Henry VIII: December 1521, 1-10

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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'Henry VIII: December 1521, 1-10', in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523, (London, 1867) pp. 780-788. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol3/pp780-788 [accessed 22 April 2024]


December 1521

1 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 164. B. M.
Wrote yesterday. This afternoon the Emperor sent the Audiencer Haneton to us to tell us that the town of Tournay had surrendered, the persons and goods of the inhabitants being saved, and the castle was ready to yield on like conditions in fifteen days, but Nassau would grant only eight. Went to the Chancellor that evening, who said he was very well pleased with your proceedings at Calais. They have almost determined to send the sovereign of Flanders to England, which we have favored, in consideration of his good affection to the King. At this moment the master of the Posts has come from the Emperor, to whom he had delivered letters from the allied army in Italy, stating that they had taken the town of Milan with the help of the inhabitants, and the French and Venetians had withdrawn into the park under the castle, where it is thought they cannot continue. It is almost impossible that one of them can escape.
Since writing, the Emperor has sent us one of his chamber, telling us that 300 Venetian spears had surrendered, "leurs lances sur leurs cuysses," who were immediately dismounted and disarmed, "et renvoyes en pourpoints," their two captains taken prisoners, and another slain, and that such guards were set upon the passages that they trusted shortly to give a good account of the French (rendre a sa majeste conte de messieurs les Francois). Hear that the city and castle of Tournay are in his hands. Thought right to send Richmond with this good news. Oudenarde, 1 Dec., at 12 o'clock at night. Signed.
Pp. 2.
1 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 214. B. M.
Recommending James formerly bp. of Glasgow, commendatory of Abirbroith and Kilvynnyng, the Chancellor, to the archbishopric of St. Andrew's, vacant by the death of Andrew, late abp. and commendatory of Dunfermling. Stirling Castle, kalendis Decembris. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: "Rmo, &c. car. Anconitano, rerum regni Scotiæ promotori," &c.
R. O. 2. Duplicate of the above. Same date. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
1 Dec.
R. O.
To the same effect. Stirling, kal. Dec. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
1 Dec.
Calig. E. II. (12.) B. M.
Begs credence for his counsellor Poillot going into Scotland. Paris, 1 Dec. Signed.
Fr., mutilated, p. 1. Add.: "A mons. le legat cardinal d'Yort et primat d'Angleterre."
Calig. D. VII. 165. B. M. 1823. FRANCIS I. to [WOLSEY].
Will perceive by his letters to Henry that he had sent ambassadors charged to treat about Tournay, in pursuance of what was proposed between Wolsey and the French chancellor. Has received notice from La Mothe, a gentleman at Tournay, that the castle and town have made some composition with the Emperor elect, that if Francis did not come to their succor they will surrender. Thinks the Emperor has hurried on the arrangement, as he knew Francis would put the town into the hands of [England]. Francis is not much injured by its capture. Writes only to show the great advantage it would have been to England in promoting the peace he is so anxious to bring about; and if Wolsey can expedite his wishes (mectre a execution ce que [je de]mande), he should do so promptly, for the time is short. "Escript à_" (blank in the letter).
Mutilated, pp. 2.
1 Dec.
Vit. B. IV. 206. B. M.
