Henry VIII: July 1535, 1-10

Pages 379-402

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 8, January-July 1535. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1885.

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July 1535, 1-10

1 July.
Cleop. E. vi. 239.
B. M. Ellis, 3 Ser. ii. 337.
963. Edward Archbishop of York to [Cromwell].
"Right Honourable," I advertised you by my chaplain, Mr. Braynesbie, what has been done here for advancing what the King commanded. I send now two books;—one containing articles which curates and other ecclesiastical persons must declare to their audience, and preachers extend as their learning will serve them. The other book, which I have conceived as a brief declaration of the King's title of Supreme Head, and that the bishop of Rome has no jurisdiction here by the law of God, shall be spread abroad, so that curates and others who can perceive and utter it may read it to their audience.
Doubtless, many of our curates can scant perceive it. Many benefices are but 4l., 5l., or 6l., so that no learned man will take them; and we are fain to take those who are presented, if they are of honest conversation, can competently understand what they read, and minister sacraments and sacramentals, observing the due form and rite, though otherwise they are not perfect. I do not know 12 secular priests in my diocese that can preach. Those who have the best benefices are not resident. I hope the King will consider this, and be content with my doing the best I can. I write this because the King commands me to charge all ecclesiastical persons to preach the sincere Word of God, and to declare his title of Supreme Head, and his renunciation of the bishop of Rome's authority, and says that he will lay it to my charge if it is not kept within my diocese and province. To do this passeth my power, as your wisdom can consider. I have done what I could. I have declared these things in my own person, and have charged all bishops and archdeacons to execute the King's commands, and to charge all ecclesiastical persons, exempt and not exempt, to do the same. If I hear that any of them do not their duty I will punish them myself and inform the King. But I cannot be in all places; nor, perhaps, shall I hear of all faults; nor can I put learning and cunning to preach in the heads of those that have it not already. I therefore trust that the King will not blame me if any omit to do what they cannot do. As I wrote before, I do not know 12 secular priests preachers in my diocese, and there are few friars, and almost none of any other religion. But if any ecclesiastical person in my province omit to execute these commands, and I, knowing thereof, neither punish him nor signify his negligence to the King, then I must yield myself to blame. I did not think from the King's letters to myself that I was charged personally to preach about this matter every Sunday and solemn feast; but since I have seen plainer letters to others I will not fail to do so in one place or other, and now and then at my cathedral. I have ordered the Dean to see that the commands are obeyed in the cathedral, and by the rural deans within their jurisdictions. I beg you to give me some relief of the great charge which the words of the King's letters import; which I cannot, although I would, fulfil. I desire to know how long the declaration of the injuries done by Clement, as comprised in last year's instructions, is to be set forth by the curates. Hitherto only the preachers have done it, but I think it should not be forborne.
Dr. Langrige, (fn. 1) my chaplain, and archdeacon of Cleveland, has been in his archdeaconry preaching and setting forth the King's commandment, and giving away books. Sent him to the prior of Mountgrace, who received the book, but allowed not the thing, and said he trusted none of his brethren would allow such a thing. The Archdeacon tried in vain to allure him. I have written him a letter, of which I enclose a copy, and shall try to recover him. Four curates came to the Archdeacon at the monastery of Gisbourne, pretending that they were sore threatened if they published what they were commanded. They asked respite till St. Thomas's Day, to see if the persons who threatened them continued in their opinion, and if they did they would certify me. I will advertise you if it be like to grow to any business. Bishopsthorpe, 1 July 1535. Signed.
Pp. 4.
1 July.
R. O.
964. Edward Archbishop of York to Cromwell.
About this time last year I visited St. Mary's Abbey, and have continued my visitation since, appointing the Abbot to bring in the state of the house against this day. Yesterday, the prior of St. Mary's came, saying he had letters from you that no one should visit the abbey but yourself. He showed no letters. Told him that the superior visitor, when intending to visit, discharges his inferior by authentic letters, and that, since there only remained to see the state of the house, I did not doubt but that you would be content to let me use my ordinary power of visitation till lawfully discharged. The Abbot was unwilling to be visited last year; perhaps the need of visitation makes him more so. I trust that, till you commence your visitation, you will let me exercise my ordinary power. Bishopsthorpe, 1 July 1535. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
1 July.
R. O.
965. Will. Abbot of York to Cromwell.
I have received your letter. My lord Archbishop, by prorogations, has prefixed the visitation of our monastery this Thursday, 1 July, when it chanced Mr. Bowier, alias Stryley, to be at York. On sight of the said letters, as I had no inhibition to prevent my Lord's visitation, and to the intent that it might appear that ye had prefixed visitation on the King's part, and to avoid my Lord and his Chancellor then and there in our chapter house, Bowier prefixed unto me the 13th Sept. for your visitation. Whereupon my said lord's Chancellor ceased from his visitation, and continued till 12 Aug. next. Please write to my Lord your pleasure. York, 1 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Sealed. Endd.
