Henry VIII: July 1524, 11-20

Pages 205-219

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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July 1524

Writs for restitution of temporalities in cos. Linc., Northt., Beds and Bucks, Oxon, Norf. and Suff., Glouc., Hunts, Essex and Herts, and Leic., on the election of Agnes Gascoign, a nun of St. Mary de Pratis, near Northampton, as abbess, vice Eliz. Harvy. The abbess' fealty is to be taken by the prior of Newenham. Westm., 11 July.
Pat. 16 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 5.
11 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f.269. B. M.
Orders him to deliver, according to Wolsey's warrant, dated Greenwich, 31 March 15 Hen. VIII., 80 bows and 80 sheaves of arrows for Sir Wm. Bulmer's 300 men, 54 bows and 54 sheaves to Sir Wm. Evre for his 200, and 27 bows and 27 sheaves to John Tempest for his 37 men. They must be taken from the New Castle as far as the ordnance there will serve, and, when it lacks, from Berwick. Morpath, 11 July 16 Hen. VIII.
Pp. 2, copy. Headed: To Ric. Candish, master of the Kinges ordinance remanyng at the Kinges townes of Berwyk and Newcastell, and in his absence to his deputie or deputies there.
Ibid. f. 270. 2. Copy of Wolsey's warrant to Candishe to deliver to Dacre what bows and arrows he requires for the King's garrison. Greenwich, 31 March 15 Hen. VIII.
12 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f.269b. B. M.
489. DACRE to the EARL OF ARRAN.
Has had no answer to the letter he wrote to him by James Litill John, of Edinburgh. As Arran is one of the principal lords, advises him to hold a communication between wise men of both realms, for the welfare of the Scotch king. The king of England, to whom Arran is related, is as well minded thereto as Arran or any other of the Council can desire, but his good intentions have never been accepted. Angus and his brother have escaped from France, and are now in England. Expects them here in ten days. Advises him to put a stop to the grudges between him and Angus, and to abide by the order they took before the Duke last came to Scotland. Wishes to know his pleasure in writing. Is commanded to write thus to him, and to remind him of the kindness the King showed him after the decease of "my late sovereign lord." Morpath, 12 July 16 Hen. VIII.
P. 1. Headed: Copie, &c.
13 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f.281. B. M. Hearne's Otterb. II. 625.
Has received the King's letter, with the Cardinal's and Dacre's, and has answered them. Has seen a letter from him to the abbot of Jedvard, saying "that sapoz I send by you to the Kyng, zet it vol cam to your handyx. My Lord, ze may thanke your selfe of that, for had I fwnd yow kyndly to me, or that ze vald have dwn for me, I vald not have sent by you; bot whan my lord of Norfolk vhaz apon the borderz, I dyd never vryt thyng to the Kyng grace bot I gat answar, and sen hyz departing I gat never a good answar fre hyz Grace, bot ze say that he commandyd you to vryt to me as ze dyd ryght scharply; the vylke I thynke strange. I know nat vhat ewel cause ze had of me to be of that sort, vyth owt it be for my lord of Anguss sake, and he and my father barnyz suld not have been lyke to you." The bearer will show him her mind more fully. 13 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
13 July.
Calig. B. I. 283. B. M. St. P. IV. 80.
Received his letter the 12th (fn. 1) July, and one from the Cardinal. Rejoices that the King now understands the good mind that has been ever on her part, "suppose that" (i.e. although) her "unfriends" have given him to understand otherwise. Had written in her last, requiring help to put her son to freedom. Is glad to find that Norfolk is shortly to visit her. She is but a woman, and cannot do without friends. Protests against receiving into favor Angus, notwithstanding he professes to be so friendly to both countries. He has never written to desire it. Begs she may not be separated from her son. She has broken many lords from the duke of Albany, that her son may rule. The return of Angus will create great jealousies, and destroy her authority. His interest is inferior to her son's. Angus will not be heard in his endeavors for peace so well as she. Stirling, 13 July. Signed: "Your humbyl systar, Margaret R."
Pp.3. Endd.
Calig. B. I. 211.
B. M.
A repetition of the above in the same words, but dated 14 July, and with a P.S. cautioning Henry that she cannot allow Angus to interfere with her "gonjouffe (fn. 2) " (conjunct feoffment), and if Henry assist him she must seek other help.
Hol., pp.3. Add.: Endd.
[13 July]
Calig. B. I. 223. B. M.
Received, 12th July, the King's and Wolsey's letters, showing that they now understood her good mind. although her brother had been estranged from her by her unfriends. Trusts, with the help of her brother and Wolsey, all will come well for both realms, and now is the time that it may best be done. Wrote so fully in her last that she cannot be more specific, and has got a good answer. Will remain till she hears what Norfolk says in Henry's name. The King her son trusts to Henry, and will follow his counsel before all others, if Henry do his part to him. He will do as she tells him in all things, and will do nothing without her. She has turned many lords from the Duke's party to his. As to Angus, to whom Wolsey had urged her to be reconciled, she had done him no displeasure. He had made false reports of her to Henry, as was well known in this realm. His coming here will not be thankfully taken by the Lords. If she and Angus went one way, she would lose the hearts of the Lords and the control of the King her son. When all the matters are brought to a good end, the King "put to his liberty," and peace established between the realms, she will do anything to satisfy the King and Wolsey. As to what Henry says about Angus's efforts for peace, she is Henry's sister, and his intercession would have been best made through her; otherwise it will not be so thankfully taken. Begs Wolsey to promote the deliverance of the King her son, and to make a good peace between the kingdoms, and to help her to make a good end now that she may understand the good mind indeed of the King her brother. The lords of Scotland were never better minded than now. "Vryten vith my evel hand."
