Spain: July 1548

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 9, 1547-1549. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.

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'Spain: July 1548', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 9, 1547-1549, ed. Martin A S Hume, Royall Tyler( London, 1912), British History Online [accessed 20 July 2024].

'Spain: July 1548', in Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 9, 1547-1549. Edited by Martin A S Hume, Royall Tyler( London, 1912), British History Online, accessed July 20, 2024,

"Spain: July 1548". Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 9, 1547-1549. Ed. Martin A S Hume, Royall Tyler(London, 1912), , British History Online. Web. 20 July 2024.

July 1548

7 July. Vienna Imp. Arch. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
Your Majesty will have learnt by my despatch of the 21st ultimo that the French army had already arrived in Scotland. Since my last advices these people (the English) have received no news from there, except that the French force had appeared before Haddington, in order to reconnoitre the place, and they approached so near to it that several of them were shot. The garrison, perceiving that the number of the enemy was not very large, made a sortie and a skirmish took place, the result of which was that the French left over fifty men on the field, one of the dead being a French gentleman of high position, as well as two others of rank who were seriously wounded, one of these latter being a relative of the Queen of Scotland. There is no intelligence here of the French having obtained possession of any of the Scottish fortresses except Dunbar. The surrender to them of the castle of Edinburgh has been deferred until the results of their enterprise are seen. These people (i.e., the English) are not in the slightest degree alarmed so long as they can hold Haddington (fn. 1) as they hope to do, although they believe for certain that by this time the French will have laid siege to the place.
I am informed that the English will be able within the next eight days to send their fleet of eighty sail to sea. They say that the force is well equipped, all the ships being armed. The commander-in-chief will be Lord Clinton in the stead of the Lord Admiral (i.e., Thomas, Lord Seymour). If they succeed in encountering the enemy they do not make so much account of the galleys, and are pretty confident of being able to gain advantage over the French ships. (fn. 2) The reason, perhaps, why they are hastening is that they are informed that the Queen of Scotland is to be carried to France with the galleys.
A few days ago the Bishop of Winchester was taken to the Tower of London, the day after he had preached a sermon at Court in the presence of the King. (fn. 3) He remains constant in the ancient religion, but some consider him rather too vehement against those who now govern here, and it is perhaps this that is the origin of his misfortune. His property remains still intact, though it is asserted that he had already provided for his servitors, as if he had expected this fate to befall him.
The King with the members of the Council has left here for Hampton Court, where he will remain for the rest of the summer in order to escape the danger of the prevalent sickness in London.
London, 7 July, 1548.
8 July. Simancas Estado 806. Van der Delft to Prince Philip.
I wrote to your Highness on the affair of the pirate Renegat and on occurrences here generally, by Gonzalo de Hinojosa, and since then I have been honoured by your Highness' letter of 18 May.
I have now to inform you that the French fleet of 18 galleys with other vessels to the number of two hundred sail has arrived in Scotland and has disembarked there as many as seven thousand men-at-arms, the commander being Peter Strozzi and the cavalry being led by M. D'Essé. They went to reconnoitre the fortress called Haddington, which, as I informed your Highness in my last, the English had fortified. The English had in garrison there three thousand infantry and five hundred horse, and as soon as they descried the Frenchmen they made a sortie and skirmished with the newcomers. In the fight that ensued the English gained the victory and the French left more than fifty men dead on the field, amongst them being one high officer and two more of similar quality were wounded.
The English here expect that by this time Haddington will be completely surrounded, although they have no certain news to that effect. But they are very confident of being able to defend the place, which is a very important one as it dominates the best land in Scotland. It was asserted that there was an arrangement made between the King of France and the Scots that all the fortresses in Scotland were to be handed over to the custody of the French, but up to the present they have only surrendered to them the castle of Dunbar, situated on the coast between the English border and Haddington. The Scots are deferring the surrender to the French the castle of Edinburgh, the capital city of the realm, until they see how matters progress with the French forces.
The English fleet will sail within the next eight days. There are eighty sail all ships of war the command being held by Lord Clinton in place of the Lord Admiral. They say this fleet is to go in search of the enemy, and although this English squadron is not so numerous as that of the French the former are extremely confident as the ships are in such good condition and everything so well ordered. As the French are so strongly armed they are still constructing, without the least opposition on the part of the English, a fort near the entrance to the harbour of Boulogne. They (the French) had begun to erect this fort before the late King died, but at that time they were prevented from continuing the work which the English are now allowing them to do.
The Bishop of Winchester preached before the King a week ago, declaring his opinion and relieving his conscience by defending the Mass and the sacred images. He condemned the marriage of the clergy, etc.; and the next day he was carried a prisoner to a Tower, from which very few of those who enter ever return. Some people think that his imprisonment is principally owing to his having touched the men who now rule.
London, 8 July, 1548.
24 July. Vienna Imp. Arch. Van der Delft to the Emperor.
The Bishop of Westminster (fn. 4) arrived here last week and after having gone to present his respects to the King came to visit me. He does not know how to thank your Majesty for the honour and gracious treatment he met with at your hands.
The Bishop of Winchester remains in the Tower of London, and very little is talked about him. He has still many friends, most of whom agree that he did not behave himself so wisely in his business as he might have done. His property and revenues remain up to the present intact.
Halfort (Old Ford?), 24 July, 1548.


  • 1. Sir Thomas Palmer, writing at this time to Somerset, expresses this opinion to him (30 June), and it may be concluded that the letter from Van der Delft echoes this belief. Palmer writes: “Most men think that keeping Haddington we win Scotland.”—Scottish Papers.
  • 2. Pour veoir silz porront rencontrer avee l'ennem: ilz ne font si grant compte des galleres qu'ilz ne pensent bien emporter avantage sur les navires franchoises.
  • 3. Gardiner's sermon was, in accordance with the directions of the Protector, to vindicate the ecclesiastical policy of Henry VIII, and to censure “the silly ceremonies and legendary trash of Popery.” He was, moreover, directed to acknowledge the full authority of a sovereign who was a minor, and to make many other doctrinal and political declarations which it was obvious he could not make without accepting the full programme of the ardent reformers. Somerset and Cecil beset Gardiner for several days insisting upon certain points, the bishop diplomatically shifting the ground as much as possible. Gardiner chose for his text Matt. xvi. 16: “Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Whilst gliding lightly over several of the thorny points prescribed to him, he stood firm upon that of transubstantiation, and the next morning Sir R. Sadler and Sir A. Wingfield arrested him for disobedience to the King and lodged him in the Tower.
  • 4. Dr. Thirlby, who had been for a considerable time the English ambassador to the Emperor, and was now recalled.