at the departure of the Cardinal and Grand Master, and of those who had come in their company, all of whom returned to Nizza. A similar reception was made in that town to the Emperor's envoys, for no sooner did the galley reach the port than several of Francis' courtiers were present at their landing, and that king himself, cap in hand, walked to the middle of the Palace hall, and meeting there the duke of Alburquerque, the High Commander of Leon, and Mr. de Granvelle, embraced them all, after which he saluted and greeted one by one all those who came in their suite. After conversing with him for awhile the Emperor's envoys asked the King's leave to go and kiss the hand of queen Eleanor, which permission was readily granted. The three gentlemen were then conducted to the apartments of the Queen, who was anxiously expecting them; all kissed her hands, and she embraced them with tears in her eyes. Then the three envoys and the gentlemen of their suite went to the ladies of the Court, whom they saluted French fashion, that is by kissing them on the mouth. After a short while the High Commander, the duke [of Alburquerque], and Granvelle returned to the room where the King was, and the gentlemen of their suite remained with the ladies until the very moment of their being called to a banqueting hall, where an abundant repast was prepared for them. Many there were who would willingly have given up the dinner for the ladies' company, which they seemed to enjoy exceedingly, but they had to go at last. I need scarcely say that the collation was very abundant and well served, and the entertainment celebrated according to the fashion of the country with many a toast. (fn. n13) The repast over, the gentlemen returned to the ladies, with whom they remained until a very late hour, the Duke and the High Commander, as well as Mr. de Granvelle, talking all the time to king Francis, not, indeed, on matters of business, but of pleasure and recreation.
At last, having previously taken leave of the King, the Emperor's men returned to their galleys, and arrived here [at Villafranca] at 2 o'clock at night. Some anxiety and alarm was at first caused by their coming back so late, some people fancying that they must have met with some accident on the way to or at Nizza; but, as I say, all returned safe and sound and very happy after their trip; the consequence being that every day gentlemen of the Imperial court and many others are leaving this place to see the French court at Nizza, which is well worth seeing, and the beautiful ladies, of whom there are many. In like manner Frenchmen come here [to Villafranca] daily, cither to see the Emperor's court, or that of the Pope on this side of Nizza, so that Imperialists, Frenchmen, and Romans are all mixed up together. What is to come out of all this no one seems to know yet; but time runs fast, and most likely we shall soon learn.
On Sunday, the 2nd of June, king Francis went to see the Pope one mile from Nizza, where a house had been built and richly furnished for him, his many cardinals and courtiers. (fn. n14) The King came mounted on a powerful horse, richly caparisoned; he was escorted by 4,000 Swiss of his guard, and four standards of horse (by no means so well appointed or showy (fn. n15) as one might have thought) besides a large retinue of gentlemen courtiers. All halted at a short distance from the Pope's residence, when the King, perceiving that His Holiness was already at the door waiting for him, dismounted. After the usual salutations and ceremonies at the door both the Pope and the King went inside and conversed during upwards of four hours, at the end of which king Francis took leave, the trumpets sounded "botasilla" (fn. n16) and each went home, the French back to Nizza, and the Spaniards who had come thither to witness the meeting, to Villafranca.
Next day the Emperor called also on the Pope. It had been settled beforehand that the former should go to the other side of the castle close to the sea, which was the spot where he and the Pope had met the first time. Thither the Emperor went by sea on his galley, having first ordered that the 2,000 Spaniards of his body guard should go by land, and encamp round a house on the sea shore, whilst the galleys followed as close to the coast as possible. In this manner was the interview with the Pope celebrated; it lasted four hours, after which the Emperor and his courtiers returned to Villafranca by sea, and the infantry of his guard by land.
On the following day an order came from the Emperor enjoining the High Commander and Granvelle to go again to the Pope and hasten the negociation. Similar orders having been given to the Grand Master of France and to the cardinal of Lorraine, all four were that evening closeted with His Holiness, debating and transacting business.
