Henry VIII: July 1529, 1-5

Pages 2548-2564

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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July 1529

1 July.
R. O.
"Hereafter followeth by protestation articles against the cardinal of York, shewed by me Thomas Darcy, only for to discharge my oath and most bounden duty to God and the King, and of no malice.
"First, all articles togedirst that touches God and his Church, and his livings and acts against the same.
"Second, all that toucheth the King's estate, honor, prerogatives, his dignity royal and imperial, and crown, and against his laws.
"Item, finally in order, lack of justice, and using himself, by his authorities of chancellor, faculties legantine and cardinal; what wrongs, exactions, extortions he hath used, and thereby impoverished all the nobles and others the King's servants,—yea, and all the whole commonalty,—like for many years to be irrecoverable, &c.
"Item, memorandum how he had wrongfully the goods of bishop Smyth of Lincoln, the archbishop Savayge, Baynbryge, Dalbe, Tunnes (Toneys), the bishops of Durham and Winchester, with many others.
"Item, all his authorities, legantine and others, purchased of the Pope, and all authorities and offices and grants that he hath of the King's grace by any grant sued (?) and debated, and then upon special commissions and instructions sent unto the King's most trusty servants in every shire, and he ... hes (?), and the Cardinal's [servan]ts straitly examined of all his unlawful acts.
(fn. 1) "Matters by protestation to charge him with to answer sewyngly (severally?) and articlerly, and to count upon.
"Inprimis, how at his entry the King's grace had amity and peace with all Christian princes, and most specially with the Pope's Holiness.
"Item, how then every Christian prince obeyed the Pope's Holiness, and had good praise and amity every of them with others.
"Item, what mighty treasure the King's grace had at his entry, that was left unto him by the King of famous memory, appears of record.
"First, in ready coins of gold and in silver.
"Item, in plate and bullion of gold and silver.*
"If that truth and justice shall have place, and no concealment to be used:—
"First, he is richest of all treasures; and all his books, bills, letters, &c., of receipts and issuings, to be surely sequestered, all at one day, hour, and time, by sure folks. (fn. 2)
"Item, the office of chancellor and all other legacies and faculties semblable to be, that it may be openly known.
"Item, his disciples in every place. Md.
"Item, then commissions well largely and straitly to be devised and sent forth into every shire for matters, and then none shall lack that be over marvellous and odible for any good man to hear,—yea, and that in great and sundry specialties.
"Item, his disciples in the privy chamber, and others, spiritual and temporal, of his promotions not sure (?) ne dig[ne] to remove, and officers semblable in offices of the realm and upon the frontiers that hath charges of keys and principal streets of the ...
"Item, in the lieu of civilians indigne, divines ..., and that done it is thought great, and urgent, and ungracious matters shall be found against him.
"Item, good it is in my poor opinion, that after he sequestered in sure and [secret, trusty (fn. 3) ] keeping, that the King's grace, by good and secret espials in Rome, France, and in all outward strange countries, inquire well of all his affairs there, and also by strait examination of himself to be taken, and by searching of his books and examining his council.
"[Item, he and other bishops have counselled together often secretly; London, Carlisle, Bath, &c.‡]
"Sayings that he intends for his remedy, &c., by reports:—
"First, to divide nobles, not doubting thereof.
"Item, yet and if that fail, corruption in them, or the King shall not ...
"Item, else at the French king to sue for him.
"Item, failing thereof, at the Emperor or his councillors by corruption.
"Item, if that fail, the Pope to send for him as straitly as may be to appear there, and there he to remain, as he purposes.
"Finally, if all fail, he clearly doubts not, as he and his affirms, but that he hath the guilt and under (fn. 4) to discharge him of all this light flea biting or flies stingings, and yet to so handle all matters that he shall reign still in more authority than ever he did, and all to quake and repent that hath meddled against him.
"Item, at the Parliament they intend to be strong, and all fail.
"Herefor, finally and peremptorily, no manner person, spiritual nor temporal, being of any reputation, dare meddle to make bills or [ot]herwise, but all stops whilst that he is [in an]y authority, being clearly in despair where ... ll reports they were in great comfort of justice at the King's grace['s hands].
"Memorandum, at his entry to authority, this realm [was] at peace, first with the Pope and all Christian realms, as appears by matter of record of perpetual peaces, leagues and amities.
"Item, the King's treasures then of the late King of famous memory his father assembled in great substance, remaining in bullion, plate, jewels, and coins, both of gold and silver, besides great and many specialities of recognizances, obligations, as also appears by matter of record.
"Item, the King's own revenues and treasure assembled to count upon.
"Item, the King's laws in every court of record within this realm, then and before, by the ministers of the same having due and lawful course, and so used, as appears by matters of record sithence the King's reign to his entry to authority.
"Item, the King's estate and port royal in his honorable household, and otherwise, then by his honorable council and officers in good point, stay, and order, with due obeisances, goodly services, and justice, well and profitably looked upon after the best precedents that had been afore, to his entry, and as appears by matter of record.
"Item, the King's coins then having the old course and rate as it had in above a hundred years before and unminished: or matter seen why or wherefore any such minishing or necessity was or should be.
"Item, all concourse of merchandize and other commodities of and for this realm, with returns then used, as well by strangers, the King's subjects, at marts, u[ther] shippings and otherwise, without exactions, bribes, or unlawful acts, as appear[s by record].
"Item, then and above a hundred years before the best prelate within this realm ever content with one dignity of a bishopric only, [or one archbishopric, as appears of record (fn. 5).]
"Item, then the Lents, Embers, vigils, and other days accustomed of Commandments and Councils of Holy Church, justly observed and kept, and the offenders, if any, were duly punished, as appears of record in every diocese to, &c.
