Henry VIII: December 1521, 11-20

Pages 788-801

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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December 1521

11 Dec.
R. O.
Has received his letters in answer to those he wrote by Ross, touching the queen of Scots. Is glad to hear of the King's intention to preserve peace and amity, and that he has sent commissioners to the frontiers for redress of grievances. It will not be Albany's fault if things are not arranged for the good of both kingdoms and of Christendom. Must, however, object to two things: first, the letter demanded from him by the credence of Clarencieux, which it would be inconsistent with his honor to give; and, secondly, that Clarencieux has sent Albany's secretary to Newcastle, and has since remained with Dacre. Since Wolsey objects to the style by which he has addressed him, will cause his secretary to change it, though the estates of Scotland know that Wolsey does not show the same regard for him, considering the office he holds under the king of Scots. Need say no more, as his secretary will have informed Wolsey of everything, and he has written fully in answer to the queen of Scots, stating his readiness to do her every possible service, and to let her husband Angus go to her. Edinburgh, 11 Dec. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2. Add.: A mons. Rme le Cardinal, arcevesque de Yorc, legat, primat et chancellier de Angleterre.
12 Dec.
Calig. B. III. 62. B. M.
Asks safeconduct for James bp. of Murray, David bp. of Argyle, George abbot of Holyrood, Privy Seal, Alexander earl of Huntley, lord Gordon and Badenoch, Hew earl of Eglinton, lord Montgomery, John lord Fleming, Great Chamberlain, Thos. Hay parson of Ruthven, "our" secre- tary, Patrick Covintre dean of Restalrig, Alex. Hay parson of Turray, John Colquhone of Lus, Will. Scot of Balwery, and Alex. Ogilvy of Fynlater, to treat of peace between the two realms. Edinburgh, 12 Dec. 9 Jac. V. Signed by Albany as the King's tutor.
P. 1. Add.
12 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 212. B. M.
Protests against the bp. of Dunkeld passing into England without demanding his leave, contrary to the statutes of the realm. Desires that he may not be allowed to cross the Borders or receive any aid, as he is a rebel. Edinburgh, 12 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
12 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 486.
After leaving Dover, received his letters of the 29th Nov. and 2 Dec., which he would have answered earlier, but he was unable to obtain an audience till the 8th, and has been ill again. As to the letters about the truce, which Charles is to write in answer to those of the Bishop from Calais, the King and Cardinal do not much care for them, except as far as they will keep the French from making preparations by giving them hope of a truce. Henry was much pleased with the letter in Charles's hand, given to Wolsey at Calais by the Bishop, and with Wolsey's description of the Emperor, and the confidence he places in the King. He will send an answer to his letter by Robt. Wingfield, who will take his brother's place. The whole people rejoiced at the news of his victories in Milan and Tournay:—nothing has pleased them better for many years. They sang songs about it in the streets, and in the court, even those who commonly lean to France. On his showing the letters containing the news, Wolsey again began to praise Charles; and Henry said, "I will answer my good son and brother the Emperor, but in the meantime you can write that I am as pleased with his success as if the victories had happened to me. As he trusts in me, and wishes for my advice, I should be the worst of men if I did not take as much pains in his affairs as in my own, and I am therefore determined to guard his countries in his absence, like the apple of my eye. To lose any part of his estates while under my protection would be as great a disgrace to me as to lose part of England. It must be provided, however, that, in case of necessity, I may freely make arrangements for their defence, and he must place sufficient garrisons in the towns, as the Cardinal will declare more at length. If the enemy invade the country with great force, which I do not expect, I must not only resist him with my own power, but must have authority to obtain the assistance of his subjects." Answered, as of himself, that although Charles would place garrisons, his expenses were so great, that Henry, as his father and chief friend, must bear part of the cost. Wolsey here said that the King would fulfil his promises to the letter, but it was necessary they should understand what Charles would do, that articles should be drawn up before his coming, and that the King should have power to increase the garrisons if necessary. The King then said it was especially necessary to guard Tournay, and he was more glad than he could say that the Emperor had recovered it, while Francis still had to pay the pension: at which he laughed much, saying that this year the King of France had gained little honor and less profit. He then dismissed the Bishop, saying the Cardinal would give him a special answer to his charge, but first told him that his fleet was ready, and could be at sea in 15 days, and he advised Charles to come as soon as possible, for the French are preparing a large fleet, which might prevent the junction of the Spanish and English ships.
