Kirkby in Kendale: 1532-60

Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 1. Originally published by Titus Wilson and Son, Kendal, 1923.

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'Kirkby in Kendale: 1532-60', in Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 1, ed. William Farrer, John F Curwen( Kendal, 1923), British History Online [accessed 14 July 2024].

'Kirkby in Kendale: 1532-60', in Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 1. Edited by William Farrer, John F Curwen( Kendal, 1923), British History Online, accessed July 14, 2024,

"Kirkby in Kendale: 1532-60". Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 1. Ed. William Farrer, John F Curwen(Kendal, 1923), , British History Online. Web. 14 July 2024.


1532 William Parre, the younger, writes to Sir Thomas Cromwell from Horton, 20 April: Robert Tarne, a very insolent person, did not only openly and secretly enter my park at Kendal on various occasions, but killed and stole my game and spoke many malicious words to William Redman, my keeper there, who advised him to desist from his unlawful pastime and keep a sober tongue. On which Tarne and he made a fray and the former chanced to be hurt. He purposes not only to trouble Redman, but to sue my cousin, Sir James Laborne, (fn. 1) for abetting him, who had nothing to do with it. He is maintained in this by my lord of Cumberland and Sir Thomas Clifford, for the malice they bear my cousin Laborne, "for my lord of Richmond's and my poor causes." Whereas it has been the ancient custom in the barony of Kendal to administer justice in all strife, as my grandfather, father and uncle, Sir William Parre, always did: now it is that sundry wealthy and malicious persons, for the ill will they bear my lord of Richmond and me, infringe the said custom and send up poor people to London who cannot afford it. I . . . . write to you for remedy, hoping, whenever such malicious persons repair to London, they may be remitted to my cousin Laborne, who is deputy steward there (i.e. in Kendal); ib., v, 445.

Sir James Layburn writes from Kendal on Friday after St. Mark's Day (26 April) to James Layburn, deputy steward of Kendal: The "shiroff turn" was kept in Kendal on St. Mark's Day by Sir John Lowther, under-sheriff to my lord of Cumberland and Westmorland, Sir Roger Bellingham and John Hutton, clerk to the under-sheriff, and others of their retinue. I went with Christopher Godmond and seven others and charged them, in the name of the King and my lord of Richmond, to keep no "sheroff turn" in the liberties of the latter. On being asked for my authority I said that my lord of Richmond's authority was openly proclaimed in Kendal market under the King's broad seal. They said they had not heard of it. I told them that Sir Thomas Clyfford stood by when my lord of Norfolk commanded the deputy steward not to allow my lord of Cumberland, or any one for him, to meddle within the said liberty. I charged the constable to make no answer and departed, when they pannelled an inquest of constables, tenants of Sir Roger Bellingham, Mr. Strikeland, Sir Richard Weston, Geffrey Midilton and Mr. Redemayn, but I do not know what they did; ib., v, 453.

Sir Arthur Darcy writes to the right worshipful Mr. Thomas Cromwell that he is sorry the King's gift of the advowson of Kendale should now be withdrawn from him, for he had promised to give it to one of his Grace's chaplains. He complains of his straightened means; that the advowson given to a friend would have relieved him. Begs Cromwell to advance the King's gift to him and, if he refuse any journey in the wars, let the King take the "vowson" and all his offices. Waits till Saturday for the setting forth of his ordnance given him by the King to the Borders, and for money. His day at the Borders shall not be broken, according to the King's letters; ib., 560.

Among Cromwell's obligations and bills this year was: a bill of Sir Arthur Darcy acknowledging receipt from the King, by the hands of my master, of the advowson of the vicarage of Kirkby Kendal; ib., 556.

1532 Inquest taken at Shapp, 28 October, 24 Henry VIII (1532) before John Skelton, esquire, escheator, after the death of Matilda Parre, widow. The jurors say that Thomas Parre, knight, late husband of the said Matilda, long before his death was seised of the manors of Kendall, Grenehede and Skaltwhaytryg and a moiety of the manor of Gressemer and [100] messuages, 500 a. land, 1000 a. meadow, 2000 a. pasture, £14 rent in Hutton, Hay, Skalthwaitrig, Strykland Roger, Hellgyll, Greneryg, Ullathornes, Ryston and Kyrkby in Kendall; so seised Richard, bishop of Winchester, Charles, earl of Worsester, knight, Thomas Lovell, knight, Giles Dawbeney of Dawbeney, knight, Henry Wyatt, knight, and Edmund Dudley, esquire, in Michaelmas term, 23 Henry VII (1507), at Westminster, recovered the said premises against the said Thomas Parre by writ of "entry sur disseisin," and they entered upon the premises. So seised they all died, but Henry Wyatt, who survived them and was solely seised, and so seised, the king's licence having been obtained, he enfeoffed Henry, earl of Essex, Thomas Vaux, lord Haroden, William Fytzwilliam, younger, knight, William Parre, knight, Thomas Borough, knight, lord Borough, Edward Darrell, knight, Edward Borough, esquire, Thomas Pykeryng, Thomas Butler, James Rokeby, Christopher Godmond and Alan Shipard, clerk, of the premises, who are now seised. The recovery was to the use of the said Sir Thomas Parre, knight, and his heirs and to perform his last will. Further the said Thomas Parre by his writing, dated 7 November, 9 Henry VIII (1517), declared his will, by which, amongst other things, he willed that his recoverers and feoffees, their heirs and assigns should be seised of all such manors, lands and tenements, &c., as descended to him as son and heir of the late Sir William Parr, knight, to the use of Maude his wife for her life, in full satisfaction of her dower. Should she marry again or should she recover and have her dower of any other of his manors, lands, &c. than of those appointed, by writ of dower or otherwise, thenceforth her interest in all the manors, lands which descended to him from his father shall cease, except the manors, lands, &c. which were his late father's, in Grenehed, Hay, Strykland Roger, Grendrig and in the "Borow towne of Kendall" of the clear yearly value of 100 marks, which she may have only for term of her life. His executors are to take the profits of the manors, lands, &c. which he lately purchased and also of such manors, lands, &c. as late were in variance between him and lord Scrope, to the yearly value of £30 until his executors have received £800, which sum of £800 is to be equally divided between my [daughters Kateryn and Anne] for their marriages (see above). Matilda (or Maude) from the time of the death of her husband Thomas Parr until the day of her death did not re-marry nor did she have or recover dower from other manors, lands, &c. which were of the said Thomas Parr than those appointed in his will. The sum of £800 is not received from the issues of the aforesaid manors, lands, &c. but there now remains to be received £500 in performance of the will. Thomas Parr died 12 November, 9 Henry VIII (1517) and Matilda survived him and afterwards she died on 1 December last (1531) and William Parr, esquire, is her son and next heir and was on 14 August last (1532) aged 19 years. The manor of Kendall and the moiety of the manor of Gressemer and all the tenements in Hutton, Haye, Strikland Roger, Hewgyll, Greneryg, Ullathorne and Kirkby in Kendall are held of the king in chief by knight service, namely the 4th part of a knight's fee; the manor of Grenehede is held of the heir of Walter Strikland, knight, as of his manor of Sysergh by socage. The lands and tenements in Grenehede, Hay, Strykland Roger, Greneryg and in the town of Kyrkby in Kendall and "le Borowtowne of Kendall" are worth yearly clear 100 marks, and the residue of the said manors, lands, and tenements specified in the recovery are worth yearly clear 100 marks; Excheq. Inq. p.m., ser. ii, file 131, n. 1.

1533 Catalogue of Thomas Cromwell's papers, &c.: Articles of the misdemeanor of the earl of Cumberland to the liberties of Kendal to the great damage of the duke of Richmond; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, vi, 139.

In a letter dated Connyswik, 1 April, James Layburn writes to Cromwell: Whereas the King sent letters to my lord of Cumberland commanding him not to intermeddle in my lord of Richmond's liberties in Kendal: the earl's officers still molest the tenants, as will be seen by the bill enclosed. These offences were done from the time of the King's letters to the time when my lord of Norfolk commanded me not to allow the said earl or his officers to intermeddle; ib., 144.

Articles concerning the infringement by the earl of Cumberland of the liberties used in the lordship and barony of Kendal, Westmorland, to the injury of the duke of Richmond and the disturbance of the tenants. Under colour of being sheriff of Westmoreland the earl has lately held the sheriff's turn within the lordship of Kendall and distrained certain tenants for fines, though he has no authority even to hold the turn. He has had the tenants fined at the court of the said county for not doing suit to the same, though they ought to do no such suit there. His officers execute writs there, which power is granted to the duke of Richmond by Parliament. Debts under 40s. and such matters have always been tried in the lordship before the Steward, but the earl causes his servants to distrain the tenants for such plaints to the Sheriff's Court. They punish offences committed at fairs and markets, which they have no right to do. He has wrongfully indicated the Steward for punishing tenants who have offended against the customs, as has been done for time out of mind. His officers take away all felons' goods, waifs and estrays. He has infringed the liberties in many other ways; and though the King lately wrote to him to reform the premises, he and his officers have done worse than before; ib., 661.

