Index: S

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.


'Index: S', Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659, (London, 1931), pp. 379-388. British History Online [accessed 13 June 2024].

. "Index: S", in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659, (London, 1931) 379-388. British History Online, accessed June 13, 2024,

. "Index: S", Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659, (London, 1931). 379-388. British History Online. Web. 13 June 2024,


Sagredo, Giovanni, Venetian Ambassador in France and England, Giavarina's service under, 80, 294.

sailors, mariners:
-, pressed because of shortage, 19, 71; Thames watermen pressed for, 75, 216.
-, Lockhart offers for Venice, 36, 70.
-, taken from merchantmen and colliers, 71, 75, 294.
-, captured by Spaniards at Ostend, 199; many killed in battle of Dunes, 216.
-, all with knowledge of Baltic gone with Goodson's fleet, 266; enlisted for service of Sweden, 284, 302.

St. Denis [Seine, France], Lockhart goes to before entry, 29.

St. George, order of. See Garter.

St. John, Oliver, lord chief justice of the Common Pleas, 180.

-, -, son of, attempt to kidnap at Paris, 180.

-, Dr., 180n.

St. Nicholas, Dunkirk warship, captured, to be added to fleet (? as Greyhound), 90n.

St. Omer [Pas de Calais, France]:
-, garrison captures over 60 deserters from English army, 70; raid from Dunkirk on village near, 249; Lockhart nearly ambushed by garrison of, 266.
-, horse from cut up party of English recruits, 260.

St. Venant, St. Venan [Pas de Calais, France], English valour hastened surrender of, 114.

salt, from Portugal, cargoes seized in Baltic, 65.

saltpetre, from Indies, at Leghorn, 250.

Salvetti, Amerigo, resident of Tuscany in England:
-, presents wine from Grand Duke to Cromwell, 58; death, 84; buried at St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, 84n; Grand Duke informed of death, 109.

-, Giovanni, Anterminelli:

hopes to succeed father, 84; appointed resident, 84n, 109.

asks for audience, must await Cromwell's return, 109; first to have audience, on return, 122.

letter for Grand Duke not handed to, 141; but was shown to him, to copy, 141n.

letter from Grand Duke not presented by 178; does not give satisfaction to master or Cromwell, 235.

to remonstrate about behaviour of Stoakes, 200.

audience arranged for but not given, 267; did not attend Cromwell's funeral, 269; performed necessary offices on change of ruler, 272.

Salvini, Francis, release of, by Council of Ten, from Rhodes, 221.

Sanfelici, Giuseppi, Maria, archbishop of Cosenza, papal nuncio in Germany, agitation over situation, 197; warns congress of danger from heretics, 198.

Sanguin, Louis, marquis de Livry, sent with news of fall of Dunkirk, 219.

San Sebastian [Guipuscoa, Spain], ship sailing to, captured, 54n.; English ship from Canaries carried into, 107; English prizes taken to, by Dunkirkers, 150.

Santa Cruz, Santa Croce, Teneriffe, Canary Islands, account of Blake's victory at, 63–4; victory celebrated at London, 69; Dutch ship from captured with treasure, 95.

Sardinia, island of, ship from, with grain, captured, 178.

Sarotti, Paolo, Venetian Secretary at Zurich:
-, despatch to the Senate, 223.
-, friendly relations with Pell, 223.

Savage, Elizabeth (née Scroope), countess Rivers, Giavarina's interpreter arrested at house of, 144.

Savoy, duke of. See Charles Emanuel II.

Saxony, question of Giavarina's relations with expected minister of, in England, 23, 35.

-, elector of. See John George II.

Schlezer, Johann Frederick, agent of Brandenburg in England:
-, likely to dispute precedence with Giavarina, 23; instructions upon, 35.
-, urges Cromwell to send fleet to Baltic, 77; representations to Petkum on Polish war, 79.
-, Palatine minister associates with, 79; confidante of Palatine minister, 84, 99.
-, present at Cromwell's inauguration, 82; question of precedence, 83.
-, obtains commissioners, discussions with, 99; not conferring with them, 107.
-, leaves London to take waters, causes remark, 102; back in London, 107.
-, arrested for debt, released, 139; in danger of arrest again, 232.
-, says Thomas sunk without elector's knowledge, 163; disowned by elector, 232.
-, offers services to Sweden, 232; not invited to Cromwell's funeral, 269; has no new letters of.credence, 272.