1 July.
R. O.
966. Richard Bowier, alias Strilley, to Cromwell.
Has received at Welbek and elsewhere their renunciations. The Archbishop's visitation at York had been fixed by prorogation for the 1st July at St. Mary's Abbey. As I had just come to York, the Abbot sent for me in the morning, and showed me your letter, showing that if the Archbishop would visit you had prevented him. The Archbishop had actually begun his visitation, but to establish your authority I prefixed the 13th Sept. to the Abbot and convent, with continuance and prorogation at your pleasure; so that the Archbishop's Chancellor proceeded no further, but continued his visitation to the 12th Aug. York, 1 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mr. Crumwell, supreme secretary unto the King's grace. Endd.
1 July.
R. O.
967. The Commissioners for Spiritualities in Oxfordshire to Cromwell.
Desiring to have more time for sending in their report on the annual values of spiritualities in the county and university of Oxford, viz., till the beginning of next term, they send some books by the bearer, the mayor of Oxford, in order to have Cromwell's approval or correction of the form in which they are drawn up. Sending also a list of the annual sums due to the King from the colleges and monasteries within the university. Oxford, 1 July.
Signed: Symon Harcowrt, K.—John Brome, K.—Wm. Tresham, com.—John Clarke, knyght— John Deynton, esquier.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary and Master of the Rolls. Endd.: The Commissary of Oxford and others.
1 July.
Cleop. E. vi. 251.
B. M.
968. Magnus to [Cromwell].
Since coming here I have been continually occupied in taking the true value of all spiritual lands, and in assessing the temporal subsidy. It will be some time before the certificates will be duly made up. Hearing lately from the Archbishop that the King desired him to preach personally concerning the usurped jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome, and the King's title of Supreme Head, and also to command all ecclesiastical persons under him to do the same, I went to my archdeaconry, taking with me an Austin friar, who, from the Archbishop's instructions and my information, set forth the said two causes, justifying them by Holy Scripture and the writings of St. Augustine and other authors. I myself, knowing what had been done in Convocation and Parliament, and having some intelligence of the King's pleasure, prepared a book, of which I sent 140 copies to the ecclesiastical persons in my jurisdiction, that they might not plead ignorance, but have good matter to declare everv Sunday and feast day in their churches.
I have been at Hull, both at the Charter House and the parish church. At the former, I found the prior and brethren conformable to the King's pleasure. At the church there was great presence of spiritual persons,—the mayor, his brethren, and all the temporalty. I find all men well inclined. I suppose there is not a more quiet jurisdiction than my archdeaconry. I think there is no county that requires less setting forward in these causes than the East Riding of Yorkshire. York, 1 July.
Hol., pp. 2.
1 July.
R. O.
969. Letters of Archbishop Lee, &c.
The abridgment of certain letters of the date the last of June, directed from the archbishop and mayor of York, and from others the King's commissioners, for the inquiry of the clear value and estimation of all promotions spiritual within the city and shire of York.
1. They have used their utmost diligence in the execution of the King's commission.
2. They declare some things to be imperfect within the deanery in the city of York, the causes of which are explained in a bill enclosed.
3. They commend the diligence of James Ricby, Edw. Edgare, Ric. Croseby, and Robt. Hunter, auditors, especially of the said James Rucby.
4. They are considered very strict in divers cases, especially in making no allowance to those whose lands lie so upon the waters that they are in danger of losing them except by great expenditure.
5. Also for making no allowance for perpetual charges of mills and the like.
ii. The abridgment of my lord of York's letters of the same date.
1. The commissioners have sent up Tristram Teshe with the certificate of the clear value of all promotions in Yorkshire.
2. He desires that if any allowance be made for lands lying on the waters or for mills, &c. (see No. 952.)
iii. The abridgment of my lord of York's letters, dated 1 July.