"Then no abbeys ne houses of religion by untrue surmises pulled ne suffered to be pulled down, ne noble founders' wills broken, ne Magna Carta, but royally maintained, and divine services upholden.
"Item, then, ne in many winters before, no sanctuaries violated ne broken, as appears by matter of record, ne religious houses exempt and close houses.
"Item, then ne in all the King's time afore neither taxes, dymes, subsidies, 15ths, prests, loans, nor benevolences raised of any of the King's subjects, spiritual nor temporal, but general pardons, with many other most natural, gracious, and bounteous, high and noble acts and gifts given and done by the King to his nobles, servants, and subjects, as appears by, &c. to &c.
"Item, none of the religious houses, abbeys, charterhouses, nunneries close ne [o]pen, friars of all orders, and others that were [exe]mpt under bulls, ne in many winters disobeyed ne visit, as appears [in] divers cardinals' days by matter of record.
"Item, then the Pope's Holiness had none entry, gift, ne use of any spiritual promotion or dignity, ne levying of any money within this realm contrary to the King's prerogative royal, the writ called ne exeas regnum, and others for such purposes provided and granted, as also appears of record.
"Item, then the King's grace was yearly and from year to year particularly and generally justly answered of all his revenues, subsidies, customs, wards, royalties, escheats, fines, mines, wood sales, with all other casualties and profits, and yearly after the audits determined the same treasures of yearly revenues, &c. delivered with the books into the Exchequer and treasuries and to the Tower, and the same from time to time issued by warrants and others sufficient discharges, after the old laudable custom and use in long time afore in the King's noble progenitor's days, as appears by matter of record afore every treasurer and courts of record, to that he entered, &c.
"Item, then in every court of record, Star chamber, and afore the president council of nobles daily attending about the King's grace, according to his most dread and virtuous commandments, the very true course of the common law and justice, without briberies or colors, had place, and the King's true and good servants and subjects cherished and rewarded, and offenders and subverters of laws and bribers punished.
"Item, then every man spiritual and temporal, and cities and towns, disposed and gave their own promotions and offices without [any] interruption of legacy, faculties a latere ..., as appears of record.
"Item, then and in many winters afore, after the death of every person of what degree so he or they were of, it was of course of laudable custom to pay only for probate of any will 2s. 6d. to, &c.
"Item, then none of high or low degree durst enter into the danger of the prœmunire, but that for example of others they were punished accordingly, and also by him, and how many times he hath therein offended in giving of promotions by prevention and faculties, and others that he gave them to accordingly, may appear by matter of record.
"Item, that by his great orgueil and pride, and insatiate covetousness to maintain the same, he hath by color of his powers of Cardinal legate a latere, and faculties both of spiritual and temporal, assemble[d] marvellous great and mighty sums of money, which, by commission and by good and diligent examination within every shire and parish, may appear by sufficient matter of record.
"Item, by semblable means may all his great exactions, briberies, and others his extorts and unlawful wrongs be known.
"Item, semblably of the first C ... s of the ... of cardinal Baynbrygg, of the dean of Polls, (fn. 6)... aynbryg of the Court, Mores, the treasurer of Y[ork], Doctor Burbanke, &c. the [ce]rtainty may be known.
"Item, by semblable means may surely be known what he hath had by cha ... of all bishops, abbots, priors, and other prelates, deans, and others of dignities or worships, for promotions spiritually since his entry.
"Item, semblably for the gifts of offices and promotions temporal may be known.
"Item, what yearly his rightful receipts hath been, and what yearly his expences hath been, here and beyond sea, which by sudden search appears by his books.
"Item, the abomination, ruin, and seditious and erroneous violations used at the pulling down of the abbeys by his commissioners and servants at his commandments, and the great robberies and spoilings, may be weighed to the worst act or article of Martyn Lutter's, as will be proved if good trials and examinations be had thereof, which is over odible and spiteful against the law of Christ to be written in this bill, and never punishment of any person so offending as yet, but rewarded with his high gifts and promotion.
"Item, the orgueillous visitation and search that he rigorously and suddenly made at the Syon, contrary to their grants of sy[ndry] Popes granted at the suit and costs of the King's [grace's] progenitors, Harry the V ... and how the prior ... thought that the secrets and ... was so violated and bro[ught] ... to live, but so doing ...
"Item, all the coins of gold, silver, bullion, plate, jewels, stores, implements, debts, and dues, as well by specialties as otherwise, and bells, books, leads, and all other metals and anowrnements, beddings, apparels, and trashments, with standards of household and apparels, as well of them as of their houses and monasteries pulled down, all converted clearly to his use, which as before may be tried and proved by matter of records of every house particular, in great sums and substances.
"Item, the surmises why the said houses were pulled down made to the Pope for the authorities, and what the grants extend unto, and how the same was used, and what is written thereof in mundum,—first, for the Pope's grant; second, for the monks discharges so put out, and for the founders; and last, for stablishing of those lands to Oxfurth College, and the grants thereof particular, is to be seen and perused by, &c.
"Item, what mighty sums hath been levied of other houses of religion, some for respect, some for dread to be pulled down, and by others his feigned visitations, under colour of virtuous reformations, which may appear if g ... was to vice and ruin, and their deformation ... [o]thers belonging to him ... the sudden increase of ... s to be remembered and the ... es, what they were afore and is now.
"Item, of his son Wyntter and his fellows, the five open pedigrees and acts, and of the great treasures and charges, yea, and promotions and ordinary yearly rents by him, under colors thereof, yearly assembled and gathered, and convert to his own use thereby, may be certainly known by due inquiry, &c.
"Item, his high colorable and presumptuous summoning and using of the King, advancing his prodigal pawme (palm), without regarding his duty of allegiance, or the ordering him in any point like a subject or discreet man in all his conducts and processes, but as though It had been to the most simple personage within the realm.
