Henry VIII: September 1521, 1-10

Pages 631-650

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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September 1521

Galba, B. VII.
69. B. M.
Wrote to him from Antwerp. Arrived here on Monday last, and presented ourselves to the Emperor on the following morning, who received us well. Hearing that the Emperor had received letters from his ambassador "resident with your grace," (fn. 1) and that he was going this afternoon to Ever to speak with lady Chievres, have been with him again this morning. He told us his Chancellor did not agree very well with that of France; that Nassau had besieged Masieres on three sides, and begun two days ago to beat it with ordnance; and that though the French showed great courage, "his majesty saith all standeth in God's arbitre, leaving apart, after his custom, all advaunting words." Others think that the place will not long hold out, although it is said to be garrisoned with 4,000 men under Bayard. "Messer Robert de la March, with Esden and Jamays, the residue of his places be in truce with the Emperor, and continual practiques for his pardon and appointment, in the which case it is said he would discover many diabolique business of the Frenchmen to their perpetual infamia."
Berghes alone of these principals has gone with the Emperor, it is supposed for money for provision, of which great diligence is made. Beyond the arrival of the 6,000 lanceknights with the Pope and Emperor's army in Italy, nothing is known of their success, as the Palavisyns have taken the town of Burgo Sandonyn, between Parma and Placentia. The French cannot send any succors to Parma, nor those who have the keeping of the city depart. The Pope's ambassador says the Swiss had sent no men to assist the French, and the bishop of Veroli had written that some of their captains who went over to the French without leave have been put to death. A diet was to assemble on the 26th of last month, when a final answer would be given whether they would assist the Pope with 10,000 men to restore the duke of Bari to the possession of Milan.
This morning the Emperor gave audience in our presence to the ambassador of Hungary, a Venetian born, and reputed of great learning, whose charge contained three points: (1) to declare the invasion of Hungary by the Turks: (2.) the state of the kingdom at his departure: (3.) requiring assistance from his majesty. When the Emperor was at Cologne, he and his colleague were commanded to declare the death of the Turk, father of the present Turk, and to show that the truce between them was thus terminated; that the new Turk had sent an ambassador to Hungary to renew it, and that no answer was returned, considering the great injury that might arise to the rest of Christendom. They were entertaining the ambassador with fair words till the Pope, the Emperor and other princes had shown their minds. Without external aid Hungary could not, especially after the death of king Matthias, break with the Turk. The Emperor said he was going to Worms, and would not fail to urge the diet on behalf of Hungary. The king of Hungary, accordingly, sent them again to Worms, showing the great preparations of the Turk, which were said to be against the Sophi; but the Emperor answered, by the advice of all his estates, that in consequence of the attempts of the French king, and the dissensions in Almain, he could not assist the king of Hungary as he would, but advised them to make a truce for one year, when he hoped these two obstacles would be removed. With this answer the ambassadors returned. The Emperor's advice with regard to the truce was followed; and within four days, as the ambassador says, they had news of the Turk's coming into their frontiers, who immediately invaded the realm.
He said that the Turks had won divers places on the Save, the defence of which had been neglected, and at his departure they were laying siege to Belgrade, a strong castle which he thought could resist if it were succored, but if it be lost, all the realm will be lost. In Hungary they have no money, no captains, no foot, no ordnance, but a good number of light horse better than Turks. The militia was almost extinguished since the death of king Matthias, for lack of practice. He urged the Emperor to send assistance without delay, as being chief of Christendom, and for the affinity between his brother Fernando and the King, and also on account of the title granted to the emperor Frederick and his successors, by agreement with king Ladislaus, which by the last contract between Ladislaus and Maximilian was to go to his majesty in default of heirs male. The king of Hungary was aware of the injuries done to Charles by the French king, and would not dissuade him from his enterprises, but hoped he would allow a part of the aid granted by the estates of the empire to be employed in defence of Hungary. The ambassador also said the king of Poland had sent 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse, but hearing on their way that the Tartars had invaded his realm, he was obliged to reca them all, except 2,000 foot and 500 horse. The Turkish army was not so great as many supposed. The Janissaries did not exceed 7,000, with 12,000 good horse, and 15,000 or 16,000 other horse, untrained, and without harness. The French king had bribed 20,000 Bohemian foot and 2,000 horse to his service. On hearing of it the king of Hungary commanded them, on pain of confiscation of body and goods, to come to his assistance; "and after many instances made, 4,000, with a part of the horsemen, for half wages, went to serve him." The rest offered the same, saying that their privileges permitted them, when their own princes would not have them, to make their profit with any other who was not his enemy. There is no news, however, of the[ir] departing, and it will not be easy for them to reach the French king, by reason of the strong towns and great rivers they have to pass. The ambassador of Hungary said he was commissioned, with the Emperor's consent, to enter into any treaty with the Pope and other princes, and promised to show, in a secret audience, who it was that had incited the Turks against his master. An answer was promised to him on the Emperor's return from Evera, which will be tomorrow night or Monday. He told us he was commissioned to go to the King to desire aid, and renew the ancient confederacy between the King and his master, "saying if he might have had his expedition of your grace, and forbear his going over, he would be very glad thereof, for the urgent necessity he hath to go to Rome." We said, when he was with you, he should know. Toledo persists in its old rebellion. The Constable and the Admiral have gone thither, and have no doubt of putting it down.
Pp. 8, mutilated and imperfect.
1 Sept.
Tit. B. I. 290. B. M. St. P. I. 47.
1533. PACE to WOLSEY.
Suit has been made to the King by merchants trading to Bourdeaux, to know his pleasure whether they should do so this year, as many French ships are at sea, and there is great doubt about the amity. The King is in much perplexity, as his subjects have many goods at Bourdeaux, which cannot be brought home, unless the ships repair thither as usual, and this might excite suspicion in the minds of the French. Sir Philip Calthorpe and his wife are come to the court to serve the Princess, as the King desires. He wishes to know what fees they ought to have. Guildford, 1 Sept.
Reports of the plague are frequent.
Hol. Add.
1 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 275.
1534. GATTINARA and others to CHARLES V.
This afternoon were with the Cardinal in company with the ambassadors of the Pope, France and Venice. He told them how he had gone to Bruges, from his master's desire to find some means to bring Christendom to peace; that he and his company were honorably received by the Emperor, who, at his request, had sent the writers to treat for peace, and he wished them to discuss the matter privately with moderation, and to endeavor to procure a peace as honorable and profitable to their masters and subjects as possible. The French chancellor said that, as Wolsey knew, he had come at the request of the king of England to arrange peace, but he had no power to treat with the Papal ambassadors, for the Pope had failed the French king, when he considered him his best friend. To this Wolsey replied, that he did not believe the Pope had failed to perform his promises without good occasion, and he would try to compose the difference between them. The Nuncio said it would not be for the Pope's honor for him to enter into any communication, as the chancellor of France had no power in matters concerning his Holiness. The Imperial envoys said that their powers were expressly to treat in the presence and with the consent of the Nuncio; that the Emperor was prosecuting his just rights, but that by virtue of their power they were ready to treat for peace.