On the 4th of June the duke of Lorraine (fn. n17) came with two galleys to visit His Majesty, the Emperor, remaining with him a good while. On the following day (5th of June) cardinal de Lorraine and the Grand Master of France went to see the Pope and remained closeted with him a long time discoursing and debating.
On the 7th came three French galleys, and in them three French cardinals, who conversed with His Majesty for a good length of time. Meanwhile two more galleys came from da Goleta [of Tunis], having on board Don Bernaldino de Mendoça, the governor of that castle, whom the Emperor has appointed to the command of the eight Spanish galleys now on this coast. Twenty more added to the eight will form the Emperor's escort on his return to Spain.
On the eve of Easter, the 7th of June, the queen of France (Eleanor) came to see the Pope at the Franciscan monastery, where he is residing. (fn. n18) She brought in her suite many ladies and gentlemen beautifully dressed and arrayed, the Grand Master of France at her side acting as guide. Arrived at the place, all dismounted and entered the Pope's apartments. The Queen kissed the Pope's foot, and was talking with him full two hours, at the end of which she took leave, mounted her palfrey, and went to Villanova to sleep.
On the following day, Easter, after dinner, the Emperor went again to visit the Pope at the usual place. He went thither by sea with his galleys, the infantry of his guard following by land along the coast. The interview lasted so long that the courtiers fancied he had gone for the purpose of taking leave, for everyone of us knew already that the conferences would soon be broken off without hope of truce or peace being arranged, and that each Sovereign would soon return to his individual kingdom, our Emperor to Spain, king Francis to France, and Pope Paul to Rome. The contrary, however, came to pass, for on the Emperor's return to Villafranca it was publicly announced that the departure was postponed for ten days to give the parties time to discuss again several points on which there had been no conformity at all, though it was thought at the time that no agreement could be made.
Next day four French cardinals, accompanied by a, son of the duke of Lorraine and several titled noblemen and gentlemen, escorted by a body of cavalry, came in and saw the Emperor, being a long time with him, after which they all went away without the motive and object of their call, or what they said or did, having transpired in the least.
All this time the inhabitants of Niça (Nizza) were doing great injury to all those who entered their town, and chiefly to the Spaniards. At any hour of the day the alarm is sounded, and the whole of the place is in confusion. The other day the father of Erasmo Doria, at a window of his house, was killed by a hackbut-shot, and prince Doria has been so affected by it—Erasmo being a near kinsman of his—that he has sworn to do all possible harm to Nizza and to its people. All those he can get hold of he sends to his galleys to man the oars, and for every Nizzan who is brought to him alive he pays at the rate of 10 ducats per head. In this manner has Doria taken and sent to his galleys several of them, although it must be said that, notwithstanding these punishments, the Nizzans are as scandalous as before, having gone so far as to slay servants of noblemen and officials of the Emperor's court, such as a chamberlain of the marquis de Aguilar, the ambassador at Rome, who, whilst the High Commander (Covos) and Mr. de Granvelle were visiting his master, was killed in a fray a few yards off the hotel. Indeed, so scandalous and unprovoked was the murder of the poor chamberlain, that the two Imperial ministers above alluded to sent immediately for the city officers and told them in plain terms that unless they found means to put a stop to such disorderly acts the Emperor would cause their city to be set on fire. Since this there have been no more or only very few rows, but still prince Doria owes them a grudge, and he is not a man soon to forget an injury.