On the King's withdrawal Wolsey desired the Bishop to wait at his house till evening, when he spoke to him about his propositions to the King, especially touching the county of Burgundy; saying that he had endeavored to persuade the King to require Francis to desist from invading that county, which should remain neutral. He said he had obtained from Francis a promise not to invade it; but after the taking of Tournay he withdrew his promise. The King had therefore agreed to send him a requisition, but advised Charles to look well to the guardianship of it. Wolsey thinks the Swiss, who are next to the county, will not allow it to be invaded. Did not see the Cardinal till next morning. Asked him about the aid the King would give. Was told he would keep his promises, and send the lady Margaret, not 3,000 men, but their pay. He said he was going to write to Charles the King's advice on the separate points, but meanwhile urged the voyage to Spain as soon as possible. As to Italy, if the French were driven from Milan, he thought a portion only should be assigned to the duke of Barri, and the rest retained by the Pope's and Emperor's captains for the defence of Italy. It would be a good plan to give the Swiss money or lands, if they could thereby be made perpetual enemies to France. As to Germany, Charles should try to get the states to allow the aid which they are going to furnish. As to Flanders and Brabant, he had induced the King to accept the protection of them, and is sure he will expose his power and person in their defence; but Charles must give Henry authority to diminish or increase the garrisons, and in case of an invasion to assemble the subjects, and must leave sufficient garrisons. Writes to the bp. of Palence and Haneton about Wolsey's answer to Charles's declaration about the indemnification for the French pension. Has written an account of the victories of Tournay and in Italy to the cardinal of Tortosa. The King told him to say that Charles can write easily to Spain by English and Spanish ships, which frequently go from this country.
Wolsey says that France has distinctly broken the treaties with England by letting Albany go to Scotland; at which they are the more displeased, as they fear that Albany will marry the King's sister, get rid of her son, and make himself King, for they hear he has been procuring a divorce for her from her present husband. The Cardinal has answered the Hungarian ambassador that nothing can be done against the Turks until the French king is subdued, and that he advised his masters to enter a league against France with England, the Pope, the Emperor, and other powers, and sent him to the Bishop to draw up articles for it. The Bishop answered he had no such power, and did not know what would please the Cardinal or the Emperor. Said this because he is a Venetian, and might intend to find out secret matters. He seems, however, inclined to serve the Emperor, and said his Kings would willingly consent to any articles devised by the Emperor. London, 12 Dec. 1521.
The Queen asks Charles to send two falcons, one for waterfowl and the other for herons, together with a falconer.
12 Dec.
R. O.
The bearer, whom you know well, is returning to you, and will give you information about the affair of Tournay. His companion wishes to stay on his own affairs, and favor shall be shown him for your sake. I thank you for your kindness, though there has been no occasion to put the said masters to work. Audenarde, 12 Dec. Signed. Countersigned: Lalemand.
Fr., p. 1. Add.: Mons. le card, d'York, legat, primat et lieutenant general d'Angleterre. Endd.
12 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 168. B. M.
Wrote last on the 9th. This morning the Emperor has removed to Wynnenda ..., a place of lord Ravestein's, where he will hunt for two or three days, and go to Ghent on Tuesday to declare to the Estates his return to Spain, and to ask aid for continuing the war on this side, which they will gladly grant. News came from Italy this morning that Parma, Placentia, Tortona, Alexandria, Pavia and Noerra had surrendered to the duke of Barri. A good band with artillery was sent against Como, which was held by fifty French men-at-arms and some foot, and it was expected they would shortly take it. Another body was sent against Lodi, and the remainder was going to Cremona, whither Lautrec had fled from Como, with 800 horse and 1,200 foot. After one or two skirmishes with the town he had entered the castle by appointment, but it is thought he will be dislodged as soon as the army appears. The county of Ha ... in Piemont, of the patrimony of the house of Orleans, adjoining the duchy of Milan, has been reduced by the duke of Barri. Letters of the 1st inst. have come, the Swiss stating that the diet to be held at Lucerne, at the request of the French, has been dissolved, on account of the successes at Milan and lack of money. Considering the good disposition of the Swiss, and the great profit they will get from Milan, the confederates never had a better opportunity than now to alienate them entirely from the French. The Emperor has sent the bishop of Strasbourg to them with that intent, and another will be sent as resident. Suppose the Emperor has informed the King of their instructions.
The sovereign of Flanders has taken leave of the Emperor, and will depart for England in two or three days. The count of Geneva, brother of the duke of Savoy, is also gone to his country to prepare himself, and will be here again to accompany the Emperor to Spain. With this you will receive a packet of letters from the dean of Bretyslavya, Sion's servant. Oudenarde, 12 Dec. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
13 Dec.
R. O.
I desire credence on our common affairs for messire Jaques, sieur de Caestre, sovereign of Flanders, who is going to England, and for the bishop of Badajoz and Elne, at present there. Odenarde, 13 Dec. 1521. Signed, countersigned and sealed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
13 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 496.