1534 In a letter of James Layburn to Mr. Thomas Cromwell, dated at Asheton (near Lancaster?), 3 April, he writes inter alia: This day I am informed that Robert Tarne had his arm broken and his ear smitten off by William Redman, keeper to master William Parr, in the park, in the said Redman's office, and has complained to the King. Evil will is surmised against me by the means of such men. I was in London when this deed was done and I never saw Redman, as I was displeased with him, for he was formerly my servant and I put hin to service with my lord Parr that is dead four years ago, from whom he received £4 a year; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, vii, 181.

By indentures dated 4 December, 26 Henry VIII (1534), Robert Briggis, late of Kendall, clothier, conveys to Elizabeth Bellengeham of Garethorne, and Marrion Bellengeham of Helsington, widows, for £120, the messuages, shops, stables, gardens, lands and tenements in Kendall and Litill Stikland, which he late purchased of George Tunstall, son and heir of Sir Edward Tunstall of Laverokbrige, deceased. Signature of "Robart Brygg." Witnesses: Nicholas Tunstall, Alan Wilson, Alexander Wilson, Nicholas Adson, Thomas Tomson; d. at Levens.

1535 John Redman was farmer from Witham, abbot of St. Mary's, York, of some part of the tithes of Kendal; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, ix, 205.

1536 Asheton, October 8. Sir James Layburn to Cromwell. I have sent you by my servant, William Sleddall, £50 due to the King, Michaelmas last. I am so crased that I could not bring it myself. Whereas at your request my lord Admiral promised you that I should be farmer of a benefice belonging to the monastery of Cartmell or Conyshyd, pray show my nephew, Thomas Cayrus, your further pleasure in the same; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, xi, 245.

The relict of Christoper Foxe renders for a burgage in the vill of Kyrkby in Kendall 7s.

William Beke for a tenement there 8s.

The relict of Henry Beke for a tenement there 8s. Rental of the possessions of the late priory of Conyshed; Duchy of Lanc., Rentals, bundle 5, n. 11.

Sir Thomas Wharton writes to Cromwell: Sir James Layborn has been very diligent in the King's service upon the West Marches. He dwells in the country of Kendal, the inhabitants whereof be very troublous &c.; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, xi, 260.

One of three proclamations, relative to the "Pilgrimage of Grace', which have been preserved, runs as follows: "All commons stick ye together, rise with no great man to (i.e. till) ye know his intent. Keep your harness in your own hands and ye shall obtain your purpose in all this North land. Claim ye old customs and tenant right to take your farms by a God's penny, all gressumes and heghtnynges (fn. 2) to be laid down, then may we serve our sovereign lord, King Henry the VIIIth. God save his noble Grace. We shall serve our land lords in every righteous cause with horse and harness as custom will demand. Gentle commons, have this in your mind, every man take his lands lord and ye have need, as we did in Kendalland, then shall ye speed. Make your writing, command them to seal to grant you your petitions at your desire. Lords spiritual and temporal, have it in your mind, the world as it wareth, and to your tenants be ye kind, then may ye go on pilgrimage nothing you withstand, and commons to you be true through all Cristen land, to maintain the faith of Holy church, as ye have take on hand. Adieu, gentle commons, thus I make an end, maker of this letter, pray Jesus be his speed, and he shall be your captain when that ye have need"; (fn. 3) ib., 356; xii, pt. i, 72.

Doncaster, October 28. The earls of Shrewsbury, Rutland and Huntingdon to Lord Darcy. According to your desire we have written to my lord of Derby (as below) not doubting but that you will stay the commons of Kendall about my lord of Derby, according to the order taken at our last meeting; ib., xi, 358.

Same place and date. The same to the earl of Derby. As my lord of Norfolk and we here have stayed the commons of Yorkshire and every man is "sparpled" and returned home . . . . and as we hear from lord Darcy that you, with your retinue, are to be on Monday next at Whalley Abbey: we charge you in the King's name to "sparple" (fn. 4) your company without molesting the said commons; ib.

October 29. Lord Darcy to the 3 earls above-named. The Captain and we have already sent in post to all the commons of Cumberland, Westmoreland, Kendal, the side of Lancashire and Craven and all others of the North, to leave besieging of houses and disperse homewards, according to the order and promise made at our last meeting at Doncaster; ib. 362.

October 31. Darcy to Shrewsbury. Has had more business to do with the help of his cousins and friends and special letters by Mr. Aske, grand captain, and sent to the commons of the wild countries of Cumberland, Westmoreland, Kendal, Furness, Dent, Sedber and Craven, all of the rear ward amounting to at least 20,000 men, and calling themselves 30,000, to order them to disperse, than they have had with "the vaward and body of the whole battles"; ib. 368.

Lathom, November 1. Edward earl of Derby to Henry VIII. He gives an account of his movements and those of the commons. Another insurrection lately made in Westmoreland, Cumberland and Lancashire, north of the town of Lancaster, which is now sparpled, intended to have come through Lancashire but for the fear of Derby and his company at Preston. The circumstances whereof, the feigned letters set on church doors &c were too tedious to write to the King. Touching the insurrection beyond Lancaster which some numbered to 5000 or 6000, but it is thought were under 3000, the earl sent his servants to advise them, in the King's name, to depart home. One Atkynson their captain answered they had a pilgrimage to do for the common wealth, which they would accomplish, or die (further report of Atkynson's answers). Sir Robert Bellyncham and others, who were taken by the commons, have escaped to the Earl. Lord Montegle and Sir Marmaduke Tunstall have fled from their houses between Lancaster and Westmoreland, to the Earl at Preston; ib., 380.

Windsor, November 2. Proclamation of a general pardon to the commons dwelling north of Doncaster, who have lately committed open rebellion, tending to the ruin of the country and advancement of our ancient enemies the Scots . . . . . but as their offences proceeded from ignorance, his Highness has caused certain books to be sent them, by which they may see and acknowledge their errors. Any of them shall have by suit in Chancery the King's pardon under his great seal free of charge for all offences committed before November 1 last. Provided always that they apprehend and deliver to the King: Robert Aske and 5 others (named) and 4 others to be named hereafter of (among other districts) Kendal, who as ringleaders are excepted from this pardon &c.; ib., 382.

Latham, November 17. The earl of Derby to the gentlemen of Furness. As it is thought that the commons of the barony of Kendall intend to come unto Furness and Cartmell and there take men sworn to them according to their unlawful appetite, and levy money, corn and victuals, he has written to William Fitton, his deputy at Furness desiring him in such case to assemble his strength and call all Derby's servants and tenants . . . to withstand the enterprise &c.; ib., 439.

York, November 22. Letter, signed Robert Aske, captain, addressed to Darcy. "This Council" require Darcy to write to the lord Steward to send in post to the earl of Derby to make no commotion in Lancashire. There is such mustering there that the commons adjoining cannot be kept in order for dread of being overrun. Darcy is to require answer from the lord Steward therein, or it will "empeche" the meeting at Donkaster; ib., 454.

Same date and place. Copy of an order taken at York by the Captain, barons and commonalty, 22 November, and signed by Aske. Ordering that if Lancashire musters, then Craven, Kendall, Dent, Sedber, Lonsdale and Fornes shall likewise muster, and send word to the Captain of the "demeanour" of Lancashire; ib.

"The order taken at York." A meeting to be betwixt the duke of Norfolk and the baronage and commonalty of the parts north of Doncaster at a place to be appointed at Pontefract. Letters to be made to these persons to be at Pontefract on Saturday before St. Nicholas even; Kendale and Lonsdale: Richard Doket, William Knyvett, Sir Robert Belingham, Walter Strikland and 6 commoners; ib., 464.

November 27. Henry VIII to the Earl of Derby. Perceives the readiness of lord Monteagle for the repression of the rebels. . . . . By the traitor Aske's letter to John Atkynson, captain of the commons of Kendal, inserted in Derby's, it appears Aske is trying both to keep Yorkshire in rebellion and also to stir the commons of Lancashire and Cheshire. Derby is to put his force in readiness to meet at an hour's warning. . . . . . . To discover the inclination of the people, he is to lay secret espial throughout all parts &c.; ib., 476.

Lincoln, November 30. Suffolk to Henry VIII. This day arrived a servant of Sir William Mussegravis with a letter of credence, and Suffolk having debated with Sir William Parr, who knows that country, sends him to the King to be examined before some man who knows those parts. Thinks the King should write to the earl of Cumberland, lord Clifford and lord Dacre of the North to unite, "all displeasures set apart," for the stay of Cumberland and Westmoreland to Stayneburghe; which so stayed, Kendal, Sedbarre and Londesdale shall not dare stir &c.; ib., 486.