Schonen, Sweden, Denmark yields to Sweden, 178.

Schulten, Johann, envoy of the Hanse Towns and Hamburg takes place of Petersen, 231; receives fresh credentials, 253; has audience, 264; attends Cromwell's funeral, 269.

Scialone. See Chalons.

Sciarot, count of. See Bethune, Louis de, comte de Charost.

Sciute. See Chute.

Scios, island of, Aegean Sea, Venetian defeat of Algerines off, 61.

-, portion of monthly tax, 18.
-, Sindercomb served in, 18; Lieut. Col. Haynes sent to Mardick from, 122.
-, Cromwell drawing in troops from, 48; Cromwell proclaimed in, 94; protestations of loyalty regiments in, 177, 179.
-, beating up troops in for Swedish levy, 156; great part of troops from brought to England, 168; Richard Cromwell appointed general in, 170; made governor of, 179.
-, government very apprehensive about, 179; many persons of rank arrested in, and closely examined, 188.
-, royalists thought Monk would open way for king in, 188; royalists who did not answer summons, proscribed in, 224.
-, orders to, for parliament, revoked, 200; orders to for prayers for success, 229; fasts celebrated in, 258, 277.
-, Monk might cause trouble in, 243; Richard proclaimed in, 248.
-, officers of army of, in London, protest loyalty, 251.
-, writs for parliament sent to, 277; question of members being allowed to vote in parliament, 288–291, 298, 300.
-, all members for devoted to Protector, 288, 290; act for establishing Protector's title in, 291.

Scotland, King of. See Charles II, King of England.

-, 200 for France mutiny and go to Dunkirk, 6; levy of granted to Portugal, 75, 86; difficulties over, 159.
-, two nobles escape, may join Charles, 31, 35.
-, losses of, in French service in Flanders, 236.

seal, the great, Oliver's to be used until Richard's is made, 245; commission to Henry Cromwell under, 256; Protector nominates third keeper of, 288.

-, commissioners of. See Fiennes, Nathaniel; Lisle, John; Whitelocke, Bulstrode.

search, right of:
-, Dutch stirred by joint declaration of England and France upon, 10; Dutch arming because of English claim to, 31; importance to Dutch of resisting claim, 74; Dutch deeply resent claim, 131.
-, Blake sure to claim, 57; Dutch claim, for Portuguese goods, in E. Indies, 163; Cromwell might resent Venetians exercising, 221.

secretaries. See under ambassadors.

Secretary of State. See Cecil, Robert; Thurloe, John.

Sedan [Ardennes, France], despatch dated at, 93.

Senneterre, Henri de, de la Ferte, marshal of France, marshal of la Ferté Seneterre, sits down before Rocroi, 220; troops of cut up before Gravelines, 236.

Servien, Servient, Abel, surintendant des finances, defends English alliance, 229.

Sexby, Sesbi, Col. Edward, taken when escaping to Flanders, questioned by Cromwell and sent to Tower, 96.