Hol., pp. 6. Add.: "To my lord Cardinal." Endd.
14 July.
R. O.
Arrived here about 3 p.m. on Saturday (fn. 3) the 8th. Has declared the King's pleasure to Fitzwilliam, captain of Guisnes, who has effectually seen to its performance, and can give him all particulars. Fitzwilliam is leaving the castle and the residue with such good arrangements for its safety that he deserves great thanks for it. Calais, 14 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my [lord] Legate's good grace. Endd.
14 July.
R. O.
According to the King's desire, sends news of Bourbon. He entered Provence with his army eight or ten days ago; and several towns, as Grace, Antiboust, Caigne, Villeneusve, Cannes, Draguegnau and others, have surrendered to him. His Ambassador will be sure to write to him about the taking of the prince of Orange and other matters. Sainct Laurens, 14 July. Signed.
Fr., p.1. Add.
14 July.
[Cal. E. I. II. ?] I. 215.
Has written several times on the affairs of Bourbon. During the last 10 or 12 days, Bourbon and his army have taken several towns, viz., Villeneuve, Antiboust, Cannes, and repulsed the army of ... which had chased three or four galleys. Gives an account of a sharp sea-fight, of which the Ambassador, who is here, can tell Wolsey more at length. Expects that my Lord and the marquis of Pescara will set forward tomorrow or Saturday ("S[amedi]"). They have good news every day. If ... do his duty Wolsey will soon hear that the said lord (Bourbon) has friends in France. Has not written the affection which monsieur (Bourbon) has for the Emperor and the King, as the Ambassador can explain it to him. S. Laurens, 14 July. Signed.
Orig., Fr., mutilated, p. 1. Add.: "A Mons. Mons. le Legat."
Assent to the election of Nich. Hancoke, S.T.B., as prior. Westm., 14 July.
Pat. 16 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 5.
16 July.
Harl. 442, f. 47. B. M.
Proclamation to be made in Yorkshire, notifying the appointment of Thos. duke of Norfolk, treasurer of England, Ralph Swillington, attorney general, and John Porte, as commissioners for redress of grievances, who will sit at York, 30 July inst. Westm., 16 July 16 Hen. VIII.
ii. A similar proclamation for Northumberland. The commissioners, Thos. duke of Norfolk, Thos. lord Dacre, Ralph Swillington, John Porte, Sir Will. Bulmer and Sir Thos. Tempest, to sit at Newcastle-in-Tyne on the 10 Aug. Westm., 16 July 16 Hen. VIII.
Copies, pp. 2.
16 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f.272b. B. M.
Has received his letter, dated Dumfermlyng, 13th inst., asking Dacre to send a servant of his to him, and sending a safe-conduct. Sends John More, one of his secretaries, and Wm. Hatherington, the bearer, whom he has amply instructed to show his whole mind, and for whom he desires credence. Whittyngeham, 16 July 16 Hen. VIII.
P. 1. Headed: Copie, &c.
Add. MS.
24,965, f.271. B. M.
2. Instructions given by Dacre to John More and Wm. Hathrington to be declared to the lord of St. Andrews, Chancellor of Scotland.
After presenting his letters of credence, they shall declare that Angus, who, as he knows, has been kept in France, seeing the present weakness and perplexity of the French king, and considering what dangers may arise to Scotland if the nobles and people still put their trust in him and Albany, has come secretly out of France to the king of England, as the only refuge and preserver of his sovereign, to offer to further peace with all his power. He says that the present is a good time for some communication for peace, both on account of the misfortunes of France, and the little favor in which Albany is held by the King and his mother, who suspects him of belonging to Bourbon's faction, and he has asked that a meeting for this purpose may be held on the Borders. The King will grant this, if the noblemen, and especially the Chancellor, are of similar inclination, as it is well known that he has maintained the war only for the surety of his nephew, to preserve his life, and take him from the suspect governance under which he still is. He will therefore send down the duke of Norfolk for this purpose first, and, if it fail, for other purposes. Dacre therefore wishes to know from the Chancellor, who has always endeavored to procure peace, and is now the principal person under the King, if he and other nobles are as well inclined as Angus, and if they can be content with what the Earl has proposed, and will make the same request. If a meeting is to be held upon the Borders, none will be more fit to meet Norfolk, who is the principal temporal Lord in England, than the Chancellor, who is the principal person in Scotland; and they must ask whether he will do so, and where, when, in what manner, and with how many persons it shall be held; and the sooner the better, for many reasons. They must exhort him to consider the matter, and to ponder in what train it is; for Dacre thinks it is in a very good train if well followed. But if it is not followed, but slacked and delayed for Albany's pleasure,—of whose coming to Scotland by the appointed day, with aid, there is little chance, for the French king can spare neither men nor money,—greater grudges and inconveniences will ensue, and make matters more difficult. They shall therefore exhort him, but only as from Dacre, to come to the diet, and shall ask him to send his mind with all speed.
Pp. 4, copy.
16 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f.283. B. M.