"Item, calling divers earls and barons of his band his subjects and servants, &c.
"Item, memorandum, Trubilffeld's wrongs and death.
"Item, of more that had like grants of abbeys pulled [down].
"*Item, the cardinal Bainbryge, Pace, Burbank, treasurer, &c.
"Item, the feigned matter and great sums of money lost, &c., versus Fernandos (?)
"Item, the recognizances taken in the North without any causes, contrary to the law; whether that or any of the premises be a subversion of the law or not.
"Item, to learn what causes and matter is within the præmunire statutes and subversion of laws, and for that to see who hath suffered, and when and how therefore, after precedents and records in times past.
"Item, injunctions that ... should not sue to the King ne to follow ... laws, ne proceed to take such sums as ... law.
"Item, taking the King ... of household and u[ther] ...
"Memorandum, to declare the ways without displeasure, for the King's honor and great profits, the ready ways how to bring him to make a clear and plain accounts for all his time yearly, every year by itself.
"Item, my conceit to search and sequester him and all his books and riches in one hour, and then much matters yet unknown shall come forth surely, both concerning his affairs with the Popes, Emperor, and French king, and other princes, &c. without the realm, and others within the realm.
"Item, his secret disciples, promoters, pollers, and executors of his ungracious acts to be semblably used the same day and hour.
"Item, the ruin and decays of all spiritual and temporal and commons, and fortresses, holds, and ships, and all estates of this realm that served the King's grace, or others, but only such as served him and attended him, and how such be enriched, and sundry of them great purchasers of lands, so that 6 or 8 of them hath more increased than 20 lords in his time.
"Item, to approve his great pride, insatiate covetous mind, with daily increasy[ng] and unnatural, unkind, yea, ... towards the King's grace wh[ich] took [him into his] favor, gave him two bishoprics ... [Cardin]al legate a latere, and to use ... [St. A]lbons and the lands of all abbeys ... of Chancellor, with fees, &c., yet he not ... asked lands, wards, his table, fees, &c.
"Memorandum, in briefs for the Parliament.
"Item, to examine of the [greate]st divines what rules and ordinary t ... by their learning ... divine all and every the bishops be bounden unto.
"Item, the same divines to show and declare by several examinations, apart and together, the very true chapters in their principal books of authority, that service be for justifying of the said purposes, and against pluralities, trialities, and totcotts, &c.
"Item, against that they should meddle with, ne minister, ne occupy any temporal offices, ne examinations and judgments, ne sentences of and for life and death, ne determinations of wars.
"Item, of their untrue surmises to the Pope's Holiness for obtaining of dispensations for serving and using of the said unlawful purposes.
"In all the premises, the King's grace with his nobles, secretly and apart, first to use the said examinations and trials as they will here and at Rome abide by, at and of the most famous doctors, divines, and after all lawyers, as well of either sorts that hath promotion as that have none, and also of them that be religious ... lest such as the ... by good deliberation ... master and sovereign Lord ... so that special good ...
"Memorandum, Parliament matters.
"First, to approbate and affirm [that] every captain slain in the [King's] service by sea or land h ... for that one time next suing to ... wards but freely to enter to [his] lands, and semblable to his ...
"Item, that no nobleman ne gentleman be outlawed ne condemned without speciality of his band, sealed and signed, and delivered for his deed, afore witness therein.
"Item, that from Trent north ordinary, the terms and laws to be kept as is at Westminster; treasons, &c., urgent causes, reserved.
"Item, that both offenders in the spiritual law against God in the decrees openly, and open and presumptuous offenders against the King's laws for usury, simony, &c., for false clothes making, and in many other crimes, be more roundly, from time to time, sore punished, or else, &c.
"Item, that all knights' fees, baronies, and earldoms be viewed, and how many of them be in spiritual hands.
"Item, to see what of all temporal lands the spiritual men hath, and by what titles, and for what purposes, and whether it be followed or no.
"Item, better, and much more merit, honor, and virtue is it for the King's grace to proceed and determine all reformations of spiritual and temporal within this [his] realm, so that h[e] ...
* * *
"Item, that never legate nor cardinal be in England.
"Item, their legacies and faculties clearly annulled and made frustrate.
"Item, that sure search and inquiries be made what hath been levied thereby.
"Item, that it be tried whether the putting down of all the abbeys be lawful and good, or no, for great things hang thereupon.
"Item, for that, &c., good it is to see all the surmises of the Cardinal for obtaining of his authorities and totcotts, both for him and others, and to see how they stand with the decrees and laws divine.
"Item, some straiter laws for punishments of usurers, pollers, extortioners, and bribers, and colorers of authorities, or otherwise.
"Item, exactions, and such used by spiritual men.
"Item, for probations of testaments after the old rate.
"Item, against letters of ministration, and what great injuries and wrongs daily grows of these, besides deth is woill broken therby.
"Item, some provisions for repairings and fortifying of the marches and frontiers.
"Item, for services in the wars, and maintaining the King's ... of the Church and religion ... the parishyngs (parishioners?), frank archers, &c., in ordinary. Peaces and wars, [bo]th a surety and a commonwealth with taxes, &c.
* * *
"First, his offer and ... [an]empst my bill of r'st. (receipt) of M ... li.
"Item, how colorably and wrongfully he voided me from the offices of captain of Berwick and warden of the Marches, a yearly living of, by year, 1,000l.
"Item, voiding me upon his promise to recompense me of the offices of treasurer, chamberlain, and customer of Berwick, which, by his award and others of the Council, I bought of Sir Rich. Cholmley, knt., and gave to him ready money 40 marks for his good will, and worth yearly to me by year to use by my deputy, 50l., and 20 in wages.