Horneby Castle, December 3. Lord Monteagle to Henry VIII. Received his letters, dated Windsor, 9 November, ordering him to have his servants, tenants and friends, who have not consented to this rebellion, ready to serve with the earl of Derby when the earl of Shrewsbury should assign and also to have seditious persons punished. Has apprehended a vicar who was said to have spoken against the King's acts and in favour of the insurrection and bound him in to £200 to appear before the Council. Has furnished himself with the friends, servants and tenants, whom he can trust. Some are sworn to the rebels and he has commanded them not to come to his house or company. They say that if they had not sworn, their houses and goods would have been spoiled, and that they are as ready to serve the King as any others, notwithstanding their oaths. The rebels are about Kendal, as cruelly minded as ever, and have disturbed his bailiffs for paying him rent, threatening to hang me, and saying that he should never have any rent there unless he assented to them, which he will never do. . . . .; ib., 499.

Among the 24 demands to be placed before the lords of the King's Council at their coming to Pontefract, the ninth was as follows: That the lands in Westmoreland, Cumberland, Kendall, Dent, Sedber, Fornes and the abbey lands in Mashamshire, Kyrkbyshire, Notherdale, may be by tenant right, and the lord to have, at every change [of lord or tenant], two years' rent for "gressom," (fn. 5) according to the grant now made by the lords to the commons there. This to be done by Act of Parliament; ib., 507.

Draft letter that was devised to have been sent from the King to the lord Admiral Fitzwilliam and Master Russell. Has perused the letters written by them and others of the Council at Doncaster on Wednesday night (6 December). Wonders at their writing in such desperate sort as though it were neither possible to achieve . . . . the reservation of some persons to be punished for the example of others, nor to appease the commons unless the King consented to the standing of the abbeys in those parts which are to be suppressed by Act of Parliament. As to the inclination of the commons, everybody says they are rather repentant for what they have done than disposed to make any new commotion. A gentleman recently from Scotland said plainly he saw no great stirring in all his passage, though he travelled by the usual roads, but gathered that the people were weary of their folly and would be glad of a pardon. Mr. Frankleyn declares that the commons at his coming were quietly in their houses and no man abroad but those who belong to the gentlemen. . . . . There have also been divers men of Kendal here, who agree about the repentance of the people and you alone write unto us all extremities, without reference to those remedies which you have or may attain, as though we should be drawn to agree to things against our honor etc., etc ib., 517.

Lathom, December 5. Edward earl of Derby to Henry VIII. Reports on muster. As to the inclinations of the people, trusts the gentlemen are true, but doubts the commonalty. Touching Sir John Townley and Sir James Layburn, hears they are much with the commons, and are, some say, sworn to them. Many say Sir James was sworn more than a month ago; ib., 511.

Templehirst, December 18. Darcy to Shrewsbury. The people here pay their rents, and the stir, caused by example of those of the "high and wild countries," who cast open parks and closes and made spoils, is appeased. Until Norfolk's coming, Northumberland, the Bishopric, Cumberland, Kendal, and all other dales will be at no sure stay; ib., 538.

The proclamation of the King's pardon was made by Thomas Hawbley, Clarensys King of Arms, at Kendal the 18th (or 19th) of December, before the bailiff of the town and 4 lords of Cumberland; ib., 552.

1537 The house of Lepers of St. Leonard by Kyrkby in Kendall. Dom. William Harryngton, Keeper or master there.

Firstly, a tenement in the tenure of Anthony Tunstall 19s. 4d.
Item, in the ten. of Edward Lord 5s.
" ye wiffe of John Knype holdeth of the almesmen 1½ rode of land and renders yearly 18d.
Item in the tenure of William Cryke 2s.
" Thomas Sleddall 22s. 6d.
" Nycolas Dodyng 6s. 8d.
" John Harryson 8s. 4d.
" Arthur Bek 4s.
" William Sprot 8d.
" Georgh Stewynson 7s.
" on Walk Mylne by yer 5s.
" half of on corn Mylne in dekay thys 34 yeres.
" in the tenure of Christofer Knype and hys felowys 26s. 8d.
" relict of William Warren 2s.
" Sand' Walker 11s. 6d.
" Alayn Wylson 10s. 2d.
" Willm. Schepart 11s. 10d.
" John Chamer 6s. 6d.
" Robert Brown 2s. 6d.
" Robert Grandevell (in mea manu) 8s.
" Willm. Staynbank 9s.
" Nycolt Fycher 2s. 6d.
" Robert Fycher 3s.
" Willm. Lok 9s.
" relict of Bryan Warrener 2s.
" Herre Nycolsen 8d.
" Robert Walkar 9d.
" Willm. Mar (in mea manu) 4s.
" in my occupacion 15 acars of land herabyl and wayst 30s.
" on chappell on howys yt I dwell in wt it appertenens.

16 day of March, 28 Henry VIII (1537).

Of which he prays allowance for support of the said house and chapel of one chaplain and 3 lepers if they are in the district (patria) and of alms. £5. [Return apparently made by Dom. William Harryngton, master of the hospital]; Duchy of Lanc., Rentals, bundle 5, n. 8.

Edmund Parker to lord Darcy [much mutilated]. My lord, in Kendal schurge (church) of new y[ear's] even the bailey of Kendal, one Wilson, would have read the Kyng's [pardon] in the schurghe, which the comente (commons) was sore aggrieved with him [and took him to] the schurghe door and said that he should die without they ha[d the beads bid?] after the old fashion; and had not one parson Labron been, the bailey [had] been slain; and feared him so sore that he was fain to leave [the said] pardon in the revestry behind him or else he had be[en] . . . .; ib., xii, 10.

Rochester, January 11. George Lord Cobham and Sir Christopher Hales to Cromwell. Report that a Kendal man, whose name is George Harryson, aged 42, servant to Robert Bynlesse of Kendal, had reported to others that the earl of Cumberland had taken a castle against the King and had refused to come to his Highness when summoned &c. Harryson denied having so spoken; ib., xi, pt. ii, 30.

York, February 7. Norfolk to Henry VIII. Describes present state of the North. Your rents and others' cannot yet be levied, but I trust soon shall be. Mr. Par, amongst others, can get none in many places, and I dare not yet send him to Kendal, Dent or Sedbare; ib., 159.

Asheton, February 9. Sir James Layburn to Cromwell. I have endeavoured this besse [busy] time all I can to stay the commons within the barony of Kendal and thereabouts. Sundry persons of no substance and the parish priest of Kendal Church, Sir Walter Browne, on Sunday, 4 February, did bid the beads in the church and prayed for the bishop of Rome as Pope, against the will of the 24 appointed for the weal of the church. About a month before, the said misruled persons, about 300 in number, did cry all at once and bade cast the other parish priest, Sir Robert Appylgarthe, and the 24 into the water, for refusing to name the bishop of Rome to be Pope. Thomas Hawcrofte has been here and will show the King and you of my demeanour. I would have been with the King and your lordship afore this, but have been "vyssyde" with sickness this quarter of a year or more; but for the King's comfortable letters and yours, I know well my time would have been short; ib., 180.

March 11. The earls of Sussex and Derby to the duke of Norfolk. Report the execution of the abbot of Whalley, &c. certain canons of Cartmell and 10 lay persons dwelling thereabouts, who were the principal offenders since the pardon. Also one Barret . . . . shall be hanged in chains at Manchester and one Stanes, of Bethom, in Westmoreland. The offenders at Cartmell are Sir James Escrigge, Sir John Riddley and the late subprior there, who have fled. We think they are about Kendale in Westmoreland. Stanes' confession shows who gave money for him and Miles Hutton (fn. 6) to go to Richmond. We have laid the best watch we can for Atkinson, the principal captain of those parts. His accomplices were Walter Rawlinson, late of Mylnethorpe, bailiff to the lord Latimer; William Collynson, bailiff of Kendal; Christopher Sadler; John Heblewhaite of Sedbarr; Richard Cowper; Brian William, bailiff of Dente; — Robinson "a horse-marshall and werith the abbot of Fornes lyvery dwelling in Sedbarr and the vicar of Clapham, who was called steward of the commons." Have taken the submission of the offenders &c. Men could not be more sorrowful for their offences or more glad of this our coming. As long as the world standeth this will be a dreadful example. Enclose the saying of Sir James Layborne, although he comes himself. Reference to the Tempests (of Broughton); ib., 283.