As the French ambassadors are now content to treat of all matters, they require that all the powers should be exhibited, which the writers have postponed till Monday afternoon, by which time they hope to receive their powers. The Cardinal has proposed four points: 1. Security for the fishermen of both parties. 2. No exploits to be done on English ground, and no troops to pass through it to attack their enemy. 3. Either party to be safe from attack in English ports or downs. 4. The soldiers of both parties to refrain from molesting those bringing provisions to Calais from St. Omer, Newport and Monstreul.
The French and Imperial ambassadors have requested time to inform their masters of these points. The Cardinal wishes resolution to be taken at once, and will cause the said articles to be put in writing, and shown to both sides, "pour les arrester," if possible. Wish to know his pleasure, and think he should not object to the security of the English fishery and the English land and sea. Wolsey has arranged the ceremonies to be observed during the conference. The chancellor of France, who has always called Charles the King Catholic, will call him the king of the Romans, Emperor elect, which he says he has not done through being accustomed to the former title. The writers will style the king of France the Most Christian King. When sitting, or passing through the town, Charles's ambassadors will take the right hand, the French the left. While going through the town, Wolsey will be accompanied by only one ambassador from each power. Will write daily. Calais, 1 Sept. 1521.
1 Sept.
Le Glay, Négoc. II. 492.
Saw the Cardinal yesterday. The Flemish ambassadors were with him. He said that the King Catholic was so bound to the Pope that he could not treat without his consent, and therefore, not to postpone the peace, Wolsey would become security for the Pope; that the Pope's ambassador with the King Catholic had said that Francis was not accustomed to keep his promises, and had harbored his master's enemies; upon which the Cardinal had spoken in his favor, and said that he would not offend again if the treaty were concluded. Du Prat affirmed that at the time when the Pope had declared for the King Catholic, Francis thought he had no better friend in all Christendom than he, and had never done him any wrong, but had defended him, and never gave him cause to do as he had done. Said also they had no power to capitulate with the Pope, but would write to know Francis' pleasure. The chancellor of Flanders also said that he had no power to treat with the Pope. Have found an expedient to treat with the Cardinal and the ambassador, under the condition that, if he and the Pope do not agree, the treaty shall have no effect. The same will be done by the ambassador of Flanders. The Cardinal proposed four points: safe-conduct for the fishery; the French and Spanish subjects to take no prizes in English dominions; surety against the French soldiers for those who brought provisions to Calais; and safeconduct for all the ambassadors, French and Imperial; for the former as far as Montreuil, for the latter as far as Nieuport. Agreed to the last three, but said they had written about the fishery. The Cardinal asked them not to delay. Finally agreed to it, to conciliate him, considering it can be revoked at pleasure, and will be profitable to those living on the coast of Normandy and Picardy, and without it they will not be able to pay their taxes. He asked them to write for Francis' consent that Burgundy should be neutral, saying that Madame Marguerite was very desirous of it. Advise him to write to Henry and the Cardinal. Write the rest in cipher. Calais, 1 Sept.
2 Sept.
R. O. St. P. I. 48.
1536. PACE to WOLSEY.
The King received his letters yesternight, dated Calais, 30 Aug., touching the taking of Mouson and the success of the Emperor; with which he was so satisfied, that he read the contents of the letters to the knights and others of his secret chamber. Touching the gunpowder required by the Emperor by way of loan, the King, on reading the letters, swore by Saint George that the Emperor should lack none. Guildford, 2 Sept.
Hol. Add.
2 Sept.
R. O.
Since your departure important matters have occurred, requiring the presence of my Chancellor and the papers he has with him. I write to him by the bearer to return, and hope you will be content to dismiss him, retaining my other ambassadors. Brussels, 2 Sept. 1521. Signed. Countersigned: Lalemand.
Fr., p. 1. Add.: Le cardinal d' York, legat, primat et lieutenant general d'Angleterre.
3 Sept.
Calig. E. II. (171.) B. M.
Has this day [received] writings, both from the ambassador at ... [and from] the Emperor's court, of the news of Italy, and from Fitzwilliam with the French king. If the news be true, everything succeeds to the King's wish; first, in the withdrawing of ... folk from Meseres, which will thus be unable to make much resistance; and, secondly, (which is too good to be true,) that the French king intends to give battle to the Emperor within 14 days. If so, and he lose the battle, the King will see his advantage; if he win, it will not be without marvellous and irreparable loss on his side. In either case, Henry will find small resistance at his entry, and may wait his opportunity in peace. Animates the Emperor daily to march his army to Reynys, which if he gain, the road will be clear to Paris. Hopes to handle the French ambassadors here [at Calais] so that their suspicions shall not be excited till his return to [England]; "and the Emperor to take abstinence of war or ... same as it shall be thought to your common affairs most ex[pedient]." [Calais,] 3 Sept. (fn. 2)
Draft, in Wolsey's hand, pp. 2, mutilated.
3 Sept.
Galba, B. VII. 116. B. M. St. P. I. 49.
1539. PACE to [WOLSEY].
Yesterday the King received his letters, dated Calais, 31 Aug., comprising the perfect conclusion of all his affairs with the Emperor, with which he is highly pleased. Two points, he thinks, require revision. Instead of 6,000 men only to conduct the Emperor into Spain, he thinks the number should be 10,000, considering the French preparations, and begs Wolsey to urge this; the addition to be at the Emperor's own cost. The second point is, that the names of all towns taken conjunctis viribus in this war, referred to in the article of restoration, should be expressed beforehand. Guildford, 3 Sept.
3 Sept.
Vit. B. IV. 156, 158, 161. B. M.
1540. CLERK to [WOLSEY].
Received a letter from Tuke, dated Calais, 8 Aug., and a letter in cipher from the Pope's ambassador for his Holiness, which he despatched to him who keeps the Pope's secret correspondence. Next morning told him of Wolsey's arrival at Calais, and of the ceremonies, as Tuke had written. Mentioned the letter, but the Pope did not tell him the contents. He only said, "Nos speramus quod D. Cardinalis Eboracensis om[nia] tractabit bene," &c. He complained of the insolence of the French, and that they had made Wolsey believe they had 30,000 men in Italy, and would shortly obtain Naples. His camp is still within a mile of Parma, and the French dare not show themselves, or trust the population, or put arms in their hands. The Pope's 7,000 lanzknechts have arrived in safety. He told Clerk that Prosper Colonna had sent him word when the lanzknechts arrived he would march forward. He has in his army 5,000 Spanish foot, 4,000 Italians, 6,000 or 7,000 lanzknechts, 1,000 men-at-arms, 1,500 light horse. Everyone is hearkening what shall be the end of Wolsey's negotiation with the Emperor, and hoping he may secure a peace among all Christian princes. The Pope is jealous of showing him any evil news. Hears that the French have given the Papal army many an evil breakfast, and specially the Spaniards. It is reported the Pope will create cardinals to raise money; that the French will give up Cremona to the Venetians for 200,000 ducats, and raise forces as long as the war lasts.
Has received letters from his brother, of brother, of 100l. for his diets, by Master Mycl[ow]. Rome, 3 Sept. 1521.
Hol., cr., pp. 7, mutilated.
Vit. B. IV. 163. 2. Decipher of the above.
3 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 282.