1862. INSTRUCTIONS of CHARLES V. to the SEIGNEUR DE CAESTRES, Sovereign of Flanders.
After communicating these instructions to the bishop of Elna, they shall go together to the King and Legate, and say that De Caestres will reside in England till Charles's visit; asking for the speedy preparation of the fleet and other necessaries, that the voyage may take place at the end of February. Without mentioning the time at which he will start, De Caestres is to urge on the preparations, and visit the places where they are being made. Charles will have in his company 3,000 Almains and 3,000 Spaniards. The former are already in wages, and he has sent to Spain for more than 3,000 of the latter, together with a score of the best ships. Will leave some of the Spaniards here as a garrison. If the Spanish ships do not arrive before he starts, they will be in time to escort him from Falmouth to Spain, which is the most dangerous part. The English fleet will be enough to guard the Channel. The ambassadors should send every week or fortnight some Englishman, under pretence of buying wine, to Bordeaux and Bayonne, to find out news of Spain, Fontarabia and Navarre, and to see what preparations the French are making. If the King or the Legate would send some one on their part to the French coast, the information would be more trustworthy. They must write daily, sending any French news they may hear. Wolsey promised the ambassadors at Calais that he would order the Treasurer to decipher all the letters from the English ambassador in France, and send copies to the ambassador with Charles. Has received no such news, and supposes Wolsey has forgotten to leave the cipher and give the order. They must find out what news the ambassador has sent, and report it. They must also ask for the despatch of some person to the Swiss, as Charles has already sent his envoys, and for the 3,000 foot which were promised. If a truce is mentioned, they must speak according to his former letters to the Bishop. They must ask for a loan of 200,000 ducats for six months, in which time he will recover a much greater sum in Naples and Sicily and here. This loan is for his voyage, and to prevent its being delayed. They must also ask Henry to take the oath to the treaty of Bruges, according to the form of the one taken by Charles, of which a copy will be sent. Audenarde, 13 Dec. 1521.
13 Dec.
Fiddes' C. p. 123.
Thanks him for the care he has taken in suppressing the nunnery of Bromehall, "for such enormities as was by them used." The bishop is to deliver to the bearer the evidences of the house now in his hands. Richmond, 13 Dec. 13 Hen. VIII.
13 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 211. B. M. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 289.
Begs him to give credence to the bp. of Dunkeld, whom he sends to England at this time "upon certain necessary instructions," when they can "sa evill waunt his help and gude counsale." Kyrk of Steyll, 13 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: "To my lord Cardinallis gracie."
14 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 177. B. M.
Request credence for my lord of Dunkeld; and that they may be advertised of the King's pleasure in all convenient haste. Kyrk of Steill, Dec. 14. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: "To the richt hyie and richt excellennt prince, &c."
14 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 169. B. M.
Wrote on the 12th. The Chancellor showed us today, at dinner, that Francis had removed from Compiegne towards Paris, and had despatched De la Motte, lieutenant of Tournay, to say he could give them no succors; so that Nassau is now engaged in conveying the French out of the country. It is said the command of Tournay will be given to Fiennes. A copy of the instructions to the ambassadors to the Swiss is to be sent by this post to England. The Emperor has given them 16,000 florins of gold to be distributed there. The men of the Pope and the duke of Milan will make common cause, trusting that the King will put to his hand. Are told that by this conquest of Milan the Pope will have Parma and Placentia, and that whenever the duke of Milan will pay the charges borne by his Holiness, those conquests will be restored. Send a letter of the Emperor to you, delivered to Master Mason of Calais. Oudenarde, 14 Dec. Signed.
P. 1, mutilated. Add.: To my lord Cardinal. Endd.
15 Dec.
R. O.
According to your advice, I am sending the Sieur de Caestres, my chamberlain and sovereign of Flanders, to reside in England, as you will hear at length from the bp. of Badajoz and himself. Odenarde, 15 Dec. 1521. Signed, countersigned and sealed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.: Mons. le card. d'York, legat, primat et lieutenant general d'Angleterre.
15 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 353*. B. M.
The Pope died on the 2nd of this month, at 8 p. m. Will be happy to write to the Emperor if you desire it, believing that I shall do him a service in procuring your exaltation. I have informed the count of Howstrate that I am writing to you, as he is much devoted to the Emperor, and much in his confidence; and I have commanded him to write to you his good will. Oudenarde, 15 Dec.
Hol., Fr., p. 1. Add.: Mons. le legat. Endd.