Tuesday, the 10th of June, the queen of France (Eleanor) came to see His Majesty the Emperor, who, knowing of her arrival beforehand, had ordered the open ground before the palace where he is now living to be carefully swept, awnings of linen-cloth to be prepared as a guard against the rays of the sun. As the Queen was coming by sea a wooden pier (puente) was erected at the landing-place for the greater convenience of her and her suite. All the Imperial galleys, having on board prince Doria, the duke of Najara, the count of Benavente (fn. n19), the archbishop of Santiago (fn. n20), and several more courtiers splendidly accoutred and dressed, were ordered out at sea to receive the Queen. They went as far as Niça (Nizza), when, perceiving that the French galleys were coming out of port, all hoisted their flags and displayed the Imperial standard in sign of friendship, the French galleys on their side returning the compliment. (fn. n20) When the captain-galley of the king of France came near ours, she lowered her standard and saluted that of the Emperor, on board of which prince Doria was doing the same. After which the galleys of both fleets, 48 in number, that is, 30 Imperial and 18 French, fired their guns, and rowed into port at Villafranca all together in beautiful order, the captain-galley of the king of France and that of prince Doria being first. Arrived at the port, all the galleys, Imperial and French, again fired their guns. It was a fine sight indeed, that of so many flashes and reports, which ultimately produced such a smoke on sea and land, and so thick a cloud, as to obscure heaven and earth. After this, the captain-galley of France, in which the Queen, the wife of the Dauphin, the King's daughter, the princess of Labrit, and several more ladies and gentlemen of the Court, besides the cardinal of Lorraine and the Grand Master of France, rode, approached the wooden pier of which I spoke above. There stood the Emperor waiting for the disembarkation of the ladies, whom he received one by one with great glee, embracing and kissing every one of them on the lips as they landed. On the approach of the boat where the Queen (Eleanor), the Dauphin's wife, the King's daughter, and the princess of Labrit were, the Emperor advanced a few steps, stretched his hand to his sister, and when on the pier embraced and kissed her most affectionately, his countenance beaming with joy. In this way brother and sister remained for some time, until such crowds of people assembled that the pier suddenly gave way and all were precipitated into the sea, though in very shallow water, so that no one received any injury. The Emperor fell in also, but seized hold of his sister, the queen of France, who fell sideways, whilst he himself was up to his knees in water. At this juncture sailors and men came and helped them out, the Emperor leading the Queen by the hand, and laughing heartily at the ridiculous figure presented by the ladies, frightened and wet as they were. The archbishop of Santiago, the marquis of Salucio (Saluzzo), the duke of Naxara (Najera), and several other noblemen and gentlemen, took a cold bath. The Emperor lost his cap, without which, however, after giving his arm to the Queen, he walked back to his palace, followed by the princesses and other ladies of their suite, all escorted by many cavaliers. Nor was the walk a very easy one, owing to the crowds of people pressing on, anxious to inquire what had happened. There was at first some confusion and noise, especially among the French ; but when the cause of the mishap was ascertained, and it was found that nobody had been hurt by the fall, the alarm ceased and everything was quiet. Then the Emperor, the Queen, the ladies and gentlemen went up to the palace, where orders were issued for dry dresses for the former, and clothes for the latter. You should have seen the gentlemen sending home for long breeches for the ladies ! (fn. n21) All this time the Emperor sat in his chamber with the Queen; then came the cardinal of Lorraine and the Grand Master, and all four conversed for a while with great joy, until they went away and joined the ladies, to whom a sumptuous collation, as good as a supper, was served, the gentlemen serving them with great obsequiousness. Some ladies of the Queen's suite, and among them one called Madame Estampa, (fn. n22) the Queen's trainbearer, went to the dwelling of the High Commander, others to that of the duke of Mantua (Frederico Gonzaga) and other lords, where supper, dancing, music, and other entertainments had been prepared for them beforehand. It is reported that king Francis has declared himself the "cavalier servente" of the above-mentioned lady, and that queen Leonor, far from being jealous, is very glad of it, thinking that it is only a fit of courtly gallantry on his part. (fn. n23)
At this juncture, and in the midst of that general rejoicing, the Queen related to the Emperor how matters stood between the said lady and king Francis, her husband. She said how much she was annoyed and humiliated by it, and, therefore, begged him (the Emperor) to go and pay his court to the said lady in so signal a manner that all should see and notice it, upon which the Emperor got up, and with cap in hand went forward and embraced and kissed the lady most affectionately, waiting upon her all the time the collation lasted and saying many sweet things to her, as for instance that he wished very much to become the object of her affections, and to surpass even king Francis in his devotion and attentions. In this manner the company amused themselves until a very late hour, when it was high time to go away. So all did, the Emperor taking the Queen by the hand, and the gentlemen of the Court the ladies, accompanied them to the pier, where the Emperor took an affectionate leave of his sister, embraced and kissed her most tenderly, and she, with great sorrow on her countenance, got down with the ladies of her suite into the boat, in the midst of salvos of artillery, and thence into the galleys, the Imperial ones escorting them halfway, and the Emperor himself returning to his apartments.
