Henry VIII: August 1521, 23-31

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

'Henry VIII: August 1521, 23-31', in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523, (London, 1867) pp. 616-631. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol3/pp616-631 [accessed 13 April 2024]


August 1521

23 Aug.
Er. Ep. XIV. 7.
When he had heard that Card. Wolsey was to meet the Emperor at Bruges, Erasmus resolved to be there in the hope of seeing his friends. Was disappointed in not meeting Fisher. Has caught a sight of the King's book against Luther, but not received a copy, notwithstanding Wolsey's promises. Hopes other princes will follow Henry's example. From what he hears from Mountjoy and others, is convinced that the work is the King's own. Luther has sent strife into the world, which is everywhere in confusion. Great as were the evils of the Church, the remedy is worse than the disease. Hates all this strife, which is detrimental to the cause of letters. As soon as he has leisure proposes to read all the books pro and con the Lutheran controversy. "We are here making great preparations against the French. The Pope has joined us, being irritated with his former friends." The Turk is swarming in Hungary. Will learn the rest of the news from Thos. Halsey, bishop of Elphin. Bruges, 10 Kal. Sep. 1521.
23 Aug.
Er. Ep. XIV. 8.
1500. ERASMUS to PACE.
Is in great pain at hearing nothing about his Commentaries. Has only seen the King's book against Luther in the hands of the nuncio Marini, and is very anxious to read it. Compliments the King on his performance. Was very sorry Pace was not at the meeting with Wolsey and the Emperor. Reminds Pace of his promises, and will be abundantly statisfied if he will restore the trifles Erasmus left with him at Ferrara. Bruges, 10 kal. Sep. 1521.
24 Aug. Calig. D. VIII. 87. B. M. 1501. FITZWILLIAM to WOLSEY.
The King arrived here last night, and met the Queen and his mother. Went to him today. He entertained me very familiarly, and showed me the strength of Langres and other fortresses on the frontier. He says Francisco's band had joined Nassau's, being in all 11,000 High Almains, 9,000 Base Almains, and 4,000 horse; that he will have in a fortnight 12,000 Swiss, 15,000 or 16,000 French foot, and 2,000 spears; and all his towns, if besieged, are strong enough to hold till he raises the siege. He told me to say that he does not care whether the Emperor makes a truce or a peace, as he is provided; and he wishes you to consider that he has done at the King's request what he would not do for all princes living; that is, sent his Chancellor to Calais. He says that Lautrec has 13,000 Swiss, and with Saynvaller's band and the Venetians has 30,000 foot, and nearly 2,000 men-at-arms; that Lescue has sent a challenge to Prousper de Colombe, declaring the treason he would have done to the duchy of Milan, "bidding him that, an he be a man, to try it now with his hands;" but Francis does not think Colonna has honor enough to do so. If Colonna will not fight, he will not meddle with the Pope, as he is a priest, but will "be meet with" the marquis of Mantua and the Florentines; that the cardinal of Syo (Sion) has left the Swiss, and the chiefs of all the cantons answered him that they had taken part with the [French]; that the Admiral is passed ... and 6,000 lanceknights with him; that there are now 20,000 foot, with 4,000 that the King of [Navarre] finds, and 1,200 spears.
I beg that I may hear from you. This is the seventh letter I have sent without having an answer, or hearing of my servants.
My Lady told me it was said in Flanders that your going to the Emperor was to arrange a marriage between him and the Princess, but she did not believe it. I said, "[Those of] Flanders have soo sayed many a day." Make my excuses to the King for not writing, as I am forced to write by the French post, for my servants are all sick. I beg you to send back some of my servants. It is said the King will tarry in Champagne, and the Queen and my lady go to Paris. Today we have come forward two ...
"Also as touching the _ (fn. 1) they passed within three leagues of Otton, Wednesday last past, where my Lady lay. And because I would have seen what number had been, and what order they kept, I sent to my Lady and caused one to show her I heard much speaking of them, and I never saw none of them; wherefore I would be glad to see them, and it were her pleasure, seeing they came so nigh; and she sent me word again, they passed now but by bands, but when the King came I should see them all together; whereby I thought she was not willing I should see them. And some have showed me they be not six thousand, and some have showed me they be not four thousand, but how many soever they be I cannot ascertain your grace, but by as much as I can learn and perceive the King is nothing so strong as he maketh him of." Castle of Twyese, 24 Aug. Signed.
Pp. 3, mutilated. Partly cipher. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace.
Ib. f. 200. 2. Decipher of the above.
Mutilated, p. 1.
24 Aug.
Galba, B. VII. 101. B. M. St. P. I. 42.
Has ordered John Hopton to leave the King's bark in custody of Thomas Vaughan, and repair to the King. Does not think it will be needful to put ships in readiness as the King advises, as the chancellor of France, now being at Calais, has caused proclamation to be made against any one committing spoil upon the ships of any nation "within the precinct of your streams." Thinks it will be enough if two ships be rigged, besides the bark, to guard the passage between Dover and Calais, and for sure conducting home of Wolsey and such nobles as are with him. Will advise with the King of necessary preparations to be taken now that the affair with the Emperor has been brought to a conclusion. "And, Sir, where as your secretary, amongst other things, writeth, by your commandment, that, notwithstanding the pickande words contained in the Emperor's letters, ye doubt not but I will look to your honor and surety, forbearing therefore further to instruct me in that behalf; Sir, if such difficulties, arguments and persuasions as have been used by the Emperor's council from day to day were to your grace known, and the reasons by me set forth to the confutation of the same, some time with sharp words, and some time in pleasant manner, with the labors, business and study that I have taken therein, whereby, for lack of sleep, I have been inquieted with sundry diseases, your grace should evidently perceive that I have omitted, according to my most bounden duty, as far as my poor wit will extend, nothing that might redound to the adv[ancement of] your honor and surety."