1824. CLERK to [WOLSEY].
"Please it your grace, by the last which ... the 28th day of this last month I certified your grace of the taking of Milan, Pavia and Cremona. At which time also, according unto such reports as then ran here, I advertised your grace that the Frenchmen had withdrawn themselves out of the city of Milan, and were dispersed into sundry ways, so that of likelihood there was none of them like to escape. It may like your grace now to understand that there is more certainty come from thence, viz., that the same self night that the Frenchmen fled out of the city of Milan it rained so sore that such part of the Pope's camp as should have followed them, beaten with weather, forbare the following of them; and so the Frenchmen be wholly together retreated to a city of the Venetians called Bargomo, which is 30 miles from Milan, where there is gathered together, as I understand, the number of 800 spears and an 8,000 footmen, and would have entered the city but the rulers there would in no wise receive them, and so they be yet still. They have lost Milan, Pavia, Parma, Plesance and Cremona, and [in] a manner all the duchy of Milan except two or three strongholds, that is to say, the castle of Milan and the castle of Cremona, which two castles be impregnable otherwise than by famine. The Frenchmen would have entered again upon C[remona], but they were beaten back. The Pope's holiness hath been sick these six days, and this night past had a very sore night, insomuch that his Holiness' physicians thought that he should not a scaped till day. It is noised that his Holiness had rest this day; howbeit there be not many that can tell that, for there cometh very few at him. I am credibly informed that his Holiness is in very great danger. Almighty God be his succour! If the c ... should fall, I would to God your grace were he ... 14 days there were no man so worthy ne yet so likely to have the garland. I shall n[ot fail] to do what I can.
Sends an old chart of the duchy of Milan, by which Wolsey will see "what a feather the Frenchmen have lost." Has sent other platts before, but none in which the cities and castles are so well set out. Rome, 1 Dec.
Hol., chiefly cipher, deciphered, pp. 4, badly mutilated.
2 Dec.
R. O. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 278
1825. CLERK to WOLSEY.
In addition to what I wrote last night, Campeggio told me this morning that the Pope was dead. Eight days ago, when the news of the capture of Milan arrived, he went out sporting at a place of his, called Manlian, six miles from Rome. Coming home he caught cold, and the next day was ill with fever. I met him coming home, "and methought I never saw him more lusty." Every one here begins to shift for himself, as the city will be in disorder till we have a new Pope. "I beseech Almighty God send us one to His pleasure. Here is hard choice." The King's title is "under lead," and signed by all the Cardinals, but I cannot get it from them. They always say they will send it themselves. Rome, 2 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's good grace. London.
Vit. B. IV. 154*. B. M. 1826. [CLERK] to_.
"... wards I thank you for your kind letters, [and] heartily pray you to find the means between you and master Tewke to move my lord that master Myclo, the new treasurer in master Heron is room, may have a commission to deliver my brother some money for me, for my days be expired of such money as I have received already at my departure from you. And master More can do any good ye may speak unto him; and which of ye all dare best, let him speak first.
"Ye must also be advertised how that in this packet there is a letter superscribed unto the King's highness, the which letter must be delivered unto the Pope's ambassador there with you, for they durst not here make the superscription unto the said ambassador, fearing interception."
Hol.; cipher, all but a few words. Undeciphered.
2 Dec.
R. O. Mon. Habs. 474.
We send to the bp. of Badajoz and Elne the form of the surrender of Tournay into our hands, and the good news we have received about the same you will take as great pleasure therein as ourselves. Odenarde, 2 Dec. 1521. Signed. Countersigned: Lalemande.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
2 Dec.
R. O. S. P. VI. 86.
Has written to the bishop of Vadajoz and Helna to inform her of the reduction of Tournay, and the entry of the Pope's and the imperial army into Milan. Begs she will communicate it to the King. Aldinardea (Oudenarde), 2 Nov. (fn. 1) 1521. Signed.
Sp., p. 1. Add.
2 Dec.
R. O. Mon. Habs. 475.
I desire credence for the bishop of Badajoz, to whom I am writing the news, and I wish for your advice on the disposition of my affairs. My ambassadors, who returned two days ago, tell me of the great trouble you take to serve me. I am expecting your letter about my affairs mentioned to my ambassadors at your leaving Calais. Oudenarde, 2 Dec. 1521. Signed and countersigned. Sealed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.: A mons. le card. d'York, legat, primat et lieutenant general d'Angleterre. Endd.
2 Dec.
R. O. St. P. II. 91.
1830. SURREY to PACE.
In his last letter by Umfrey Rogerson, said that his disease was better, but yesterday it attacked him again, "so sore that I have had twenty-two since that time." Wishes the commission to be sent with haste. It would be best for the King to send a commission to discharge him hence before hearing him before the Council; otherwise this land, which is now in peace, might take hurt. Will show the King how it can be kept without greater expense than Kildare had before his coming. Damage will ensue unless such order be taken. If he is discharged before coming to speak with the King, he must be paid. Sir John Stile will need no money, if the army is discharged before Candlemas. "Scribbled in my bed," 2 Dec., 2 p.m.