ships, merchantmen:
-, sailors from pressed for fleet, 19, 71, 75, 294.
-, prince of Montesarcio offers 12 to Spanish government, 87.
-, in Thames fired guns at Blake's funeral, 110.
-, Sultan orders seizure of all at Smyrna, 130; representations against Turk's using, 287.
-, many wrecked in storms, bringing goods to England, 143.
-, of King Charles, at Ostend, question of ownership, 182; proposed to impose tax on, at Dunkirk, for all passing, 235; sailing of, stopped at Cromwell's death, 242.
-, Danish, Petkum complains of seizure in Thames, 116.
-, Dunkirk. See under Dunkirk.
-, Dutch:
-,-, Blake's orders about searching, 5–6; all with Spanish goods seized in Thames, 24.
-,-, use Spanish flag for privateering, 24; action defended, 24.
-,-, French depredations on, 25, 31.
-,-, Blake will claim right to search, 57; found by Blake at Canaries, make off, 64, 66.
-,-, prize to Maltese, in English port, 57; for Indies stormbound off England, 73.
-,-, superiority of English to, 66; in Thames, saluted at Blake's funeral, 110.
-,-, from Canaries, seized and brought into Thames, 73; another taken by Blake, 81, 95, 106.
-,-, Spaniards arranging to buy forty, 81; Turks object to serving Venice, 171.
-,-, one detained by E. India Co., Cromwell releases, 135; king of Portugal releases those seized, 177.
-,-, Goodson destroys five off Ostend, 177; seven seized by Montagu, Cromwell orders release, 224.
-,-, those in Venetian services paid to detriment of English, 250; more numerous in fleet than English, 256.
-, English:
-,-, likely to be granted to serve Turks, 5; one in fight of Turks with Venetians, 87, 167.
-,-, 30 leave for E. Indies, might reinforce Blake, 10.
-,-, four large, plundered by Dutch, 23; one brings report of Dutch proceedings in E. Indies, 76.
-,-, Turks said to be demanding, 26; probably false, 41; forbidden to serve Turks, 137; Bendish refused to Turks, 166.
-,-, sent with supplies to Blake, 43; sent to Flanders with supplies for army, 125.
-,-, depredations of Dunkirkers on, 43, 70, 107, 220.
-,-, superiority to Dutch, 66; Giavarina thinks moment favourable to ask Thurloe for, 123.
-,-, one fought in Turkish fleet against Venetians, 106,116, 136–7; Cromwell asked to forbid serving Turks, 136, 148.
-,-, two from Levant captured by Majorcans, 110; one captured and taken into Tuscan port, demand for, 141.
-,-, English will ask Portuguese for port to shelter, 118; body of, sent to Jamaica with supplies, 132; one from Jamaica with news, 192.
-,-, demand for payment for those serving in Venetian fleet, 145; Venice would like squadron of, 186.
-,-, envoy from Florida comes in one, which wrecked, 146; loss of Candia will increase piracy and dangers of, 148; from Newfoundland, taken by Dunkirkers, 150.
-,-, Turks object to serving Venice, 153, 171, 187, 190; threat to recall those serving Venice, 183, 249.
-,-, negotiations with Cook for, to serve Venice, 159, 163, 166, 189.
-,-, Passerini wants for enterprise against Naples, 171; Swedish ministers have permission to hire as many as wish, 233.
-,-, Vizier ready to make concessions for use of, 187; Hussein Pasha means to have for fleet, 256, 272.
-,-, encounter of four with Venetian squadron, 206, 220, 331; one plundered at Diano by Majorcans, 225.
-,-, claim for losses by pirates of Leghorn, 227; question of diverting trade from Leghorn to Venice, 236.
-,-, nothing to fear from pirates in Mediterranean thanks to Barbary agreements, 249, 256; Algiers breaks agreement about, for revenge, 289.
-,-, proposed letters of marque to enforce payment of those hired by Venice, 250, 272; those taken by Priuli released at once, 260; English squadron in Mediterranean for protection of, 261.
-,-, complaints against Dutch for captures in Indies, 275; one expected from Leghorn, 278; 200 captured by Spanish corsairs since war began, 291.
-, Flemish, one fighting with Turks against Venetians, 87.
-, French:
-,-, Zeelanders give letters of marque against, 25; Dutch measures to stop privateering of, 31.
-,-, Tromp on look out for in Channel, 66; Ruyter releases two from Algerians, 119.
-,-, one fighting with Turkish fleet against Venetians, 87.
-, Hamburg, Scots on, for France, puts in at Dunkirk, 6.
-, Maltese, with Dutch prize, in English port, 57; Dutch threaten English for sheltering, 58.
-, papal corral, fought and captured by English ship Joshua, 250.
-, Portuguese, Dutch capture several from Brazil, 134; three driven into English port, dispute over, 149, 151.
-, Spanish:
-,-, Eastland Merchant captured by, 141; Grand Duke complains that English prevent entering Leghorn, 178; one taken in Leghorn, 200.
-,-, one going from Sardinia to Catalonia taken by English, 178, 200.
-, Swedish, seized by Denmark, with salt, 65; Brandenburgers seize one in Baltic, 163; Dutch propose to destroy 24 sheltering at Landskrona, 270.
-, Venetian, retaliation for impositions laid by Elizabeth on, 236.