Received this Friday (fn. 4) his writings dated Morpeth, 12 July. As to the writings Dacre sent by Litil John, would have sent him back if he had not been too busy. Would be as glad to put good order in the realm for the weal of the King as any Scot of his degree. Dacre asks if he will stand to the agreement between himself and Angus "forrow my lord governor's last hai[m] cummyng bot anys." There was communication between the bishop of Dunkeld and Arran's brother, the bishop of Argyle, and the laird of Covyntone, who are dead, but there was nothing concluded. Dacre knows what "skathe" he and others, for his sake, have gotten; "and quhou the Quenes grace is lethleyt (fn. 5), quhilk is ane gret personage, and is moder to the Kingis grace our maister, and thame at was the erle of Anguss prynsipell counsyllor and stopper of concord, quhilk is John Semerwell, is rebal and traytor to ye Kyngis grace and yis realme, quhar of I can her na commonyng of ye said rabald as yet. And for welfare of yis realm I am content to here commonyng betwex ye erl of Angus and me, and quhat personages he thinks to laubour in yat mater, I sal do syclik." Hopes the king of England will not help any man against him, considering he is his kinsman, and he will do him lawful service. Kennelle, 16 July.
If Dacre wishes any further communication, he must show it to the Queen, for Arran can conclude nothing without her advice. Asks credence for Jame Litiljohn. Signed.
P.1. Add. Sealed.
16 July.
R. O.
Hears from Silvester Darius that Wolsey will comply with Ghinucci's request to him to use his influence with the Emperor in the matter of the see of Mela (Milevitana), which Adrian granted to him a little before his death. Thanks him, and desires credence for Darius. Rome, 16 July 1524. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
16 July.
Vit. B. VI. 136. B. M.
501. PACE to [WOLSEY].
As all the ways hence to England are unsafe, and letters are intercepted by villains and thieves, has sent this letter by Baron Curson's nephew, who was serving with Mons. de Pontevyr, and also a duplicate of his "melancolyke letter" of 9th inst. He will also show Wolsey matters of importance, which could not be committed either to plain letters or ciphers, and will tell him all he has seen here. He seems an honest young man, and not without cleverness, though not as much as Pace would wish; but Wolsey must have patience, as there was no other remedy. S. Laurence, 16 July.
Hol., pp. 2.
16 July.
Vit. B. VI. 137. B. M.
After despatching the above letter, a servant of Gregory de Casalis arrived with Wolsey's letters of 28 June, which were more to his comfort than all the promotions in England; for he saw thereby the King's determination to assist, and heard also of Russell and the King's money, which he trusts will be here in convenient time. Meanwhile they will not sleep, but daily proceed against the enemy, and will set forward tomorrow. Was in despair at seeing that they might win all, but were prevented by want of money.
Bourbon will not fail to desire the Emperor to do his part, according to the King's pleasure, and as he is bound to do. Received Wolsey's writing of 28 May, at Monte Caliere, which resolved all his doubts. Has done all therein contained. Has declared to Bourbon the King's constant mind to him. Is sure the King will never have to complain of him, for he would suffer death three times rather than stain his honor. Is contented to stay in the field as the King wishes. Now is the time to take the whole realm of France, or else compel the King to take such conditions as we please. The further they proceed, the more difficulty Pace will have in writing, but will do all he can. S. Laurence in Provence, 16 July.
Gregory de Casalis shall be entertained according to Wolsey's writing. Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
16 July.
Vit. B. VI. 142. B. M.
503. PACE to WOLSEY.
The French king, fearing to lose the city of Gr[asse], sent thither, on the 5th or 6th inst., 1,500 men. When Bourbon heard of it, he sent thither at night 1,500 Spaniards and 200 light horse under Mons. de la Motte, who arrived there about the [begin]ny nge of the day. The French ran away, and were pursued by the Spaniards, who killed some, and took some prisoners. The city was immediately given up, and has sent a doctor and a gentleman to make obeisance to the Duke, and to offer all the commodities of the city to him. 24 castles and villages have also surrendered. The Duke will be able to do what he pleases if the King and Emperor send him the promised money. Hears nothing of Russell. The bankers of Genoa have disappointed Bourbon of the Emperor's money for 12 days, which has been no small hindrance, and yet the Duke has not slept, but taken great part of the country, and is likely to take it all, if he is not deceived about the money. In this place he has had great help by his intelligence, especially by one man, without whose aid the army would have been famished, when the French fleet stopped the victuals. Others of his intelligence tarry only for his setting out to the city of Eese, which is the richest in the country, and the parliament town of Provence. It is not so strong but they can take it. If they meet any army it will be a bloody day, for they not only desire to fight, but will be obliged to do it. If the Duke takes the city, he intends to keep a parliament there much like that in England, "that is to saye, to aske nothynge save mony." Meantime Russell will have come, or else he will never come, for it will be about the end of the month before this can all be done. Bourbon will then be lord of the best part of Provence, for he intends to lose nothing of what is behind him, but to keep it all by love or force. There are no Swiss or lanceknights yet in France, and the rest are not much thought of, however many they may be.