March 17. Depositions sworn and examined by Andrew Barton and Alexander Standishe (examining justices), 17 March, 28 Henry VIII, namely of Nicholas Leyghton of Bethome; Perys Harcher, John Barton and Roger Dycunsson of Betham; Thomas Hutton of Halle in Betham parish, William Hawdewyn of Wassit nyh Betham, John Huddiston of Haile near Betham, Anthony Leyghton of Leyghton Becke, par. Betham, Miles Hutton and Thomas Moyses of Wasset and Leonard Haddon of Hayle. That on Sunday after Candlemas a letter came from William Colyn, bailiff of Kendal, to John Stanes, who delivered it in Betham church to William Lancaster to read and advise upon. He said the effect was that two of every parish should be at Richmond at the Grey Friars, on the morrow (to meet the duke of Norfolk about tithes). . . . . They gathered money (fn. 7) and sent Miles Hutton of Wasset and John Stanes. Another letter also came to Stanes on Shrove Tuesday [from Colyns: This 12 February "at morn was un belapped on every side with our enemies the captain of Carlisle and gentlemen of our country of Westmoreland and hath destroyed and slain many our brethren and neighbours." Wherefore we desire your aid, according to your oaths, and this Tuesday we command you every one to be at Kendal before 8 o'clock or we are likely to be destroyed]. (fn. 8) Edmund Lawrence called the parishioners of Warton together on Sunday after Candlemas to consult upon the letter saying he would stick to the oath he was sworn to. Saying of Anthony Layton: Richard Redman showed him that divers of the parish of Heysam (? Heversham) came to his house on 14 January, to swear him to the custom of Kendall and he refused; also that on the 15th, John Stanes with some 200 persons took Redman, while hunting in Sisar park, and caused him to swear. Saying of Sir James Layborn: A letter came from Westmoreland which was delivered to William Colyn, bailiff of Kendal, who showed it on Saturday after [Candlemas] day last in the Tolbothe in Kendal, and sent for persons of sundry lordships to hear and take copies of it. Whereupon money was collected to send deputies to Richmond and John Savell, Leonard Hugyn and John Nelson of Patone were sent and the parishioners of Heversam in Kendal withheld their tithes from the farmers who had leased them from the abbot of St. Mary's. Was informed that after the pardon granted at Doncaster, some 300 persons in the parish church of Kendal threatened to cast the curate, Sir Robert Apelgarthe, in the water unless he would proclaim the Pope to be head of the Church. This was against the wills of the ancient men of Kendal who, though called 24, are near 60 in number. These were all threatened by the lewd persons, of whom the busiest were Thomas Dokrey, Robert Taylor, Piers Warren, William Harrison and John Barker. Nevertheless the curate refused to do it; ib., 295–6.

Newburgh, April 4. Norfolk to Cromwell. Learnt this morning that Richard Ducate (fn. 9) and Mr. Parr's kinsman and deputy in Kendall (fn. 10) a man of £100 land, have taken John Atkynson. I have sent for him to meet me at Newcastle to examine him. This Atkynson was chief captain of Kendall and was betrayed by his own sister's son. In these parts men are desirous to deserve thanks and detect ill people; ib., 364.

Whalley, April 8. Robert earl of Sussex to Cromwell. Received this morning Cromwell's letter mentioning the apprehension of Colyns, and desiring us to report what we know against him. Sends depositions accordingly. Wrote to Norfolk on 18 March for the taking both of Colyns and Atkinson and others who had fled these parts; as we informed the King in our letters from Preston of the 21st., in which we enclosed copies of the letter to Norfolk, and that which came from Colyns to Bethom, as appears by Stanes confession, which was read by Lancaster. Transmits also a like letter sent by Colyns to the town of Melling, in case the said letter that came to Bethom be out of the way; a letter of the same Colyns, by likelihood of his own [hand] without date, that was found in Conishede, dated before Christmas; and a letter directed to the same Colyns and other from them of Conishede, "which be the speciallist things that we can find here to make against him" &c.; ib., 394.

Aske's reply to the interrogatory at his examination: if he grudged at any of the King's Acts and why, is of interest: The said Aske says: That he grudged against the statute of suppressions, and so did all the country, because the abbeys in the North gave great alms to the poor men and laudably served God; in which parts of late days they had small comfort by ghostly teaching. And by the said suppression the service of God is much minished, great number of masses unsaid and consecration of the sacrament not now used in these parts, to the decrease of the Faith and spiritual comfort to man's soul, the temple of God ruffed and pulled down, the ornaments and relics of the church irreverently used, tombs of honourable and noble men pulled down and sold, no hospitality now kept in these parts but the farmers for the most part "lets and taverns out the farms of the same houses to other farmers for lucre" and the profitts of the abbeys yearly go out of the country to the King; so that soon there will be little money left by reason of tenths and first fruits, the King's absence and the want of his laws and the absence of traffic. Also several of these abbeys were in the mountains and desert places, where the people be rude of conditions and not well taught the law of God, and when the abbeys stood the people not only had worldly refreshing in their bodies, but spiritual refuge, both by ghostly living of them and by spiritual information and preaching, and many of their tenants were then fre'd servants, who now want refreshing both by meat, clothes and wages, and know not where to have any living "but also strangers and baggers of corn as betwixt Yorkshire, Lancashire, Kendal, Westmoreland and the Bishopric was in their carriage of corn and merchandise greatly succoured both horse and man by the said abbeys; for none was in those parts denied neither horse-meat nor man's meat, so that the people was greatly refreshed by the said abbeys where now they have no such succour." Thus the suppression was greatly to the decay of the commonwealth and all those parts greatly grudged against it and still do, their duty of allegiance always saved. "Also the abbeys was one of the beauties of this realm to all men and strangers passing through the same; also all gentlemen much succoured in their needs with money, their younger sons there succoured and in nunneries their daughters brought up in virtue, and also their evidences and money left to the use of infants in abbeys' hands, always sure there, and such abbeys as were near the danger of sea banks, great maintainers of sea walls and dykes, maintainers and builders of bridges and highways and such other things for the common wealth"; ib., 405.

Tower of London, April 12. Examination of William Colyns, bailiff of Kendal. He says that George Willen and William Garnet of Dent, some 10 days before any insurrection in Kendal, came to Kendal town and showed Sir James Laborne that the commons of Westmoreland, Cumberland and Richmondshire who were up had warned Dent and Sedbery to come in to them or they would come and spoil the countries of Dent, Sedbery and Kendal. They desired advice of Mr. Layborne, as steward there under Mr. Parre, to withstand the said rebels. He told them to be still and meddle not, as they afterwards said to examinat, who also advised them not to meddle and said, "If we may enjoy our old ancient customs here we have no cause to rise." The said two persons before leaving Kendal that night, Saturday (21 Oct.) talked of the insurrection with divers light persons of the town, who next morning at daybreak assembled divers of the North Street of Kendal and roused men from their beds and sware them, in a croft by, to be true to God, the King, and their ancient laudable customs. The ringleaders were Tom Dockwray and Brian Jopson, as examinat afterwards heard. The persons so conjurate decided to fetch in the honest men of the town, and fetched examinat from his dinner to a place called Tarney Banks, where the whole town was assembled without harness, and there examinat and the rest of the town were sworn. They all went thence to Mr. Layborne's and desired him to help them against their enemies, to be good to them concerning their laudable customs and to take their oath. He refused to swear them, but left his seal with his friends there, who promised for him that he would do as other gentlemen did; and the same night Nicholas Layborne, in his brother's name and Mr. Strikelande sealed to a book that was read concerning their customs. On Friday following (27 Oct.) six of the town went to Mr. Layborne's house, namely Adam Warenner, George Rowlandson, John Harryson, Robert Sledale, Christopher Sadler and this examinat, to have desired his help and favour, but he was not at home. Both before the insurrection and after, examinat and others petitioned Mr. Layborne to be good to them for their ancient customs, saying there was no reason that where his father took 4 marks for an "ingressum" he should take £40, "seeing they were bound there to the marches without wages upon the warden's proclamation, beacon or letter." They asked him to use his lands as the King and Mr. Parre did theirs, else Mr. Robert Belingiam and other freeholders would do the like. On Saturday (28 Oct.) after Dent and Sedbar were up, as Richard Walker showed at Kendal; whereupon they of Kendal, by the advice of Richard Tucket (Duckett) and Mr. Knevet, wrote to them of Dent not to meddle with the barony of Kendal "for they had nought to do with them." They replied that they of Kendal town should meet them the Monday after by 10 o'clock at Ennesmore (Endmoor), or else they would spoil them with 10,000 men. Then the townsmen sent to Mr. Layborne's brother Nicholas, who advised examinat to raise the town for defence, "but he afterwards himself sticked not by it," and to Richard Ducket and Mr. Strikelande for help; who came to the town's end, but did not join the townsmen. On the Monday (30 Oct.) the townsmen, to the number of 500, at Ennesmore met with Dent's 10,000 men, who asked whether they were sworn, and they said yes. They said their gentlemen would not come with them, whereupon they of Dent said, "If ye can not rule them we shall rule them." The vicar of Clappam, James Cowper, John Middleton, John Heybyllthwayt of Sedbar, William Garnet and George Willen of Dent, and James Buskell of Myddelton, being the ringleaders, took counsel with the Captain Atkynson, and then the vicar, in the name of Captain Poverty, made proclamation for all to meet next day at Kendal by 8 a.m. to know the lord Poverty's pleasure. "The vicar was the common swearer and counsellor in all that business, and persuaded the people that they should go to heaven if they died in that quarrel."