Sends the copy of such letters as he has written in cipher to the King's ambassador (Clerk) at Rome, for delivering the King's book against Luther to the Pope, and to join in the war with England and the Emperor against France. Bruges, 24 Aug. Signed.
Draft, corrected by Tuke.
B. VII. 99. B. M. St. P. I. 40.
1503. PACE to WOLSEY.
The King received yesterday his letters dated Bruges the 19th. He was glad to find that by Wolsey's "singular diligence and high wisdom" his affairs are so concluded with the Emperor that they could not be better, and gives him hearty thanks for the same. He wishes Wolsey to remember the Emperor's promise to make no treaty with France, which expires at Wolsey's departure, and thinks it expedient to have it renewed in the same terms as before; "that is to say, to have the said Emperor bound, and he to be at his liberty as he now is." He is very sorry to hear of Wolsey's disease, and desires him to take care of his health. A post has just arrived with two letters, one dated Odynborowe, and the other Bruges, both of the 14th; the first touching the 6,00 archers, and the other, Wolsey's honourable reception by the Emperor. Was afraid, from the slowness of the posts, that there had been some interception. Guildford, this XX ...
Hol. Add.
24 Aug.
R. O.
This Saturday 24 Aug., about 11 a.m., a post came from the French king with letters ordering Mons. Palays to return to him. Accordingly made myself ready to escort him out of the town, but he sent word he should not leave till your grace's return. However, about 4 o'clock a gentleman came to him commanding him to prepare for his journey, and he intends to leave early tomorrow. He said he would wait for your coming, if I were certain you would come tomorrow night, but I could not assure him of this. The Chancellor, the Premier President of Paris, Chadwyn (Gedoyn) the secretary, and Mons. le Baty remain here. The French king is at Troyz in Champagne, and daily assembles his army. He has 12,000 Swiss, and expects 4,000 more who are on their way. The Admiral of France is in Bayonne with 2,000 men at arms, and 12,000 lanceknights. He will invade Navarre, and expects the country of Beren to aid him. Calais, 24 Aug. at 8 o'clock in the night. Signed.
P.1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's good grace, legate de latere, and chancellor of England.
24 Aug.
Er. Ep. XIV. 3.
Is sorry to hear of his declining health. Urges him to publish his writings, and not deprive the world of the fruits of many years' labor.
Bruges, natali divi Barthol. 1521.
24 Aug.
Galba, B. VI. 71*. B. M.
Perceives by a letter sent to him from Monstreuil that he has commenced war notwithstanding his orders to wait till Terouenne was victualled. The King is much concerned, and writes to him about it daily. The towns on the frontier are ill provided with men. Does not see how Terouenne can be victualled now without risking a large number of men. Has written to Monstreul to arrest those who have taken booty without orders from him, the King's lieutenant in that country. As to the threats La Fayette has used towards that town, it has done its duty. "A Laffaire," 24 Aug.
Copy, Fr., p. 1.
Mon. Habs.
1507. CHARLES V.
Minute of deliberations in the Emperor's council.
1. What the Emperor shall do during the winter. 2. What will be his danger if France attack him before England declares for him. 3. If affairs prosper, Henry may perhaps assist, but if not, there is danger of dissimulation or of a rupture, by which the Emperor would be left alone in perpetual war. 4. Whether he should now at least declare himself a friend of the Emperor and an enemy to France. 5. If the Emperor goes to Spain by way of England, and finds Spain troubled, how he can make them join in the war, and how maintain the war in Flanders and elsewhere. 6. To make the treaties so that he who breaks one, breaks all. 7. To try to make a treaty between the three as to the time when England shall declare himself, which must be by next year, or even in September. (fn. 2) 8. To tell him of the invasions, and that he is bound even now to assist, and acknowledge France as the aggressor. 9. The Cardinal wishes delay, that he may receive the pensions for October. 10. To remember the aid of the empire for next August. 12. To keep the marriage secret, lest Portugal and Spain become troublesome. 13. That the indemnity shall begin when the King of England declares himself, and that he is not ready now. 14. Whether it would be better to have a truce this winter until both can begin the war. 15. If by reason of the marriage Francis do not pay Henry's pensions, the Emperor may have to pay them even for a year before Henry declares himself, and the latter may find some pretext not to declare himself unless he is paid. 16. The time of the declaration and other points must be left unsettled, unless the treaty is remade.
La Roche advised to treat as soon as possible with the English, but to keep the treaties secret till they declare, which must not be till the Emperor is ready, when a treaty should be made, stating the infractions by the French, and the demands of the Pope and Emperor. During the war, the expense and arms must be equal. The English can make use of the Emperor's men here, while the Emperor makes war in Spain.
Bp. of Elna.—The English should be gained directly. The declaration may be delayed till May, for the French make great promises to the Cardinal, and suspect the English of influencing the Pope. The marriage must be kept secret till the declaration. The voyage to Spain, and the ships to be given by England, must be treated for. The indemnity must be arranged so as not to commence till the declaration.
Valance.—As to the marriage, the Emperor should persist in demanding Henry's declaration, and then consent to its being postponed to please the Cardinal. If Henry declare himself now, it will comfort their friends:—many things may happen before May;—notwithstanding the potentates would not let France be destroyed, and the Cardinal gives good reasons for postponing it. The Emperor would do well to declare that he is going to Spain, what he will do there, and what will be done here.
Grand.—To insist on the declaration of the marriage and the war, for one implies the other; to reform the articles, and make a treaty agreeing that the declaration should be made afterwards, and the time determined by the Emperor's voyage to Spain and the state of his preparations.
Berghes.—They must get all they can from the Cardinal. The declaration should be kept secret, and a truce made meanwhile.