Bourbon says hourly that France is now the King's, if he will take it. If they had the money they would be able to go where they pleased, and fight the whole of France. If nothing is done this summer on the side of England, the King ought to do two things,—to sustain the Duke here all the winter, jointly with the Emperor, and next summer to do what is contained in the cipher with his instructions. The Duke can be maintained at less cost than Pace thought; for when he is in his own country, he can maintain his army by means of his friends for three months. Wolsey must consider this, for the King was never so likely to recover his rights in France as now. Those who make most labor for peace or truce, hope it will not succeed, for the reasons in his former letters. If Bourbon does more in winter than they expect, which he will if he has money, it will be to their advantage. Is sorry that the King and Wolsey do not know thoroughly the Duke's qualities. No one can too highly commend his wisdom, virtue, manhood, and faith. In consideration of these qualities Pescara has made a solemn oath to live and die with him. De la Roche has arrived at Thuryne. Bourbon was ordered by the Emperor, before the French were driven out of Italy, to send a servant to De la Roche, at his arrival at Rome; which he will do, and will show Pace his commission, which, he says, shall contain nothing but orders to act in compliance with the King's and Emperor's ambassadors in all matters treated of there. They are only prevented going forward by the bankers at Genoa; and though he suspects some fraud, owing to French practices, they must pay the money, as the city is in the Emperor's power, and he has paid the money to them. News has just come from De la Motte that Gradignian beyond Grace has yielded to Beauren and De la Motte, with the castles and villages about. Without compulsion they have bound themselves to bring to the field some wine, bread, and flesh. The wisest there recognise Bourbon as lord of Provence, saying it has been wrongfully detained from him by Francis. He hears from his secret friends daily that the best men-at-arms in France are ready to serve him, if he had money. This hour it has pleased God to send them 34,000 ducats, which, though a small sum, shall be gloriously spent, for the Duke has determined to march with * * * [my lord] of Bath, to whom Pace daily writes. S. Laurence in Provence, 16 July.
Has written to De la Roche, bidding him look substantially on the practices of Rome, for the honor and profit of both their masters, and to have a good ear to affairs here before he takes any conclusion.
Hol., pp. 9, mutilated. Add. Endd.
16 July.
Vit. B. VI. 139. B. M.
* * * "ou estoyent vos afayres de pardessa despuis nous ad ... passe les mons jusques en se lyeu ou pais de Fra[nce] ou nous soumes sejournes quelques jours pour atand[re] le demourant de l'armee, qui est en chemin pour venyr, aussy pour recouvrer nostre argant de Gennes, et estans en ce lyeu nous n'avons perdu temps comme entendres par votre present secretayre."
Thanks him for his good will, and for his letters of 28 June, which he has today received. Will not fail in his promise to aid him to recover his kingdom of France. Will solicit the Emperor to do his share, in which he hopes he will not be wanting.
Hopes that the King is almost passed into France, which will be a great encouragement to them, and great damage to the enemy. S. Laurens, 16 July.
Will start tomorrow, with short marches, to allow the rest of the army to overtake them, and hopes to do something that will be agreeable to his Majesty.
Hol., Fr., pp. 2, mutilated.
17 July.
Vit. B. VI. 147.* B. M.
* * * "pere pour ses affaires et mesmes pour entendre a ce que sa Ste luy a fait dire tant par l'arcevesque de Capua que Barnardin a la barbe, touchant la paix," which the Pope is very anxious to arrange. The Emperor would comply with his Holiness' desire if he had the consent of the king of England and the Duke; and he has desired De Pleine to write to ask him how he wishes his and his friends' demands to be expressed in the treaty. If Bourbon sends any one to him on this matter, thinks it should not be known at Rome, "pource que ce seroit de favoriser la guerre." Is ready to serve him as his master, as he knows the Emperor would wish him to do so. His and the Emperor's welfare depends on the achievements of his army. Has begged the Viceroy to hasten sending the men-at-arms, and has written to the duke of Genoa for reinforcements to the fleet. One of Bourbon's friends sends him word "que entre puissent et le plustost que vous pourrez," and that the enemy intends to fight him at La Lisyere. Supposes this is a river in Provence. Ast, 17 July '24.
Copy, Fr., p. 1, mutilated.
17 July.
R. O. St. P. IV. 83.
According to Wolsey's letters of the 6th, sent the letters received from the King and Wolsey to the queen of Scotland. Has this day her answer, which he transmits. Has sent his secretary with instructions after the tenor in Wolsey's letters to the archbishop of St. Andrews, who has sent to the Lords to convene in Edinburgh. Expects an answer in four days. The Grey friar, to whom Wolsey wrote to deliver a letter from the King, dated Greenwich, 12 June, to the king of Scots, was afraid to do it, and gave it to Patrick Sinclair, by whom it was conveyed. It gave James so great satisfaction "that he would in no wise bide in," and would have been at liberty on Saturday the 9th, but was persuaded by the Queen to remain till the Tuesday after. On the Monday the Queen and Chancellor met at Alloa, six miles from Stirling where the Queen lay, and eight from Dunfermline where the Chancellor lay, when the Queen showed the Chancellor Henry's letters, and the latter consented to the taking forth of the young King, if the Queen would abide till Friday next. If the Chancellor mean well, all things will go forward. The Queen has sent Dacre a credence by Patrick Sinclair, that Angus shall not interfere till it be seen whether these practices go forward. If they do she will mediate between the Earl and the lords of Scotland, and be ordered towards him as shall stand with the King's pleasure. Meanwhile Dacre will keep him upon the Borders. Morpeth, 17 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
Add. MS.
24,965, f. 284. B. M.
2. Copy of the preceding.
17 July.
R. O.
Appoints Melchior Langus his nuncio to England, as he hears from the archbishop of Capua, who has just returned, that he is acceptable to the King. Rome, 17 July 1524, 1 pont.
Lat., vellum. Add. End.: 1524, dat. 24 Junii.
17 July.
R. O.
To the same effect. Rome, 17 July 1524, pont. 1.
Lat., vellum. Add. End.
17 July.
R. O.
Hears in many ways that count Dommarty[n] has come to Boulogne with 400 horse and 500 foot, that Vandosme and Rochepott have come to Mustruell, and that 300 horse have come to Tirwyn, with the intention of making a "course." Wishes, therefore, to know his pleasure concerning the adventurers. Guisnes, 17 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace. Endd.