On the morrow, Tuesday, they came to Kendal town and from thence had gone half way towards Mr. Layborne's house [at Cunswick], when on his friend's promise that he would come in on the morrow by 5 o'clock, and by reason of the foul weather, they turned back. On Wednesday (1 Nov.) they went thither again and spoiled the house indeed, but on his friend's promise that he should come in they went not to extremity then. On Thursday they were appointed to spoil both his manors [Cunswick and Skelsmergh], but his brother Parson Layborne gave them of Dent and Sedbury £20 to respite him till Friday following; at which time he and all the other gentlemen came in to the rebels and were sworn at Tolbothe in Kendal. And so on Saturday (4 Nov.) they went to Lancaster, mustering by the way at Kelet More. Of gentlemen, the most notable there were Sir James Layborne, Parson Layborne, William Lancaster, Richard Ducket and Walter Strikelande; Sir Robert Belingiam came as far as Kelet More and then returned home as his leg was sore, as he said. Atkynson was captain, chosen by Dent and Sedbar.

At Lancaster they sware the mayor and town and heard that Sir Stephen Hamurton and Nicholas Tempest beside Sawley had sworn the country about them. Young Strikeland, saying that Sir Stephen had written to him to come to him, examinat and his friends advised him not to do so, but to return home. They therefore made proclamation for all to meet on Bouton more the Tuesday after and dispersed. Within three days came a letter from Robert Aske showing them of the first order taken at Doncaster and requiring them to "send of every parishen one gentleman and two yeomen, of the tallest and wisest men, well horsed and harnessed, to Pomtret, that of them might be taken out a certain [number] to meet with the duke of Norfolk at the next meeting at Doncaster." Kendal town sent examinat and one Brown and the barony Mr. Ducket, Edward Manser and Mr. Strikelande, Anthony Langhorne, John Eyrey and Harry Bateman; and the morrow after Lady Day before Christmas they received the King's pardon at Pomfret, which they have to show in Kendal town under the King's broad seal at examinat's house, brought 14 days after our Lady Day (fn. 11) by Clarencieux the herald, who made proclamation of it the said 14th day in Kendal. And because certain farmers of priories showed him how divers brethren took their corn from them, "and therefore like to have been murder between them about the same," the herald openly commanded, in the King's name, that no man should be disturbed in the possession of lands and tithes, but all to continue as at the last meeting at Doncaster till the duke of Norfolk came again to the country, which should be about 20 days after Christmas. As the herald was leaving, came two brethren of the late priory of Carpmell and desired the herald to write that order for them; but as he could not tarry he begged examinat, his host, to write them a word or two of the effect of the order. And thereupon examinat wrote them the order to this effect—"Neighbours of Carpmell, so it is that the King's herald hath made proclamation here that every man, pain of high treason, should suffer every thing, as farms, tithes and such other, to be in like stay and order concerning possessions as they were in time of the last meeting at Doncaster, except ye will of your charity help the brethren there somewhat toward their board, till my lord of Norfolk come again and take further order therein." This was written partly in presence of the said herald, Mr. Ducket, and others, and afterwards delivered by examinat to one of the said brethren. Four of the brethren of Carpmell and eight yeomen were executed (fn. 12) for withstanding the King's farmer, Mr. Holcrofte, and stirring a new commotion eight weeks after the premises, without the knowledge of examinat or any other of Kendal. When he was at York on Saturday before Our Lady Day before Christmas (2 Dec.) he asked Dr Dakyns if he would command him any service to the North. He said "Yes, he would write to the abbot of Furness for money." Examinat answered, "Seeing ye were at Pomefrete and know what order was taken there, I pray you write also to the priors of Conyshedd and Carpmell, seeing ye be their visitor, and give them your counsel what is best for them to do." So on the morrow examinat, at his host's house, received Dakyn's letters to the priors of Conyshed and Carpmell, (fn. 13) sealed, which he forwarded, on coming home to Kendal, by a market man. It was eight weeks after the delivery of these letters ere they of Carpmell and Conyshed made commotion and stayed the farmers from taking their corn. One Atkynson, a captain of the rebels in those parts, and Gilpyn his petty captain came, twice between the meetings at Doncaster (fn. 14) and once since the pardon was proclaimed, to stir Kendal, and the last time cried "Commons," but the townsmen drave them out and hurt some of them, the steward and lieutenant being absent in another shire. On Sunday after Christmas day last (31 Dec.) certain lewd persons of Kendal town, who were the most busy in the first insurrection, stirred up suddenly at beads bidding and would have had the priest bid the beads the old way and pray for the Pope. Then examinat fetched the King's pardon from his house and he and one Bricket (Pricket), the King's servant, charged them, as they would enjoy that pardon, to be still, and showed them the pardon. And they cried "Down, carle, thou art false to the commons"; and William Harryson said he cared for no pardons. At last Parson Layborne rose and persuaded them to let the beads be bid as the priest would until the duke of Norfolk's coming. The principals of that business were Thom Armestronge, Thom Dockraye, Oliver Ydell, Peter Warenner, James Taillor, younger, shoemaker, and William Harryson. Examinat the same night sent to one Ducket, a justice of peace, and to Mr. Layborne, the steward, to come and punish the said captains. Ducket came and did his best with words, but the steward was out of the country. On that day month following (4 Feb.), (fn. 15) Sir Walter Browne, second curate there, upon a tumult by divers lewd persons, said "Commons I will bid the beads as ye will have me"; and so did and prayed for the Pope and cardinals. One John Nycholson of Kendal parish, woolman, brought a little bill, without signature, directed to the parishioners of Kendal, that two of them should be at Richmond for a council to be had there the next Monday (fn. 16) (5 February), which bill he delivered to a maid of examinant and bade her deliver it to examinant. This she did, and thereupon examinant went to Nicholas Layborne, the steward's deputy, and asked what punishment he deserved who should spread abroad such letters. Layborne sent for Nycholson and asked where he had the letter. He said it was sent him from the captain of Westmoreland, Nicholas Musgrave, with commandment to deliver it to a constable or bailey of Kendal. "And Nicholas Layborne said he was worthy to sit by the heels theretor in the dungeon, and cast him the bill again and bade him deliver it again where he had it."

After this, examinant and 5 others of Kendal, having been with my lord of Norfolk and the council at York and being licensed to go home to put the country in stay, returned home and found all the country stirring by reason of letters (dated 12 Feb.) sent abroad by Atkynson, Leche, Musgrave and Staveley, captains of Westmoreland, to this effect, "that they should come and take their neighbours of Westmoreland's part." (fn. 17) Sir Michael Nutthed was one of those who carried the letters. Examinant and his neighbours who came from York stayed the country from going forward; ib., 414 ff.

April 17, 28 Henry VIII. Deposition of John Ayrey of Patton. Collyngs, bailey of Kendale, on 3 February last, moved him "on the court loft of Kendall town," to go to Richmond and learn what the commons would conclude upon; and showed two bills, one from D[ent], the other from Richmond or Westmoreland. Collins made out bills to Bethum and Wynondermere and other parts; and, when he could not get deponent to go, moved Roland Browne, Adam Wilson, and others. Collyngs was the principal doer in all the insurrection and harboured and lodged "the said Atkynson" and them of Dent and Sedber. Deposed on oath before Sir James Layborne, Nicholas Thornbrough, Christopher Johnson and others, the day and year above written. Signed: "By me Jhon Ayray of Patton"; ib., 435.

April 18. Saying of Nicholas Layburne to Sir James Layburn, 18 April &c. Came into the Court loft in Kendal town on Saturday after the Purification of Our Lady last and found William Collynge, bailey of the town, with letters from the commons of Westmoreland and Dent to move divers of the barony of Kendal to be at Richmond on Monday next. Deponent refused to look at the letters. Collynge said he was sworn to the commons and would be true to them and sent Robert Tailor into the market to summon divers persons to hear the said letters. Signed: "Nycoles Layburn."

Deposition of James Brathwat of Wynondermere to Sir James Layburn, 18 April &c. On Saturday after the Purification of Our Lady last, William Collynge, bailey of Kendall, sent Robert Taylor for him from the market and delivered him a letter to the "parishynge" of Wynondermer, being the King's tenants, desiring two or four of them to be at Richmond on the Monday after to consult with the captains and commons of Yorkshire, Richmondshire, Mashomeshire, the Bishopric of Durham, Westmoreland and Cumberland "for common wealth." The bailey and others of Wynondermer tore up the letter and cast it from them. "Records hereof": Milles Dicson, Christopher Johnson and others.

Sayings of Christopher Eskrigge and Robert Sleddal before Sir James Layburne, April 18th. They saw William Collynge, (fn. 18) bailey of Kendal, make a letter to the canons of Carpmell to re-enter their house. Sleddall says that Collynge made other two bills, to Conyshed and Furness, at the same time, namely between the meeting at Doncaster and the proclamation at Kendal. Collynge, through Sir James Eskrigge, canon of Cartmell, got the bill back since Midlent last. Signed: "Robert Sledall"; ib., 437–8.