15 Dec.
R. O.
I told you of the state of our affairs in my former letters, of the surrender of Milan, and the flight of the French. Leaving the town by night with a small garrison, they hastened to Bergamo; but not being admitted, halted for some time near Brescia, in great straits. On account of their unfriendly reception by the Venetians, M. Antony Colonna went to Venice, in haste, to ask assistance; and was answered that they might stay in Venetian territory, but not enter the towns. As their situation was unsafe, they retired to Cremona. This town, hearing of the surrender of Milan, had revolted from the French, and was held by one Pallavicino, of the opposite party. On coming up to the town, the French were driven from the gates, and retired 30 miles from the city, but on the third day effected an entrance. In the meantime, cardinals De Medici and Sion consulted with the generals about Milan and the pursuit of the enemy. The day after they left Milan, the marquis of Pescara followed them to Como, and forced it to surrender. 200 men-at arms in the garrison were deprived of horses and arms, and allowed to retire to France. The other towns in the duchy have surrendered; Genoa alone remains faithful to the French. Cremona was held by the troops in the citadel, and it is thought that the remains of the French army, about 300 men-at-arms and 4,000 infantry, will winter there. They will not be pursued, owing to the sudden death of the Pope.
We are now attending to the funeral, and shall enter into conclave for the election of a new Pope on the 18th. No one knows what the event will be. There are many candidates, and there will be a large assembly of cardinals. Rome, 15 Dec. 1521.
There was a suspicion that the Pope was poisoned; and some of his chamber were examined, but dismissed as innocent. Signed.
Lat., pp. 3. Add.: R. &c. card. Ebor. Angliæ primati ac sedis ap~licæ legato.
15 Dec.
R. O.
1870. ANT. DUODO.
Decree indented 15 Dec. 13 Hen. VIII.; by which Richard Pace and John Stokesley, King's councillors, adjudge that Anthony, son and attorney of Nicholas Duodo, shall receive from the earl of Essex certain parcels of goods supposed to belong to Nicholas Balby; sc., Toulouse woad, broad cloths with "ruffed" lists, kerseys, "a keynyet back plain, a white back with a partition in the midst," a "serpler" of canvas, fine cloth, Tyre wool, fine wool, wools called "the second cast" and "the fourth cast," coarse wool, great wool, wool for lists, "fine warp yarn," "wheel warp," and fine and coarse "owf."
Corrected draft, in Wriothesley's hand, p. 1.
15 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 200b. B. M.
1871. DACRE to ALBANY.
"Copie of a letter to the duke of Albany."
Reminds him that he wrote on the 3rd, complaining of the reception of fugitives; to which Dacre answered that the grievance might be redressed by sending a discreet person to the Borders. Met with the laird of Cesford by agreement, on Tuesday, at Riden Burn, and expressed his willingness to redress injuries done in the Middle Marches. Cesford said he had no "faultors there whereby he might make reformation at that time," but put in a bill of the burning of Ekfurth, belonging to the laird of Buccleughe, for which Dacre offered to deliver "sufficient faultors" if Cesford would do the like in such cases. Cesford desired a delay till he could speak with Albany, and arranged to meet Dacre at Carham Church on Monday next, the 17th (fn. 1), promising that a person should come from the council of Scotland to see in whom the default was; and proclamations were issued on both sides to keep the peace on pain of death. Yesterday, however, divers Tividale men met at Hoselawelough, to the number of 400, including Lanse Carr, Jame Chesam, Jok Chesam, Wille Tait, Watte Yong, Dand Yong, Dic Wright, Dand Wright, Wille Davison of Hoselaw, Jok Yong of Sessforth, with 100 of the East Tividale men, "museld" so that they could not be known, and sent forth "skurers" to the "suberbils" of the castle of "Wark-upon-Twede;" namely, John Davidson of Fowmerden, Watt Yong of Lympetlaw, and others; carried off cattle, struck down John Ewerd, a bailiff of the said "suberbils," and took away his horse. Dacre's servants in Wark Castle pursued them, and rescued all the cattle, except the bailiff's horse, assembled 200 cattle, and took only six "kye," not worth the value of the horse. At 11 or 12 at night all the host came with open standard, and burned the King's town of Lermouth, half a mile from Wark, with corn and insight, to the number of 30 pleugh tilthes, driving away 400 head of "kye" and oxen, 2,000 sheep, 4,000 "gate," 30 geldings, and 20 prisoners, and burnt "ane honest woman." Dacre's servants would not leave the castle, "for fear of betreasing behind them," because "a skrymmage was upon the night before;" but the country assembled to the number of 1,000 for a similar exploit. Dacre, then in Norham Castle, sent his brother Philip, charging them in the King's name to depart till he had answer from the warden on Monday. The blame of this rupture will lie with Scotland if it be not redressed; but if it be, he will within any town of Scotland deliver for every bill a faultor. Lord Maxwell would never proclaim the peace in the West Marches, and the country was destroyed till the King laid a garrison for the defence of his subjects, which does no ill, but makes sufficient reprisals to recompense those who have been plundered, returning the residue to the Scots. Sevenscore watchmen are kept at the King's charges, and no justice can be had. There is no warden of the East Marches, except the Homes, whom Albany calls rebels, and who "dwellith in ther awne houses." They do England good justice. Desires an answer by the bearer, whom he has charged to return by to tomorrow night, or at the furthest to be at Carham by Monday morning at 8 o'clock. Norham Castle, 15 Dec.