La Chaulx.—The Cardinal must be dealt frankly with, for if he gain one point, he will expect to do so always. The declaration and marriage should be kept secret. The war cannot be begun by May. Thinks it should be put off till the following spring.
The Audiencer.—Is of the same opinion. The declaration should be insisted on forthwith, and to obtain reformation of the articles.
The Marshal.—Is of the same opinion.
Hoochstrate.—The declarations must be insisted on, and their delay afterwards consented to. The marriage must be kept secret. During these two months, they must do all they can both in Italy and here, and then make a truce by means of the Cardinal, leaving garrisons in Haynault and Arthois, while Charles goes to Spain. The voyage should be hastened as much as possible, and the declaration concluded for May. No treaty should be made without the Pope. The Cardinal must be spoken to about the voyage and the ships. The articles should be examined this afternoon to see if they can be improved, and the Cardinal spoken to afterwards. A memorandum of what is to be done should be left with Madame for the Cardinal.
The Chancellor.—Agrees with Hoochstrate that the army should not lose time. Advises the Emperor to show his desire for this amity, and make it worth the Cardinal's while to do something by which it may be seen that England is their friend; to press for a joint declaration immediately, in order to discuss the time of the declaration, for Wolsey is afraid we are treating with France; to promise to abide the time of the declaration, and that the marriage shall be concluded when that takes place. On this they would come to make a new treaty, offensive and defensive, including all former articles, and comprehending the Pope and Swiss. The declaration must depend on the voyage to Spain, and, if arranged for May, can always be deferred; while Charles, who means to land at Falmouth, could victual his fleet there, and have no difficulty in crossing to Spain in winter.
The Emperor.—To insist on the declarations, to bring on the subject of reforming the articles, but still to delay the declarations. To hold two councils, for the voyage to Spain, and to decide what Nassau shall do. To examine the articles after dinner, in the presence of Madame, who will debate with the Cardinal afterwards.
25 Aug.
Galba, B. VII. 102. B. M.
1508. TREATY between HENRY VIII. and CHARLES V.
"Articuli sub beneplacito S.D.N. concepti pro arctiori fœdere inter Stem Cæsaream et Regem Angliæ et Franciæ ineundo."
(1.) The contracting parties to be henceforth friends of friends, and enemies of enemies, and the league to include not only the present but the future possessions of each. (2.) As the Emperor requires to go to Spain to obtain forces and money, the sinews of war, he shall make his journey thither by the end of February next, and signify his determination a month before to the king of England, concerning the invasion of France, in which case England will undertake to guard the Channel with a sufficient fleet and at least 3,000 men, that his Majesty may cross to Dover or Sandwich, where he shall have free passage with all possible honor, and the king of England will meet him and conduct him to Falmouth. Meanwhile the English fleet will conduct the Emperor's from Zealand to Falmouth, where the king of England will have the same ships ready before the Emperor's coming, to conduct him to Spain, when the business between the two princes has been transacted in presence of the papal ministers. The king of England to furnish, if the Emperor desire it, one ship for his Majesty's special use, and others for his nobles; and vice versâ, when the king of England crosses to Calais on the expedition against the French, the Emperor shall furnish him with ships or hoys (haenes) for transporting his army, on requisition being made to himself or Margaret of Savoy. (3.) The contracting parties to declare themselves open enemies to the king of France in March 1523, and make war upon him by land and sea, viz., the Pope and Emperor together in Italy, for the expulsion of the French before the 15th of May in that year, the Pope using the spiritual arm only, but the Emperor furnishing 10,000 horse and 30,000 foot; and at the same time all the Emperor's dominions in Belgium, Flanders, &c. shall make war upon the French. The king of England likewise shall cross the sea in person before that date, and invade France with 10,000 horse and 30,000 foot, part of which he may hire from the Emperor. (4.) The Emperor and the king of England each to furnish a naval force with 3,000 men, to make war upon France by sea; which number shall be kept up, and not diminished except by mutual consent. (5.) If by the beginning of November next, war has not ceased or been renewed between the Pope, Emperor and French king, the king of England shall be bound, without waiting the term already agreed upon, to declare himself enemy to the French king. He shall do the same, if war shall be renewed by the French, after the passage of the Emperor to Spain; on which the fleet prepared by England for the Emperor's voyage, along with an equal fleet supplied by the Emperor as soon as he reaches Spain, shall be employed against France, and never enter port except for warlike purposes, unless driven by stress of weather. (6.) When these enterprises have been set on foot against the French, the Pope shall issue ecclesiastical censures, lay the whole of France under interdict, and withdraw all the honors and prerogatives which the French have hitherto held of the Church of Rome. (7.) The Emperor and England shall be protectors of the Pope and of the house of Medici, especially of the cardinal de Medici. (8.) The Swiss shall be included on behalf of all the allies, and a new league made with them confirming the former ones; each confederate advancing on the commencement of the war such sum as shall be mutually agreed upon for their support; for which purpose each power shall send an ambassador to Zurich. (9.) The Emperor and the king of England shall do their utmost to put down heresy, and reform abuses in spiritual things, in such lands as they may conquer in France. (10.) These things done, it shall be lawful for the Pope, Emperor and king of England to turn their arms against the enemies of the Christian faith. (11.) No league to be made by any of the Powers to the prejudice of this league. The Pope shall, before the ratification of this league, grant dispensations for the marriage between the Emperor and the king of England's daughter Mary, notwithstanding the espousals already made between the Emperor and the French king's daughter, and between Mary and the Dauphin. (12.) This treaty to be kept secret from all, except the secret councillors of the contracting parties. (13.) When the Pope has ratified these articles, the Emperor and England to do the same.
The above articles agreed to, subject to the approval of the Pope, at Bruges, 25 Aug. 1521. Signed by Wolsey and Margaret of Savoy.
Lat., pp. 21.