1541. GATTINARA and others to CHARLES V.
He will have seen by their last letters of the 1st that yesterday the powers of both sides were to be exhibited. As their powers had not arrived, sent the bishop of Elna to the Cardinal to ask him to find some excuse to put off the meeting, and that the Chancellor would feign illness, as if he had the gout. Wolsey seemed displeased that they had not their powers, as it would make the French suspicious, but thought it best not to put off the meeting, but to propose other matters, so that the powers should not be spoken of. At the meeting, he began by producing articles which he had had drawn up, on the four points mentioned in their letter of 31 Aug., giving a copy to each. All agreed it would be better to look them over at leisure, and postpone the conclusion till today. Then Wolsey asked if they wished to say anything on the principal matter of the meeting. Some time was occupied in deciding who should speak first; the French chancellor saying that we should do so, as we were "the demandeurs." Gattinara answered such was not the case, but that they had come at the Cardinal's instance, to hear and reply, and to show that the Emperor had taken up arms justly, after being invaded and provoked. The French chancellor asked if they meant to make no demands. I said the Emperor was reasonably pursuing his quarrel by arms, and that after the French had spoken they should know if we had any demands to make, and whether we wished to prosecute them, or remain on the defensive. Then the French chancellor spoke, protesting before God and the Saints that what he said was truth, and declared at length the grievances of his King. Gives the substance of his speech, and of his own reply. The French chancellor seemed puzzled what to answer, and proposed that each side should put their case in writing; to which Gattinara demurred.
This day, as the Chancellor (Cardinal ?) was unwell, the discussion was put off till tomorrow. The principal matter is postponed to next Friday, to which we made no objection, as the great object is to gain time. Send an extract of a letter from the English ambassador in France, given them by the Cardinal. Do not believe what the king of France says; but it is as well for the Emperor to set spies, and to be on his guard. Wolsey has also shown them the minute of a despatch which he is sending. Gattinara has drawn up, and forwarded to the Audiencer, minutes of despatches to be sent by the Emperor before Gattinara leaves Calais, which will be as soon as he can extricate himself. Calais, midnight, 3 Sept. 1521.
The post has been delayed till this day, the 4th. Are now nearly agreed about the fishery and the four points, which they are ready to sign tomorrow, if they have the power. The French chancellor sent one of his councillors to Gattinara about the articles; and on leaving he was accompanied by Maistre Josse (Laurens), of whom the councillor asked if it was not possible to make some arrangement, for the Pope was the cause of all the mischief, and was a "double Florentin." Josse could not enter into such discussions without orders, but by Wolsey's advice Gattinara sent him to the French chancellor, to see what he would say; and the Chancellor said to him, "You expect to humiliate us by your pride and by talking big, but you make us more determined, and you will soon see what will come of it. I shall not tell you for three days what I think." On going to tell the Cardinal, Josse found the French chancellor with him, and began talking with some of the other French councillors, who said that it was high time for them to sharpen their knives, and they would hear different news before the end of the month. When the Chancellor was gone, Josse told this to the Cardinal. The Cardinal, on his part, told him what the Chancellor had said to him, and that he had replied that the French were the proudest of all.
3 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 278.
Has received their letters of the last of August and the 1st of Sept. In reply to Wolsey's proposals as to the fishery, states that since their departure the admiral of Flanders, with the assistance of the people of Holland, Zealand, and other places on the coast, has prepared a good fleet, which is almost ready to put to sea. It is late to propose this point for his subjects, who have been much damaged by the French, and have voluntarily furnished this fleet to revenge and assist themselves. 'Has written to the Admiral to know the exact state of the fleet, and to obtain his advice, when he will write to them again. Then, if a truce by sea is made in these parts, the greater part of the enemy's force will be free to engage the Spaniards, of which they will have good cause to complain, as they, and especially the Biscayans, are fighting successfully with the Bretons and other Frenchmen. An entire truce would be better than a partial one. Wishes them to take Wolsey's advice. Considers the other three points reasonable, but the free passage to and from Calais must be only for the ambassadors, servants and messengers, whose names must be declared on both sides. The limits of security should be fixed, for the French, from Calais to Boulogne, and for his ambassadors, to Dunkirk. Will be content with these conditions, although sufficiently secured on his side by the river of Gravelinghes and the English territory.
Sends the letters patent containing their powers. They must favor the Nuncio as much as possible, and should show him their powers, that he may know Charles's affection for the Pope, and his determination not to abandon him. They must thank the Legate for thinking of their honor in the ceremonies he has prescribed.
Fr., draft.
4 Sept.
R. O. St. P. I. 50.
1543. PACE to [WOLSEY].
Received his letters dated Dunkirk, 28 Aug., sent by Wyse, who arrived yesterday. Is glad that his services are acceptable to Wolsey; and though he cannot write so wisely as may be required, he is at all times ready to move the King to answer Wolsey's letters with convenient diligence. No tongue can express the King's satisfaction with the service rendered by Wolsey in this affair of the Emperor. At Wolsey's desire he has this day moved the King, as of himself, to write to the Cardinal his satisfaction in his own hand. The King consented to do so, "and said to me that the tidings comprised in your grace's letters written with your own hand contenteth him as well or better than any other that he had before." As to Wolsey's wish that Pace should write to him of himself, he has done so once, but not oftener for lack of matter. Everything since Wolsey's departure is in good order, without any ill bruit or murmuring. The commonalty, who have no knowledge of such secret matters as Wolsey concluded with the Emperor, are delighted to think that his going was to establish perfect amity betwixt the Emperor and the King's. This has added much to Wolsey's popularity. The sending out of the King's letters for 6,000 archers increases this impression. Guildford, 4 Sept.
4 Sept.
Galba, B. VII. 49. B. M.
I learn from your secretary's letters that you wish my opinion what should be done, considering the danger of your subjects' navy being taken if they repair this year to Bordeaux for the vintage, and the suspicion it might raise if they did not go, which might cause Francis to stop the King's pension, now nearly due. Am rejoiced to see by this foresight "that no man can more groundly consider the politic governance of your said realm, ne more assuredly look to the preservation thereof, than ye yourself." I think, however, that the French king, being troubled with so many enemies on every side, both in his own realm, in Milan and Navarre, will beware how he gives you cause to break with him. The chancellor of France assured me, when he dined with me alone, that his master trusted you before all other princes, that he was instructed to follow whatever counsel Wolsey offered for the encouragement of good understanding with England, and that it would be seen by the treatment of English subjects in France that his master and he were as good English as any of your subjects. Thus it is clear, notwithstanding any rumors, that they have no suspicion of anything concluded with the Emperor. Has determined, however, not to trust to words, but as complaints are made by the English of French piracies, which have been proved before the Chancellor, and redress made to some, and some English ships have been rescued, of which one arrived at Calais today, with certain Frenchmen, "enterprenors" thereof, Wolsey has caused the Chancellor, without speaking of the matter of Bordeaux, to consent that proclamation be made throughout France, that no man, under pain of death, take any English ship or goods, and to write to the King his master that an open placard, signed and sealed by the French king, shall be delivered to the King or Wolsey, assuring all the King's subjects repairing to Bordeaux or other French dominions of a friendly reception. The Chancellor has assured him he shall have this within eight days, and if they attempt anything against this proclamation (although they were bound to this already) it may be the more grievously imputed to their charge, when the King makes his declaration. They will certainly not attempt anything at Bordeaux during this diet, while we and the French ambassadors remain here; and if truce be made, as there is good hope, before the end of the diet, then there may be no fear. Yet, for a further safeguard I have thought of two ways. (1.) That no ship of more than 100 or 80 tons go to Bordeaux this year, and not many at a time, but such number as you shall think good. Those first sent to return before more are sent, so that the great ships of your realm may remain at home, and your navy be preserved from danger. (2.) That if you choose this year to license your subjects to bring wines upon strangers' bottoms, and authorise the French and Bretons to import them in their own vessels, you will not only have plenty of wine cheaper than usual, and increase your customs, but also relieve Flanders and the Emperor's countries, which are deprived of wines during the war; besides which, so many French ships will resort to England that you will have a great counter surety if they attempt anything against your vessels. Proposes to devise an article, to be agreed to by all parties, among other deliberations, for the safety of Flemish and French fishers during this herring time; that the English shall have liberty to pass to all harbors under the dominion of the Emperor and French king, and that no ships be taken in English waters. This will largely extend "the liberties of your said streams and territory of the sea," by the express consent of the Emperor and the French king. Calais, 4 Sept.