1. This time twelvemonth he visited St. Mary's Abbey in York, &c. (see No. 964.)
iv. The abridgment of other letters from my lord of York, dated 1 July.
1. He states what has been done in execution of the King's commands concerning the title of Supreme Head, &c. (see No. 963.)
v. The abridgment of Mr. Magnus's letters, 1 July.
1. Ever since coming into Yorkshire he has applied himself to the execution of the King's commission, &c. (see No. 968.)
Pp. 4. Endd.
1 July.
R. O.
970. — to [Henry VIII.]
We have received your commandment, dated Windsor, 21 June, touching such heinous riots as were late done in Craven, for which "we did appoint one justiseit at Gysbourne in Craven;" and there are indicted 82 persons, of whom we have committed 18 to several prisons. The offenders are meek, and acknowledge their offences, and are well content with their punishment, thinking they have deserved it. Had to remain in these parts five days before we could bring the premises to frame. Your subjects here are as loyal as any other. Gysbourne, 1 July.
P. 1.
1 July.
R. O.
971. Thomas Abbot of Abingdon to Cromwell.
Is rejoiced to hear from his friend Mr. Mason how kindly Cromwell received his letters, and of his loving admonition touching the Abbot's slackness in his business. This shows his love of justice and desire to get at the truth. Wishes a command given to the Commissioners to be here on the 20th July, as they are appointed on that day; and hopes that John Smyth and John Myne, if they come not that day, will deliver to the Commissioners the writing delivered to them when they were here last. Abendon, 1 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Mr. Cromwell, chief secretary to the King's highness, and master of his Rolls.
1 July.
R. O.
972. Sir Gregory da Casale to Cromwell.
His brother the prothonotary, as Cromwell knows from previous letters, was taken prisoner going to Hungary, 10 miles on this side of Zagabria. Ferdinand wrote to the Imperial ambassador, and the Nuncio to the Pope, that he had made his escape; but two Italians, who were at Vienna at the time, says he was led thither, and is imprisoned at a place five miles from thence. The Imperial ambassador at Venice has received a letter from Ferdinand, saying that he has in custody the prothonotary, whose going to Hungary would be injurious to his affairs; adding that he intended this to be kept secret, but, since it had come out, he would say that the prothonotary was treated as became his rank. Ferdinand wished this kept from king John and from the kings of France and England, believing it a violation of the jus gentium, since the prothonotary was ambassador of England and carried credentials from Francis. Andrew Corsin also carried credentials from Francis. Thinks king John will hear of it from some friends who have gone into Hungary. Does not think his brother will be released till the peace is concluded; which ambassadors from king John and the prince of the Turks are now at Vienna negociating.
The Emperor left Spain on the 1st of June, and sailed to Caiare (Cagliari) in Sardinia, where the marquis Vasti was with the rest of the fleet. Thence, he hears from Sicily, after two days' stay, they made all sail for Tunis. Barbarossa is preparing for flight, and the Emperor trying to prevent him.
Two youths, who arrived yesterday from the French court, say the cardinal of Paris is coming to Rome. The Pope has postponed the affair of the Camerino and of the cardinal of Ravenna until the coming of the Emperor. Is afraid what was reported by those brought to Sicily may be an invention of the Spaniards.
It is said at Venice that the Emperor, on his departure, sent Ferdinand's ambassador from Barcelona to Vienna, asking Ferdinand to release the prothonotary and Andrew Corsin. Is doubtful about the truth of this, but certain that Ferdinand, "quod sui moris est," will obey. When king John hears of their captivity he will desire to know the wishes of the kings of France and England before making any treaty. Rome, 1 July 1535. Signed.
Lat., pp. 4, slightly mutilated. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
1 July.
R. O.
973. O'Neil.
Engagement of Gyllaspike McDonyll, constable of Con O'Nell, that O'Nell will be faithful to the King, and will meet the deputy, hostages being given for his safety, to arrange a treaty and other articles. Sealed by McDonell in the presence of Odo O'Donell, Janico Preston Viscount Gormaniston, and Thos. Cusake, secondary justice of the C.P., at Moynoth, 1 July 1535. Certificate that the above agreement was signed by O'Nell at Droeda, 25 July. Signed by Skeffington, J. Barnewall, chancellor, Wm. Brabason, and Patrick Fynglas, justices.
Lat., pp. 2. Endd.
Lamb. MS. 601, f. 21. 2. Copy of the above.