25 Aug.
R. O.
1509. CHARLES V.
Oath to observe the treaty of alliance and indemnity concluded on 25 Aug. 1521, by Margaret of Savoy and John de Bergis, on the imperial part, and Wolsey, on the part of Henry VIII. Signed: Charles.
Lat., vellum.
25 Aug.
Vit. B. IV. 145. B. M.
1510. [WOLSEY to CLERK.]
Clerk knows by his sundry letters the King's catholic mind for extinguishing the heresies of Luther, and the pains he has taken in devising a book for their confutation. It is now completed, and dedicated to the Pope, and Clerk is to present it in the following form, declaring the King's resolution to support the Church, and extinguish heresy by the sword and pen. He is then to deliver the book privately, covered with cloth of gold, subscribed by the King's hand; "wherein the King's grace hath devised and made two verses, inserted in the said book by the King's own hand;" and if on perusal it be approved by the Pope, he is to have it sent forth with the Pope's authority, and request leave to present it publicly in full consistory, there to receive the papal sanction. Sends him 27 copies for private perusal first. On leave being granted, is to present himself with a solemn oration, "conforming your words and m[anners] to the King's epistle and proem put in the beginning of the same book," with such additions as he thinks proper, stating that the King has therein styled himself the very Defender of the Catholic Faith [of] Christ's Church, which he has truly deserved of the See Apostolic.
Sends a memorial of such titles as will be most agreeable with annotations. He is to have bulls made, and a brief of most cordial thanks, "with certain words to be inserted therein by the Pope's own hand," to be directed to the King, stating that [he does not] think his [grace can be b]etter employed. He is then to tell the Pope apart privately, binding him first to secresy, that as the French king has invaded the Emperor and troubled his Holiness, the King at their request has consented to join them; meanwhile, to gain time for preparation, he has consented to act as mediator between the belligerents, and therefore has sent Wolsey to Calais; who, on the refusal of the imperial ambassador to treat for peace, had gone to the Emperor for that purpose. Is to say that Wolsey has established amity by means of a marriage, &c., and request the Pope to send a messenger to him at Calais. Proposes to stay there till the beginning of Oct., where he will delay, to gain time for hostilities. Bruges, 25 Aug.
P.S. in Wolsey's hand.—Thanks him for expediting his bulls of legation with such ample faculties. He is to express Wolsey's gratitude to the Pope and de Medici.
Draft, corrected by Ruthal and Wolsey, pp. 12, mutilated.
26 Aug.
Galba, B. VI. 199. B. M.
Have been sent to Calais, by the King their master, for the cause they have already explained. When Wolsey left Calais to go to the King Catholic, he said it would only be for ten days, and that they should remain till his return. This they have done with regret, as it may give an impression that they are very urgent for peace. Wolsey has since sent Mr. Briend (Tuke), who told them that he was to have been there on Saturday last. The friends of the King Catholic say they are here to procure a peace. Francis has sent for Mons. le Marechal (la Palice) for the business of the war, and he left yesterday morning. Calais, 26 August. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2, mutilated.
27 Aug.
R. O.
Thank him for sending the Grand Escuyer, the bearer, to say when he will arrive. Calais, 27 Aug. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.
28 Aug.
Le Glay, Négoc. II. 487.
Informed him by their last, that the Cardinal had sent Briend to them, to say that he would be at Calais on Saturday the 24th inst. As he did not arrive, and no news of him was received, sent him a letter, of which a copy is enclosed. On receiving this, he sent the Grand Escuyer to excuse his delay, which was caused by the papal ambassador, but said he had set out, and would arrive tomorrow, with the ambassadors of the King Catholic. Will see him and the other ambassadors tomorrow, and send word of what they say. The Grand Escuyer said that Tournay was in danger of being taken, for the enemy had seized all the passages. The Marshal (de Chabannes) set out last Sunday morning according to Francis' orders. Are waiting for his resolution, which he promised to send in his letter from Langres, 16th inst. Calais, 28 Aug.
Postscript, deciphered.—Wrote on Monday last. Since then have been with the ambassadors of the King Catholic to see the treaties. Shall assemble again tomorrow, when all will be finished, and there will be nothing left but to make overtures for a peace or truce. The Cardinal, Francis' good friend, is ill. Have not seen him for three days, but he sent word this afternoon by the Vice-chancellor that he was better, and would be able to speak with them before Saturday. On Monday last the people and garrison (les mortes payes) of Ardres, had a second panic, and abandoned the town. The captain, finding himself alone, followed them, by the Abbot's advice. The Abbot, to save himself and his monks, sent word to those of Oudenarde and Tournehan that the place was evacuated; on which they came, and are now making free with the stores. (fn. 3)
Signed by the above.
Another deciphered postscript.—After dinner the Cardinal held a long conversation with the chancellor of Flanders alone, and then retired to his dressing room with the writer, where he was much more familiar than usual, and made him sit next him, and they washed their hands together, but this will not gain anything from him. He spoke of the great love his master and he had for Francis, and the envy and malice he had incurred in England from this fact,—said that the people of England are proud and hard to tame, and are inclined to Flanders; and if the war last, it will be painful, both to him and his master, to have to obey the will of the nobility and people; but for his own part he would never fail Francis. He also said that the Dom Prevost had told the King Catholic, that Francis had charged him to say that he never liked him, and never would, but would try to ruin him; that he (Wolsey), when in Flanders, had caused the Prevost to be put out of the Catholic King's council; and that others had reported to Charles that Francis had called him an idiot, and other names. Answered all this according to Francis's letters, and tried to persuade him to induce his master to assist them; which, he answered, could not be done yet. Not signed.