Pp. 3. On the same paper as the answers to Albany and Margaret, 7 and 8 Dec.
15 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 203. B. M.
1872. ALBANY to DACRE.
Has received his letter of the 15th, desiring full reparation for the late outrage, and mutual pledges given on Monday next. The time is too short to send commissioners. Has commanded the warden of the Middle Marches to meet him, as promised, on Monday; when, if they cannot agree, they may appoint another day, and refer the difficulty to Albany in the meantime. Dacre knows well that the earl of Angus, the bp. of Dunkeld, and others accused of treason, take part with David Hume "umquhile" of Wedderburn, contrary to the interests of peace, and have of late given passage to the bp. of Dunkeld without his asking for safeconduct. Will advertise Henry of it. Edinburgh, 15th December. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: "To the lord Dacre, warden of the Borders," &c.
15 Dec.
Calig. B. VI. 215. Ellis, S Ser. 291.
1873. DACRE to WOLSEY.
Albany has caused the bp. of Dunkeld to be summoned to Rome. Desires that some plan may be devised for the Bishop to remain, and his proctor sent to Rome with favorable letters from Wolsey, that the Bishop may counteract Albany's purposes, and declare to the King the instructions received by him from Angus, Home and Somervell. Has granted the Bishop a safeconduct. Norham Castle, 15 Dec. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace.
16 Dec.
R. O.
Desires his safeconduct for Sir John Duncansoun, his chaplain, and six persons with him, to pass through England to the parts beyond sea, and to return, the safeconduct to endure for a year. Edinburgh, 16 Dec. 9 James V. Signed by Albany.
P. 1. Add.
16 Dec.
R. O. Bradford, 13.
Credence for the bishop of Badajoz and Elne, to whom Charles is sending news. Gand, 16 Dec. 1521. Signed. Countersigned.
Fr., p. 1. Add.
16 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 501. Bradford, 21.
On his arrival at Gand this evening, returning from hunting, received his letters of the 12th. Cannot answer them immediately, but sends this post with letters of credence for the King and Legate, whom he shall inform of the death of the Pope, and shall say that he will assist the latter, according to his proposal at Bruges, about the Papacy. Wishes he was nearer Italy. He must ask for the Legate's advice in this matter, as the king of France will make him great offers, though it is notorious that they will do him no good. Has already sent a copy of his instructions for the Swiss to be shown to the Legate, and has since added an article on account of the Pope's death. Has sent the marshal of Burgundy, governor of Bresse, thither, on account of his knowledge of the Swiss. The King should send his ambassador thither in haste, for Francis will now try more than ever to gain the Swiss. Writes to Don John Manuel that if a new Pope is elected speedily, he should send his deputies to the Swiss diet; but if the election is delayed, Manuel must manage what is mentioned above by means of the Cardinals. He can speak on behalf of Felice Trufino, secretary to the cardinal De Medici, for retaining the collectorship in England, if the Nuncio asks him to do so. The Archduke is here. Gand, 16 Dec. 1521.
Fr., draft.
17 Dec.
R. O.
I suppose you have heard of the death of the Pope. You remember the conversation we formerly had, and I shall gladly do what I can for you, if you will let me know how I can serve you. I desire credence for my ambassador. 17 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Fr. Add.: A mons. le Cardinal, mon bon amy, legat et primat d'Angleterre. Endd.
17 Dec.
R. O.
Credence for the sieur de Caestres, sovereign of Flanders, whom the Emperor is sending to England. Gand, 17 Dec. 1521. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
17 Dec.
R. O.
After folding up my former letters, yours dated at Calais, 25 Nov. arrived. I mentioned that we should enter into conclave on the 18th; but it has been postponed, as Cardinal Hipporigiensis, on his way to the conclave, was made prisoner between Pavia and Piacenza. He was confined in the citadel of Pavia, but has since been liberated. The conclave is postponed for five or six days. The Pope's funeral is today. Rome, 17 Dec. 1521. Signed.
Lat. p. 1. Add.: R. &c., Carli. Ebor. Angliæ primati ac ap~licæ sedis legato.
17 Dec.
Galba, B. VI. 89b. B. M.
On the Monday, after despatching her man, viz. 16th Dec., went to the Emperor at Ghent. He was already aware of the Pope's decease, and summoned a council in the evening. Reminded him of his promises to Wolsey, but had no sooner opened her mouth than his majesty said, "Je donneray a connaitre a mons. le Legat mon bon vouloir," and despatched a post to his ambassador in England. He only regrets that the time is so short, and wishes he were as near Rome as Germany, when he would not grudge to go thither himself, and use his influence in Wolsey's favor. Ghent, 17 Dec.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mons. le Legat. Endd.
18 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 170. B. M.