"Item, that most and worst is by his unjust [and] subversion of the laws, binding me, amongst many others, without any manner of ground, cause, or matter, yet to this done by me contrary to the law or my sovereign Lord's commandment, band, ... recognizance of good abearing ...
* * *
Pp. 15, in Darcy's hand. Headed: "Jhs. 1 July 1529. Jhs. P. F. 5."
R. O. 2. Another paper.
"Item, to sew (show) and perfect his own righteous receipts yearly, and to all his charges at Rome for bulls, faculties, and other his charges there.
"Item, in all concerning his person, household, apparels, port, ordinary and extraordinary.
"Item, of all his buildings and other sumptuosities.
"Item, to show his bulls and grants of faculties and others, and the labors and suggestions whereupon the same was granted, as well of all his dignities of bishops, abbacies, cardinal, as legate, by several Pope's grants, and whether the same stand with the laws, and special of this realm, and with the King's prerogatives and prescription belonging to this his empire, and with the writ called ne exeas regnum.
"Item, what entry he hath given the Church of Rome against the gift of all dignities and promotions.
"Item, herein he, his factors, councillors, and his and their books, suddenly to be searched and examined apart, ever he first sequestered, afore anything be done."
P. 1. In Darcy's hand.
R. O. 3. Proclamation setting forth that as the King is informed many great wrongs have been done against the Church and the King's prerogative, with great corruptions and bribes by the archbishop of York, cardinal, all who have sustained such injuries in one law or the other, may appeal, within ten days after the publication of this proclamation, to the King's commissioners A. B. and D. C.
Corrected draft, in Darcy's hand, p. 1, large paper.
ii. Another proclamation (written on the back of the preceding), ascribing "the great dekeye and enorme ruine, scasenesse and povertie of this our realme," to the neglect of God's service and neighbourly charity. The King, therefore, commands all his subjects, "namely, beneficed, and men of lands," to be resident where their best patrimony lies, under such penalties as the Council may devise, except the council of the nobles and their officers. Moreover, as "T. C. and A. of Y., P. of E., and C. of the same," (Thomas, card. and abp. of York, primate of England, and chancellor,) whom the King put in high trust to administer the laws spiritual and temporal, has "negligently misordered and subverted the same, and sore impoverished our said subjects and realm, through his inordinate pompe, vainglory, and rather ipocrasye," all who have matter of complaint against him may deliver bills thereof to A. B. and C. in all convenient haste.
P. 1.
"Here followeth a brief remembrance how the affairs of this realm have been conducted since it pleased our Sovereign to make my lord Cardinal's grace his chiefest and only councillor:—
"We have begun to put in use the grant of resumption.
"We have begun to execute the statute of enclosing.
"We have begun to punish forfaictours against the statute of apparel.
"We have begun an ordinance for the reforming of our diet.
"We have begun to send commandment to all ordinaries that they should give the lesser orders and subdeacon all at once.
"We have begun to reform the abusions of the temporal law, especially concerning calumniation and recoveries.
"We have begun to reform the abusions of the Exchequer, and to make temporal lawyers sheriffs of the shire.
"We have begun to cause London and all the realm to keep an ordinary watch.
"We have begun to diminish the charges of the King's household.
"We have begun to put in execution new constitutions legantine for the reformation of the whole clergy.
"We have begun to add new additions to the rule of St. Benet, for the reformation of the Black Monks' religion.
"We have begun to reform the residue of the religious of England.
"We have begun to remove the term from London to Oxford.
"These things hath my lord Cardinal begun within the realm, by reason of the great authority granted unto him of our Sovereign, and his great faculties obtained from Rome.
"And in his own private name he hath begun, or openly affirmed he would begin, and already made tokens and preparations thereunto, these things following:—
"He hath begun to found new common lectures at Oxford in all manner faculties.
"He hath openly affirmed that he would there build a college for the said readers to dwell in.
"He hath attempted to be President of the Garter.
"He hath said he would build a college at Ipswich, and hath already caused the ground to be appointed out, and hath in hands the lands of certain religious houses, which he obtained for the renting of his said college.
"These things also remain either broken off, or else nothing set forward; and now show what we have begun in the parts subject and adjacent to the realm by virtue of the said authority:—
"We have begun to reduce Ireland to live under a better subjection unto our Sovereign.
"We have begun to nourish a faction in Scotland.
"We have begun to reform the town of Calais.
"Now resteth what we have begun with outward nations, and out of the realm:—
"We have begun to build a castle at Tournay.
"We have begun to take hostagers for the surety of the performance of such covenants as was communed of between us and France when we delivered Tournay.
"We have begun to interrupt the French king's purpose when he went to recover Milan.
"We have begun a general league and conditions of peace between the Pope, the Emperor elect, the French king, and us.
"We have begun to enter into a particular league between us and France, and to appoint a marriage between us.
"We have begun to make an atonement between the Emperor and the French king.
"Other things there be that we have attempted, which, for because they were not openly published, I pass them under silence, ascribing also the default that these things took not effect unto the nations we dealed with, and not to us.
"Of those weighty matters, being so expedient for the Commonwealth, hath my lord Cardinal had the only handling, of which none of them all hath taken effect.
"Followeth what acts have been done to the honor of the realm since my said lord Cardinal's being in authority:—
"We have taken the duke of Longueville prisoner.
"We have won Tirouan and Tournay.
"We have killed the king of Scots, and almost all his nobles, spiritual and temporal.
"We have taken David Faulconnar and divers other prisoners on the sea.
"We have gotten Navarre for the king of Arragon, though we intended another.
"We have Ireland in a better case than ever had prince afore our days.
"We have had the emperor Maximilian with our Prince in his wars and wages.