Draft, corrected by Ruthal. Pp. 11, mutilated.
4 Sept.
Vit. B. IV. 160. B. M.
1545. [CLERK to WOLSEY.]
The Pope, supposing he would write by this courier, sent one of his council to say there was great likelihood Parma would be surrendered, as 20 yards of the walls had been beaten down. It is in great distress. Sion is daily expected with 8,000 Swiss. 4,000 Swiss in the French pay in the duchy of Milan refused to cross the Po. The courier told him that the Venetians, by an ancient league, are bound to furnish France with 300 spears, which Clerk thinks likely enough. Rome, 4 Sept.
Hol., cr., pp. 2. Decipher at ƒ. 162*.
5 Sept.
Titus, B. I. 327. B. M.
Begs him once more to send back his Chancellor, of whom he has now greater necessity than ever. Brussels, 5 Sept.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mons. le cardinal d'Iorc, legat, &c., "mon meilleur amy."
5 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 280.
Has received his four letters of the 28th, 29th and 31st Aug. and 1st Sept. He must thank Wolsey for his proposals, and for his warning about the passages of Tournay. According to Wolsey's advice, has raised 2,000 foot in Flanders, 2,000 in Haynault, 1,000 in the Low Countries of Almain, and 200 men-at-arms, who are at the passages ready to resist an attack from the French; and the passages have been so broken up that two of his men would be a match for four French. Has also sent for 4,000 Almain foot and 1,000 horse of Nassau's force, which he hopes will arrive on the frontier of Hainault in three or four days. The grand army before Maysieres will still consist of 26,000 foot and 8,000 or 9,000 horse, all picked men. Has ordered some artillery from Almain, and more is being mounted here, so that he hopes to have about 10,000 foot and 2,500 horse to do some good exploit near Tournay or Therouenne. Himself and his household are quite ready to go to the assistance of either army.
Wolsey must be thanked also for the letters from France, which the sieur de Boulan (Boleyn) showed them. The news in them resembles the reports by the French of the fresh insurrection in Spain, the capture of the Queen, and the beheading of the prior of St. John, which are all untrue. Wishes the season was not too far advanced for a battle, if the enemy were strong enough to venture it. Has ordered the minute of the letter to be made, but sees by their last letters that the Legate will write it, at which Charles is glad. Wishes them to ask for it, and send it to him. They must thank him also for the powder, and say that Charles has given orders in Antwerp to keep it secret, according to his advice; but Charles wishes he could let them have more, either from Calais or London, considering the good execution his people make, and that it shall be all returned in a short time. Writes to his councillor, M. Josse, to send back the papers concerning the indulgence and the tithes. Sends letters from Rome and Naples, and his secretary's letter about Gattinara's return.
Fr., draft.
6 Sept.
R. O.
The commons of Valence, who began the insurrection, have lately defeated Don Diego de Mendossa, the Viceroy, and the duke of Candia, a large body of whose infantry deserted to the commons. They immediately entered the town of Candia and plundered it. Since then, the duke of Sogorbya set on them, with some knights, slew 600 and put the rest to flight. The Constable or Admiral will go thither, and it is thought all will be redressed with little difficulty. The count of Miranda, nephew of the Constable, remains as Viceroy in Navarre with a good garrison. St. John "Pyedeporke" has been totally pulled down, and the same will be done to the castles and walls of Stella and Maya, so that no town but Pampeluna will require guarding. Brussels, 6 Sept. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's good grace.
6 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 292.
Received last night, just as the gate was closing, his letters of the 3d, their powers, with the oath, and the letter for his return. Sent the bishop of Elna and Josse to inform the Cardinal. Went next day with his colleagues and the Nuncio, and told the news of the parley at Masieres; of the new army raised by the Emperor; the recall of the Swiss in the French service, and the murder of their captains; the declaration of the cantons for the Pope and the Emperor, and their resolution to send men with Sion; the distribution of 40,000 ducats, in addition to the 30,000 deposited at Zurich; the arrival of the lansquenets before Parma on the 21st Aug.; the commencement of the siege; how the French were beginning to parley; that Palavesin, Visconte and Matthew Beccaria, with the exiles of Milan, had taken all the places in the territories of Parma and Placentia as far as Pavia.
Wolsey was pleased with the news, and asked for an extract to send to the King. On seeing our powers, he asked why there was no special mention of the differences between Charles and Francis, the mediation of the King, and the necessity for the Pope's consent. Said that, according to the convention with the Pope, not to treat without his consent, they could not mention the king of France without making it appear that they were anxious for a treaty; and as to the king of England, the understanding between them was enough. With regard to the Pope, it was necessary to do as they had done, to keep off suspicion. With this both the Cardinal and the Nuncio were content. The Cardinal was not pleased with the Emperor's refusal of security for the fisheries, or with the limitation of the safe- conduct for the ambassadors. He wished them to sign the articles, with the addition of one for the safety of English ships in French and Imperial ports, which, he says, is only that they may supply themselves with wines in France, of which the Emperor shall have part. Have consented to sign, if the Emperor will agree, and if Wolsey will promise to give them a letter stating that these articles will not interfere with the treaties of Bruges. The article about the fishery will not prevent his fleet from attacking ships of war and merchant ships, which will be more profitable than defending the fishermen. Has shown the letters touching his return to the Cardinal, who confesses he promised not to keep him more than six or eight days; but he says he does more service here than he would there, and if he goes, the chancellor of France will do the same, when it would not be honorable for him to stop any longer, and the conference will be broken off. He has spoken to the French chancellor, and waits his determination. He told Gattinara that the Chancellor told him that the French king does not intend to fight, but to hinder the Emperor's army from passing to Reins, and cut off their supplies. Told him the French could do no such thing, but they could force them either to fight or go into garrison at Reins or elsewhere.