1 July.
R. O.
974. Trial of Sir Thomas More. (fn. 2)
i. Special commission of oyer and terminer for Middlesex, to Sir Thos. Audeley, chancellor; Thos. duke of Norfolk; Charles duke of Suffolk; Hen. earl of Cumberland; Thos. earl of Wiltshire; Geo. earl of Huntingdou; Hen. lord Montague; Geo. lord Rocheford; Andrew lord Windsor; Thos. Crumwell, secretary; Sir Will. Fitzwilliam; Sir Will. Paulet; Sir John Fitzjames; Sir John Baldewyn; Sir Ric. Lister; Sir John Porte; Sir John Spelman; Sir Walter Luke; and Sir Ant. Fitzherbert.— Westm., 26 June 27 Hen. VIII.
ii. Precept to the sheriff for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Monday next after the feast of St. John the Baptist.—Westm., 26 June 27 Hen. VIII. With panel annexed.
iii. Indictment as hereafter set forth.
Endd.: Billa vera.
iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower, commanding him to bring up the body of Sir Thos. More, late of Chelchehithe, Midd., at Westminster, on Thursday next after the morrow of St. John the Baptist.—Westm., 30 June 27 Hen. VIII.
v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury this Thursday after the morrow of St. John the Baptist.—Westm., 1 July 27 Hen. VIII.
vi. Record of the sessions held before the special commissioners, citing the above documents.
The indictment (fn. 3) found at Westminster on Monday next after the feast of St. John the Baptist, setting forth the Acts 26 Hen. VIII. [e. 1, 13].
Found, that Sir Thos. More, traitorously attempting to deprive the King of his title of Supreme Head of the Church, &c., did, 7 May 27 Hen. VIII., at the Tower of London, before Cromwell, Thos. Bedyll, clk., and John Tregonell, LL.D., the King's councillors, and divers others, being examined whether he would accept the King as Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England, pursuant to the statute, refused to give a direct answer, saying "I will not meddle with any such matters, for I am fully determined to serve God, and to think upon His Passion and my passage out of this world." Afterwards, 12 May 27 Hen. VIII., the said Sir Thomas, knowing that one John Fissher, clk., was then detained in the Tower for divers misprisions, and that the said Fissher had refused to accept the King as above, wrote divers letters to him, which he transmitted by one Geo. Golde, declaring his agreement with Fisher, and intimating the silence which he, More, had observed when interrogated. In these letters he wrote as follows:—" The Act of Parliament is like a sword with two-edges, for if a man answer one way it will confound his soul, and if he answer the other way it will confound his body."
Afterwards, fearing lest Fisher should reveal upon further examination what he had written to him, the said Sir Thomas, at the Tower, 26 May 27 Hen. VIII., sent other letters to Fisher, requesting him to answer according to his own mind, and not to give any such answer as he, Sir Thos., had written, lest the Council should suspect confederacy between them. Nevertheless, in consequence of the letters first written, Fisher did, 3 June 27 Hen. VIII., at the Tower, when examined by Sir Thos. Audeley, Suffolk, Wiltshire, and others, refuse to answer directly, and said, "I will not meddle with that matter, for the statute is like a two-edged sword; and if I should answer one way I should offend my conscience, and if I should answer the other way I should put my life in jeopardy. Wherefore I will make no answer in that matter."
The said Sir Thomas likewise, when examined at the Tower, 3 June 27 Hen. VIII., maliciously persevered in refusing to give a direct answer, and, imagining to move sedition and hatred against the King, said to the King's councillors, "The law and statute whereby the King is made Supreme Head as is aforesaid be like a sword with two edges; for if a man say that the same laws be good then it is dangerous to the soul, and if he say contrary to the said statute then it is death to the body. Wherefore I will make thereunto none other answer, because I will not be occasion of the shorting of my life." And, moreover, the said More and Fisher, in order to conceal their treacherous intentions, severally burned their letters which passed between them immediately after reading the same.