Another deciphered despatch.—Have heard today from Paris that the English scholars there wish to return home, which seems suspicious, in addition to the news of the preparation of ships and men going on in England. The Cardinal may be saying one thing, and doing another. They may be intending an invasion of Boulogne and Ponthieu, or an expedition to Fontarabia to defend Navarre. The vice-admirals should be warned to have vessels ready, and the garrisons of the principal fortresses reinforced. Is going to dine with the Cardinal, and will talk to him about the scholars. Wrote so far before dinner, so as to have it put in cipher. The Cardinal says he knows nothing of the matter, and they were doubtless scholars who would be glad to revisit their homes. Said it could not be so, as all wished to leave, saying their relations had sent for them. Asked him what he should write to Francis. He said they would not go, and then spoke of the words of the seneschal of Boulogne. Excused him according to a letter received from him this morning. He also said if the King his master was arming, it was only for the defence of his kingdom. Not signed.
B. IV. 156. B. M.
Understands by the Cardinal, his lieutenant, the great affection the King has for him. The King may well repose the utmost confidence in the Cardinal, considering his very great fidelity, wisdom and experience. Is resolved to be entirely guided henceforth in all his affairs by England, and do nothing without first consulting the King. Will abide inviolably by the promises made to the Cardinal and by the new alliance. Begs the King to thank the Cardinal most cordially for the great pains he has taken. Has disclosed to him the very bottom of his heart.
Fr., p. 1, mutilated. Endd.: "Minute de mons. Legat."
28 Aug.
R. O. St. P. VI. 85. Burnet, III. 9.
This, written with his own hand, will advertise the King "what I do perceive and see in the Emperor's own person; which, I assure your grace, for his age, is very wise and well understanding his affairs, right cold and temperate in speech, with assured manner, couching his words right well and to good purpose when he doth speak. And, undoubtedly, by all appearance, he shall prove a very wise man, greatly inclined to truth and observance of his promise, determined not only fastly, wholely and entirely for ever from henceforth to be joined with your grace, leaving all other practice and intelligence apart, but also in all his affairs to take and follow your counsel and advice, and nothing to do without the same." As Henry puts the burthen of his affairs on Wolsey's shoulders, the Emperor is determined to do the same, and has not only bound himself privately "twice or thrice, by his faith and truth given in my hand," but declared the same to the Privy Council, "in such manner and fashion as we all may perceive that the same proceedeth of his heart, without colour, dissimulation or fiction." The King has reason to be thankful that he is "not only the ruler of this your realm, which is in an angle of the world, but also, by your wisdom and counsel, Spain, Italy, Almayne and these Low Countries, which is the greatest part of Christendom, shall be ruled and governed." France will not now dare to resist him. Gravelyng, 28 Aug.
Hol. Add.
28 Aug.
R. O. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 197.
1516. PACE to WOLSEY.
The French hostages have been sent, by the King's commandment, to Sir Thos. Lovell's at Enfield, he being well contented therewith. Your letter to the King about keeping them safe, came in time, for they had sent to Whiting to ask him to prepare them another house at St. Katharine's, saying that one of their servants was ill with the plague. Whiting answered that St. Katharine's was not a fit place for them, and he had the servant examined by a physician, when it was found he had no such disease. The King, hearing of this suspicious conduct, had them taken to Enfield by Sir John Dauncy "under the colour of eschewing of the great sickness, by themselves devised; and thus they be there, without suspicion, well and honorably entertained, and secret espial is laid in places meet for their sure keeping." Guildford, 28 Aug.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace.
28 Aug.
R. O.
1517. PACE to [WOLSEY].
The bearer, a canon of Martyne Abbey, York, has made supplication to the King, as founder of the house, concerning the late election; and the King wishes that one of the house, if any such be fit, may be preferred to a stranger. Guildford, 28 Aug.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace.
Galba, B. III.
94. B. M.
1518. [WOLSEY to HENRY VIII.] (fn. 4)
*** "[I have] also written to the Pope that in the [mean]time they shall cause [to be made] all the anoysaunce that they can against the French king, both on this si[de and beyond] the mountains, to the intent that in case any great exploit or notable victory shall be done or had by them, or any of them, against [the French]men, then to forbear to take any truce, but rather to continue the wars, [to the undoing] of his substance and enfeebling of his strength, so that he shall be the more o[nmeet for] such enterprises as shall be made against him by your grace and the Emperor, when ye shall s ...; and to the [intent that I may] see the success thereof, I purpose to make mine abode at Calais during the next m[onth, in] which time it shall be known how the matters would weigh, and whether it [be right] to take a truce, or forbear the same." I have provided that in case the Emperor's army, before your declaration, recover any lands belonging to you in France, they shall be restored to you, &c.
Draft, in Ruthal's hand, p. 1, mutilated.
29 Aug.
Galba, B. VII. 113. B. M. St. P. I. 43.
1519. PACE to [WOLSEY].
Yesterday the King received Wolsey's letters, dated Bruges, the 24th and 25th, with copy of his letters to Clerk in Rome, and an extract of Sir William Fitzwilliam's out of France. On the arrival of John Hopton, the King will follow Wolsey's advice. He perceives the pains which Wolsey has taken in his affairs, "saying that ye have had as great regard to his honour and surety as he himself could have by any manner of study devised." He is very well pleased with the letters to Rome.
Whereas in your later letters you express some fear lest the King should impute negligence to you in not having written four or five days before; "the King saith that, though he was desirous to hear from your grace when your letters were stopped from him by contrariety of wind, by the space of four or five days, yet he neither did nor could impute that to any negligence; and his highness also considereth that your grace may sometimes defer your writing for lack of matter concluded." "Fatetur se plurimum debere Deo, quod talem habeat capellanum, cujus consilio, fide et industria possit majora assequi, quam omnes ipsius progenitores tot bellis et præliis consequi potuerunt." The King perceives, by Fitzwilliam's letters, that there is fear and scarcity of money in France, which things make for his purpose. Guildford, 29 Aug. Signed.