Wrote on the 15th from Oudenarde. The Emperor and court have since come to Ghent, and yesterday Don Fernando arrived. Have had many communications about the state of Italy now at the decease of the Pope. Perceive (1) that the allied armies were above 25,000 foot, Swiss, lanzknechts, Spaniards, and Italians. The greatest number of the French, not exceeding 1,000 horse, and as many Gascon foot, had fled to Cremona. The Venetians were clearly distressed. The charges of those armies had been hitherto borne by the Pope, so that now there might be a failure of payment, which might lead to the army being broken up. (2.) Genoa and Cremona being in the hands of the French, the Venetians and the duke of Ferrara might join them more powerfully than before. (3.) On the breaking up of the allied army, the enemy might enter Reggio and Modena; and the Bentivogli, Bologna and the house of Medici, losing the rule of Florence, might do something in favor of France, Francisco Maria enter Urbino, and the Bayllons attempt to trouble the dominions of the Church. This might force the Pope to yield to the French. The only safety is to provide supplies with all celerity. The castle of Tournay was delivered to Nassau on Monday. De la Motte has desired the Burgundians to cease burning, and promised that the French will do the same. The meeting of the estates will not be before Christmas; so it may be supposed the court will remain here one month or more. The Emperor is very well pleased with the King's resolutions upon the overtures of the bishop of Elna. Ghent, 18 Dec. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
19 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 505.
Since the Cardinal's return, has received the letters in Charles's hand. Was pleased to hear from Wolsey of his good reception by Charles, and the confidence reposed in him by the latter. The whole world shall see that he considers all injuries done to Charles as done to himself. Is glad to hear of the prosperous condition of his affairs, both here and beyond the mountains. Intended to write a longer letter in his own hand, but is prevented by catarrh and headache. Refers him to Wolsey's letters and to his ambassadors. Richmond, 19 Dec. 1521.
19 Dec.
Calig. B. II. 329. B. M.
1883. DACRE to [WOLSEY].
Has received his letter dated Calais, 27 Nov., by Richd. Wegane, on 12 Dec. Understands that Wolsey has received a communication from the King of great forays made by the Scots, and burning the villages in Northumberland, and of Albany's coming, whereof Dacre had sent no information;—that he had heard that the Duke had not only passed into Scotland with 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers, but had labored at Rome for a divorce between Queen Margaret and Angus, intending to marry her, and destroy the young King;—that he wished Dacre to inform Angus and the Homes thereof, and raise a party against him, assuring them that England will assist in so virtuous a quarrel, and 500 or 1,000 marks might be politicly spent, &c. Dacre answers that all the Borders are in good condition, though he could not get justice from the wardens of Scotland, as will appear by his letter to Albany enclosed. No village has been burnt, except a part of Newburgh, Allerwish and Lermouth, belonging to Wark, for which restitution is promised to be made before Gaultier, the Duke's secretary, now going to England, to whom Dacre has given a safeconduct at the Duke's request, that he and the bishop of Dunkeld may lay their matters before his grace. Has received letters of grievance from the Queen of the Duke touching the harboring of rebels. Sends the correspondence. It will be seen by the Duke's letter that he aspires to the Crown by using the words "our warden," and accusing the bishop of Dunkeld and the earl of Angus of treason "to our parliament." Has advertised the King of his arrival and his power, consisting of eight-score craftsmen and artificers of the worst like that ever was seen, with cart-wheels, shovels, mattocks, &c., about thirty pieces of faucons of brass, and four Bombards. Is credibly informed that the Duke has spoken light words of him, "saying, What man is the lord Dacre? Is there none of you that is Borderers that can at some meetings fall at altercation with him, and do me a plea- sure?" Desires to have a commission of wardenry for himself, Sir Christopher Dacre, and Philip Dacre his brother, that he may send them where he sees danger by the 14th Jan. Thieves have been troublesome in Northumberland, as there was no sheriff there last year. Wark-upon-Twede, 19 Dec. Signed.
Pp. 4.
19 Dec.
Bradford, 14. Mon. Habs. 506.
On the 16th, after dinner at Richmond, where were the King and the Cardinal, was shown by the latter letters from the French king, announcing the death of the Pope,—that cardinal Medici was at Rome,—the imperial and papal armies disbanded,—and French affairs in Italy returning to their former train. Henry is much alarmed. He thinks the Emperor ought to provide for the security of Naples, and in bringing forward a candidate for the Papacy, regard should be had to the interests of both your majesties. To secure this, the Emperor must keep his army in Italy in complete efficiency. It is the King's earnest desire that Wolsey should have the Papacy, and he is anxious beyond what I can express that your majesty should concur in this, and has resolved to send letters to the Cardinals at Rome for that purpose. But as he wishes to act in concert with Charles, the envoy will be first sent to the latter to take his instructions. As this negociation demands great caution, in case there is no probability of Wolsey being elected, it is desirable the choice should fall on cardinal De Medici. To secure his good offices, De Medici must not know that you are acting otherwise than in his favor, except that, in the event of his having no chance to obtain the Papacy, then every effort should be openly made in behalf of Wolsey. With this purpose, Henry has written two letters to the Cardinals; one in favor of Wolsey, the other in favor of De Medici. Wishes Charles to do the same. The English ambassador at Rome is to act in concert with don Juan Manuel, the imperial ambassador. Richard Pace has been selected for this negociation, whom Henry sends "as if he had sent his very heart," to use his own expression; showing how much he is interested in the election.