Afterwards, 12 June 27 Hen. VIII., Richard Ryche, the King's Solicitor General, came to Sir Thomas in the Tower, and charitably moved him to comply with the Acts; to which More replied, "Your conscience will save you, and my conscience will save me." Ryche then, protesting that he had no authority to make any communication with More, said to him, "Supposing that it were enacted by Parliament that he, Richard Ryche, should be King, and that it should be treason to deny the same, what would be the offence if he, Sir Thomas More, were to say that the said Ryche, was King?" For certain, the said Ryche further said, in his conscience it would be no offence, but that More was obliged so to say, and to accept Ryche for King, because the consent of the said More was compelled by an Act of Parliament. To which More then and there answered that he should offend if he were to say no, because he would be bound by an Act, because he was able to give his consent to it. But he said that would be a light case; wherefore he would put a higher case:—"Suppose it should be enacted by Parliament that God should not be God, and that opposing the Act should be treason; and if it were asked of you, Ric. Ryche, whether you would say that God was not God according to the statute, and if you were to say so, would you not offend?" To which Ryche answered More, "Certainly, because it is impossible that God should not be God. But because your case is so high, I will put a medium one. You know that our lord the King is constituted Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England; and why ought not you, Master More, to affirm and accept him so, just as you would in the preceding case, in which you admit that you would be bound to accept me as King?" To which More, persevering in his treasons, answered that the cases were not similar; because a King can be made by Parliament, and deprived by Parliament; to which Act every subject being at the Parliament may give his assent (ad quem actum quilibet subditus ad Parliamentum existens suum præbeat consensum); but as to the primacy, a subject cannot be bound, because he cannot give his consent to that in Parliament (quia consensum suum ab eo ad Parliamentum præbere non potest); and although the King is so accepted in England, yet many foreign countries do not affirm the same."
Trial at Westminster on Thursday next after the feast of St. John Baptist, 27 Hen. VIII. Sir Thomas brought to the bar by Sir Edm. Walsingham, lieutenant of Sir Will. Kingston, constable of the Tower, pleads Not guilty.
Venire awarded, returnable same day. Prisoner again brought to the bar. Verdict Guilty.
Judgment as usual in high treason. Execution at Tyburn.
Record brought into the Court of King's Bench by Sir John Fitzjames, Monday next after the morrow of the Purification, 27 Hen. VIII.
975. More and Fisher.
"Defensio Clarissimorum virorum Joannis Fyscheri episcopi Roffensis et Thomæ Mori baronis et cancellarii Angliæ, adversus Richardum Sampsonem Anglum per Joannem Cochlæum."
Quotes two extracts from letters from More to Erasmus, the "Tabula affixa ad sepulchrum Thomæ Mori;" "Epitaphium inibi fixum," in elegiacs; (fn. 4) "Passio episcopi Roffensis et Thomæ Mori per C. G. descripta;" and four letters from More to Cochlæus.
*** Several letters of Sir Thomas More which have been omitted in this Calendar in the years to which they belong will be found in Stapleton's Life of More. They are chiefly on literary matters, addressed to Erasmus, Budæus, Tunstall, Fisher, Croke, and Dr. Edward Lee. There is also one addressed to his daughter, Margaret Roper, expressing not only his own satisfaction at her letters, but the wonder they had created in Reginald Pole, whom he mentions as a young man of nobility, learning, and virtue, who could hardly believe that she had not been assisted by a teacher till he was assured that there was no teacher in their house, and no man who would not rather require her help to write a letter.
2 July.
R. O.
976. The Mayor and Aldermen of York to Cromwell.
Have viewed all the gores, fishgarths, and weirs in the waters of Ouse and Humber, according to the King's commission. Most of the owners have now taken them up, so that the rivers are now in better condition than they have been for a long time. Thank Cromwell for this result. There are, however, divers weirs unreformed, belonging to men of honor, whose names will be given to Cromwell by the bearer, their common officer. Send a token for a remembrance, and are sorry their power is no better. York, 2 July.
P. 1. Add.: Mr. Cromwell, chief secretary unto the King's Highness and Master of his Grace's rolls. Endd.
2 July.
R. O.
977. Lisle to Cromwell.
Hears he is dissatisfied with him "for the rumor that was here of war by reason that Mr. Whetell's son brought in his father's stuff to this town;" (fn. 5) also about the wools. Was not himself the author of the report. Was with his wife at a place he has three miles from Calais, and left the keys of the gate with the marshal, who, seeing the carts coming into the town, sent the news to Lisle, which was confirmed by my lord Edmund [Howard] and my lord Grey Wilton. Cannot tell how the rumour arose, but did his best to pacify the people. "As touching the forfeit of wools, I assure you if I had not prevented the same before, my lord of Rocheford had had it himself, and so he showed me that I come before him, or else he had been sure of it." Trusts Cromwell above all others. As Cromwell was sick, made Norris of his counsel. Calais, 2 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: Mr. Cromwell, &c., principal secretary.