Hol. Add.: To the right worshipful Master Secretary.
3 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 165. B. M.
Wrote on the 1st, by Richmond, the news from Italy and from Tournay. Have since obtained the letter to the Emperor from Milan, which is in Spanish. Enclose an extract. Further news is looked for, every hour, of the progress of the French, which it is expected has been ill for them. Tournay was surrendered to the Emperor, in the same form that it was to the French King. Today Nassau enters it, and takes the oaths of the people. The captain of the castle had given hostages for its delivery within fifteen days if he were not succored, and sent De la Motte to inform the French king. The Emperor has promised to see him and his men conveyed in safety to France. Charles has agreed to pay Francis Seken at Christmas 37,500 florins of gold, and the same sum on the Christmas following, in full discharge of his service. Oudenarde, 3 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal. Endd.
Galba, B. VII. 163. B. M. ii. "Extract of the letter in Spanish directed to the Emperor, bearing [date] at Milan, 19 Nov."
On the 19th the two cardinals and captains of the army removed from Marignano with all their company, in order to assail Milan. They approached the city about midday, and drew up the army "within certain wynes" (vineyards). The lanzknechts and Spaniards had the advantage that day, and were followed by Sion and the Swiss. The Spanish captain, Ant. de Leva, led the horse of the vanguard. Cardinal de Medicis and the marquis of Mantua were leaders of the battle. Prospero Colonna and the marquis of Pescara were with the Almains and Spaniards, and on coming to the little faubourg without the great faubourg of Port Cenese they found their enemies had made a feeble rampart. This they burned; and the marquis De Pescara told the foot that whoever of them would be lodged should enter into the town. They then advanced courageously, and put the enemy to flight. The Almain and Spanish foot then entered, and won the first and second faubourg. At the gates of the city, they took prisoner Theod[ore] Trevolse, chief captain of the Venetians. Before their entry, 50 Spanish foot compelled 300 Venetian men-at-arms to surrender. Julio St. Severyn was taken. The foot had with them 4 le ... serpentines, which needed not to be discharged. The French had withdrawn into the park of the castle. They were that night going to remove towards Pavia, if not hindered by the want of a bridge over the Ticino at Bufalor. Others thought they would go to Lodi. Andrea Gritti was also taken. Trevolse was taken fleeing upon his mule, and in great danger of his life, owing to a contest between the Spaniards and Almains to whom he should belong. The entry into the city was effected "about 23 hours." The Cardinal de Medici and the marquis of Mantua entered perhaps about six hours of the night; ten o'clock after our reckoning. All diligence was used to keep the passages that the French should not escape.
At this point, news came that the rebels of Milan had taken the passages. "Si esto es, mañana les haremos la fiesta."
Pp. 2, mutilated.
3 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 198. B. M.
1832. ALBANY to DACRE.
Since his arrival in Scotland, understands that Dacre has received Scotch rebels in England in "Werk and at Our Lady of Stele," and intends to help them further, notwithstanding the truce. Cannot believe that the king of England, "ane sa vertuus prince," should have commissioned him to this effect, having always desired ambassadors sent to him to treat for peace. Will advise Henry thereof, that it may be seen that he is anxious for peace, though Dacre has often provoked him "to semblably resset his fugitivis." Edinburgh, 3 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
4 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 199. B. M. Green's Princesses, IV. 303.
Albany is come to Scotland for the good of the realm, "and to helpe me to be answard and obayd of my lyfeing," which is withheld from her, "as I have vryten ofton tymes to you of be foor sopos ze erar hyndad me than fordrad me;" but, as my lord governor has come for a peace, trusts he will be met in a like spirit, "sopos hys sarvandys hath not dwn thayr part in the kypen of sam." Thinks she should have had thanks from the King her brother, for keeping "a gwd part to thys rawlme, beth for hys honour and myne." If she had not, all the world might have reproached her. Could not have dispensed with Albany's counsel. Knows well that Dacre has done his part to "hynder me at the Kyng's grace my brothars hand." He will provoke Albany to retaliate in the receiving of rebels. He has "fortified my lord of Angus" against her and the council, notwithstanding the bond he caused her to take of him. Edinburgh, 4 December.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: "To my lord Dakars."