Officers for the West Marches: Sir James Layburn, Sir Jeffrey Myddelton, Sir Robert Bellingham, Richard Dokett, gent., and Walter Strykland, receiving £10 each; ib., 107.

London, December 2. Thomas Legh, LL.D. to Cromwell. As at this time I cannot repair to your lordship myself, please extend your goodness to my kinsman and godfather, Sir James Laborne: that, whereas Sir John Lamplowe and others spoke with you this afternoon (who, I suppose have your favour), he too may have expedition in his business and speak to you himself and he be tried by my lord of Durham and others of the country of his demeanour (if so charged). Please be good to him, for otherwise he is as a man desperate. It is no small grief to him to lose his service and the charges he has been at in it through the malice of those who love him not; ib., 413.

1538 July 9. Deposition before James Layburn, Knight, of Alexander Stotson, late of Cartmell, minstrel, taken 9 July, 30 Henry VIII: That Isaac Dikson of Wyndandermere smote him on the head with the pommel of a dagger and dashed a cup of ale in his face for refusing to sing a song which he had sung at one Fayrbank's house in Crostwat, Westmoreland, in the time of the rebellion. The song is called "Crummok." In another paragraph a song called "Crumwell" is mentioned, but it is apparently the same. Dikson also hurt William Willan, the host, in the thigh; ib., xiii, pt. i, 501.

Conyswik, July 13. Sir James Layburn to Cromwell. I enclose certain articles, to know your pleasure therein. I have Isaac Dikson in the Toolbuthe at Kendal, and have charged the bailey's deputies of the same with his custody, before Richard Ducket, justice of the peace. Some of the witnesses in the above did "stagger" and deny their words and so delayed me. There is much important business in this country, as I have showed my lord President and other of the Council of the North. As for your licence to me to come to London for my health, I will do so when the country is at a better stay and attend your lordship. Concerning the minstrel "which is a ryver abroad from place to place," I keep him in my house till I know your pleasure. Have sent a copy of the enclosed articles to the King's Council established in the North parts. Endorsed: "Sir James Labrone's letter to know your pleasure touching Isaac Dykson, being in prison for desiring a minstrel to sing a song against your Lordship"; ib., 508.

1539 "The naymes of all the gentelmen within the schyer of Westmerland": Sir Geffra Mydelton, knt. (p.), (fn. 19) James Laborn, knt. (p.), Whatter Strekeland, squyer (p.), Edwhard Mydylton, gent., James Wharde, gent., John Pryston, squyer (p.), Nicholas Thornborow, esq., Anthony Flemyng, esq., Robert Phylipson, gent., William Carus, gent., Watter Chamer, gent., Henry Shaw, gent., Robert Hylton, gent., William Helton, gent., Robert Pullen, gent.. John Wharcope, esq. (p.), James Pekeryng, esq., Lancelot Wharcope, gent. (sick), Roland Blande, gent., Richard Sawlkeld of Schap, gent., Richard Rige, gent., Thomas Jacson, bailiff for Lady Curwen, Richard Saulkeld of Stanegarthe, gent., Thomas Dudley, esq. (sick), Thomas Wyber, gent., Thomas Saulkeld, gent., Robert Clyborne, esq. (sick), Gilbert Wharton, esq. (p.), Thomas Warcope, esq., Ambrose Machell, gent., Thomas Banbrig, gent., Thomas Byrkbycke (absent), Thomas Clifford, "bastert" (p.), Edward Manser, esq., George Manser, gent., William Sandes for Master Pykkeryng's lands, Robert Belyngam, knt. (p.), Richard Dukket, esq. (p.), John Dawney, gent., William Gylpyng, esq., Antony Duket, gent., Henry Feld, gent., Richard Redmayn, esq., John Spenser, gent., Thomas Blenkensop, esq. (absent), John Hilton, esq., Henry Barton, gent., Robert Warcope, gent. (absent), John Twayttes of Gils, gent., Lancelot Wherton, gent., Edmund Bradlay, gent., Richard Saulkeld of Graynge, Nicholas Lancaster, gent., Thomas Sawlkeld, esq., Lancelot Lancaster, esq. (p.), Thomas Sandforthe, esq. (p.), Christopher Brugham, gent., Thomas Cliburne, esq., Christopher Cracanthrop, esq. (p.), Hew Machell, esq. (p.), Thomas Ros, esq. (absent), John Smythe, gent., Lancelot Lowther; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, xiv, pt. i, 320.

1539 March 15. Cromwell's accounts. Mr. Leybourne's servants, for bringing up red deer, 20s.; ib., pt. ii, 334.

William Colyns to Cromwell. Doubts not Cromwell is privy to such articles as he sent to the King against the Church of Rome. Trusts the King will put him to trial or set him at liberty. The raging of his tongue against the Church was for lack of discretion &c. Begs Cromwell's intercession to be released from the Marshalsea. Signed: "William Colyns legislator"; ib., pt. i, 250.

1541 The King demised to Sir Thomas Seymour, knight, all the tithes of 40½ a. of the glebe land of Kirkfeild and the tithes of the sheaves of Barrofeild and the tithes of sheaves of Helsyngton Lathes, and all the residue of the tithes of sheaves of the rectory of Kirkbye in Kendall, late in the hands and occupation of the parishioners there, according to the custom of the country, to hold at will and not otherwise, rendering £81 5s. 5½d. yearly. Dated 10 December, 32 Henry VIII; d. at Levens.

1542 There was a muster of able men for war against the Scots this year; L. and P., xvii, passim. In connexion therewith there were present at Carlisle on 24 November among others: Sir James Layburne, Walter Strikland, Anthony Duket, John Prestone; ib., 616. At Burnswarke Hill on 25 November, these and other Cumberland and Westmoreland leaders "served the King better than he (Sir Thomas Wharton) can write"; ib., 619.

1543 March 3. Grant to William Thomson of Kyrkeby in Kendall of the mansion called Abbot Hall and the Abbot Garth adjoining the church of Kyrkeby in Kendall with certain lands and tithes there and in Kendal town, parcel of the possessions of the late dissolved monastery of St. Mary's, York; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, xviii, pt. i, 557.

July 6. Lord Suffolk and Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, to Sir William Parr. Their letter touching the complaint of Sir James Layburne and others about the division of booty taken at the engagement of Solome Mosse; ib., pt. i, 463.

1544 Release by John Jopson, son of Thomas Jopson, of Kyrkbye in Kendall, sherman, for the sum of £4 13s. 4d., to the use of himself and the other children of the said Thomas Jopson, to Robert Brawhaite, son of Roger Brawhite of Kyrkbye aforesaid, mercer, of a burgage in Kyrkbye aforesaid, late in the "fermynge" and occupation of one Marion Jopson, deceased. Dated on the feast of the Holy Trinity, 36 Henry VIII (1544). Signatures: "per me Thomas Collynges, per me Sir Allen Schepard"; d. at Levens.

1546 Survey of the Chantries. Lands pertaining to the chantry of Saint Christopher in the parish church of Kyrkby Kendall. Sir John Garnet, incumbent.

A burgage in the Market Place of Kyrkby Kendall in the tenure of Thomas Bullok, George Braykene and Elizabeth Moserghe, widow, paying at Martinmas and Whitsunday 26s. 8d.
A burgage in Stricklandgate in occ. of Robert Braithwhaite 6s. 8d.
A burgage in Heighegate in ten. of Anne Colyne, widow 10s.
A burgage in Highgate exchanged with a tenement in Whinfell, now in the ten. of Henry Byrse 11s.
Certain arable land in Lancashire called The Stubbe in the par. of Halton, in the ten. of Mr. Curwene 13s. 4d.
Total 67s. 8d. Less in suits, fines and free rents to the King 17d.

The same, in Striklandgate to the Lord Chamberlain 20d.; the same, paid out of the burgages in Heighgate to Ld Essex, 3s. 4d.

Lands pertaining to a service of St. William, Kirkby Kendall church. Sir Edward Strykland, incumbent.

[Tenements in Lancaster, Bare and Middleton]. Total 94s. less 5s. 2d. reprises.

Service of Saint Anthony in the parish church of Kyrkby Kendall. Sir Robert Byrse, incumbent.

[Tenements in Stainton in Furness, Kirkby in Furness, Dalton in Furness and Ulverston, co. Lanc. 56s. 2d.]

A burgage in Kyrklonde in Kendall in the ten of William Noble 6s. 8d.
A tenement with land and meadow in Longscleddall 16s.
Total 78s. 10d. less 9s. 4d. reprises.

The guild of the Trinity in Kendall church. Sir Robert Wilson, incumbent.