He wishes for the capture of Tournay, but doubts whether the new army is sufficient. Gattinara assured him it was easier than he thought. The Chancellor asked Wolsey to write to the Queen mother, to exhort her son not to go to the camp or give battle, but to consent to a truce. Advised him not to do so, for the French would say he had done it at Charles's request; and if the truce did not take effect, and the Emperor prospered in the field, they would say the Cardinal had taken them in. He promised to be very careful what he wrote. Spoke about the powder. He said he would write to London about it, but thought you had found plenty at Mouzon. Told Wolsey that the Emperor had sent letters for the pensions to the Audiencer. He wishes to have them before Gattinara leaves, with the ratifications, of which he sends the minutes, and Wolsey will give him the minutes of those which he has sent to the King of England to be signed. Has given him the oath sent by the Emperor. He wishes the letters of Francis to Carpy to be left with him, to show to the estates of England. Wolsey has asked him to put all their discussions in writing to take with him. Calais, midnight, 6 Sept. 1521.
6 Sept.
R. O.
Court of Sir Thomas Lucy and Elizabeth his wife, late wife of George Catesby, held at Walcote, 4 Sept. 13 Hen. VIII.—Several persons amerced for not appearing. The abbot of Bruerne appeared by John Hacar, his tenant. The abbot of Ensam has turned the water at Walcote out of its right course, &c.
P. 1. Endd.
ii. The same at Epwell, 6 Sept. 13 Hen. VIII.—Finding of the jurors.
P. 1. Endd.
D. VIII. 132. B. M.
1551. [RUTHAL to PACE.]
"... by my last letters I declared unto you the prorogation of ... Friday the 6th day of this month, at which time the Chancellors ... [assem]bled, and presented themself after the accustomable order, before my lord [Cardinal, in the] place thereunto appointed; where, after declaration made in right honorable manner by my [said l]ord what recess was taken at the last convention and session, that is to say f ... ation required to be had on the French party to reply against such things as [were] purposed by the Emperor's Chancellor, my said lord demanded of the said Chancellor of France what he had further to say in that behalf." The French chancellor said he was not sufficiently furnished to answer, but set forth many colorable arguments, meagrely founded in law, and more slenderly in reason. Grounding himself upon the principle that actus activorum fundantur super intentione et mente contrahentium, he said that though it was provided by the treaty made at London by the admiral of France and the bp. of Paris, that if any of the contracting parties were invaded, the confederates were bound to mutual assistance, yet there was a prior convention between the French king and Mons. de la Bret, the pretended king of Navarre, and whatever the French ambassadors had done, it was not the intention of Francis to break his first promise, alleging further two general brocards of the law; viz., in generali sermone non comprehenduntur ea quæ quis non esse verisimiliter concessurus in specie; and, ea quæ speciali nota digna sunt, si non exprimantur specifice, videntur neglecta. In answer to which it was said, that these maxims would invalidate any treaty. Though the French chancellor could not deny this, he put over the matter with smiling countenance, yet he made bold to say at the proposing of this argument, gladius ad radicem positus, concluding that the invasion of Navarre was no breach of treaties. "And so, Mr. Secretary, ye may see that all the practices of France be but fraskes and loose ends, as I wrote unto you in my last letters; and surely, like as the bruits be made of these great armies, and none appeareth to do any feat, so great allegations is made by their ambassadors, and nothing to purpose. The Emperor's chancellor hath hitherto as clearly convinced the French ambassadors in everything by them purposed as the Emperor's army subdueth every town and fortress before them, marching in France." Could not write the whole of their arguments in a day, "but for a truth the couns[els of France] stand in persuasions and opinions, whereas the Emperor's matters be grounded ... compta (?) cedat omnia veritati" ***
Draft, in Ruthal's hand, p. 1, mutilated.
7 Sept.
Le Glay, Négoc. II. 494.
Have been this week several times with the Cardinal, in company with the ambassadors of Flanders and the English council, when the grievances on both sides were exposed, and each endeavored to show that the other had infringed the treaty. The Imperialists complained of the wars of Robert de la Mark, and of Navarre, the seizure of their couriers and letters, the plots made against Naples and Sicily, the instigation of the dukes of Lunembourg and Wirtemberg and count Furstemberg to make war on their King, and the fact that Francis was assisted in his war by foreign soldiers, contrary to the treaty of London. The French set forth the denial of the sureties for the marriage mentioned in the treaty of Noyon, the attempt to prolong the term for the payment of the 100,000 cr., and to get Madame Loyse into his hands, though only eleven and a half, the subsequent refusal to pay the said 100,000 cr., the retention of Navarre without compensating the King, the attempts to prevent the Swiss from entering into a defensive league with France, the practices with the Electors and the Swiss to recover aid for the invasion of Milan, the proclamations depriving Francis of the obedience of Flanders and Artois, the siege of Messencourt, the favor shown to his enemies, the cardinal Sion and duke de Barri, in their machinations against Milan, the countenance given by Don Emmanuel, Charles's ambassador at Rome, to those banished from Genoa and Milan, with other grievances. As to the war with De la Mark, it had not been made with Francis' consent, and proclamation had been issued that none of his subjects should enter De la Mark's service. As to Navarre, the succor sent thither was after the defiance, when he was no longer bound to Charles. They showed several reasons besides why it was not against the treaty. Denied the seizure of couriers and letters before the defiance, and the conspiracies. Said that Charles had used soldiers who were not subjects, as much as they had. Give at considerable length the replies to their grievances. The Cardinal said, concerning the marriage, that the Pope had written to him that the King Catholic had never mentioned a dispensation, but that it was one of Francis' own people who spoke of it, and that the Catholic King's countries would never suffer him to wait for Francis' daughter; on which the ambassadors of Flanders said that their master would have waited, if the treaties had not been broken.
At the first meeting, the Cardinal wished to have articles drawn on each side, that he might see how they proved their case; but yesterday he said that such weighty reasons had been alleged on both sides, that neither his master nor he could judge to which party assistance should be given; that neither of us would confess himself the invader, and that his master's and his power depended on our mutual consent. He advised them to meet again on Monday with their full powers, and he would see whether he could bring them to an agreement. He showed Du Prat a letter from the King Catholic, asking that his Chancellor might be sent back, whom he said he could not spare. Du Prat said it was a sign he did not wish for peace, as the others were persons whom he would hardly trust in such matters, and if the Chancellor went, Du Prat would return also, leaving De Selve and Gedoyn. Last night a great number of men, with artillery, ladders, &c., came to Ardres to take it, but the captain repulsed them, with the loss of but one man, several on the other side being killed. On Wednesday told the Cardinal that Francis, to please his master, was in danger of losing Ardres. He said there was no such intention. Hearing artillery all night, we sent De la Bastie to remind him of what he said, and, being told they had been repulsed, he answered they would not return. Therouenne was nearly surprised. The captain has three of the traitors, and a provost marshal is sent to execute them. Mons. de la Fayette has sent 300 men thither, as it is said that Beaurain is assembling his people. Hears that artillery has come hither in the night, and that musters are being made in England. Will send to London tomorrow to know the truth. The Cardinal said, yesterday, that some ships, both English and French, had been taken by the Spaniards, and that their merchants were molested, which was the reason for the present armament. Calais, 7 Sept.
7 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 297.