Spanish. Original. pp. 18.
15 June. 207. Martin de Çornoça to the Emperor.
S. E., L. 1311,
f. 139.
B. M. Add. 28,590,
f. 181.
The bearer of this letter is Sigismundo Harvel, whom the most illustrious Sir Reginald Polo is sending to Your Majesty to report concerning the business about which I have written at other times through licte Leguiçamo. The reason why the said named gentleman has been so long before he took his departure, was his doubting whether he could reach Barcelona in time to find Your Majesty still there, according to what was known here in Venice. Now, having heard of Your Majesty's departure from that port, he (Sigismundo) has started on his journey. Please, Your Majesty, to give him that benevolent reception which you are in the habit of giving to all yours in such cases, for certainly the said Sigismundo, not only on account of his mission — which I hope will be very acceptable to Your Majesty—as for his singular virtues and the great love and affection he has always shown for Your Majesty, is well worthy of the Royal favor, and deserves full credit in the affair in which he is now engaged.
As he has to convey verbally Sir Raynaldo Polo's message there remains nothing else for me to do than beg our Lord Jesus Christ to preserve and guard your most sacred Majesty for many years.—Venice, 15 June 1538. (fn. n24)
Signed: "Martin de Çornoça."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Catholic, Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed: "To his Majesty. From Martin Çornoça, by the Englishman."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
30 June. 208. The Emperor's Instructions to Ambassador Figueroa.
S. Pat. Re. L. 2,
f. 61.
B. M. Add. 28,590,
f. 191.
What you, Commander Figueroa, of Our Council, and Our ambassador [in Genoa] are to do with the Spanish mutineers at Vigebano.
To go and meet the marquis del Gasto, wherever he may be, and after ascertaining what has been done by him since the arrival at his camp of captain Juan Vizcayno, whom the mutineers sent from Vigeben, as they said, to acquaint Us with the reason they had for rising and disobeying the orders of their general.
After conversing with the Marquis as to the best means of reducing them to discipline, you yourself shall go to Vigeben, having previously announced to the mutineers your arrival, and you will, whilst there, employ all means in your power to reduce them to obedience. Meanwhile the Marquis, with the cavalry and the infantry he has under his orders, might cut off the provisions and compel them by necessity to come to terms.
On no account are the mutineers to receive more than the two months' pay which the Marquis offered them, nor is full pardon of their rebellion to be promised to them. Two thousand of their number will be required for Piedmont, the remainder we will employ wherever they may be wanted.
You will try to inquire and ascertain how the said mutiny and disobedience originated, what cause there was for it, whether the captains and officers are to be blamed or not, and in fact everything that may lead to the correction of abuses if there be any.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 3.
S. E., L. 1459,
f. 2.
B. M. Add. 28,590,
f. 49.
209. The State in which the Affairs of Christendom are, and particularly those of His Imperial Majesty.
From Niça, on his return from France, the Emperor sent a message to the Pope by prothonotary Ambrogio, the Papal secretary, who had been sent from Rome to treat of the peace, that notwithstanding what had passed, and the little inclination for peace shown by king Francis, yet as he himself (the Emperor) was still well disposed and desirous of it, he consented, for the sake of the tranquillity and welfare of Christendom, to make the cession of Milan in favour of the duke of Angoulêsme (fn. n25) on the same conditions proposed by him during his stay at Rome in April 1536, namely, the expenses incurred by the Emperor in the last war, as well as the damage sustained by the duke of Savoy, to be defrayed by Francis. All grants of land, &c. made in the duchy of Milan by the Emperor to be approved of and ratified. The king of France and his son to take the engagement of not in anywise disturbing the duke and duchess of Savoy in the possession of the county of Asti. All this to be carried into effect within three calendar months after taking possession of Milan, as otherwise His Majesty would consider himself free from all his engagements and offers.