5 Dec.
S. B.
To be bailiff of the isle of Jarresey, with fees, and 20 francs Tournois, from 10 June 6 Hen. VIII. The same office was granted to Th. Lemprier, by patent, 10 Nov. 1 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 5 Dec. 13 Hen. VIII.
Endd.: "Pole."
Pat. 13 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 13.
6 Dec.
R. O.
1835. CHARLES V.
Protestation by Charles V. complaining of divers injuries received from Francis I. contrary to the treaty of London; as, of taking into his pay Robert de la Marche, invading Luxemborgh and Navarre, attempts upon Italy and Sicily. The Emperor now demands the restoration of Fontarabia, and requires, in event of noncompliance, that Henry shall declare war against France in accordance with existing treaties. Oudenarde, 6 Dec. 1521. Signed: Charles. Sealed.
Lat., vellum. Noted: "El requirimiento para el serenissimo rey de Inglaterra de parte de v. mad." (vuestra majestad).
* A copy of this document, but with date of 4 Dec., is in the Mon. Habs. p. 476.
6 Dec.
R. O.
I desire credence for the bishop of Badajos and Helna, to whom I am writing. According to the advice of the Legate, I send you the letters patent, requiring your assistance against the common enemy, conformably to the treaties. Any alteration required shall be made on information to that effect. Audenarde, 6 Dec. 1521. Signed and countersigned.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
6 Dec.
R. O.
1837. The SAME to WOLSEY.
To the same effect. Audenarde, 6 Dec. 1521. Signed and countersigned. Sealed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.. A mons. le cardinal d'York, legat, primat et lieutenant general d'Angleterre. Endd.
6 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 480.
Has heard the report of his ambassadors on their return from Calais, which was very agreeable to him, considering the good success of his affairs in Italy and here, of which he has written to the King. Is already making preparations for his voyage. His colleague will start soon. Sends him meanwhile the power for treating about the truce, and for making treaties with any kings and princes, at the advice of the Legate, so that he may listen to Wolsey's proposals for inducing the kings of Hungary, Poland, Denmark, and Portugal, and the duke of Savoy, to join. This may be discussed before speaking of the truce, about which he can take no resolution till he knows the affairs of Spain; and the Bishop must, therefore, ask Wolsey to delay, if Francis has already sent his ambassadors. Has despatched his letters patent of requisition to the King, according to the treaty of London; as Wolsey suggested to the ambassadors. If he say that he intended that the Pope should send his letters of requisition jointly, the Bishop must answer that Charles cannot require this by the treaty of London, as no letters of ratification or obligation were interchanged; and, besides, he has already declared for Charles, and made war in his behalf; Charles therefore desires the King to notify the contents of the letters patent to Francis, to require him to desist from invasion, restore Fontarabia and his other conquests, with all damages and expenses. If Wolsey reply that Milan, Tournay and other conquests must be returned by Charles, he shall say that the treaty does not require this, as the provocation was on the other side, and Charles has merely defended himself. They must be retained as indemnification for the damage and expense caused by the French.
Wishes Henry to send some one to meet the bishop of Strasbourg and the bishop of Veroli on the day after Twelfth Day, to try and gain over the Swiss, for which the present time is propitious. If Henry will send any one, even secretly, Charles will have general instructions drawn up for him. If Henry will not send, the Pope and Charles will be compelled to make a defensive and offensive league with the Swiss, in which Henry and others can be comprehended, on payment of their share of the expense. He must press the Legate for the payment of the 3,000 foot, promised in case the truce was not concluded by All Saints' Day; which has now been due for a month. As to the protection of the Low Countries, does not intend to cause Henry more expense than the treaty binds him to incur, and before leaving will put the country in good order, so that he will not have much trouble in defending it.