30 Aug.
R. O.
1520. PACE to WOLSEY.
William Pawne, the bearer, is going to Tournay to recover the money due to him for the stuff given him as reward by the King when the city was restored to the French king. The King has ordered me to ask you to speak to the French ambassadors waiting on you at Calais, that he may be paid what is due to him. Guildford, 30 Aug.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace.
30 Aug.
Calig. D. VIII. 89. B. M.
This is the eighth letter I have sent without an answer, and I fear they have not arrived. The French king tells me the Emperor's army has taken two of his towns; one of no value, and not garrisoned; and the other, Mosson, not very good, but there were 500 foot and 100 spears in it, under a captain named Mommoreo. They delivered the town, "the[ir] bags saves." He said he had never entered the Emperor's country, because of this truce at Calais and my request, but they would repent what they had done in 12 days, for he had sent for Burbonne with 12,000 foot and 2,000 horse, and Vandon with 10,000 foot and 400 spears. In 14 days, when they were all assembled, he will have ... M. Swiss, 6,000 adventurers, ... foot, and 2,000 spears. He expects good news from Italy, for the Swiss have sent 4,000 more men to Lautrec; and says he is strong enough in [Guienne], and he does not think the Spaniards will remain in Navarre. Wishes to hear from the King or Wolsey about his coming home.
"I advertise your grace plainly what I see and hear. I think verily the French king will give battle to the Emperor's folks shortly, but I think he hath not so many as an h ... speaks of; for three thousand I have seen which be right tall men, howbeit they have no harness, and 3,000 mo come by Dijon, but a[s many]as he hath shall be here within these six days, and then I shall adver[tise]your grace what number they be. The French king showeth me still they be 12,000,and I assure your grace he hath made all the horsemen he can for a gre ... Those he hath in Guienne be of the rear band, and part of those [the duke of] Burbon brings; and if he lose this battle here, or his army in G[uienne] ..., I assure your grace a great part of his realm is in a great danger, for they that win the said battle may go where they will, for any men of w[ar they shall] find to resist them. And whatsoever shall be the King's pleasure [I] know not, nor it is not meet I should, but and he take [part] with the Emperor, he shall never have such a time to do displeasure to [Fr]ance; and if it be his pleasure to look favorably upon the French king's [par]tie, there was never king of France so much bound to a king [of] England. Sir, how the king's highness is determined I know not, but the [French] king makes me for the most part right good manner, but it is nothing with the heart so much as it was wont to be, as me think. The gentlemen of the count keep me nothing so much company as they have been wont to do. And, Sir, I see not the duke of Albany in the court, [and I] hear of nothing he is put to, which maketh me think they keep him purposely to send into Scotland; and I enquire all I can where he is, and what he doth, but I can learn nothing. Also yesternight I know for a surety the French king sent Poton to a town called Messers, which they reckon the Emperor's folks will la[y siege] to; and because it is not the most strongest town, he shall command all that be within it to come away; and yet there be as good captains within it as may be within the realm of France. Bayard is one, and Bocard another, [an]d 2,000 of the adventurers (fn. 5) and divers other. And, Sir, as of Messire Robt. de la Marche, I write your grace nothing, because I know well [that you] know of him more than I do, but they reckon here he is g[ood] French still, and I believe it never a whit, considering his former acts." Troyes, 30 Aug.
Pp. 2, mutilated. Cipher, with mutilated decipher by Tuke.
30 Aug.
R. O.
It is reported that you have lately arrived at Bruges, and were there magnificently received by the Emperor. Heard this with great pleasure, and expect to hear of some glorious deed as the result of this journey. Many say it was undertaken to reconcile the Kings and to provide for peace; others, to assist Charles in avenging a broken treaty. Parma is besieged, and expected to surrender soon, for the Pope has ordered it to be taken by cutting off the supplies. Lautrec is at Cremona with the rest of his forces. Placentia, which is but weakly garrisoned, has been summoned to surrender by the Papal forces, and nearly every one thinks the French will have to retreat. Rome, 30 Aug. 1521. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: R., &c. carli Ebor., Angliæ, &c.
Titus, B. I.
86. B. M. St. P. I. 45.
Has received news from the Emperor, that Mowson on the Masse has been taken. Sends a copy of the lord Nassau's letter to the Emperor. Mesyres likely to be taken. If the King enters by Rheims he will find a plain way to Paris. The Emperor desires to borrow from Henry a good quantity of powder. Wolsey proposes that he should be accommodated with 200 barrels. Encloses him an original received from the imperial Chancellor, and an abstract of news from Sir William Fitzwilliam, resident in France. Has news from Italy that the Pope and the Emperor had handled the French army hotly. Prosper Colonna has laid siege to Parma.
Draft, in Wolsey's hand, pp. 2.
31 Aug.
Galba, B. VII. 115. B. M.
Came to Antwerp from Bruges, to provide such things as we need to follow the Emperor to the field. Tomorrow we shall repair to court. Suppose you know by the Emperor's ambassador that Mosowne surrendered to Nassau, two days after he began to bring his ordnance against it, and 120 men-at-arms, with 1,500 foot, were allowed to depart with white rods in their hands, leaving their horses and harness behind them. This is a great loss to the French king, and it is thought Masieres may also be delivered, whither the Emperor immediately went. News has come from Italy that the Venetians made a good muster between Verona and Pescara, where the 7,000 Almains going to the Pope's service were to pass, but on being challenged gave way and let them pass; that the Almains had arrived in the marquis of Mantua's dominions, and in four or five days would join Prospero Colonna before Parma.