"We have had the Emperor now elect in London, received him with great triumph, and given him gifts and presents, to our Prince's honor and the realm's.
"We have shewed the magnificence of our Prince at Gwynes, for the meeting between the French king and us, as highly as ever did any of his predecessors that can be read of.
"We had both communication with the Emperor elect and the French king when our Prince was at Calais." Signed: Jo. Palsgrave.
Pp. 2. Endd.: "This leeff of papir was ffurste founde at the furste serche."
II. "A brief remembrance how our Commonwealth hath been ordered since my lord Cardinal had the chief authority:—
"We have begun war with France for the defence of the Church; and, for want of good conduct, notwithstanding the great substance of bullion and money coined left in treasure by king Henry the VIIth, we were constrained to give our Prince's sister to him that we moved war against, to make an honorable peace.
"We have begun to set up a 100 spears, and to give them 40d. a day.
"We have begun to break the order of the Exchequer, without whose authority sometime there was no manner treasure delivered to be dispent for preparation of war, and by sending of our signet or commandment to the Tower for any (fn. 7) manner sums we would; and whereas the Exchequer was wont, after war finished, to make process against all such as were charged with any sums of the King's treasure to call them to their account, we neither have nor can give account thereof, save only that there came out of the Tower, employed by our disposition, 1,300,000l.
"We have begun to put in use the grant of the resumption.
"We have begun to execute the statute of enclosings.
"We have begun to punish forfaictours against the statute of apparel.
"We have begun to redress the abusions of the temporal law, especially concerning calumniations and recoveries.
"We have begun to reform the order of the Chancery, especially concerning the original of our writs.
"We have begun to set up two new courts for the more speedy ridding of suits,—one in the Whitehall, another at the Rolls.
"We have begun to reform the abusion used in the processes made out of the Exchequer, [ (fn. 8) and to establish surveyors of the King's revenues, and much of his prerogatives which aforetime were accustomed to be accounted in the Exchequer.]
"We have begun [to] demand old debts pretended of the Steelyard, and to threaten them that we would pull away their liberties.
"We have begun to make learned men sheriffs of the shire.
"We have begun to ordain a watch through all the realm more chargeable than hath been seen aforetime, and such persons as were taken in London or about London to be brought before us in barges to the Star Chamber.
"We have begun to be very strait and sore in punishing of wilful perjury.
"We have begun to reform the abusions of sanctuaries and franchised places, and to take from them and to diminish much of their liberties.
"We have begun to redress the liberties of the city of London, and the abusion used amongst the incorporations of crafts there.
"We have begun to put in execution the writ of quo warranto sued against my lord of Norwich.
"We have begun to put in execution the penalty of the statute of retainer by the punishing of Sir Wm. Bulmer.
"We have begun to punish liberal speaking against us by nailing of men's ears, and set up new posts at the Standard in Chepe for that use.
"We have begun a new building at Westminster with the forfeitures against the statute of præmunire.
"We have begun to take up all the great matters in suit in England, to determine between the parties after our discretion, as the matters of Bury and Norwyche, and many such like.
"We have begun to make new constitutions legantine for the reformation of the whole clergy in England, which were for the most [part] prohibitions of such things as we had faculties to dispense with.
"We have begun to command every prelate of the realm to execute our constitutions or ever they were agreed unto by the whole.
"We have begun to put in execution our faculty ad certam summam in accepting the abbey of St. Alban's, the bishopric of Bath, besides our archbishopric and the bishopric of Durham.
"We have begun to set up the Court of our Prerogatives, to the disturbing of all the jurisdictions spiritual in England.
"Convocation of the clergy, and (at?) which time priests' heads were docked, and their gowns in some dioceses sewed up afore.
"We have begun to make new additions to the rule of St. Benet for the reformation of the Black Monks.
"We have begun to reform all other sorts of religious, as well men as women, in the realm.
"We have begun an ordinance that the lesser orders and subdeacon should be given both at once.
"We have begun to remove the term from London to Oxford.
"We have begun to found new common lectures there in all manner faculties.
"We have begun to reform their statutes and to alter the foundations of their colleges.
"We have begun to found a college in the said university for our readers to dwell in.
"We have begun to attempt to be President of the Garter.
"We have begun to ordain that one manner of grammar should be taught through all the realm.
"We have begun to shew the precedent how one may be legatus a latere, and not be sent from Rome, and to have two pole-axes borne after us, and to clothe the clerks of England in silk and velvet, notwithstanding the statute.
"We have begun a college at Ipswich, and obtained the lands of certain religious houses for the renting thereof.
"We have often begun to diminish the charges of the King's household.
"We have begun to rent a lively college of our making with livelode, convenient enough for a prince.
"We have begun to encourage the young gentlewomen of the realm to be our concubines by the well marrying of Besse Blont, (fn. 9) whom we would yet by sleight have married much better than she is, and for that purpose changed her name.
"These things have we begun within the realm, which either we have not finished, or else left as dangerous precedents to the ruffling of the good order of the realm, to such as shall fortune to succeed in like authority; and in Ireland, Calais, and other parts adjacent unto us, we have begun these things following:—
"We have begun to reduce Ireland to a better policy and subjection to us; and while the meddling was dangerous to him that was put in authority, kept him there perforce; (fn. 10) when he was at the point to master it, and do the thing he was sent for, we called him suddenly home again.
"We have begun to nourish a faction in Scotland between [the] duke of Albany and the earl of Angwyshe, which hath cost the realm no small sums of money.
"We have begun to reform the town of Calais, and to make agreement between the merchants of the Staple and the burgesses of the town.
"We have begun to reform the hurtful abusion of exchange making between the staplers and the merchants adventurers, whereby the realm is filled full of trash and made bare of money.