Sends a duplicate of the letters patent, in order that he may get an attestation by a notary apostolic, of the presentation of the letters, on the back of one copy. If this cannot be managed secretly, he must suggest to the King and the Legate the advisability of presenting these letters when the French ambassadors are present, demanding their execution and a certificate of their presentation. If they will not agree to this, the Bishop must say it would be well to have the presentation written on the back, one copy to be kept by himself. If they refuse this, a letter missive must be given to him, saying that the has presented the letter.
Fr., draft. A marginal note states that the last paragraph was to be put into cipher.
6 Dec.
R. O.
1839. CHARLES V.
Commission to Bernard de Mesa, his resident ambassador in England, to continue negotiations for a treaty of peace with England, at Wolsey's suggestion, which had been attempted in vain at the congress at Calais. Oudenarde, 6 Dec. 1521. Signed and sealed. Noted: "El poder para la tregua."
Lat., vellum.
6 Dec. 1840. For SIR EDW. GULDEFORD.
To be constable of Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque Ports Hampton Court, 6 Dec.—Vacated because enrolled in the first part of this year, according to the first warrant. (See 20 Nov.)
Pat. 13 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 9.
6 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 203. B. M. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 287.
1841. ALBANY to DACRE.
Requests a passport for his secretary, Gaultier Malyne, and a company of six or seven persons, whom he sends to Henry, on matters touching the peace of the two kingdoms. 6th Dec. 1521. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
6 Dec.
P. S. b.
On the death of Edm. Thorneton, late abbot, have written a letter to the King for a congé d'élire, which they send by the bearers. Beseech him to forward their suit. 23 Nov. 1521. "Teste," Hampton Court, 6 Dec. 13 Hen. VIII.
7 Dec.
Rym. XIII. 760.
Essex and Herts.—Writ to the escheator for restitution of temporalities, having been commended by the Pope to Thomas cardinal of York. Westm., 7 Dec.
ii. Similar writs for Beds. and Bucks, Linc., Northumb., Kent and Middlesex, Oxf. and Berks, Northt., Surrey and Sussex, York, Norf. and Suff., Cambridge, and Cumb.; also to John Milburn, mayor and escheator of London.
Pat. 13 Hen. VIII. p. 3, m. 14.
7 Dec.
Calig B. VI. 196b. B. M.
1844. DACRE to ALBANY.
"Answer of the duke of Albany's letter hereunto annexed. (fn. 2) " Knows no such rebel received. The overtures for peace had never come from England, but from the council of Scotland, yet they had broken three several treaties after their accustomable manner. Dacre has always tried to preserve the peace. If the Scotch council will send down a reasonable man to the Borders to hear him, thinks there will be no difficulty on the part of England. Norham, 7 Dec.
Pp. 2. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace.
8 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 197b. B. M.
"Answer of the Queen of Scots' letter hereunto annexed." (fn. 3)
Perceives she has written under Albany's direction. Fears she has been abused with sinister counsel. As to the receiving of rebels, he has denied it to the Duke. Hopes the King will take her assurance that she never failed to him. It is not his part to reproach her. Had never counselled Angus against her honor. She took him for her husband without consent of Henry, and ought to go to him by the laws of God, or show cause otherwise. Norham, 8 Dec.
Pp. 2. Written on the same paper as the preceding.
9 Dec.
R. O.
Desires a safeconduct for Galter, abbot of Glenluce, and twelve persons with him, that he may come to speak with Henry on matters concerning both realms, and, if necessary, pass through England; the safeconduct to endure for a year, according to the article of peace passed between them. Edinburgh, 9 Dec. Signed by Albany.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
9 Dec.
Calig. B. I. 187. B. M.