-, names of:

Adventure; Angel (two); Anne; Assistance; Benjamin; Brederode; Bristol; Gastello; Dartmouth; Donzella; Dover; Eastland Merchant; Endeavour; Essex; Exchange; Fagon; Fairfax; Falcon; Flying Fame; Flying Horse; Francis and John; Frederick; Friendship; George; Greyhound; Guinea; Hampshire; James; Joshua; Kent; Little Lewis; Lizard; Lyme; Maidstone; Margherita; Morning Star of Amsterdam; Naseby; Newbury; Northumberland, Norwich; Orange; Paramour; Phœnix; Postillion; Principe di Toscana; Princess Maria; Prosperous; Rainbow; Recovery; Red Horse; Relief; Reserve; Resolution; Richard; St. Nicholas; Society; Speaker; Sprew; Taunton; Thomas of Ipswich; Torrington; Virgin Mary of Calais; William; Yarmouth; Zante frigate.

shoes, consignment sent to Jamaica, 192.

Shrewsbury, co. Salop, Catholic gentlemen prisoners in castle, 105n.

Shropshire, Catholic gentleman from, sent to Tower, 105.

Sicily, island of, English fleet ordered to cruise about, 137.

sickness, malady:
-, prevalence of, many deaths, 195,. 197; fast for, greatly diminished, 206.
-, Giavarina to make inquiries about, 206.

-, See also epidemic.

silver, quantity brought by Spanish galleons to Canaries, 39.

Sindercombe, Miles, involved in conspiracy, sentenced, 18; commits suicide, 20; Fifth Monarchy conspirators indicated by, 46.

Skaw, Scaw [Jutland, Denmark], Goodson decides to turn back off, 283n.

skins, present of, for Cromwell, from Algiers, 55, 58.

Skynner, Thomas, commissioner to treat with Swedes, 66n.

-, Christian, Router frees 400 from Algerians, 119.
-, English, consul accused of assisting escape, at Algiers, 67.
-, Spanish, English merchant helps to escape from Algiers, 79.

Slingsby, Sir Henry:
-, trial of, 208; sentenced, 210; executed, 213.
-, uncle of Falcombridge, 210.

Sluys [Prov. Zeeland, Netherlands], letters can be sent by, 115.

Smyrna, Asia Minor:
-, English ship for captured by Tripoli pirates, 100; English captain detained at as spy, 279.
-, ship from, with news, 130; Sultan orders seizure of all ships at, for his service, 130; bulk of Dutch trade at, for camel skins, 138.

Soccorso. See Relief.

Society, East Indiaman, stopped and searched by Dutch, indignation over, 163.

Soissons, count of, men of, at Lockhart's entry, 30.

soldiers. See army; levies.

Sonderborg, Sonderburg [island of Alsen, Slesvig, Denmark], imperial forces capture, 281.

Sorbonne, remonstrance against establishing heretics in Catholic countries, 124.

Sound the:
-, news from, 299.
-, fear of English fleet closing, 101; Dutch decide to defend passage of, 174.
-, Denmark cedes to Sweden provinces commanding, 178; with hold on Swedes cannot be shut out of Baltic, 233; Dutch forces guarding, 243; Dutch fleet sighted near, 262.
-, Dutch realise disaster if Danes driven from, 243; Swedes promise to England, 268; Dutch know of promise, 280.
-, action between Dutch and Swedish fleets in, 265–6; emperor has eye on, 288.
-, decision to send squadron to, 266; fleet destined for, 267, 276, 282; passage likely to be blocked by ice, 274; fleet stopped at by icebergs, 285.
-, Dutch preparing another squadron for, 273; Dutch recognise danger if England controls, 280.
-, Ayscue ordered to leave again for, 284.
-, weather allows little hope of progress towards, 285; new fleet likely to sail for, 293, 302; to remain and observe Dutch there, 296.
-, return of fleet from, 286, 289; French disquieted over, 287.
-, Thurloe gives parliament account of, and of Dutch forces in, 295.