Last night came from Portugal a gentleman of the King's going to the Emperor, who, endeavoring to come through France, went into Navarre, and was with the constable of Castile at Pampeluna, on the 14th, but being warned, returned to Fonterabia, from which he sailed. He says the Spaniards, after their first victory, sent to Saint John Pied de Porcke and won the town. The castle held out some days. Hearing that the French were coming to rescue it, the Constable sent most part of his army across the mountains, and defeated them, and the castle was taken, and about 300 cast over the walls with much cruelty. He thinks the French will not attempt anything against Spain again for these 100 years. Toledo had not quite returned to the Emperor's obedience, but held out for a general pardon, which the Constable would not grant. The rest of the kingdom was at peace. The knight sent by the Emperor to the Constable, to urge them to invade France, had arrived at Fonterabia, but as the army was dissolved, he cannot tell what will be done. The Biscayans, he said, were glad of the war, and many of their ships will put to sea. Antwerp, 31 Aug. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
31 Aug.
Mon. Habs. 272.
Are much pleased at the reduction of Mouzon, mentioned in his letter of the 29th and in that of Nassau, enclosed therein. Yesterday the Cardinal, being ill and feverish, sent word he would not speak either with them or the French ambassadors. Sent him the Emperor's letter, which was very agreeable to him. The news was very seasonable, owing to the letters of the English ambassadors in France, and the boasts of the French here that they had two or three great armies, and that Mouzon was so strong and well provided that it could not be taken for a year. He asked for copies of the letters to send to the King. Calais, 31 Aug. 1521.
The Cardinal has just sent to ask them to be with him two hours after dinner, to meet the French and Papal ambassadors. He intends to propose security for the fishermen, cessation of war on the sea between Flanders and England, and on land at a certain distance from this place, and liberty for Charles's posts to pass to Spain through France. There is no difficulty about the fisheries, as they know he wishes it, and that his subjects will more willingly go to sea in such case than now, under protection of the ships charged to defend them. The other points are more difficult. Will do nothing without his orders.
Are told that La Palice, at his departure, said to one of the principal officers of the town that Charles was mistaken if he thought Francis would fight, for Francis knows well that a defeat would ruin him. He did not deny that you might gain some places on the frontiers, but if your army entered France they would cut off the supplies. Signed by Gattinara, the bishop of Elna, Cariati, G. de Pleine and J. Laurens.
31 Aug.
Mon. Habs. 274.
Their joint letters reply to his about the capture of Mouzon, at which all the English are delighted. The Cardinal had that day received letters from the ambassador in France, of a contrary purport. The sieur de Boulan was showing them to Gattinara when the Emperor's letters arrived. They were dated Troye, where Francis is, and stated that the King had told the writer that he had visited all his frontier, and found his towns so well provided, that he did not fear all the Emperor's power; that he heard from spies that Francisque had joined Nassau; that all the Emperor's forces were 11,000 German foot, 9,000 of the country, and 4,000 horse; that they could not take Mouzon in a year, but he would soon raise the siege, for he had 12,000 Swiss newly arrived at Oustun, 18,000 adventurers, and 2,000 men-at-arms to serve against the Emperor, while his Admiral had arrived at Bayonne, with 12,000 men-at-arms, 6,000 lansquenets, 18,000 Gascons, and a good band of artillery; and that he heard from Italy that l'Escut had challenged Prospero Colonna. The letter also stated that the French and Venetian force in Italy amounted to 2,000 men-at-arms, 4,000 light horse, 12,000 Swiss, 10,000 adventurers, and 18,000 Venetian foot. Has seen the letters from Rome, and shown what was advisable to the Cardinal concerning the passage of the German foot, and their hope of taking Parma. Is writing to tell Mons. de Pallence and Pedro Garcia what they are to write to Rome and Naples. Calais, 31 Aug.
Er. Ep. XVII.
Found many of his friends at the meeting of the Emperor at Bruges; among the rest "non minus humanum quam magnum, hoc est non minus amandum quam reverendum, cardinalem Eboracensem," who was received by the Emperor with regal munificence. Tunstal, More, Mountjoy, and many others were there. More was in great hope he would have found Budæus at Calais in the French embassy. The arrival of the Cardinal was all the more agreeable to Erasmus, because he hoped that these heartburnings among princes would be composed by his wisdom and authority; but he knows not what to think as matters now stand. The Emperor and the French king are not on good terms. More is now made treasurer with a liberal salary. The King gave him the appointment in preference to another, who would have taken it without a salary, and has made More a knight. Unmarried men are more easily advanced; but More is so wedded to wedlock that nothing can emancipate him. When he lost his first wife he married another, "viduus viduam." He has three daughters; the eldest, who is named Margaret, is just married to a young man (Roper) of good fortune and unspotted morals, and with an inclination to learning. More had all his daughters educated from their infancy; first paying great attention to their morals, and then to their learning. He brings up another girl as a companion to his daughters. He has also a stepdaughter, of great beauty and genius, now married some years to a young man "non indocto, sed cujus moribus nihil sit magis aureum." He has a son by a former wife, aged thirteen, the youngest of his children. He ordered them a year ago to write to Erasmus on their own responsibility. The subject was not supplied, nor were any corrections allowed. When they showed their father their exercises, all he did was to have them fairly copied, without changing a syllable, and seal and send them to Erasmus, who greatly admired them. They read Livy and similar authors. His wife, who is an excellent housewife, manages the household. Budæus complains that he has brought a scandal upon learning, because it has entailed on him two evils,—ill health and ill husbandry. More, on the other hand, produces the opposite impression. He says that his health is the better for study, and that he has more influence with the King, more popularity at home and abroad, is more pleasant and useful to his friends and his relatives, abler for the business of politics and life generally, and more thankful (gratior) to Heaven. It has been said that learning is unfavourable to common sense. There is no greater reader than More, yet you will not find a man who is a more complete master of all his faculties, on all occasions, and with all persons, more accessible, more ready to oblige, more quickwitted in conversation, cr who combines so much true prudence with such agreeable manners. His influence has been such that there is scarce a nobleman in the land who considers his children fit for their rank except they have been well educated, and learning has become fashionable at court. I once thought with others that learning was useless to the female sex: More has quite changed that opinion. Erasmus now thinks that nothing so completely preserves the modesty or so sensibly employs the thoughts of young girls as learning. By such employments they are kept from pernicious idleness, imbibe noble precepts, and their minds are trained to virtue. Many from simplicity and inexperience have lost their chastity before they knew that such an inestimable treasure was in danger. Nor do I see why husbands should fear lest a learned wife should be less obedient, except they would exact from their wives what should not be exacted from honest and virtuous dames. I think that nothing is more intractable than ignorance; to say nothing of the fact, that similarity of tastes and literary inclinations is a much stronger bond of union between husband and wife than mere sensual affection. Erasmus has heard of women returning from church who wonderfully applauded the preacher, and graphically described his countenance, but could not repeat a word he had said, or explain the course of his argument. More's daughters, and such as they, can form an opinion on what they have heard, and discriminate between the good and bad. When Erasmus told More that he would grieve the more if he lost his daughters, upon whom he had bestowed so much care, he replied he would rather they died learned than unlearned. This put Erasmus in mind of Phocion's answer to his wife, who lamented that her husband was to suffer death innocently. "Wife," said he, "would it be better that I should die guilty?" After contrasting the life of Budæus with More's, and the service he had done to Greek, concludes with thanking him for his interposition with Brixius. More has quite forgotten the little brush he had with him. Anderlaci, 1521.