Albany has come into the realm for the good of her son, and will cause her to be "obeyed of her living." Her unfriends have caused her brother to be displeased with her. Trusts the King will be satisfied with her conduct. Her son is young, the realm hitherto deficient in good rule and justice. Albany is come to remedy the same, and desires his grace's favor. Begs the abstinence may be prolonged till St. John's Day, at Midsummer, or further, that ambassadors may be sent to treat for peace. His subjects have received rebels and broken men. She has written to lord Dacre that he has not done his part, and received a sharp letter in reply. What Dacre has said of her proceeds of malice. He ought to be commanded to keep better rule in the Borders. Albany has done her great honor since his arrival, and will do nothing without her voice. Begs Clarencieux may be sent, or some one like him who knows the country, to test the truth of her words. Edinburgh, 9 Dec.
P.S.—Begs credence for Ross herald.
Hol., pp. 4.
9 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 167. B. M.
Wrote last on the 6th. Letters have come this morning from Trent and the Swiss, containing news from Italy. The Chancellor says copies have been sent to the bishop of Elna by this post, to be shown to you; and we, therefore, only enclose an extract recovered of the Pope's ambassador. There is no further news from Spain, except that a Portuguese ship now at Antwerp, which was driven by stress of weather into Rochelle, says that while there a French ship of war was also driven in, and reported that her twenty-three fellows, sent by the Admiral to succor Fontarabia, were lost in the storm. It was said at Rochelle that the Spaniards had recovered Fontarabia, 6,000 or 7,000 French and 3,000 Spaniards being slain. The Emperor has asked if we had any news from France, and says you promised his ambassadors that the treasurer of Calais, with whom you had left Fitzwilliam's cipher, should inform us of all occurrences there. We said we had no news, and had not heard of your said order. Issilstein has taken and spoiled Ancra on the Sum. The garrisons at Kennoye and other places on the frontier make daily "excourses," so that it seems the Burgundians are "reveillyd." The castle of Tournay is expected to surrender at the day fixed, and we are told the walls and gates will be rased. The members of Flanders have sent persons to congratulate the Emperor on his successes at Tournay and Milan, making large offers for the continuance of the wars. The Emperor will go at the end of the week to Ghent, where the general estates will be assembled. Don Fernando has arrived at Brussels. Oudenarde, 9 Dec. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
9 Dec. 1849. For the CONVENT OF BYLSYNGTON, Canterb. dioc.
Assent to the election of Arthur Seyntleger as prior. Westm., 9 Dec. Pat. 13 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 9.
10 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 225. B. M.
Has heard by his nephew, Master David Beton, the zeal of the Cardinal in the service of his sovereign. Is promoted to the see of St. Andrew's and the monastery of Dunfermline. Desires acceleration of his bulls, according to the instructions to be given by Octavian Olerius, servant of the Governor, and Peter Howston, his own domestic chaplain. Edinburgh, 10 Dec. 1521. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
10 Dec.
R. O.
Arrived in Scotland on the 18th Nov., and has gone to pay homage to the Queen. Will do all he can to promote peace between the two kingdoms. Desires credence for the bearer. Edinburgh, 10 Dec. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
10 Dec.
R. O.
1852. The SAME to WOLSEY.
To the same effect. Edinburgh, 10 Dec. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.: A, &c. le card. de Yorc, legat, primat et chancellier d'Angleterre. Endd.
10 Dec.
R. O.
Arrived in Scotland on the 18th Nov., with the purpose of serving her nephew the King, and her sister the Queen, and to preserve peace with other princes. Asks her to use her influence in his favor with the King Catholic, to whom he sends his secretary the bearer, that he may restore the goods and ships taken by his Spanish and Flemish subjects from the Scotch. Edinburgh, 10 Dec. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
Calig. B. VI. 220. B. M. 1854. [HENRY VIII. to ALBANY.]
Has received his letter touching his arrival in Scotland to do service to the King his nephew, and desiring prorogation of the truce, which is to expire at Candlemas. Refuses to assent so long as Albany remains in Scotland, as Clarencieux will declare, being contrary to the promise made by France. Accuses him of advising Margaret to be divorced from her husband.
Draft, pp. 2.


  • 1. The word "dos" is supplied in a blank by the Emperor. "November" is certainly an error.
  • 2. See Dec. 3.
  • 3. See Dec. 4.