-, English fleet for. See under navy.

Spain, Pudsey served in Flanders, 157 ;200 English merchantmen captured by corsairs of, since war began, 291.
-, 1657:
-,-, fleet cruising off coasts, 2, 10, 13, 19, 38; Blake to seize any munitions destined for, 5; supply ships for Blake destined for, 7.
-,-, Charles unable to obtain satisfaction desired from, 2; proposed embassy from Charles to, 10.
-,-, probability of Dutch uniting with, 5; Dutch privateers sail under colours of, 24.
-,-, Charles' plans languish for lack of money from, 20; pension assigned to Charles by, 32.
-,-, all attention fixed on Portugal, 20; close negotiations with France renewed, 50.
-,-, too feeble to be of value as ally, 24; overtures for peace with unlikely, 40.
-,-, would join with England if France did not, 26; plot device to stir English against, 32.
-,-, rejoicings in at arrival of plate fleet, 39; boastful letters from Canaries to, 63.
-,-, ship from Mexico for taken, 47; English squadron to operate against in Mediterranean, 51; reinforcement of fleet off, 85; ships off recalled, 89.
-,-, friars on way to, captured, 54; English ship with cargo from captured, 107.
-,-, Dutch not disposed to go to war with, 61; Dutch wish to avoid complications with, 66.
-,-, danger to, if English hold Canaries, 65; loss of fleet most serious blow to, 70.
-,-, Bordeaux tries to wean English Catholics from, 72–33.
-,-, levy of Scots granted to serve Portugal against, 75; proposed provision against conquest of Portugal by, 89.
-,-, tardiness of government criticised, 81; third year that without force at sea, 93.
-,-, wind favours Montagu sailing for, 91; Blake captures Dutch ship sailing for, 95.
-,-, English ship takes cloth to, 100; loss of trade through war with, 107.
-,-, suffers ignomy from being without fleet, 101; English fleet off reinforced, 129.
-,-, belief in Dutch help for, 115; Peñaranda urges Leopold to declare for, 121; English cannot bear to see helped by Dutch, 131.
-,-, Cromwell bound to help Portugal because of war with, 135; English ships leaving coasts for Mediterranean, 146.
-,-, no hope of speedy settlement with France, 145; Charles under protection of, 154.
-,-, Dutch have letters of reprisal from, against Portuguese, 146; king of Florida mortal enemy of, 147.
-, 1658:
-,-, Cromwell refers to Dutch devotion to interests of, 162; forbids all commerce between Flanders and England, 180.
-,-, England means to inflict every possible harm upon, 178; France and England united against, 204.
-,-, Venice ready to act if takes up question of peace congress, 183; objections to Flanders for congress, 193.
-,-, royalists blame for miscarriage of Charles's plans, 188; Charles goes to treat with ministers of for help, 251.
-,-, treaty of Cromwell with, in his hands, 229; eggs on Dutch against English, 235.
-,-, ships to be sent to coast of, to intercept treasure fleet, 233, 237; no English ships seen in waters of, 237.
-,-, threat to Naples a feint to distract attention, 235; Don John recalled to, 271.
-,-, fear of attack on Catalonia, 237; English fleet for coast of, 259, 274; diverted from, 266.
-,-, French expected to injure greatly in Flanders, 245; English suspicious of negotiations with France for peace and marriage, 287, 290.
-,-, loss of treasure fleet serious blow to in weakness, 260; hope to make good disasters with its arrival, 268.
-,-, English traders eager for peace with, 262, 274; talk of peace negotiations with, 271, 274; Polish ambassador to suggest peace with, 297.
-,-, produce of brought to England by Dutch, through war, 271.
-,-, Richard asked supplies for war with, 288; parliament would like peace with, 291.

-, army of, Castilian army:

withdrawal to winter quarters makes English officers sanguine, 155; sally from Dunkirk repulsed, 211.