"We have begun to redress Berwick and the marches towards Scotland.
["We have begun to diminish the council at Ludlow, which was set up to keep good order in Wales. (fn. 11) ]
"Now resteth to shew what we have begun out of the realm, and with outward nations:—
"We have defended the Church against the French king, to our great impoverishing and enriching of his, being our enemy's, subjects.
"We have begun to pull down Tyrowen, which is now stronger than ever it was.
"We have begun to set up a chargeable garrison at Tornay.
"We have begun a sumptuous castle there.
"We have begun to make a bargain with our enemy to sell him his town again, and received hostages for the surety of the payment.
"We have begun to get again Guyen, where we were deluded by the Hyspaniards; and after we had gotten them Navarre, they would yet a' trained us farther to their purpose.
"We have begun to give an Emperor sowlde (pay) to be with us in our wars.
"We have begun to interrupt the French king's purpose when he went to recover Milan, and sent to the emperor Maximilian, by a cardinal [of Sion] that came hither in post, 40,000l. to sowlde the Swyses with, against the said French king.
"We have begun a general peace and league between the Pope, the Emperor elect, the French king, and us.
"We have begun to enter in a particular league between us and France, and to intreat of a marriage between their Dolphyn and our daughter and heir.
"We have begun to make an atonement between the French king and the Emperor.
"We have begun to have the Pope's whole power, he being alive, that we might have interdicted the lands of the Emperor or the French king, as our opinion had led us.
"We have begun to attempt to be Pope when the Pope was dead.
"We have begun war with the Scots; and while the lord Steward and my lord of Northumberland were taking of the musters, and appoint[ed] to set forth against the duke of Albany, already entered into the realm, the lord Dakers had with him secret communication, upon which incontinent he returned into Scotland again.
"We have now again begun just war with France, provoked by many notable injuries, but how we have handled them appeareth here before
"Yet have we brought to end and finished some few things since we were in authority, to the honor of the realm. For we have overthrown the army of the king of Scots, and slain the King and the most part of his nobles spiritual and temporal, when he invaded the realm, the King being absent, contrary to the tenor of the league between us.
"We took David Faulconnar and Andrew a Barton and certain other Scottish pirates on the sea.
"We had Ireland in a better way to be in perfect subjection to us than ever had prince afore these days.
"We have spoiled and burnt Morles, and bidden seven weeks in the realm of France unfoughten with, notwithstanding any provocation we could give in burning and spoiling the countries as we went; but my lord Cardinal was never present nor privy while any of these things were in doing, but if any of these things were in doing in the realm he was beyond sea, and if they were in doing beyond sea he was here within the realm.
"Now shall here follow the prodigal and wasteful expences that hath been used since the said Lord was in authority, which he was either the furtherer or the chief occasion; and the manifest tokens of vainglory in the said Lord:—
"We triumphed at the receiving of his cardinal's hat.
"We triumphed at the receiving of the legate de Campegio.
"We triumphed at our [en]countering at Calais, to the great impoverishing of the noblemen of England, and prodigal dispending of the King's treasure, as well in the sumptuous building made there only to that use, and not to endure, as in mummeries, banquets, jousts, and tourneys; at which time the said Cardinal had his day of triumphing apart, when the mess was kept in the camp.
"We triumphed at our journey to Walsingham, and the seeing of the town where we were born.
"We triumphed at our going to Calais, when we were the King's lieutenant, in all manner sorts of triumphing;—spiritual record, my lord of Canterbury and the clergy as we passed;—temporal record, the king of Denmark, whom we made it so strange to speak with. But this was right chargeable to the realm, for we had a 100l. a day allowed for our diet, and then had we with us all the seals of the realm, so that none act could accordingly pass from the King till we came home again; and though that in these things may sufficiently appear our insatiable vainglory, yet divers other times there be where we have showed it nobly, far above any man of the spiritualty in the realm afore our days,—as when the general league was confirmed by solemn oath at Pollys, where our cloth of estate, araised half a dozen steps from the ground, was directly over against the King's, equal with the ground, and temporal lords served us of combe water and other ceremonies in our Prince's presence; and also at the burning of Luther's books, and in manner ever when we are abroad by land and by water, and also in the preparation we made to ride to Windsor when we trusted to be President of the Garter. Since by these acts appeareth evidently the vanity and pomp that is in us, what have we provoked our Prince, whose sole and only councillor we be, to dispend wastefully at his triumphing at his entering into Lile, and the keeping of his jousts there, when the young prince of the Spaynis and my lady Margaret was there, and the Emperor in his company, and his enterings into Tornay, and especially at the rencontre at Guynes, and at the two times receiving of the Emperor elect, for whose receiving into London the city was charged with a fifteenth.
"We triumphed also when we brought the King his title of Defensor Fidei, and departed early from our lodging in Greenwich to the Friars, that we might be received into the court as ambassadors from the Pope when the Pope was dead.
"Now followeth how violent we were and hasty to come into this high authority, and how rigorously we have handled the King's subjects, especially the nobles, if they fell in the danger of the law, and what sore exactions have been levied since he was in his said authority:—
"We took away from my lord of Canterbury the chancellorship, and to take therefor the fee, notwithstanding our great livelode.
"We took from my lord of Winchester the privy seal.
"We found the means to order the signet at our pleasure.
"Of the 42,000 villages there be 15,000 removed to dwell in good towns, and the good towns to make them room; and courtesy, do not only beck or sneak, but in sundry places lie flat upon the ground.
"We have put about the King and Queen such as we listed.
"We have wearied and put away, both out of the King's council and out of his house, all such officers and councillors as would do or say anything freely, and retained such as would never contrary us.
"We have put so inportable charges to the noblemen in the King's name, what in his wars and what in his triumphings, that some have been constrained to mortgage their land to the King, some to sell it outright, some to obtain the King's letters, and to go a-begging in the realm.