Knowing, moreover, that king Francis preferred the marriage of his son, the Duke, with one of the daughters of the king of the Romans, to any of the alliances proposed to him at Rome, His Majesty also agreed to that, provided the conditions then and there stipulated should be fulfilled.
At the same time His Holiness was requested to declare what his intentions were in case of king Francis agreeing to the conditions of the peace, inasmuch as, before coming to a final decision, it was important to know how far the Pope, the Venetians, and the rest of the Italian powers agreed to the measure; for should king Francis refuse the terms offered, His Imperial Majesty was determined to give the investiture of the Duchy to the Infante Dom Luiz of Portugal, and then make a league with His Holiness, the Venetians, and the other powers for the security of Milan and the rest of Italy.
Should His Holiness and the Venetians not be satisfied with the appointment of the Infante of Portugal (Dom Luiz), His Majesty proposed the son of the duke of Savoy. (fn. n26)
At the same time it was urged that since His Holiness had offered formally to remain neutral, and to declare only against him who was unreasonable, and as king Francis had no reason whatever on his side, an Imperial agent should go to Rome to beg Pope Paul to declare at once against the French. Pero Gonzalez de Mendoza was thenappointed, who had also charge of repairing to Venice for the same purpose.
With regard to the proposed peace with France, both the Pope and the Venetians answered that His Imperial Majesty had sufficiently justified himself, and that reason was evidently on his side. The Pope further declared that he approved unconditionally of the person of the Infante Dom Luiz, or of any other prince His Majesty chose to appoint to the Duchy; but he said nothing respecting the proposed league and declaration against France. Indeed, though often pressed to decide on those points, the Pope excused himself in general terms, as he does still, and on the plea that no answer has yet come from the king of France.
The Venetians, on the other hand, said that they would be glad of any appointment His Majesty might make, but refused altogether to join any new leagues, owing principally to their fear of the Turk and the damage he might inflict on their commerce.
Pier Luigi Farnese, the Pope's son, went about that time to Genoa to visit His Majesty in His Holiness' name, and, though not regularly accredited, His Majesty did not hesitate to speak his mind to him, representing (that he might in turn do so to His Holiness at Rome) the pitiable state of Christendom, the want of a prompt remedy, and how important it was, before taking any engagements with king Francis, to know what the latter's real intentions were, and how far he was sincerely inclined to peace. Among the points which he (Pier Luigi) was requested to lay before His Holiness, the following were prominent: Firstly. The celebration of the Council, whether king Francis attended it or not. To this end and in order to know how far the German princes were in favor of it, His Majesty has sent an agent to make inquiries, &c.
2nd. The resistance against the Turk, who, it is known, was then and is now making great military preparations to come down upon Christendom. His Imperial Majesty offered his own fleet of galleys for that emergency, as well as all those he has or might take into his service, asking the Pope to help only with a good sum of money monthly as long as the danger lasted, king Francis also helping with his, though it was then almost certain that he would not, owing to his understanding with the Turk.
3rd. That a defensive alliance and league of all the Italian powers should be formed for the purpose of repulsing the Turk, and that the Venetians in particular should be persuaded by the Pope to join the same. His Holiness was further to be reminded at the same time of the Infante Dom Luiz' proposal for the investiture of Milan. And as on the part of the Pope, a hint had once been thrown out at Madrid, concerning a marriage between his grandson and a daughter of his brother, the king of the Romans (Ferdinand), HisMajesty offered to let the latter know His Holiness' wishes in that respect, not without reminding the Pope and prepare him for the acceptance of the proposal, at the same time of the quality and greatness of the family and the requisite considerations in a matrimonial alliance of that sort.