17 July.
Harl. 282, f. 287. B. M.
510. WOLSEY to PACE.
On the 6th inst. received his letters sent by a special courier to Machlin, and thence by the King's post, one of which was for the King and Wolsey, and two others for Wolsey alone. There was also an estimate of the monthly expence of the duke of Bourbon's army; a memorial in French given to Pace by Bourbon, mentioning what is requisite of two things to be done for the best advancement of the present affairs; letters to the King and Wolsey from Bourbon, the viceroy of Naples, Mons. Pontivers and the marquis of Pescara, all dated Savilian, 25th ult., except the Viceroy's, which are of the 24th. Pace mentions the preparations for the passing of the army towards Nice, and his transactions with Bourbon concerning taking the oath, &c., who says that, if Henry will not let slip the great and evident occasion which he has to recover the French crown, he does not doubt he will be able to expel the French king out of France, and to set the crown upon the King's head as true inheritor there. Pace commends Bourbon's fidelity, mentions his great importance, the weakness of the French king, and says if Henry will not visit France or send his lieutenant it is probable that after winning Provence and Bourbonnais no farther progress will be made. He also states for how long the army is provided, asks how it will be entertained if the King sit still this summer, and advises Henry to come to Calais. He declares his mind touching such practices as be set forth by the Pope for truce or peace, mentioning two ways by which alone the King can honorably end his enterprise; viz., a notable exploit of war, or conditions of peace whereby it may appear that something is gained in these last wars beyond what had been gained before. Finally he protests his freedom from partiality, which the King and Wolsey never doubted.
The King and Wolsey like the oath inclosed in the smaller letter to the King very well, especially since it could be obtained in no other form. In a private letter to Wolsey, Pace speaks of Bourbon's protestations of fidelity after he had been "very religiously confessed and communicated," and is very anxious that the Duke should be encouraged, "concluding last of all that, to speak unto me boldly, if I do not regard the premises, ye wol impute unto me the loss of the crown of France." All this Wolsey has laid before the King, and discussed with others of the Council, who thank Pace for his zeal, though they differ from his opinions in some points, Pace being, as he himself writes, alone, and necessarily ignorant of many things which he would know if he were here.
First, it is to be considered that Bourbon's chief reason for making war on the French king is his own private quarrel, which he could not avenge alone, and it was easy for him to see that the Emperor and Henry were the most meet protectors of his cause, which they would not have advocated unless they had perceived some profit for themselves likely to ensue. Secondly, there is reason to suspect that Bourbon has offered the Emperor Provence, Languedoc and Marseilles, with the subjection of Bourbonnais and Auvergne, which he refuses to hold of the King, affirming that there is a treaty to the contrary, which is not true. Besides, when Provence and Marseilles are taken, to which enterprise the Genoese contribute, bearing the charge of the fleet, it will be more easy to recover the duchy of Burgoyn; and as the French will then be kept from the Mediterranean, Naples will be open to Spain, and secure from the French. The King's crossing into France will, therefore, be as profitable for the Emperor as for himself. As to the entertainment of the army in case Henry does not cross, a more convenient provision could not be made for the preservation of Provence, Marseilles and Bourbonnais in the Emperor's devotion, and for the laying an antemurale all this winter between France and Milan, than that which Beaurain and other "fine personages" have now made for the Emperor's profit, on pretence that the King shall recover his crown in France.
Pace is aware that it was not intended Henry should advance his army on this side this summer until an opportunity was given by Bourbon's victories, or by a revolution; and as yet he has not gained Provence or his own patrimony, and there seems no likelihood of a revolution, as the French king is not so generally hated or Bourbon so generally beloved as Pace writes. Moreover, between the date of his former letters and his last the army have made no such remarkable progress (more than three or four days' proceeding in crossing the mountains, and the "religious" confessing of Bourbon), to have justified Pace in urging the King so earnestly to cross the sea.
Doubts not that both he and Bourbon will see the impossibility of sending over an army, as a sufficient one could not be levied and transported before the middle of September, when, winter approaching, it could not be maintained in the field more than a month, and no notable exploit could be done in that time. Treasure would thereby be wasted, and the French gain encouragement. Besides, Picardy is barren of victuals and forage, and there is great scarcity in Flanders and the French frontier at the entry besides Valenciennes, where the King's ordnance is, and in the neighbourhood of Reynes. A shoulder of mutton is sold in Valenciennes for 12d. FL. The lady Margaret has informed Henry that she cannot assist his army, and therefore all provisions must necessarily come from England, which alone is sufficient impediment to prevent the expedition. Even if a "mean army" of 10,000 men were sent over, it would be useless, as the French king would be sure to carry away all the provisions in the country through which it would pass. Besides, the French king, finding himself superior to the one power, would turn all his strength against it, and overcome it. If Henry were to come over to Calais, and stay there for a time, as Pace proposes, without making any enterprise, it would be said that he did so to treat for a peace, or else that he was not able to show other countenance to his enemies except his own presence in his own town, which would be greatly to the hindrance of Bourbon's enterprise, and the French king's power would be never the more diminished, but rather audacity given unto him to pluck his ordinary garrisons from these frontiers, and turn them against Bourbon. There is a capitulation between the Emperor and Henry for a personal invasion of France next year, and it is better to save treasure, &c. for that, and merely to maintain Bourbon for this year; and in the last treaty it is stipulated that if Henry advance his army this summer he should cease to contribute to Bourbon's army, and if the Emperor failed to furnish it he would lack entertainment, which would be disastrous for both. It is, therefore, evident that it will be more advantageous for the King to remain this summer, and to contribute to Bourbon.