"We have in manner undone all the young gentlemen of England that served us, and sent some beyond sea on embassies, and devised means to linger them there still, and to promote some into Ireland, because we would have them out of the way.
"We have Towered, Fleeted, and put to the walls at Calais a great number of the noblemen of England, and many of them for light causes.
"We have promoted none in manner of the Church to no manner wealth, but such as served about the King, to bring to pass our purposes, and to establish us in our authority, or were of our council, or in such things as an honest man would not vouchsafe to be acquainted with.
"We have hanged, pressed, and banished more men since we were in authority than have suffered death by way of justice in all Christendom beside, and so many as had been able well conducted to have gone through all France, and to have defended the realm from the invading of any Prince Christened.
"We have besides the yearly revenues of a hundred thousand pounds dispent in our first wars with France, 1,300,000l. in our last. 40,000l. we have gathered of our commons; six–fifteenths of the spiritualty; ten dismes, besides head money; and now the tenth part of all the moveables temporal in the realm, and the fourth part of all the revenues spiritual, which amounteth to nine–fifteenths, and now twenty–eight fifteenths;—a fifteenth is 33,000l. ;—and yet this sorry Cardinal findeth flatterers enow to tell the King and him that all is well.
"We have begun the old councillors (dismissed) to make new of far lesser experience, and the most part young, under pretext to have them grow in sufficiency to do the King good service hereafterward.
"We have begun to teach the noblemen and gentlemen of England to go afore us in order from our place to Westminster, and kept the same order in the court of our Prince, as a thing looked for of duty, though they had no matters why to be suitors unto us for.
"We have begun to make temporal men confessors to priests; and we, being a legate, which is the highest degree of priests, all next the Pope, have confessed ourself wilfully before all the commons of England." Signed: Jo. Palsgrave.
Pp. 10. Endd.: These 2½ leaves were found at the second search like as they be marked with A. B. C. by Master Palgrave's own hand.
III. "I perceive by thy letter that thou marvellest greatly what I make musing in a corner this day alone; but I marvel a great part more of thee, that thou art not weary to dance attendance thus long. But for so much as I suppose that it fareth between thee and me as it doth between a player at the chess and a looker on, for he that looketh on seeth many draughts that the player considereth nothing at all, I shall therefore briefly put thee in remembrance what hath been done; how the affairs of this realm have been ordered since it hath pleased our Sovereign to put my lord Cardinal in so high authority; and hereupon show thee my phantasy, according as I have many times done when we have talked together of the world. Unto which things if thou canst make me such an answer as shall content my mind, and persuade me from my purpose, I shall then, without any delay, not only come and keep thee company, but also be sorry that I have here tarried thus long, and that mine own opinion hath thus misled me. And now, (fn. 12) first to call to (fn. 13) thy remembrance what things we have begun to take in hand, and brought none of them to effect within the realm's self by reason of our authorities of the chancellorship of England and chiefest councillorship to our Sovereign Lord.
"We began first to move our Prince to call in a general resumption.
"We have begun to put in use the grant of the general resumption.
"We have begun to put in execution the remedies ordained for enc[l]osings (?)
"We have begun to punish forfaictours against the statute of apparel.
"We have begun to make an ordinance to reform our diet.
"We have begun to give commandment that no man should take the lesser orders except he took subdeacon also.
"We have begun to redress the abusions of the temporal law, especially that learned men should sign such books as they presented to the court, and that recoveries should no more be used.
"We have begun to reform the Chancery, concerning the order for the original of writs, and ordained for the clerks hoods of a new manner.
"We have begun to reform the abusions of the Exchequer, and to make learned men sheriffs of the shire.
"We have begun to set up two new courts for the speedy ridding of matters, one in the Whitehall, another in the Rolls.
"We have begun to diminish the charges of the King's household.
"We have begun divers times to cause our people to be numbered or harnessed, viewed, and straitly put in use the statute of retainers.
"Every of these enterprises were great, and the least of them to our commonwealth much expedient, especially the executing of our laws made in our own days; but that they have been begun, and brought to no good end.
"There ensueth thereof a double harm; for the inconvenients not only remain, but also daily increase; and the attempting to reform them, and coming to effect, shall cause men hereafter in manner to despair that they can, and think they can never(?) be brought to pass.
"As for our great punishment of wilful perjury, our continual watching throughout all the realm, our strait search made of misgoverned persons, which brought in bagsful to the Star Chamber at once, and embysyed the noblemen of the realm in the examination of them.
"Our reformation of sanctuaries and franchised places, and the reformation of the Chancery. These acts were convenable to be looked on by one in his authority, but I am sorry that every of these things be worse than they were afore we meddled with them. As for one thing I must needs mislike, that his Grace, being chancellor, should take up in manner all the great matters depending in suit in England, to determine between parties after his discretion, and suffer them still to remain, to the great charges and molesting of the parties, and would suffer no way to take effect that had been driven by other men. And hereof to show thee one example, call to mind the matter between the prior of Norwich and the city.
"Now to show thee what he hath begun by virtue of his authority legantine:—
"We have begun to make new constitutions legantine for the reformation of the whole clergy.
"We have begun to make new additions to the rule of St. Benet.
"We have begun to reform all the other kinds of religion in the realm.
"We have begun to set up a court of our prerogatives.
"As for the commandment we gave that no man should take" * * *
Pp. 3. Imperfect. Endd.: "The last matter found in Palgrave's coffer."
1 July.
R.O. Rym. XIV. 301.
Testimony of the bishops of London, Rochester, Carlisle, Ely, S. Asaph's, Lincoln, Bath, and of the archbishop of Canterbury, that the King had consulted them and others, touching his divorce, owing to his scruples of conscience. Dated 1 July 1529. Signed and sealed by the Bishops.