That Pier Luigi delivered himself faithfully of the above commission and spoke to His Holiness on these points, appears from his own communications, as well as from the despatches from the Imperial ambassador at Rome. His Holiness has since manifested a great desire of annexing Siena in some way or other to the dominions of the Church. He has never been able to obtain the object of his wishes, but an offer has lately been made to him to recommend his suit to the electors of the Empire, and see whether means could not be found for such an annexation. An offer has also been made to him of Parma and Piacenza, which in former times belonged to the duchy of Milan, and which are now incorporated with the States of the Church.
As above stated, these were the points which Pier Luigi was to submit to the Pope's consideration. No answer has yet come; but from letters received since the Emperor's landing at Barcelona, (fn. n27) it would appear that the Pope's views of this affair are exclusively directed towards the aggrandisement of his own family, for he has formally hinted that he wants the duchy of Milan for his own son (Pier Luigi), or for one of his grandsons, at the same time as the hand of one of the daughters of the king of the Romans (Ferdinand), offering, if this be obtained, to do anything His Majesty pleases. One thing is certain, namely, that the Pope will befriend and favor him who gives him most. In order to annoy the Emperor he is now delaying as much as he can the bull of the Crusade; he makes difficulties about every other matter, whether ecclesiastical or lay, which goes through his hands; he is, moreover, in secret understanding with the French and the Venetians to make war on the duke of Urbino (Guidobaldo) and dispossess him of the duchy of Camarino, which he wants for one of his own family, &c. To this end the Pope is sure to apply to king Francis or to any other prince for help.
With regard to the war in Italy, should it break out again everything is provided for; the fortresses in the duchy of Milan are in a good state of defence; and orders have been sent to Germany and Switzerland to enlist any number of men that may be required.
The duke and duchess of Savoy are still at Niça (Nizza) with 2,000 Spaniards paid by His Imperial Majesty, and a good park of artillery. An annual pension of 40,000 crs.on the treasury of Milan has been assigned to them for their maintenance as long as they remain there.
Monferrato (fn. n28) was delivered to the duke of Mantua (Frederico Gonzaga) according to the sentence of adjudication.
In addition to this, orders have been sent to the viceroys of Naples and Sicily (fn. n29) to be on the alert and watch the movements of the Turk. Should he make his appearance on that coast it has been agreed with Andrea Doria that next spring he shall sail from Genoa with his galleys and see what harm he can inflict on him.
A man has arrived here sent, as he says, by Don Enrique de Labrit and by his wife; he is a Navarrese by birth, a man of worth and credit. Though he himself brings no credentials, he says that Don Enrique de Labrit and his wife (fn. n30) wish to make league with and be the friends of His Majesty, as well as to have their only daughter married to the prince of Spain (Philip), and ascertain His Imperial Majesty's will as to that marriage and peace with France, which Don Enrique and his wife say they can effectually promote. The answer has been that should Don Enrique and his wife declare their intention more fully, and at the same time explain what means they have of successfully carrying out their plans, His Imperial Majesty will listen to them or to their ambassadors with pleasure, because if the means they have at their disposal be good and efficient, that is, no doubt, the best possible way of arriving at a peace. His Majesty having yet received no answer to the offer made through prothonotary Ambrogio, could not make a more open declaration unless he knew beforehand king Francis' intention in the matter; but if, as promised, the Grand Master or some other trusty personage of Francis' court comes, the affair may soon be brought to conclusion.
The Chamber—The Infante Dom Luiz and Honorato—Prince Philip.
Spanish. Original draft pp. 9. (fn. n31)


  • n1. Henri d'Albret, married to Margaret the sister of Francis.
  • n2. Cape, town and port so called on the coast of Catalonia.
  • n3. The three islands close to Marseilles called Pomegue, Ratoneau, and If.
  • n4. St. Blancard ? See Part 1., pp. 211, 588, and 627, and Granvelle, vol. ii., p 5.
  • n5. La Chateau d'lf.
  • n6. La Ciotat.
  • n7. "Y hera (era) cosa de ver las galas y plumas de los cortesanos, y los cencillos (sencillos, ointillos y ?) tafetanes destos romanos quales quedaron."