English and French destroy redoubts erected by, 189; Hesdin handed over to, 216.

troops from Galicia captured by English ships, 193.

great need of troops of Spanish nationality, 193.

garrisons collected, advance on Dunkirk, 211; defeat at battle of Dunes, 213; heavy losses, 214.

unable to relieve Gravelines, 216, 236; surrenders Wynox Berghen, 220; abandons Furnes, 222.

Morgan to advance and observe, 220; abandons open country and withdraws to fortresses, 227; sudden incursion of, inflicting losses, 239.

French defeat severely before Ypres, 243, 246; crushing defeat at Elvas, 290.

-, fleet of:

reported at sea to secure fleet from Indies, 5; reported defeat of Blake by, 7.

Dutch aid would prevent Blake having advantage of, 6.

merchantmen can help Blake against, 10.

slowness in fitting out ships against English, 30; Medina Celi ordered to hasten arming of, 81; work pushed on and then abandoned, 93.

fourth year that country lacking, 101.

to be sent from Cadiz to bring in treasure fleet, 259, 260.

-, Infant of Spain. See Philip, infant of Spain.

-, king of. See Philip IV.

-, merchants of. See merchants, Spanish.

-, ships of. See ships, Spanish.

-, treasure fleet of, 266, 268.

expectation of capture, 2; fleet at sea to protect, 5.

reported capture of galleons by Blake, 7; Blake on watch for, 13, 19, 29, 30, 38, 43.

Dutch ships hired to escort, 15; Dutch plan to go and bring in, 57.

arrival or failure means enormous difference to both sides, 17; likely to come to grief, 24.

no news of, in Spain, 30; rejoicings at arrival at Teneriffe, 39; English depressed by arrival, 52; Blake calls council on hearing of, 63; Blake's successful attack on at Santa Cruz, 64; news of at Florence, 77.

ships go to intercept, 233, 237; English mean to set watch for, 259, 274.

Spaniards hope to make good disasters with arrival of, 268; much delayed, English may go in search of, 296.

-, New:

plate from, expected capture, 10.

vessels from, 30, 39.

Spaniards, 61.
-, Scots for French service go over to, 6; would like to have duke of York at Vienna, 11.
-, hire Dutch ships to escort treasure fleet, 15; incite Dutch and break with England, 24.
-, all ships carrying goods of seized in Thames, 24; Santa Cruz severe blow to, 65.
-, 600 surprised and cut up in Jamaica, 47; ship with sailors captured by Blake, 81.
-, English to join French to fight, in Flanders, 49; forewarned and can put towns in order, 57, 92, 111, 114.
-, proposed exchange of prisoners with, 54; English in France deserting to, 70.
-, Algiers Aga fears present for Cromwell captured by, 58; one rescued from Algiers by English merchant, 79
-, have secured copy of Anglo French treaty, 59; forewarned of attack in Flanders, 105.
-, Dutch deny intention of helping, 66; egg on Dutch against Portuguese, 79, 109, 119.
-, English mean to inflict greatest possible injury on, 92.
-, Blake bitter enemy of, 102; Gardiner paid by, to kill Cromwell, 103.
-, Portuguese asking help against, 103; Portuguese confident of repelling attack of, with English help, 108.
-, have abandoned country and taken to fortresses, 111; reported victory over French, 113.
-, Cromwell threatened to come to terms with, offered him Calais, 114.
-, strong in Flanders, certain to make great effort to save Mardike, 115; surrendered at discretion, 117; save Gravelines by flooding country, 122.
-, night attack on Mardike, 126; another attack repulsed, 128, 132; believed that French will allow to retake Mardike, 142.
-, mean to make frequent attacks, 127–8, 130; intent on recovering the place, 147.
-, English squadron in Mediterranean to protect trade against privateers of, 142.
-, French and English mean to inflict all possible damage upon, 145; envoy from Florida to move Cromwell against, 147.
-, threats of, only for supplying Gravelines, 152; introduce munitions into Gravelines, 160.
-, stopping letters to prevent plans of Charles being known, 169; supposed plan to recover Mardick, 196; and Bourbourg, 197.
-, unsuccessful attempts on Jamaica, 192, 253; expedition to take advantage of weakness in Indies, 192.
-, surprise and capture Aumont's force at Ostend, 196; ransom demanded for Aumont, 199; great thing for, to have smashed enemy's plan, 200.
-, surprise at inactivity of, in electoral college, 197; report of election circulated by, 232.
-, Dutch contemplate ships for relief of, 206; energetic measures to save Dunkirk, 208, 211, 213.
-, Dutch propose to help by introducing munitions into Dunkirk, 212; Cromwell would injure most by treating Catholics well, 229; encouraged squib against Cromwell over French alliance, 275.
-, feel confident of safe arrival of treasure fleet, 259, 260; likely to stand on punctilio about peace, 274.