Lat. Endd. by Tunstal.
1 July.
R. O.
Had hoped their accounts for the fortifications here would have been inspected by the duke of Suffolk and the treasurer (Fitzwilliam). Send a short abstract showing the expenditure of the 1,000l. brought by Fowler. Calais, 1 July 1529. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
ii. Abstract alluded to. Signed as above.
P. 1.
2 July.
MS. Bibl. Nat. 3,005, f. 15.
At the wish of Francis, the King had intended to send Wolsey to Cambray, but, owing to the shortness of the time, he sends the bishop of London, Privy Seal, and Sir Thomas More. Begs credence for them. London, 2 July 1529.
Fr., from a transcript.
3 July.
Colbert MS. 468 v. 464.
Begs to have his congé, as he wrote on the 30th ult.; otherwise, will be obliged to take it. His credit here is used up, and for his bishopric during the war he will be paid "en gambades." The tun of three muidz of wine costs 52 cr., and he requires eight tuns a month for the number who come to drink it. A good capon costs often a crown, and butcher meat (les grosses chairs) is twice as dear as at Paris. You may send at my expence, and see if this is not true. If they think he is extravagant, refers to Morette, who is not the worst economist in the world, and who has seen him "jusques au foye (fn. 14) " but this year in England is out of all reason. London, 3 July.
Has learned nothing since he wrote last. Wolsey is hidden at Hampton Court, because he knew nowhere else to go. He has fortified his gallery and his garden. Only four or five are allowed to see him
Fr., from a transcript.
4 July.
Vesp. C. IV. 331*. B. M.
5755. LEE to WOLSEY.
The priest who took the monitory to the archbishop of Toledo has returned, and says no man can attempt any such thing against him there. The notary to whom the bishop of Worcester sent was banished. Has tried to get one here, but no man will dare. The bishop of Worcester will order the cause to be executed either in Arragon or at Rome, quia non patet ad eum accessus.
Hears nothing yet of the bishop of Palentia. Valladolid, 4 July 1529.
Hol., p. 1. Cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd.
Ibid. f. 153. 2. Duplicate of the above letter. Valladolid, 4 July 1529. Signed. Cipher, deciphered. Add.
4 July.
Vesp. C. IV. 331. B. M.
5756. LEE to HENRY VIII.
On 12 June wrote in answer to the King's letter of 22 April. A duplicate of the letter was sent by the bishop of Worcester on 17 June, and a triplicate by Pipwell, a London merchant. Has received no letters from the bishop of Worcester, nor from the Court, since his departure. Hears by letters from the secretary of the Emperor to a friend of his that the Emperor intends to take ship on the 25th July. Andrew de Auria came to him about 24 June with thirteen galleasses.' The two which came for the Pope's nuncio have returned with him. The navy of Malaga was ordered to come to Barcelona on the 18th of last month (May), but on 24 June they were not there.
Badcock writes that a truce of eighteen months has been taken, by the Emperor's secret consent, between Biscay and Guipuscoa, on the side of Spain, and St. [John] de Luce, Bayonne, and Cape Breton, on the French side; that the earl of Desmond has sent to the Emperor for 4,000 men, but the Biscayans say they will not go into Ireland, for they know the Irish will deceive the Emperor. The chaplain sent by the Earl is John Aslaby, archdeacon of Cloynes; he has with him the late mayor's son of Limerick, a banished man. Thinks Gonsalvo Ferdinandes went from Ireland to Flanders, and thence will go to Scotland. Valladolid, 4 July 1529. Signed.
Hol., p 1. The cipher deciphered by Tuke. Add. Endd.
5 July.
R. O.
Has received Cromwell's letter complaining that "your folks" (his sons) had profited nothing under Chekyng. Some have done as well as if they had many other [teachers]; others not so well as he could have wished, but if they have got little they have lost nothing. Is willing he should take them away, "for if I never have 1d. advantage by any scholer, I trust to have a poor living." Has brought up scholars at Cambridge as well as others for his time; six M.A.'s and Fellows of Colleges have been his pupils. Could have seven scholars for one that he has at present, if he could be troubled with them. Cannot endure such taunts after the trouble he has taken. Let the children themselves report how he has treated them. Thinks if it were put to them they would not be glad to leave. Has received by the bearer 6l. 13s. 4d. Expected much more, as that amount was spent a month ago, and he has to pay their commons. Wrote also that he had to pay 40s. for the feather bed burned by Christopher. If Cromwell will not remunerate him for his labor, he might at least give him something for their chamber and bedding. Has not been in such need these seven years. Cambridge, 5 July.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: Mr. Thomas Cromwell, at London.
ii. Cromwell to C ... ert.
I marvel greatly that ye have had no better speed for your chaplain, in whose favour I wrote to the chancellor of Winchester. Let me send my sister's daughter unto the gentlewoman your wife, to bring up, for which I well reckon myself much bound to you and her; and, besides the payment of her board, will so content her that I trust she will be well pleased. London,—July.
Draft, in Cromwell's hand, on the dorse of the preceding.


  • 1. All struck out between these two asterisks.
  • 2. In the margin, "Last."
  • 3. Struck out.
  • 4. Sic. Qu., "gift and understanding."
  • 5. Scored through.
  • 6. Dr. Pace.
  • 7. The word "received" is here interlined.
  • 8. Struck through to end of sentence.
  • 9. The mother of the duke of Richmond.
  • 10. i.e., the duke of Norfolk.
  • 11. Struck through in original.
  • 12. Underwritten, apparently as a correction, "But first."
  • 13. Underwritten, "represent unto".
  • 14. Qu. "au fond"