  • n8. The dates are blank in the copy from Simancas, but he must have arrived a few days later than the Emperor
  • n9. The Dauphin was no longer Francis' eldest son, who, as above stated died at Tournon, on the 12th of August 1536; Henri, duke of Orleans, became then Dauphin, the duchy of Orleans passing to his brother Charles, the duke of Angoulême.
  • n10. Henri II. married to Francis' sister (Marguerite, formerly duchess of Alençon).
  • n11. Don Manrique de Lara and Gutierre Lopez de Padilla.
  • n12. "Y assi despues de haver hablado, aunque poco, con el Cardenal y Gran Maestre, les hizo dar colacion en su camara, y luego los despidió, y fueronse muy contentes son haver bien comido y bevido."
  • n13. "Y fueron may bien servidos y celebrada la fiesta [con brindis?], á la usança de allá."
  • n14. "Donde se le hiço una casa, y se adreçó muy ricamente, y llegado (alojado?) el papa con muchos cardenales y señores de su corte."
  • n15. "Gente de muy poco lustre y menos arte."
  • n16. "That is á cavalgar." Tocar á botasilla being the signal given with a trumpet for the cavalry to saddle.
  • n17. The original here has "el duque" instead of "el cardinal;" no doubt by mistake of the scribe, though it must be said that his brother [the duke Claude de Guise] was also at Nice on this occasion.
  • n18. "á se ver con el Papa al monasterio de la Observancia donde es su aposento,"
  • n19. That is D. Antonio Alonso Pimentel, vi. count of Benavente, Mayorga y Villalon.
  • n20. "Y luego adrezavon de muchas vanderas y estandartes para el recebimiento las galeras del Emperador, y las salieron á recebir, y en Ilegando, que Ilegó, el estandarte de la capitana de Francia, hizo su acatamionto á la capitana de las nuestras y ella hizo lo mismo, y despues dispararon la artilleria las unas y las otras."
  • n21. "Y Su Magd la Reyna y todas las damas se subicron á Palacio, donde se dió horden de proveer de otros vestidos á las que se mojaron, y los cavalleros de enviar á sus casas á buscar calças á las damas."
  • n22. Anne de Pisseleu, duchess of Etampes.
  • n23. "Y segund paresce el Rey se ha publicado por su servidor, y la hace cadaldia servicios publicos, de lo qual la Reyna mucho se huelga teniendolo en cosa de Palacio."
  • n24. I must again observe that, though dated 1538, and placed in Bergenroth's volume immediately after letters and despatches of May of that year, and especially alter the account of the interview at Nice between the 9th May and the 15th of June, Cornoça's letter must necessarily belong to the year 1535.
  • n25. That is Charles, Francis' third son, though at this time he was no longer duke of Angoulême, but of Orleans.
  • n26. Most likely Lodovico or Luigi, the eldest, then 13 years old, having been born on the 4th of Deeember 1523.
  • n27. On his return from Nice the Emperor landed at Barcelona on the 18th of July 1538, and, therefore, this memorandum must have been drawn at the end of July or beginning of August, when, according to Vandeness' Itinerary the Emperor was at Valladolid.
  • n28. "El estado de Monserrat se entregó al duque de Mantua." Monserrat is evidently a mistake of the copyist for "Monferrato" as printed.
  • n29. Don Pedro de Toledo and the duke of Traietto, Ferrante Gonzaga.
  • n30. "Don Enrique de Labrit y su muger," i.e., Henri d'Albret and his wife.
  • n31. This paper, which must have been drawn by one of the Emperor's privy councillors, Granvelle, Idiaquez, &c. has no date, and is placed in the 19th volume of Bergenroth's transcripts from Simancas immediately after a letter from the High Commander of Leon (Covos) and Mr. de Granvelle to the Emperor, dated Barcelona, the 11th of December 1537, (see Catalogue of Spanish MSS. in the British Museum, Vol. II., p. 625); but as the Emperor's return from Nizza and France, and subsequent landing at Barcelona, on the 18th of July are mentioned, there can be no doubt that it belongs to the year 1538 after July.