They perceive by the estimate sent by Pace, written in French, that the charges of the army will amount to 104,000 cr. a month, and that the money in hand will not last for two months from the date of his last letters, 25 June; that is, till the 20 Aug. Is surprised at this, as former letters stated that the Emperor had in readiness 200,000 cr., and the King is not bound to contribute until the army is in France, neither for the passage over the mountains, nor provision of carriage or victuals. Yet Bourbon asks that 200,000 cr. may be sent as the King's share. He also half hints that if he wins Provence, he will remain with his army in garrison all the winter, which would make it necessary to continue the contribution, the King's share of which until May would amount to 500,000 cr., besides the 20,000l. already sent by Russell. This would be very hard to bear in addition to the charge of the personal invasion for the sake of making an antemurale to Italy.
There is one thing to be regarded, which Pace has not mentioned. The best way for Bourbon to act would be, after entering Provence, to go direct to Lyons, and thence "by a plat country" to Paris, which if he really intends to do, doubtless it will be wise to contribute further. If the crown be not won, the places and countries recovered or acquired should come to the King to reimburse his charges, if no higher victory ensue. But, considering the army advanced to the sea by the Genoese, who cannot greatly assist Bourbon by conveyance of victuals or otherwise, unless upon the coast of Marseilles and Languedoc, and as he has not mentioned by what way Bourbon intends to proceed, the King somewhat doubts whether all the money advanced will not be spent only for the Emperor's and Bourbon's profit; and therefore, till he sees further in this matter, he will not give over-much comfort to Bourbon, but will not put him in any despair thereof. Henry is not bound to any further contribution than the 20,000l. already sent, except by special agreement between him and the Emperor; nevertheless, he will put in readiness 100,000 cr. for the entertainment of the army this summer and part of the winter, and on good successes perhaps another 100,000 cr., if the Emperor will do the same. Before these sums are spent it will be clearly seen whether, by any revolution or otherwise, it will be possible for him to obtain the crown of France; and therefore Pace must "substantially regard and foresee that matter.
The King and Wolsey both send letters to Bourbon, the Viceroy, Pescara, Pontever and Beaurain. Encloses copies. Pace is to say to Bourbon and the others that Henry is much pleased with their valiant proceeding, and their firm deliberation to recover the crown for him, "extending that matter with as good words as ye can devise;" and tell Bourbon particularly that, now he has so frankly taken his oath, he may be well assured that Henry will show him more tender mind than ever, if possible, and that he has dedicated himself to a prince who can, will, and is accustomed to recompense all services. No reports of truce or peace with the common enemy, or of friars or other persons sent hither, have any foundation; and he may trust that no peace will be made without his knowledge, and due regard for his honor and surety. As to the personal invasion, he is to say that due preparation is being made if any opportunity occur, and to debate with him certain points in that matter, and inform Henry of his advice. The points are, whether the army should be large or not; where the invasion should take place; what places or fortresses he hears of as likely to revolt; how he can join him, as he says he will, considering the distance between Picardy and Provence; how victuals may be had, as his own servant reported that wheat and other grain was very scarce, owing to the unseasonableness of the weather. He is also to mention the long time which must elapse before an army can be ready, as was seen in their own case, since, after the expulsion of the French from Italy in the beginning of May, they were not ready for the passage of the mountains until the 16th June, and had scarcely entered the enemies' country on the 25th, and to show that it would not be well to make the invasion this year.
Concerning their entertainment, to encourage them more, he shall say that the King is putting money in readiness from time to time to be sent to them as the case requires, and that exchanges shall be made for that purpose; but if they do not proceed by the ways most profitable for the King, and refuse battle, he will be loth to contribute. It would be best to proceed to Lyons, which the French king would be sorry to lose, and so would probably give battle. He is also to show that for causing the French king to divide his forces, the increase of the garrison of Calais, the preparations by land and sea, the mounting and trimming of the artillery and ordnance at Valenciennes, and the report of the invasion, is the best means that can be devised, as Francis shall not know in what part the army will descend, especially as he knows that there is artillery enough here and at Calais without meddling with that at Valenciennes. If Bourbon's army do earnestly proceed, and march into the heart of France, and events happen which will render an invasion profitable, whatever season it be, they may be well assured that it will be done, either personally or by lieutenant. Since writing thus far it is reported that the prince of Orange in his way to the army is taken prisoner; that the Genoese army coming toward Marseilles is returned; that Bourbon is stopping at Nice in Savoy, and is not likely to come to Lyons. Reminds him that the King's contribution does not begin till the army has entered the enemies' country. Westm., 17 July. Signed.
Pp. 28. Begins: Master Secretary. Endd. by Pace, xvij. Julii.
17 July.
Vit. B. VI. 132. B. M. St. P. VI. 321.
A Spanish ship has been stranded in Sardinia, and taken by the French. Bourbon has entered France by Nice and the Var, and found no resistance, but there is great scarcity of victuals; and the navy, intended to support the army, has been kept in check by another sent to sea by the French king. The viceroy of Naples is very negligent, especially in forwarding the lanceknights and provisions. The Pope, who fears that the enterprise will come to nothing, has sent to quicken the Viceroy. He has always had a bad opinion of the Emperor's affairs, and yet they prosper; "and so I have showed his Holiness; and his Holiness answered me that it was more by miracle, and by the help of God and good fortune, than by any wisdom or good provision."