Sparling, Thomas, captain of the Assistance, 107n.

Speaker, state ship, arrives in Thames, 69; losses of, at Ostend, 199n.

Speaker, the. See Bampfield, Sir Thomas; Chute, Chaloner; Long, Sir Lislebone; Widdrington, Sir Thomas.

Spezia, Gulf of [Prov. Genova, Italy], English squadron granted facilities at, 159.

spices, dependence of Dutch on trade in, 215.

Sprew, or Starling of Middelburg, detained by E. India Co., released by Cromwell, 135.

Stacey, Edmund, execution of, 224.

Stafford, county of, Catholic gentlemen of, committed to Tower, 105n.

Stapley, John, of Patcham, asks pardon, discloses plot of gentlemen of Sussex, 188.

Starling. See Sprew.

States. See Netherlands.

Stoakes, John, Vice Admiral:
-, capable of taking over command from Blake, 63; will take Blake's place if he comes home, 85; Blake leaves in command, 101.
-, to command squadron for Mediterranean, 119.
-, refused permission to careen by Grand Duke, 159; Grand Duke writes to justify attitude to, 161; represents arrogance of, 162.
-, obtained facilities from Genoese, 159; impertinent answer to Grand Duke's ministers, 164; refuses exchange of ships, leaves Leghorn with threats, 187.
-, agreement with Tunis, 180; proceeds to Leghorn with six ships, 224, 225n.
-, goes to Leghorn and on to Marseilles, 180n; defends action at Leghorn, 200; leaves Leghorn in disgust, 227.
-, said to be going to Tripoli, 228.

Storey, Capt. Robert, commander of the Hampshire:
-, parliament votes 100l. to for bringing news of victory, 69.
-, arrives in Thames, 69n.

Strait, the. See Gibraltar, Strait of.

Strauss, Elias, resident of Courland:
-, arrives in London, matters to settle, 192; unable to obtain audience, 217, 225; slight to, much upset, 218.
-, cannot do business with Thurloe, as not presented, 229, 230; not invited to Cromwell's funeral, 269; has no fresh letters of credence, 269.

Strickland, Walter, councillor, attends Nieuport at audience, 251.

Struch, Rudolph von, envoy of Courland to Cromwell:
-, returning home, 90; complains of treatment, 91; receives passport, 92; departure, present to, 93.
-, Giavarina's office with approved, 104; Strauss comes to settle matters left unfinished by, 192.

Stuart, house of:
-, hopes of encouraging army to turn from Cromwell, 23; cause under Spanish protection, 162; gentlemen of Sussex swear to defend cause, 188.
-, preparations for restoration at fitting opportunity, 202; Princess of Orange told not to offer asylum to, 252.

sugar, from Brazil prizes, taken to Dutch ports, 134, 160; some in English port, 149.

Sumner, John, pardoned, 224.

Sundays, extreme veneration for, 179; strict celebration of, 217.

Surat, India, Benjamin takes shelter at, 77.

Sussex, county of, gentlemen of, swear to defend Stuart cause, 188; ringleaders of conspiracy in, summoned to London, 224.