[2 July?]
R. O.
978. Andrew Lord Wyndesore to Cromwell.
Will send him a bill of the creditors, as he wishes. Begs him that money may be provided for them, for they make much calling for it daily. If he were in the city, would be weary of them.
Reminds him of the joint patent of the office of which he spoke before. Promises him 40l. yearly, which is 800l. in 20 years, for his labour, and, besides, the rich collar, which is worth 100l. 13s. 4d.; and if the party deceases, Cromwell is to have the office to himself. The collar is in London, and he can see it when he pleases. Reminds Cromwell of the matter, so that if he has not yet settled it, he may do so before the King departs on his journey. The party was "dyseasyd with me," and would have taken this letter to Cromwell, but his wife is fallen in labour; but he shall be with Cromwell on Monday night. Stanwell, Friday.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary.
3 July.
R. O.
979. Humphrey Prydoow to Cromwell.
On the 13th June last one Cholwyll came to me from Hertlond, sent by Mr. Pierce Courteney and Roger Gyffard, to the latter of whom the receipts of the abbey were committed by the bishop till the new abbot had agreed with the King for the first-fruits. They required me as a justice of peace to repair to the abbey for removal of an entry made by force by Sir John Priest, late abbot. I bade the messenger show them that I would be there in the morning, when they would meet me and bring convenient company to assist me in executing the law.
On the morrow, the 14th June, I reached the abbey, and found there one Hugh Yoe, another justice, and others, to the number of 27, and then two men standing on the walls, and divers persons which we could see at the windows, to the number of 24 or more. Hugh Yoe and I required the said Sir John Priest, standing upon the wall of the abbey, Wm. Essam, servant to Thos. Arundel, Robt. Hendy, servant to John Arundel, to let us in, in the King's name. He would only consent if we who were justices alone came in, and would depart without putting him out of possession; on which we departed; and since we have summoned a privy sessions, where the entry and refusal were found before us, the justices of Devonshire. 3 July.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Mr. Secretary.
3 July.
R. O.
980. Nich. [Austen], Abbot of Rewley, to Cromwell.
Whereas I am informed that the abbey of Merivale, in Warwickshire, a house of White Monks, is now void; I desire your favor therein for one of my brethren, form whom Mr. Androse labored to be abbot of Byttlesden. (fn. 6) For your favor, whatever Androse promised you shall be performed. Rewley, 3 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
4 July.
R. O.
981. H. Duke of Richmond to Cromwell.
In these parts I have neither park nor game for my friends, and send you the names of the King's grounds in these parts, desiring you to move the King in this behalf. I beg your favor for John Travers, gentleman waiter, if there should be a resumption of all grants made by the King in Ireland, by Act of Parliament shortly to be held there, that he may enjoy the farm of the fishing of the Bann, according to his patent. Sheffield, 4 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary and Master of the Rolls. Sealed. Endd.
4 July.
R. O.
982. Walter Mersche to Cromwell.
The bearer, Thos. Johnson, is an Englishman living at Amsterdam, and can show you how Mynster was taken, and the behaviour of the people. Some of them had a very coarse meaning. Their watchword was "Effen Rieke." They are well abated. A great watch is kept, and strait search made, for doubt of them and for fear of fire, as well here as elsewhere. It is reported that they are fleeing from the country, and many of them to England. There has been lately a great skirmish between the Lubeckers and the duke of Holst and others, and it is reported that the Lubeckers have suffered great losses. A diet was appointed to be held at Lunenburg, to pacify all strife. It was to be held on Thursday last; but it is now supposed it will not be held. Antwerp, 4 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary.
4 July.
R. O.
983. Ralph Standissh to Antony Burcher.
The King's visitors in Cambridge have taken this order in one house for all scholars who are not able to read the arts and philosophy, that their friends shall take them home and put them to a grammar school for three years, and shall have all their allowance of the College due to them. After which they shall return, if they be able to read art, and if not, they shall forfeit their exhibition. 4 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
4 July.
R. O.
984. T. Lord Monteagle to Cromwell.
Received, 1 July, at Salley abbey, by a servant of Sir Richard Tempest, Cromwell's letter, dated the Rolls, 18 June, for the apprehension of those living within his jurisdiction who have made unlawful assemblies. Had already sent Bartilmew Hesketh, custos rotulorum of Lancashire, to monish a sessions of the peace for that special cause.