1553. GATTINARA and others to CHARLES V.
Have received his letters of the 3rd, and communicated them to the Cardinal, who will not change his opinion about the fishery and the safety of the ambassadors, nor agree to restrict the limits to Boulogne and Dunkirk, as the French say they are not safe till they get to Abbeville. The enclosed articles have been discussed by both parties. Have not signed them, on account of the difficulties in his letters. The French ambassadors have also sent the articles to their King, and expect an answer in a week. After dinner yesterday met the French ambassadors and the Nuncio, in the Cardinal's presence. The French chancellor, though he had replied to Gattinara at last meeting, was determined to have his say. Give a detailed account of the discussion. Have received the power he sent, which the Cardinal and Nuncio find in good form. Calais, 7 Sept. 1521.
8 Sept.
Vesp. F. III. 91. B. M.
Credentials for Theodoric de Schonberg in matters relating to the Order. Königsberg (in castro nostro Montiregio), 8 Sept. '21. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
8 Sept. Le Glay, Négoc. II. 507. 1555. DU PRAT, DE SELVE and GEDOYN to FRANCIS I.
Received his letters of the 3rd yesterday, after finishing their letter. The time is consumed in going and coming. The Cardinal is well disposed, but the ambassadors will not agree. He sent the treasurer of England and "Maistre Boulent" (Sir Thos. Boleyn) to explain the preparations going on in England, saying that they were customary about this time. De la Bastie has heard of the death of his wife, and wishes for leave to return. Du Prat has letters from the Cardinal to send to Madame. Yesterday a courier from La Fayette was pursued. Has accordingly written in cipher what the Cardinal said. Calais, 8 Sept.
Deciphered postscript.—The Cardinal, after the withdrawal of the Flemish ambassadors, showed them a copy of letters from the Count of Nassau to his master, touching the taking of Mouzon, and saying that siege would be laid to Mezieres. He advised Francis to station himself in some suitable place on the frontier, but not to give battle, but merely cut off provisions and stragglers. He said that the enemies of Francis were very boastful, and accused Chievres of selling their master for 50,000 cr., which Francis had given him to make the treaty, but that he had found the King Catholic quite ready to listen to reason, speaking little, but to the point; that Margaret, too, was devoted to peace, since it was she who brought about this conference, but that some malicious people, both in France and England, had prejudiced the King Catholic against him, the former telling him Wolsey was entirely French, and the latter that he was conducting affairs as if all the authority was with him, so that his master "étoit reputé pour beste." He then said he had told the King Catholic that Henry would never suffer him to invade Milan, and expressed his great wish to succeed in obtaining a peace, which was difficult just now, owing to the pride of the other party; and he saw no way towards it, except by a truce. He had done nothing to the prejudice of France, but carried the affair of Flanders in favor of Francis; and he requested us not to distrust him if we saw him give any writing to the King Catholic's ambassadors, for he would do more for France than the King Catholic. He had refused a great sum of money, which that King offered him, and only kept two small bars of silver, which cannot be worth more than 2,000 francs. Have again thanked him for the good will which they see more and more he bears towards them, and prayed him to continue it, saying that Francis would not be ungrateful.
He spoke to us more openly than he was wont, and seemed very dissatisfied with the council of the King Catholic, especially with the Chancellor, not having found them as tractable as he hoped. As to the late lord Chievres, we said that Francis was not one to corrupt people, and had only given him some gold plate worth about 2,000 cr., because the King Catholic had given something of the same value to the late Grand Master. He seems to know that this peace will scarcely be brought about, and so endeavors to pass the time, thinking by that means to save his master's and his own honor. Heard about Mouzon this morning from letters of Alençon, and resolved to adopt a higher tone than they have been accustomed to do. Told the Cardinal that Mouzon was a place of small value outside the kingdom, acquired by former kings of France, and that Francis had put men into Maizières, and the enemy had sought a weak point, but would not dare to come further. Have ascertained by various channels that Wolsey spoke the truth, and was very ill satisfied with his success in Flanders. Will yet try to get some aid from him or his master. The bp. of Ely, while conducting Du Prat through the town, said the Pope was a strange fellow (ung merveilleux esprit), and that the council knew they must manage the matter another way, and have a separate peace with France.
Le Glay,
Négoc. II. 514.
Decipher.—On Tuesday "Maistre Briant" came to Du Prat, to ask him to dine alone with the Cardinal on the next day. After dinner he showed him some letters which he had received from Italy by a Florentine courier, and which stated that the King's force there was inferior to the other, and that 6,000 Almains had passed in front of his and the Venetian army, and joined Prosper Colonna. Parma was in great danger. The lightning had struck the house of lord de l'Escun there, killing his cook; it also struck the bridges over the Pau for the passage of his army, as well as the castle of Milan. He said he had seen letters from Nassau that his army was daily increasing, and that Maisieres was besieged; that the King Catholic had sent to Navarre, and the Admiral would find more resistance than he thought; and that the Emperor, who was feeble and sickly, had gone to Brussels. He then spoke of the indissoluble love England bore to France, and which he himself meant to maintain. He did not desire the papacy or anything else; for he had more goods than a churchman ought to have, and his only object was to serve his master. He then spoke of the reasons that had induced Henry to hold this conference, and said the nobility and people of England were quite against France, and he thought a peace was the only way to get his master out of the necessity to take part in this contention, but he found the Imperialists very obstinate, and the turn things were taking was not hopeful. He said that the King Catholic had sold lands in Naples to get money; that his people were eager for war, from hatred of Robt. de la Marche; and that he had borrowed money on several German abbeys. He begged Du Prat to tell him frankly whether Francis would prefer a truce or a peace. Said he would refuse neither, if honorable; on this the Cardinal advised a truce, saying that he would submit to lose his head if a peace did not follow in six months, on what conditions Francis pleased, except the marriage, for Charles was much pressed by his subjects to take a wife, and the Spaniards were much inclined towards [the daughter] of Portugal, because she was the issue of queen Elizabeth (Isabella), and he would obtain a large sum of money by her. Said the King would scarcely condescend to leave Navarre, or to make peace with the Florentines, as they had so deeply injured him without cause; and that there would be danger, after the truce was made, of the Almains entering Italy, on pretence of the coronation. He said an expedient should be found for Navarre; that the Pope would not abandon the Florentines, and he would arrange that Charles should not enter Italy during the truce; and also asked for letters patent for the English merchants, and that a proclamation might be made on the French coasts. Said the King would be sure to grant it. He then called in some of the English council, and said, "See if we have not cause to be satisfied with the French. In our necessity they have supplied us with corn, which those whom we hold so much our friends have refused us; and the Chancellor here has been telling me that to remove the fear they might be in by reason of this war, the King his master will cause a truce to be made similar to that which has been made for the empire, and that a patent shall be sent me of the form of that proclaimed, to show to the King my master." Afterwards he drew me apart and said to me, "You see the means I must find to content these men." Du Prat thanked him for his good will to France, and said he had always been convinced of his sincerity. Wolsey said he was well aware it was reported he had made treaties in Flanders contrary to the promises made by Henry to Francis; but it was not true, and he would sooner have lost his head than allowed what he had built up to be destroyed; that such a course would have lost him the confidence of the Princes; that the duke of Buckingham had been beheaded for opposing the Cardinal in promoting the alliance of England and France; and that Francis might know his sincerity by the warnings he had given him about the Pope. He also said that if Francis had followed his advice, and not moved against the King Catholic till he was in Spain, Charles would have been compelled to raise a great armament by sea, the Pope would not have joined him, and Francis might have brought him to do as he wished at a quarter the expense.