Bernardinus, the Pope's messenger in Spain, has returned, bringing no other resolution, but that the Emperor intends to make some stir in Picardy to divide the French power, and hopes the King will contribute. Coming from Spain, he visited the French king, who sent a message to the Pope, that he would return this summer into Italy with 30,000 men; and if he did not, his Holiness should never believe him; the which message the Pope "believeth never a deal." He does not think that the French king is able; or, if able, that he would abandon France whilst Bourbon is in the realm. Besides, the French ambassador is anxious for peace. The discussion of this subject is deferred by the Pope until the arrival of the Imperial ambassador, who is slow in coming. Rome, 12 July.
P.S.—Has heard that the navy with the artillery, which was to have landed at Villafranca, has been compelled to retire. Three of the galleys, however, contrived to escape, and, being assisted from the shore, beat off the French. For want of victuals, the army stays at Villafranca. Letters from the French king, of his preparations against Bourbon, have been intercepted. The Pope thinks it is "but cracks," as his nuncio in France tells him that there is no motion of war, and the French king gives himself to hunting and hawking and other pastimes. It is ever the French practice to show openly one thing, and privily do another. The Pope is half minded, in consequence of the delay of De la Roche, to send the archbishop of Capua once more to France, the Emperor, and England. The prince of Orange and ten gentlemen with him, mistaking a company of French ships near Villafranca for Imperialists, made towards them, and so were taken prisoners.
"Touching your pension, these men here say that their masters the bishops will pay your Grace; and that it is as good for you to stick unto your old as to have the new." The Pope is favorable to Wolsey's faculties, but the cardinal S. Quatuor is untreatable. Desired the Pope to commit them to cardinal Ancona. The Archbishop is very diligent in them, and the Datary doth his part very well. Rome, 17 July.
17 July.
R. O.
512. NAVY.
"Yet gunners, beginning 18 March and ending 15 April."
John Weston, master gunner. Thos. à Wood, John Rowlff, Wm. Kennyngs, Thos. Bangall, Wm. Dyrike, Chr. Gold, John Taylor, Hew Gooche and Thos. Sawer, quarter-masters, and 49 men.
Muster of the "Trynite Deghton," on coming from Plymouth to Portsmouth Haven, from 4 April to 2 May 16 Hen. VIII.
John Hosborne, capt., Ric. Lovell, master, 15 men; keepers of the said ship, 3 May to 13 May, 5 men.
Laborers working at the walls, ditches and bulwarks, 24 April to 21 May, 15 men.
The Henry Grace Diew, Thos. Germyn, master, John Ewyn, boatswain, 62 men. List of the keepers of The Gabryell Ryall, Edm. Conye, master, The Grett Galey, The Mary Rose, The Mary Grace, The Barbara, John Clogge, master, The Peter, Robert Longmede, master, The Grette Barke, The Mary and John, The Mary George, The John of Grenwich, The Barke of Morles, The Maudlyn pinnace, The John Baptist.
List of 38 men, with John Prentice and Thos. Wotton, quarter-masters, at 6d. and 5d. a day; 10 carts at 16d. a day; 10 labourers discharged for odd days, from 19 June to 17 July 16 Hen. VIII., at 5d. a day.
Muster of gunners, 16 April to 10 June 16 Hen. VIII., as before, substituting Laurens Cleyton for Wm. Dyrike.
Pp. 7. Each list signed by Ric. Palshid.
17 July.
R. O.
Memorandum by Raffe Bradestone, servant to Dr. Benett, auditor to my lord Legate, that he has delivered to Sir Alex. Trodys, parson of Aston, Herts, a sentence, award and judgment, with a release by John abbot of Bury, Dr. Benett and Dr. Morres, between Hew abbot of Reading, and Thos. abbot of Colchester, on one part, and Alex. Trodys on the other, in presence of Sir John Hale, parish priest of Aston, and others; and that Trodys sealed the quittance to the abbots of Reading and Colchester. 17 July 16 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Hol., p. 1. Endd.: Pro rectoria de Aston.
ii. Two copies of an accord made 1314, touching the tithes of the above.
iii. Copies of two decrees touching the same, made at St. Botolph's, Colchester, 1240.
18 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f. 285b. B. M.
Received on the 18th his writing dated Whittingham, 16th inst. Came to Edinburgh last Saturday to wait for Dacre's servants, and give them a final answer with the assistance of the Lords; but there are only a few here, as the day of convention is not till next Wednesday, and most of them do not come till three or four days after. Has, therefore, kept his servants, and will use all diligence to have the Lords' advice at their meeting. Thinks they will agree to Dacre's desires, and send him a final resolution to his instructions. Edinburgh, 18 July 1524.
P. 1. Copy by Dacre's clerk. Headed: "Copie of a lettre sent to the lord Dacre from the archbishop of Sanct Andrewes, chancellare of Scotland, the principall lettre sent up by poste."
18 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f. 285. B. M.
515. DACRE to the EARL OF ARRAN.
Perceived by his blithe and joyous letters dated Kennele, 16th inst., the good mind he bears to the weal of the young King and his realm. Is right joyous and glad of it, and prays him to continue in the same disposition. Asks credence for Litelljohn. Morpath, 18 July 16 Hen. VIII.
P. 1. Headed: Copie, &c.
18 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f. 284b. B. M.