As to Wolsey himself, he has solemnly protested to the King, in the writer's presence, that nothing would induce him to accept this dignity unless the Emperor and the King deemed it conducive to their interests. For no other purpose could he desire the Papacy, except to exalt your majesties. All this was fully responded to by the King, who added that both your majesties might so dispose of the Cardinal's authority as if the Holy See were your own possession; and he implored your majesty to lend a helping hand.
The writer believes that the Cardinal is not very sanguine of success, though he is very far from despairing;—that Wolsey will not fail to discover in the management of it the real disposition of Charles towards his pretensions, and how much trust is to be placed in his promises made last year by the sieur De la Roche and the writer, which he then refused, but of which he now reminds them. Urges the Emperor to make show of zeal and lively interest in countenancing Wolsey's pretensions.
The Cardinal seizes every occasion of confirming Henry's affection towards your majesty, and exasperating him against the French, saying they deal in professions and lies. Just now several French ships have been detained on a frivolous pretext of some violence being committed in Albany's passage into Scotland. Such measures must be taken that in Pace's dispatch he may be able to speak highly of the Emperor's good will and exertions. London, 19 Dec. 1521.
19 Dec.
Galba, B. VII. 171. B. M.
Wrote yesterday. The Emperor has news of the 2nd from Milan, that on the 29th ult. Como surrendered to the marquis of Pescara. The French captain, the seigneur de Vandenes, with certain light horse, 500 Gascous and 1,200 Tournosynes, subjects of the duchy and neighbours to the Vallysaynes, were taken prisoners; the principals kept to be ransomed, the rest allowed to depart in their doublets. Many of the Gascons were slain by the people of the country by the way. This is confirmed by letters of the 8th from the Swiss, and that the sieur de Lescu had been taken with seven others in Valtolina, between Buormyo and Mombraye, who immediately offered for their ransom 40,000 g. cr. La Motte, who came about the delivery of the castle of Tournay, left the French king on the 13th, at which time it does not appear that anything was known of the Pope's death; and as the time for the exequies was reduced by the last Lateran Council from nine days to three, it is thought the French cardinals cannot arrive in time for the election, which, you may be sure, Don John Manuel and master Dean (Clerk) will not delay, but hasten. It is expected that Sienna, a nephew of Pius II., Jacobac[ius], Campegius or De Gressys, will be elected. This morning visited don Fernando, who expressed himself devoted to the King's service. He is a very gentle and amiable prince. Ghent, 19 Dec. Signed.
P.S.—Though other news come to our ears, we do not inquire further, having no commission from you, nor pretext for asking questions. Signed.
Pp. 3, mutilated.
20 Dec.
Calig. B. I. 13. B. M.
1886. DACRE to WOLSEY.
Received this Wednesday, 20 Dec., (fn. 2) his letter dated at Hampton Court on the 10th, to the same effect as Wolsey's former letter dated from Calais, that Angus and his adherents, in their virtuous desire to protect their sovereign from danger, should be supported against Albany;—that a safeconduct had been sent to Dunkeld;—that the truce is not to be prorogued. He will so commune with the Earl and the Homes as to put them in further comfort. Dunkeld is gone to England with a safeconduct. Albany, hearing of this banding, "is marvellous afeard of himself,"—has made Arran his lieutenant general, who receives for his pay 100l. Scots or 25l. sterling per month, "the said Duke always keeping himself like a fox in a hole." At the Duke's dictation, the Queen has written to lord Home, offering to restore him. Sends the letter, requesting its return by the next post from Wolsey. Sends it that Wolsey may lay it before Gaultier, who "is the greatest man living with the Duke," when he next comes before Wolsey, that he may see the insincerity of his outcry against the Homes. Wolsey may suggest to Gaultier, which is in a manner the same as to the Duke, that if the King be in safe keeping, the Queen allowed access to her husband, and these lords at peace, England is contented to make peace as required. Should the Duke not accept these proposals, as Dacre thinks he will not, it will make him very unpopular in Scotland.