Such was our conversation. Events will show what is to come of it. Sees so many appearances to the contrary, "qu'il faut avoir bon pied et bon oueil, et ne se fier trop aux gens."
9 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 303.
1557. GATTINARA and others to CHARLES V.
Since their letters of the 7th, Wolsey sent his maitre d'hotel to say that he wished them all to come to mass, and dine with him, and, if they desired it, he would send for the chancellor of France. Said, if he came, they must all have precedence of him, as they represented but one person; but Wolsey decided to invite him and his colleagues another time. Gattinara showed him the letters in Charles's hand about his return, when he said it would be better for the Emperor's affairs for him to stop; that he would try to persuade the French chancellor to remain, but, if not, he should also be obliged to go. He showed them a letter in English, by which it appeared that the King his master was greatly pleased with Wolsey's negotiations, and was more delighted to hear of Charles's great virtues and excellent qualities than of all the rest. He told them the King thought 3,000 men not sufficient for the Emperor's voyage into Spain, but that he required 10,000 Spaniards accustomed to the sea; to which Wolsey had replied, that there was an article for the increase or diminution of forces, according to necessity. He said that last Saturday he asked La Bastye where his master was, and was told he had not been heard of for eight days; that he then inquired how it was that with so large a force and so many Swiss he never showed himself, but allowed his country to be pillaged. La Bastye answered that he did not know, but thought he might be in despair, because so large a force was opposed to him; but Wolsey replied he should rather fear Charles's virtues and good qualities than his army.
The treasurer of Calais has just told him that a merchant of the town, who had gone to Boulogne, had been allowed to purchase wine, but the captain would not permit him to return, saying that he knew the king of England would declare against his master, for he was arming his ships, and had mustered 10,000 archers to assist the Emperor; that the Cardinal had visited the Emperor, and concluded what he pleased, and that the English did not keep their promises. Wolsey immediately sent the Treasurer and Boleyn to the French chancellor, to ask him where these reports came from, or else to contradict them; and they brought back word that the Chancellor was displeased, and had written to tell the captain he ought not to believe anything of the sort; and as for himself, he did not believe either the King or Cardinal would break faith. One of his people said he was told of the preparations by an Italian, for whom the Chancellor sent; and he said that he had seen musters of archers, said to number 10,000, which the prelates of England were going to send to the assistance of the Pope, who had asked for them. The Chancellor then forbade him to spread the report, saying, if Henry were raising an army, it would be more likely in favor of France. As to the wine, the Chancellor said he would send for some himself, and give the Cardinal half a dozen barrels. Told him he should have it assayed before he drank it; which he will do. He acknowledges that before leaving England he had arranged for the secret preparation of 10,000 archers, under the shadow of the clergy, but that the archbishop of Canterbury had made his musters too openly. Believe that the French chancellor secretly suspects the English, which will be all the better for them.
Richmond herald has just come, and says that a servant of the English ambassador in France has arrived with letters in cipher to the Cardinal, which shall be communicated to them when deciphered. He said also that on Friday news came from Troyes that Masieres was taken, and soon after the contrary, that the town could hold out for some days, for which cause Francis was determined to leave Troye today to go and raise the siege; that Bourbon was going thither with 10,000 foot and 5,000 men-at-arms, which they suppose is a mistake for 500; and that of the 12,000 Swiss he expected, he has only 6,000, in bad order, without harness. Nassau should be hastened in his expedition against Masieres, and warned to look out. The messenger was detained at Paris, and his letters taken, but being in English, and in cipher, they were returned. He says they are preparing artillery at Monstreul, and he heard that the garrisons of that place, Boulogne and Ardre were going to attack Tournaham that night. Sent immediately to warn the captain. Calais, 9 Sept.
9 Sept.
R. O. St. P. I. 51.
1558. PACE to WOLSEY.
Advertises him, as of himself, that the King deferred writing yesterday letters of his own hand "for the saying of his matins in honorem Divæ Virginis, and this day harts and hounds let his grace to do the same." The King has ordered Pace to write the clause in his other letters. He greatly doubts about sending the ships to Bourdeaux, "and this hath moved him so to dispute that matter with your grace as he doth." The count de Chiliars, a noble of Spain, suddenly arrived yesterday, "and used very stately manner with the King at his first meeting, as his grace noted and said." After communication through the Spanish physician, the King was well content with him, and he highly praised the King's manners and person. Oking, 9 Sept.
Hol. Add.
10 Sept.
R. O. St. P. I. 52.
1559. PACE to WOLSEY.
After dispatching the post, his letters to the King arrived, dated the 6th, enclosing a copy of Dorvalis' letter to the captain of Tournay, and an extract of news touching Italy and the cantons of Switzerland. The King is satisfied with the two points touching the conducting of the Emperor into Spain, and the towns to be recovered. He will be very glad to hear of the taking of Tournay. He is well pleased to find that all things in Italy and Switzerland succeed better for the Pope and the Emperor than for the French king. Oking, 10 Sept.
Hol. Add.
10 Sept.
Mon. Habs. 308.
After writing yesterday, met the Nuncio and the French ambassadors at the Cardinal's, where the powers were exhibited, and the letters to the count de Carpy discussed, which detained them so long that they had no time to examine the treaties. The Cardinal, being ill of a flux, proposed to appoint councillors on his part to look over the treaties with the deputies of each embassy, and report to him. This is a good plan for creating delay. The Cardinal told them he could not persuade the French Chancellor to stop if Gattinara left. Wish to know Charles's pleasure in the matter. Enclose an extract of the French news given them by the Cardinal. Believe that Francis tells the English ambassador the opposite of what he thinks, although the ambassador says he does not think he has entire confidence in England. Wolsey fears Charles's army will be short of victuals. Advise him not to disband, but rather increase it, especially with the horse remaining with him. If the French attempt to cut off his army, he should force them to fight. Calais, 10 Sept. 1521.
The Cardinal has sent word that the captain of Tournaham has taken Ardre with 50 men, hearing that the French garrison were gone out of the town, but he found nothing of value except the artillery. Wolsey advises the walls to be pulled down, or the town to be burnt. Write to Beaurein to do what he thinks best, if he cannot keep it till he hears from Charles.
10 Sept.
R. O.
Wrote last on the 6th. News has come from Don Ferdinando that the Turks have taken Belgrade, the strongest place on that side of Hungary. The Hungarian ambassador had not heard of it, but it is supposed to be true. He does all he can to persuade the Emperor to assist him, and will go hence to you, and then to the King. He told us that Don Ferdinando had sent to the King of Hungary 3,000 infantry, paid for three months, and that there are several places between Belgrade and Buda able to resist, if they are fortified; and that he was charged to go to the French King, with the Emperor's consent, to persuade him to a truce for the good of Christendom. On this we counselled him to follow your advice. Berghes says, the council find daily your opinions "veritables and salubres." Lord Nassau, in letters received yesterday, makes the enterprise of Masieres more difficult than before; says "the town is beaten in five parts," and supposes that the defenders have foreseen whether it is tenable or not, and that their master has promised them assistance.