A burgage with a garth in Kyrklonde in the ten of Richard Wilson 18s.
A chamber there [of] Copy hold land in the ten. of Parson Layborne 6s. 8d.
A burgage there in the ten. of the wife of Robert Gelderd 4s.
A burgage in the ten. of the wife of Thomas Couper 3s. 4d.
A burgage in the ten. of William Walker 3s. 4d.
A burgage in Straymongate in the ten. of Miles Chaumber with a garth 12s. 8d.
Total 48s., less free rent, suits and services to the King 6s.

Service of the foundation of Thomas Ros, Knight, in the church of Kendall. Sir Alene Shepherd, incumbent.

A burgage with a garth in Kendall town in the ten. of Robert Bek 10s.
A burgage there in the ten. of Steven Sadler 16s.
A burgage there in the ten. of Nicholas Carehus 22s.
A burgage there in the ten. of William Pepper 13s. 4d.
A burgage there in the ten. of John Andrew 26s. 8d.
A burgage there in the ten. of Robert Browne with 6 a. arable land 28s.
Three acres of land in Mynsertefeld besides Kendall in the ten. of Nicoles Tunstall 10s.
Two acres of land there in the ten. of John Willson 9s. 2d.
An acre of land there in the ten. of Robert Carehous 3s. 4d.
Two and a half acres of land there in the ten. of Myles Gennynge 8s. 4d.
A burgage with a garth in Kyrklonde in Kendall, copyhold land, in the ten. of Alyne Sheperde, incumbent, of the yearly value to let to rent 8s.
Total £7 14s. 10d. less to the King for fee farm for the copy hold 17d.; suits and fines to the Courts Baron, 18d.; free rent to the King and the Earl of Essex 16d.

Chantry of "Tholde Warke" called St. Mary in the parish church of Kendall. Adam Sheperde, incumbent.

His wages from the suppressed lands in Yorkshire 66s. 8d.

Service of the chapel of the Inges [in Hugill], in the parish of Kendall, Sir James Inman, incumbent.

Tenements in Conyngsborgh and Mexburgh, co.

York, by estimation 100 a. of land &c. £4 2s. 8d

[Transactions C. and W. A. and A. Soc., N.S. viii, 128 ff.]

1547 Letters patent of Henry VIII demising to Sir Thomas Parr, knt. for a term of 40 years at the yearly rent of £340 the lordships, manors, vills and hamlets of Hamelsett, Troutbek, Apulwhat, Under Milnebek, Frostwhate, Langden, Langbrig, Crostwhate, Strikland Ketyll, Helsyngton, the herbage of Le Dalehed, the fishery of Wynandermer and a messuage with a park called Calgarth, in co. Westmorland; the lordships, vills and hamlets of Thornton, Kneton and Medilton, co. York, Whityngton, Nether Wyresdale, Scotford and Whatford, co. Lancaster; the king's lordships, manors, lands and tenements in Casterton and Mereholme, co. Westmorland, Carneford and Assheton, co. Lancaster; also his part of the lordship, manors, vills and hamlets of Gresmere and Hoton, co. Westmorland, his part of the manor of Kendall, the water of Kent, the borough of Kirkeby in Kendall, the bailiwick of the said borough, the office of serjeant and bailiff of Lonesdale, the tolls of fairs and markets in Kendall and of "lez Wyndeles & lepes de la Wegle, lez bothes, shopes, shamellys, pistrina, lez bankes & Crossebankis" and all his part of "Lez Courtehowses & Letehowses" of the vill of Kyrkeby in Kendall with their issues, farms and profits; also the free farms, rents and services of all the free tenants in Kendall aforesaid. Dated 11 January, 38 Henry VIII (1547); contemp. copy at Levens.

John Dawney, gent., passed by fine to John Myddylton a messuage and tenements in Kyrkby in Kendale; Feet of Fines, Mich. term, 1 Edw. VI.

1548 By letters patent of 2 . . . . . ember, 2nd year (1548) Edward VI. granted to William Warde, gent., and Richard Venables, esq., among other property, certain messuages and 4 gardens in the town of Kirkby Kendal with the appurtenances, late in the tenure of Thomas Birkett, George Braken, Elizabeth Brathwaite, Henry Gerse, Robert Becke, Stephen Sadler, Nicholas Cayrus, John Andrewe, Robert Browne and Miles Chambre, which late belonged to the chantries there; Reg. of D. at Levens.

1548–9 Articles concernyng the hospitall of Seynt Leonardes, purchased of the Kinges his Maties father by one Alane Bellingham and Alane Wilson under the great seale of England:—

Fyrste: the late priorie of Conyshed had the advouson of the said hospitall graunted by one Willm. Lancastre and by these wordes in the dede: "Advocationem hospitalis Sancti Leonardi habendam et tenendam dictam advocationem unacum omnibus terris et tenementis eidem pertinentibus," or syche lyke in effecte, as appereth by diverse copies of the same dede, whereof one remaineth in the custodie of Mr. Attorney of the Duchye an an other hathe the late Mr. therof (and the fermer thereof) with other copies of the grauntes and gyftes of all the landes of the sayd hospitall graunted to the said hospitall (made) long affore yt the advowson of the said hospitall was graunted to the said priorie.

Item, the said priorie of Conyshed was suppressed in anno xxvij Henrici Octavi, by the statute then made, and after annexed to the Duchye by bill assigned and the King ever sence annswered of the profyttes thereof. The said hospitall not being then suppressed nor meddled wt all, but contynewed an hospitall still as yt hathe doen before tyme of mynde, the Mr therof recevyng the profyttes untill the sevyn and thyrtie yere of the saide late King Henrie the ight.

Item, the said Mr paied alwaies the tenthes as well afore the said priorie suppressed as ever sence to the said xxxvii yere in the "Courtes of theschek" and fyrst frutes and tenthes, as of a severall and distincte hospitall, nothing puteynyng to the said late priorie, as apperith by the same recordes in the said Court of Tenthes, by whiche recorde the said hospitall apperith evedentlie to be a severall benefice and never parcell of the possessions of the said late priorie and so no parcell of the possessions of the duchie.

Item, in the said xxxviiti yere of king Henrie ye VIIIth in the parlament tyme when the bill of Chauntries was moved one Robert Garnet having the interest of the Mr of the said hospitall and by his assent purchased a lees of the said hospitall under the Duchye seale for xxiti yeres.

Item, in the xxxviiiti yere of the same king one Alane Bellyngham and Alane Wilson, perceyving the Kinges Maties to be then lawfully seased of the said hospitall by the Acte of Channtries purchased of the king the said hospitall under the great seale of England aftr ye yerly rate of xvi.s. and theyr booke of pochas was so dated to ye greate seale by the Councell appointed by the kynge for the draught of ye sayd patentle.

Item, nowe the said Garnet by vertue of the said lease dothe not only put out all the tennantes of the said hospitall whiche helde by tennant right to the numbre of xx persons or above, but also doth witholde the same and all the profyttes therof from the said purchasors, so that the said purchasors can not have any parcell of that they have purchased of the king under his great seale and paied for more than ij yeres sence.

Item, now the said purchasors prayeth yt they maye have theyr patent alowed in ye cort of ye duchye and the same hospitall to be dismyssed and discharged out of ye sayd cort and also whereas the afforsayd Mr Gage (sic) did compell the sayd Alan Bellyngham by feare of imprisonment in the Flete to seale an obligation of an C. li. in the same cort that he the sayd Alan shulde suffer the sayd fermer quietly to enjoy his terme, so that ye sayd purchasors can not enjoy yeyr purchas y'for the sayd Alan Bellyngham prayeth yt the sayd obligation may be cancelled; Orig. at Levens.

1549 Letter of attorney of William Warde and Richard Venables, who had purchased of King Edward VI all the lands belonging to any "Chauntrie, Stipendarie or other lyke intent, use or purpose in Kyrkrby Kendall," appointing Christopher Cooke to surrender, take copies, make "fynes" &c. in any court there for the assurance and sure making of all the said lands and tenements to Alan Bellingham, esq., to whom they had sold the same. Dated 14 April, 3 Edward VI (1549); Orig. at Levens.

1550 John Dawney passed by fine to James Cowper a tenement in Kyrkby Kendall; Feet of Fines, Easter term, 4 Edw. VI.

Grant by John Dawneye, son and heir of the late Robert Dawneye of Strikland, gent., to John Warryner of Helsington, gent., for £7 13s. 4d. of a burgage or tenement in "Le Merketstede" in the town of Kyrkby Kendall, lying between the tenement of the said John Warryner on the East side and that late of Thomas Wilson on the West. William Benson and Charles Eskrigge were appointed attorneys to deliver seisin. Dated 31 July, 4 Edward VI (1550). Witnesses: Mr. Alan Bellingham, Brian Jopson, Uter Gylpyn, Christopher Cooke. Seisin delivered 5 August in the same year in the presence of Adam Escrygge, Richard Collingson, Peter Bindlos, Miles Dockwraye, Thomas Lord, James Seall ((?); D. at Levens.