Aid must be given to the Scotch lords, or the young King will be destroyed, and a Frenchman will King, and marry Henry's sister. No oath made by them is binding. "The nature of Scottismen is ever to break it for ther awn wele." Has appointed a meeting for the 14th Jan., of which a minute was sent to his grace yesterday. The not coming of their ambassadors according to their promise before the feast of the Purification, and not doing of justice, now lies at their door. 400 men in garrison, with the assistance of these lords, will in three months recover the East and Middle Marches to the gates of Edinburgh, in spite of the Duke and all his adherents. Harbottle, 20 Dec. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace.
20 Dec.
Mon. Habs. 512.
Has received his letters of the 12th. Is sorry to hear of his illness, but he will now be assisted by the sieur De Castro, sovereign of Flanders. Now the Pope is dead, the truce should not be spoken of; if mentioned, he must put it off, to write for advice. His orders about the entertainment of the Swiss must be carried out. Is glad his letters about M. Richard [Pace] have been so agreeable to the King, and that Sir Robert Wingfield is coming as ambassador. Would have desired his brother to stay, but Sir Robert conducted himself so well with the late Emperor, that he would wish for no other substitute. As to the protection of the Low Countries, he must thank the King for undertaking it. Will provide for the garrisons so that it will be no trouble to him, and does not intend to give him more expense than he is bound to by the treaty of Bruges, which will be quite sufficient, without making fresh articles. There is no doubt his subjects will rise in their own defence if invaded.
Advises Henry to send an ambassador to reside with the lady Margaret. Will provide for the Low Countries so that Henry may have no cause to complain, and he may make use of them against the common enemy, as if they were his own. Is glad to hear that the King's ships are ready. Is doing all he can to prepare for his voyage, and is waiting for the Spanish fleet, which should arrive with the first wind, from which he will choose the best ships for himself, his retinue and the 3,000 Almains, until the arrival of the 20 ships, with the Spanish infantry, which he has ordered to be at Falmouth at the end of March. Has sent four copies of that despatch, for fear of the enemy's fleet. Will hasten the Spanish ships, that they may not be hindered from joining the English. As he will see by the instructions to De Castro, his voyage to Spain depends on his finding money, without which he must change his purpose. For now the Pope is dead, the whole expense of the army in Italy falls on him, besides the entertainment of the Swiss at the coming diet on Twelfth Day, to which he hopes Henry will not fail to contribute. Expects to be successful with them, now the duke of Milan is restored, and the French are in such need of succor. He must assure them that the voyage will be impossible without assistance.
Thanks him for what he has done about the county of Burgundy, and he should thank the King for the good resolution he has taken. The payment of the 3,000 foot must be solicited without delay, as it was promised for the 1st of Nov. He knows the great expense Charles has had to bear, and now, if he wants to disband any troops, he will have to pay them, which will cost a great sum. Will take Henry's advice about Spain; but it would turn all Italy and the Swiss against him, if it were thought he meant to keep the duchy of Milan himself. An army sufficient to keep it would cost more than the revenue, and thus the French, with the Swiss, Venetians and duke of Ferrara, would easily recover it. Will restore it to the Duke, and keep him under his protection, sending him troops, and making him contribute to the entertainment of the Swiss, and for troops necessary to defend himself. Will thus be free from envy, be sure of the Swiss and make them defend the duchy against France, and satisfy the subjects, whose contributions will be employed in the protection of the duchy. He will then be as sure of the duchy as if it was in his own hands, and also of the rest of Italy and Naples, and will get the Venetians to join him, as they will lose French aid, and will find the Swiss inclined to defend Milan. As to the aid of the empire, has no doubt it will be ready in time to recover Dauphiné, Arles and other places belonging to the empire, occupied by France. Has seen his letters to the bishop of Palence about recompensing the Legate for what he will lose in France. Means him to lose nothing, and if he will send a draft of the obligation, as he wishes to have it, Charles will execute it accordingly. Wishes to give him greater advancement than this, and will give orders for the payment of what is due to him of the pension of 1,000 angelots. Does not know whether he will be content to give up the pensions on the bishoprics of Palence and Elna, in the manner the latter writes. There will be no difficulty if he only desires what he will lose in France. Commends him for sending the news of Milan and Tournay to Spain. Has himself sent despatches on the subject. He must send some Englishman to Bayonne and Bordeaux to bring news of the French preparations. As to what the Cardinal says about Albany, they will be cured of trusting to French promises. Does not think any Pope would have given the Duke the dispensation he would require, especially as he has children by his present wife, "la fille de Boulogne." He would be more likely to do it without dispensation, trusting to get absolution afterwards. His conduct to the Hungarian ambassador was quite right. He must find out what sort of league the Legate will make with the kings of Hungary and Poland. If their assistance is obtained against France, they must in turn be aided against the Infidels. Will send the falcons for the Queen. Gand, 20 Dec. 1521.
Fr., draft.


  • 1. An error for 16th.
  • 2. An error either in the day of the week or of the month, as the 20th December was Friday in 1521.