-, England will side with if Denmark interferes, 28; English mission to Muscovy to help, 34.
-, levy in England for, 29, 113, 127, 156.
-, Cromwell wished included in alliance with France, 43; Cromwell agrees to arrange without including, 44; not included, 50.
-, designs of Denmark against cooled, 52; great change, persistent hostile acts against, 65; Denmark declares war on, 77, 79; Denmark justifies breach with, 86.
-, England bound to ward off attacks on, 65; maritime negotiations proceeding with, 66; Petkum confident England will not help, 92.
-, emperor egging on Denmark against, 65; negotiations for adjustment with Poland, 77.
-, Denmark will hold back attack on till Germans enter Poland, 79; keeps main body to observe, 86.
-, money arrives from for levies, 86.
-, Cromwell likely to help, 98; Jepson to report on state of and advise best means of helping, 98–9.
-, numerous partisans in London, 99.
-, Meadowe to moderate Danish animosity against, 99; mission of Jephson to, 102, 108, 127, Dutch said to have urged, 107.
-, defection of Brandenburg from, 102, 125; if hard pressed, France and England bound to help, 140.
-, does not suit England that should prosper in Baltic, 107; certain to receive help from England, 110.
-, Fleetwood acts for, without title, 108; commissioners for, in accordance with treaty, 143.
-, King of Hungary's misgivings about, 121; Dutch decide to defend passage of Sound against, 174.
-, troops sent to help return, 146; troops for held up by weather, 204.
-, proposed congress for peace with Denmark, 153; concessions forced from Denmark in peace, 178.
-, partiality shown for, in England, 156, 172; indebted to England for losses inflicted during Dutch war, 170.
-, Queen Christina sends gentleman to, 161; Schlezer more attached to than to own master, 232.
-, Cromwell encourages evil intention of, 205; reported capture of Kronborg, 243.
-, Dutch need to be on good terms with England because of, 215; Dutch want English help to prevent interference of, in Baltic, 233.
-, Fleetwood issues pamphlet in interest of, 232.
-, can most easily send embassy on Cromwell's death, 242.
-, Dutch declare for Denmark against, 243; may lead to war of Dutch with England, 243–4, 262.
-, Nieuport surprised at English help for said would get nothing but words, 266; long consultation before decision, 268.
-, English urge French to support, 266, 276; English efforts in favour of, 286.
-, promises England the Sound and Kronburg, 268, 280; Boreel denies English help for, 273.
-, duke of Curland prisoner of, 272; reported defeat by imperialists, 281.
-, Dutch would like to see adjustment with Denmark 277, 280.
-, possible embassy extraordinary from, to England, 277; Protector asks parliament to consider war of, 288.
-, English said to be mediating for peace with Denmark, 281; English will come closer to as Dutch commit themselves to Denmark, 296.
-, emperor means to prevent taking Sound, 288; Thurloe's account of war considered too favourable to, 300.
-, Danish minister's mission to prevent England helping, 297; pamphlet on question of English help for, 301.

-, army of:

ship with supplies for seized by Brandenburg, 163; to have free quarters in Danish teritory under peace, 178.

levies sent from England to join, 189; reported capture of Kronburg by, 248–9; king going to join before Copenhagen, 249.

French concerned at disasters to, 287; repulse at Copenhagen, heavy losses, 299.

-, fleet:

Ayscue takes skilled officers for employment in, 260, 302; said that Dutch ordered not to fight, 262; action with Dutch in Sound, 265; Dutch claim victory over, 269–270; takes refuge under Kronburg castle, 270.

English fleet preparing to go and join, 293.

-, King of. See Charles X.

-, merchants of. See merchants, Swedish.

-, ministers, commissioners in England:

Passerini brings letters for, 156; effort for Holstein's agent, 264.

outcry against Brandenburg for seizure of ship, 163; circulate pamphlet to discredit Brandenburg, 232.

investigating debt claims, 170; business finished, two leave, 182.

trying to secure Ayscue to command fleet, 233; Ayscue engaged by, 260; sailors enlisted by, 284.

expect Copenhagen to have fallen, 252; claim victory for fleet over Dutch, 265, 270.

attend Cromwell's funeral, 269; pamphlet issued by on Danish question, 301.

distressed at delay of English relief squadron, 274; hopes about, 276.

without news but publish king's successes, 279; anxious at absence of news, 280; learn of repulse at Copenhagen, 299.

-, -, See also Barkman, John; Potter, Joachim; Pryttz, J.

-, queen of. See Christina.

-, ships of. See ships, Swedish.

Swiss, Evangelical Cantons, Cromwell hopes to get auxiliary troops from, 128.