The Emperor, having heard of a great assembly the French king is making for that purpose, intends to go to Namur; and if his army remove from that siege, and march against certain places on the frontier of Henault, the Emperor will go to Mons. He does not intend to assault Masieres unless it can be done without great loss. The certainty will be known between this and Friday. The Pope's ambassador has had no letters from Italy, and thinks they may be intercepted by the Venetians, who, as Bannysius wrote from Trent on the 29th ult., were at Pontevego. Other letters of the 26th say that the said army, numbering 500 spears and 6,000 footmen, was at Cremona, commanded by Andrea Grettye, with full power to act without consultation, which is contrary to their old customs. The Pope's ambassador has just come to us with letters from Friar Nicholas, archbishop of Capua, dated Florence, 29th ult., which state that their army before Parma numbers 18,000 foot, 1,500 spears and 1,000 light horse, beside the rebels of Milan, and that they had commenced to batter the city, "saying the Frenchmen there being in garrison may fight with two hearts;" that lord Lottrike had left Cremona, and retreated to Milan,—a great discomfort for those of Parma; and that all the Swiss in the French service in Milan had gone home.
Bannysius, writing from Trent on the 2nd, says the same of the Swiss; and he expected to hear of the taking of Parma in three days, but the Venetians intercept all the letters.
No news yet of the final diet to be kept by the Swiss at Succa on the 26th. The Pope's orator is in good hope of them, and says his master has money enough there to pay 10,000, besides provisions for future wages. He cannot believe the French king has any in his service, except a few who have run away from home.
Have asked the Pope's ambassador to send his letters to his fellow in England, for your better information. The Emperor has recovered a new sum of money from lady Cevres. It seems to us "that the resolution of the Swiss, the success of Italy, and Masieres, will be a great instruction to the affairs ensuing hereafter; and when there be no advantage for the Emperor, with the singular and excellent previdence of your grace in the business, and with this reasonable color of the Turks, his majesty cannot fail, whatsoever happens, to have an honorable expedient." Brussels, 10 Sept., at five in the evening. Signed.
Pp. 5. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's good grace.
10 Sept.
Calig. D. VIII. 90. B. M.
"Please it your grace to understand that on Sunday last past the French king shew[ed me that] he had word from the Admiral, by whom he was advertised that the Sp[aniards] have left Navarre, and be gone into Castile, all save two thousand, [who] be left in Pampilion; and he said the said Admiral marched, and s[hould] be shortly within the realm of Navarre; and also that the said Spa[niards] fortify their towns in Castile, upon the frontiers of Navarre e ... fear of the army the Admiral brings, but I believe that and the sa[id] Admiral be entered once into Navarre, the Spaniards will meet him or [he] come nigh Castile. Also he showed me he reckoned that Mons. de Lautrec should surely give battle as the said Sunday, or within a day or two of the same, and not fail; and I hear say for a truth the Spaniards that be in the Emperor's army have sault[ed] Parma thrice, but Mons. de Lescu, and they that be within i[t], defended it so well that they wan it not; howbeit one of the best captains with the said Mons. de Lescu is sore hurt, whose name is Signor Frederick de Bauge, an Italian. Furthermore, the French king showed me he had word from Mesiers [that] Mons. de Nassau had been in hand with the Almains to go [to] the saulte of the said town, and they would not; and then he went to the Namurese and Flemings, and they said, seeing the lanceknights would not go to the said saulte, they would not; and in conclusion he gat a few to assault the said town, which he said were well beaten and put back, and a captain slain, for whom Mons. de Nassau was marvellous sorry; which captain was put in a pipe, and sent into Flanders to be buried, as he said.
"Please it your grace, this day the French king showed me that a recounter hath been between his folks and the Emperor's, and that six score men of arms of his have discomfited 500 horsemen and 250 footmen, and have taken a count of Almain; and showed me also how Mons. de Beurain, with 5,000 with him, besieged Arde, and gave it a saulte; b[ut] they that were within it defended it till Foyet came and raised the said siege, so that the said Mons. de Beurain was fain to depart and leave his artillery and such baggages as he brought behind him; but he said he will make such bulwar[ks] ... afore the gates of the said town, and put such folks [in them], that if they come again another time they shall not find it [so easy to] be gotten as it is now; and as for his setting forth a ... towards his camp, though he and also my Lady showed ... have set forwards as on Saturday last past and all ... on Monday, yet nevertheless he is not as yet de[parted] out of this town, nor as I hear say will not go t ...; nor also Mons. de Bourbon is not as yet ready, so as now ... he shall not, for all his hasty sayings, be ready to give ba[ttle] afore the latter end of this month at the next. And to advert[ise your grace] of such news as I have learned of such persons as I [have hired] for my money, which news I will not assure your grace to be true, [for neither] the French king nor my Lady show me nothing thereof; howbeit, [the said] persons have showed me few things but that I have found [to be true]; and this day they showed me that when Mons. de Lautrec c[ame to the] river of Po, thinking to have passed the said river with his a[rmy] towards the Pope's army, the Swiss that be with him said they would g[o no] farther, for it was in their treaty that they should not [make] war against the Emperor. To the which the said Mons. Lautrec answered and desired them not to make war against the Emperor [other]wise than thus; they were bound to defend the French king and all his pa[trimony] against all men that would invade him; and they knew the Emperor had [laid] siege to Parma, which was parcel of the duchy of Milan, wherefore they w[ere] bound by their treaty to defend the said Parma against [his] army. And whether they be peased or not I cannot ascertain [your grace]. I reckon that one of these two things caused them so to sa[y, that] either the Emperor hath some intelligence with them, or else [the] French king hath such need of them he cannot forego them; and there[fore] ... pick a quarrel to get money for such Swiss as came hither w ... were in Bourgoyne, picked a quarrel as I heard say, and sai[d that the] wine there was so dear they could not live, insomuch [that the] French king sent to every one of them a crown above his wages. In case this be true, I think within this month your grace [shall] hear more. And for money the French king maketh all the shift he can [to] borrow of every man still; and I assure your grace in my mind y ... in France this winter a marvellous disorder, for the French king ha[th] ... what in Guienne and here fast upon 40,000 footmen ... own realm, and all this winter the third part thereof shall have b ... of him, and to work they will not, but live upon the poor people, w[ho,] as I suppose, will make some business amongst themselves; for and they destroy the poor people as they begin to do, they can pay [no] tailis within these two or three years; for such poverty [as] is now saie I never. And me think it were good Gonson we[nt and] saw the New Haven, and viewed the same well, and all the landing places thereabouts, for the perfect knowledge thereof may be the cause of the doing of an enterprise; for in case the King's highness shall have any business with them, his grace would not but that the said haven were viewed for much good; and if his grace have nothing to do with them, his labour be not lost." Troyes, 10 Sept. Signed.
Cipher, pp. 3. Add.


  • 1. The King is afterwards spoken of in the third person.
  • 2. The date added in another hand.