A complaint addressed to Wolsey from the bakers of London, imprisoned at Newgate and the Counter by the mayor and aldermen of London, because they would not take out of the Bridgehouse ... quarters of musty wheat. It was never seen in this country that any mayor or bailiff to oversee the sizes or weights of bread should buy or sell wheat and meal, or bake bread to sell, till within these five or six years past, when this has been done by counsel of two crafty bridgemasters of London, with the support of a covetous alderman. Since that time, they have had in prison either the wardens of the bakers, or some other poor men of the company; and threatened to send some to the Standard in Chepe. Every man who could live otherwise has given up baking; and the corporation, finding that imprisonment was of no avail, got up a bill of six articles to have the bakers bound by craft, by which they would have gained 1,733l. 6s. 8d. a year. When this was refused, they expelled all bakers from the common council, and made an act that the bakers should take out of the Bridgehouse such wheat as they provided at all times, be it musty or sweet, at such price and size as should be fixed by the corporation. Last year, for fear they should provide more wheat, the wardens "did point 2,000 quarters amongst the poor company of bakers at 13s. [5]d. a quarter," and in every 1,000 quarters the bridgemasters gained 33s. 4d. The corporation got buyers to ride into Lincolnshire and Yorkshire from barn to barn, and from church to church, and made the price of wheat rise from 5s. 4d. to 7s. or 8s. a quarter, by which the King lost in his provision 10l. or 12l. in every hundred quarters. They provided so much that some of it is rotten, and the rest is musty, yet they compelled the warden and most of the company to take it for fear of imprisonment. When it was baked, neither the mayor and aldermen, nor any honest commoner, would eat it; they sold three penny loaves for 2d. They have now seven bakers in prison, these eight days, because they would bake no more at 12s. the quarter.
P. 1, large paper. Endd.
R. O.
Decree of the mayor, aldermen, and common council of London, that bakers shall be exempt from the council, for their malice in sowing schisms and grudges against the purveyors and buyers of wheat conveyed to the garners at the Bridgehouse. Their assertion that the wheat there is not sweet is untrue, as it has been examined and found to be sweet and wholesome.
Henceforth, that is, before Michaelmas next, the bakers shall bake all the wheat now remaining in the garners of the Bridgehouse, and in their own hands, according to the price given to them. Whenever any wheat remains unsold at the Bridgehouse, they shall bake from this wheat at the price set by the mayor. Any baker infringing this rule is to be fined 10l., and punished at discretion of the mayor and aldermen.
P. 1. Endd.: The answer of Mr. Bridges, mayor, against the supplication of the bakers, in August ao 1521.
Petition against the ill treatment they suffer from the joiners Englishmen, who daily and hourly put them in prison by feigned actions, surety of the peace and the mayor's commandment. In Henry VII.'s time, at the building of Richmond, the King commanded the Englishmen and the strangers each to choose two men, and these four agreed before the chamberlain of London that every householder stranger should pay 4d. a quarter, and every journeyman 2d.; and that the English joiners would never sue them or molest them. This agreement was signed and sealed by the chamberlain. Now the Englishmen make new acts against them in their hall, which they refuse to submit to, unless Wolsey commands them so to do. Ask that their fellows now in prison may be liberated, and find sureties to answer before him next term.
P. 1. Headed: "To my lord Cardinal's grace."
Aug./GRANTS 1531. GRANTS in AUGUST 1521.
12. Augustine Pinelli, merchant of Genoa. Licence to export 25,000 ducats of gold, in angelots, crowns of the sun, ducats and other gold coins. Calais, 12 August.—Fr. 13 Hen. VIII. m. 10.
22. Henry Poterell, clk. Presentation to the church of Colyweston, Linc. dioc. Del. Calais, 22 Aug. 13 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 12.
22. Hugh Richardes, clk. Presentation to the church of Estyngdon, Worc. dioc.; in the King's gift by attainder of the duke of Buckingham. Calais, 22 Aug.—Pat. 13 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 12.


  • 1. Blank in MS.
  • 2. "que ne pourra estre que ne soit l'an prochain, et encores en Septembre."
  • 3. The editor thinks this and the following postscripts are later than the letter which they follow.
  • 4. Inaccurately inserted in vol. I. no. 3863.
  • 5. "lanceknights" in Tuke's decipher.