Has received her letter dated 13th instant, with letters to the King and Wolsey, which he has sent up by post. Has heard Patrick Synkler's credence, and knows it will be to the King's great rejoicing, if the practices which she has in hand for putting her son to liberty take effect, and she may be sure that he will do all in his power to assist her. As she fears that Angus's coming might be a hindrance, he shall remain on the Borders till they are brought to a close. Meanwhile he can see some of his friends, and, if the said practices proceed, she can inform him of her pleasure; and Dacre doubts not he will do as she commands. Desires credence for her servant. Morpath, 18 July 16 Hen. VIII.
P. 1. Headed: Copie, &c.
[19 July.]
R. O. St. P. IV. 84.
As authorized by Wolsey, has opened a packet of letters from Dacre to the Cardinal, including one to the King and another to Wolsey from the queen of Scots. Is much rejoiced at their contents. Thinks either that the King is now at liberty, or that the Chancellor has blinded the Queen, and sent the young King further off from Edinburgh. Fears it may be so, for he is very crafty. Thinks the Queen's objection to the coming of Angus is for fear he should get the credit, if peace ensue, of having brought it about. Advises that Angus should still do the best he can, and that the Queen should be assured that the King does not intend peace to be made by any but her. Meanwhile he had better be entertained in Northumberland, as Dacre suggests. Thinks it would embolden the Scotch king's partizans if he himself were to go on to Newcastle without stopping at York. This is the time to strike, now the iron is hot. Wishes to know Wolsey's pleasure, and will set out on Friday or Saturday. Scribbled this Tuesday at midnight.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
19 July.
R. O.
Yesterday "overnoon" received his letters stating that the bp. of Chichester pretends that he has several times applied for payment of duties owing him by Fox, and threatens to proceed to other means, unless he will listen to reason at Wolsey's request. He has already sought his remedy before the abp. of Canterbury, when Fox answered him by his Chancellor; and he has also consulted many learned men in both the laws, as Wolsey will see when the matter comes before him. Asks him to fix a day this next term of St. Michael, when he will answer all the Bishop's complaints. "And whereas by his uncharitable brutyng he hath before ryght great personages noysed me to owe hym 6,000 mks., I trust I shall then before your Grace not only confownde hym in that partye, but also charge hym with matier inevitable, wherof I wolde not that he cowde lay the semblable to me to wynne thereby ten times tolde his 6,000 marcks." Marwell, 19 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: Card. of York, legate and chancellor. Endd.
20 July.
Vit. B. VI. 147. B. M.
519. PACE to WOLSEY.
Sent a letter by baron Curson's nephew on the 16th, in answer to Wolsey's of the xx ... June. Today passed the city of Grace, wherein the Duke has put a governor. Lie tonight at Fay[ence] 12 miles from Grasse, and tomorrow go to Gradinian, 15 miles hence. Take all the country on the road without resistance. Today took a marvellous strait passage from the French. Will be tomorrow six leagues from Eese. The French will not wait for them, but when they go forward three miles the French run away 10. The Viceroy breaks his promise about sending the men-at-arms after them, to his no small dishonor. It is a great impediment, but they are strong without them, and the foot and light horse are well disposed to fight and to obey the Duke. The Spaniards say they know Marsilia, and have no doubt about taking it; but the Duke and Pescara will not attempt it without great deliberation, for they would lose much reputation if they failed. The duke of Savoy has sent to Bourbon a copy of a letter from the admiral of F[rance], saying that the great Turk will invade Italy, and the Viceroy will therefore be compelled to return to Naples, and he assures him that Francis will not be troubled with any war this summer, except against Bourbon, to resist whom he has 1,200 men-of-arms, and 24,000 foot. This men laugh at here, and he doubts not Wolsey will do the same. Fayence, in Provence, 20 July.
Hol., pp. 3, mutilated. Add. Endd.
20 July.
Add. MS. 24,965, f. 285b. B. M.
Has received his letter dated Edinburgh, 18th inst. Is pleased that his servants are remaining with him, and they shall abide at his pleasure and leisure. If the matter in hand takes effect, as Dacre trusts it will, by the Chancellor's wisdom, he is sure that the king of England will think that the Chancellor ought to have the chief ruling of the young King, with such other well-disposed lords as the Council think best, but more, "to have so great a stroke about his Grace as your Lordship, for his only weal and surety." The King will help him against all persons who attempt the contrary. Morpath, 20 July 16 Hen. VIII.
P. 1. Headed: Copie, &c.
20 July.
R. O.
Mem. that George Throkmorton, Esq., of Olney, Beds, has bound himself in 100l. to appear before the Council a fortnight after Michaelmas, and to pay whatever fine Wolsey may impose on him. 20 July 16 Hen. VIII.
20 July.
R. O.
522. The SUBSIDY.
Received for the clerical subsidy, by Edmund Peckham, from 3 Dec. 15 Hen. VIII. to 20 July 16 Hen. VIII. XVM ... whereof paid to Sir Hen. Wiat IXM ... Remaining in Peckham's hands, 20 July, VIM ... and of the clerical loan MM ...
Total remaining of ready money in the hands of Peckham, IXM ...
P. 1, mutilated.


  • 1. Erroneously read "7th" in S.P.
  • 2. Not "gonrouffe" as in S.P.
  • 3. Meaning Friday. Fitzwilliam's letter of the 9th shows that the day of the month is correct.
  • 4. The 16th of July was a Saturday in 1524.
  • 5. Query "lichtlied," i.e. made of small account.
  • 6. The year to which this letter belongs is quite uncertain.