1555 Release by Edward, lord Clinton and Saye to Allan Bellingham of Helsington of lands and tenements lying in Cloorthropp, a messuage . . . . . in the tenure of John Bowskell and a messuage or tenement called Le Ankres next (juxta) Kendall, which king Edward VI by his letters patent dated 4 May, 7 Edward VI (1553) granted to the said lord Clinton and Saye. Dated 6 November, 2–3 Philip and Mary (1555); D. at Levens.

1556 Grant by Bartholomew Wilson of Helsington, esquire, to Alan Bellingham of Helsington, esquire, for 40 marks, of a messuage, land and tenement in "Le Hyegayte" in Kyrkby Kendall, now or late in the occupation of Arthur Chamber; and a messuage, land and tenement in Kirkby Kendall, now or late in the occupation of Miles Chamber. Thomas Batyman and Peter Wilson, attorneys to deliver seisin. Dated 11 April, 2-3 Philip and Mary (1556). Signature: "per me Bartelmeu Wyllson." Seisin delivered in the presence of Edward Becke and John Teysdall; D. at Levens.

[1556] Rental of the tithe corn or tithe meal silver belonging to the parsonage of Kendall due at Easter, 1556. (fn. 20)


Walter Ducket 2 0
Thomas Jennynges 1 8
John Warton 9
Edward Dockerey 3
Thomas Jennynges 3
William Bethum 1 8
William Capper 6
Xtofer Collyng for Barrey Fyld 2 0
The heir of Robert Chamber 4 0
Nicholas Carus 10 0
Myles Garnett, Cokkes Close 8
Nycholas Redman 2 8
Lancelot Dockerey 2 0
Georg Johnson 2 8
Relict of Mathew Ducket 1 6
Crystofer Philipson for Bankes 1
Anthony Garnet for Spittle 5 0
John Brygges for Bankes 1
Georg Johnson 1
John Hunter
Thomas Carus, gent. 3 8
Sum 41s. 6½d.

The Hamlettes.

Mr Lancaster for Ladyford 6 0
Gylthwatryg 6 0
William Storer cum Docker de 3 4
Symonde Bell 2 0
Myles Newby 8
Richarde Theckstone 7
Anthony Ducket, sqwyer 1 6 8
The heyres of Sir William Thornbrugh 3 0 0
Lambrig 1 4 3
Sleddall 1 2 0
Helsyngton 2 15 0
Deliacre 14 0
Helsington Laithes and the Grait 11 0
Docker 15 11½
Backston Holme in Stikland Randall 15 4
Rothwayt in Underbarrey 1 4 0
Kentmyer 7 4
Walter Strikland, sqwyer, for Whinfell and Natland 3 13 8
Mr. Maichell for Burnelsyd and his parte of Strikland Roger 13 4
The hamlet of Strikland Kettle 1 4 11
The lady Bellingham for Whitwell 10 0
Mr. Laiburne for Skellymser 3 18 8
Sum £24 14s. 8½d. (fn. 21)

The laite lorde Marquies of Northampton.

Greynryge 17 0
Barnehylles 2 4 8
Hutton and Haye 2 12 0
Skelthwaitryg 13 0
Grygge Hawle 6 8
Strikland Roger 19 0
Fawcet Forrest 1 0
Strickland Kettle 1 9 9

Newe Improvementes.

George Johnson 1
Alex. Hewetson 6
Barnard Aray 1
Sum total of the premises including those hamlets in the footnote,£475s.0½d.

The Rentall of the Churche Feild.

Relict of Edward Dockerey 10 0
Relict of Adam Warrenere 6 0
Relict of Thomas Wilson of Stramagat 3 acres, now by Henry Wilson son of the said Thomas 6 0
James Wilson 3 0
Adam Leck 6 0
Christ. Mylne and his stepe mother 3 0
James Strikland 3 6
Michaell Rallandson 2 0
Adam Badwenson 5 6
Richerd Todgill 2 0
Richerd Coike 4 0
Roger Coike 4 0
Richerd Henrison 2 0
Henry Rallandson 2 0
William Wilkynson 2 0
William Wilson and his mother 12 0
Cristofer Collyn and Will. Dickeson 4 0
Richerd Edmondson 4 0
Sum total £4 1s. (fn. 22)

1556 Rental of the tieth calves within the parishe of Kendall, 1556.

Helsyngton 9 7
Staveleys 6 8
Kentmyer 2 10
Sleddall 9
Whitwell and Selsyd 12
Strikeland Roger 3 8
Strikeland Ketle 1 0
Skellymsser and Patton 10 5
Grarige 7 8
Docker and Skaltwhatrige 4 10
New Hutton and Hay 1 0
Old Huttone 2 10
Sum £312s.1d.; the half thereof 36s.0½d.

Rental of the tieth hay in the parishe of Kendall, 1556.

The holl sum of the tieth hay £2 13s. 5d. The half thereof 26s. 8½d. Sum total of the moitye of tieth calves and the tieth hay this yere as apperith in the vicare's boikes of his Easter Reckenynges £3 2s. 9d.

1558 The relict of Edward Dockra took 5 acres of land in Le Kirkfeld, [late] in the proper tenure of the said Edward, for her widowhood, rendering yearly 10s. And for entry, to the lord, £3 6s. 8d. Received from the same for her rent for a yere and a half which I delivered to Thomas Batman 15s.

1560 By letters patent dated 3 February, 2nd year, (1560) queen Elizabeth granted to Richard Baker, esq., and Richard Sackevile, knt., inter alia all those messuages, burgages, lands and tenements in the town of Kirkeby Kendall otherwise in Kirkland in Kendall, late in the occupation of Mary Bellingham, Henry Wilson, the heir of Robert Philipson, Walter Strickland, Anthony Duckett, Walter Chamber, Richard Edmondson, Gilbert Wilson, Miles Garnet, William Shepperd, Alan Bellingham, Mary Warriner, Anne Warriner, Robert Becke, James Williamson, the Lord Parr, the relict of Edward Dockerey, Adam Badwenson, Richard Readman, the heirs of Thomas Preston, Brian Edmondson, John Wilson, William Dixon, John Martindale, Arthur Bethome and Stephen Wilson, which were formerly parcel of the possessions of the late monastery of St. Mary by the walls of the city of York, now dissolved, to hold the same of the manor of Est Greenwich in co. Kent, by fealty only in free socage.

These letters patent were exemplified on 7 June, 19 Elizabeth (1577) at the request of Allan Bellingham, esq., who had then recently purchased the same; Reg. of D. at Levens.


  • 1. Sir James Layburn and James Layburn, of Cunswick, deputy steward of Kendal, are two persons.
  • 2. God's penny, or money paid to seal a bargain—Grassom, or fine paid by all the tenants of a manor on the death of the lord or on the death or alienation of the tenant. Hight, to promise.
  • 3. It will be observed that the letter is rhythmical. It indicates that the local movement was less in support of monasticism than with the object of enforcing "tenantright" with nominal fine on re-entry of farmholds and putting an end to increased and oppressive fines on admittance. The closing line of the letter suggests that it was written by John Atkinson, captain of the commons of Kendal.
  • 4. To completely break up.
  • 5. In the great Lancashire honor of Clitheroe the customary rent was only 4 pence per customary acre and duplication of the rent at change of lord or tenant. Until the time of James I enclosures and intakes were rented there as a rule at but four pence the acre of 7 yards to the perch.
  • 6. Of Whasset.
  • 7. 6s. 8d. or 7s.; ib., 381.
  • 8. Ib., 202.
  • 9. Richard Duckett of Grayrigg.
  • 10. James Layburn of Cunswick.
  • 11. This date is wrong. The Conception of B.V. Mary is 8 Dec. The proclamation was made at Kendal 18 or 19 Dec following, most probably on 18th.
  • 12. About 10 March, 1537.
  • 13. Dated York, second Sunday of Advent (10 Dec.); L. and P., Hen. VIII, xi, 520.See also Dakyn's letter; ib., xii, 343.
  • 14. First meeting 27 Oct.; second meeting 6 Dec.; safe conduct for the same, dated 21 and 30 Nov.
  • 15. Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, xii, 180.
  • 16. Monday after Candlemas Day; ib., 456.
  • 17. A summons to Kendal at 8 a.m. on Tuesday, 13 Feb.; L. and P., Hen. VIII, xii,202.
  • 18. Collins appears to have been pardoned; Letters and Papers, Hen. VIII, xii, 84.
  • 19. p. probably stands for "papist."
  • 20. Roll at Levens.
  • 21. The detailed returns for Croik, 47s. 10½d.; Wynstere, 6s.; Nether Staveley, 35s. 2½d.; Over Staveley, 34s.; Hugyll, 43s. 2½d.; Intorne and Fairebank, 14s. 10½d.; Ulthwaite, 4s.; Old Hutton, 39s. 10½d., will be found under the townships to which they relate.
  • 22. Apparently 40½ acres. Compare the rental of Kirkfeildes in 1609 below.