Received also, 3 July, the King's letter about like misbehaviour in Westmoreland, Cumberland, Lancashire, and Craven, which he will do his best to fulfil. Has been in Craven to investigate, but Sir Ric. Tempest and Rob. Challoner had taken action in the matter before him. Burton abbey, Yorkshire, 4 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: Master Secretary. Endd.: Th'erle of Derbey.
4 July.
Add. MS. 8,715, f. 84b, B. M.
985. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrosio.
Wrote from Amiens on the 25th about the fears for Fisher. The King's impiety has gone so far that on the 22nd ult. he had him beheaded publicly at the Tower, and his body left there all day for a public show. Hears that "Gramuel" went to him in prison, and told him that the bishop of Rome had created him one of his companions, and the King had sent him to know what was his opinion about it. He replied that honor was not in his thoughts now, and he thought only of the mercy of God, whose his soul was, though his body was in the King's power, who could do what he liked with it, but he would not change his opinion, believing that it was right. "Gramuel" then announced to him the day of his death. He was conducted on a mule, wearing a black cloth vest and cap tied under his chin, to the square (piazza), where he had to wait for an hour because the scaffold was not in order. And although, as the Admiral says, from age and suffering he was more like a shadow than a man, he spoke to the people boldly, telling them to be loving and obedient to their King, who was good by nature, but had been deceived in this matter; that he was led to death for wishing to preserve the honor of God and the Holy See; at which he did not grieve, but was content, for it was the will of God. Hears now from the English ambassador that he only said, that being of flesh, which naturally feared death, and knowing that Peter three times denied Christ through fear of death, and having always had the mind to die, if necessary, for the love of Christ and his Holy Church, now that he was come to it, he begged all present to pray to God to grant constancy and firmness to his fragile flesh to suffer cheerfully his approaching punishment. The Admiral had heard that he was quartered according to the sentence; but the English ambassador says that he was merely beheaded, "per grandissima gratia ottenuta dal furore infinito in questo di quel Re;" who finally was content that his body should be buried in the evening. The cause of his death is rumoured in England to have been his writing evil of the King to Thos. More, who was also in prison. And they had caused it to be said to his face by one of his chaplains that he had written to More against the King on a bit of wood with a needle, having neither paper nor ink. More is thought to be already executed, or, at least, condemned to death with perhaps thirty other virtuous persons, religious and secular; so that we now see clearly that the tragedy will go far, and that there is no hope of good from the King.
Francis has spoken of it like a Christian and a virtuous prince, expressing his great grief, and that he knows that the King is given up to perdition, and no good can be expected of him, so that he sees clearly he cannot have friendship with him, since he sets himself in this way against the honor of God and the Church. He is not ashamed to ask him to consider as null the sentence given against him, to hinder the Council with all his power, and to consider as bad or null any new sentence of the Holy See against him. Francis sees from this that he fears the Council wonderfully, and that his errors and his determination to remain in them have made him so timid and he has gone so far that similar results may be expected every day. He says he did all that was possible for Fisher's safety; which the Bishop knows to be true. The like was done by Du Bellay and the Admiral, who said, in Italian, that the King's conduct to Fisher was the most cowardly, infamous, and grievous thing that had ever been done in the world. The other lords of the Court have spoken in the same strain, without restraint. They appear to care little for the friendship of England, seeing it is so alienated from the Holy See, for the preservation of which Francis says he will spend his life if necessary. Thanked him for his good will, congratulating him that God had not permitted him to come to an understanding at Calais. Hoped that his Holiness would be able to direct the wished-for expedition against the Turk, and avenge himself on the king of Englaud. He complained also of the English sympathy with the Lutherans. The Admiral, when at Calais, replied to Englishmen, who commiserated their treatment in France, that in France they made confessors, but in England they made many martyrs. The king of England has tried to prevent the Lutherans from recognising the Pope as the Head of the Church, which they had determined to do through the medium of France.
Francis also spoke three days ago of the new queen of England, how little virtuously she has always lived and now lives, and how she and her brother and adherents suspect the duke of Norfolk of wishing to make his son King, and marry him to the King's legitimate daughter, though they are near relations. It seems to him there can be little friendship between the two kingdoms. * * * *
The King spoke of the marriage of the king of Scotland with the duke of Vendome's daughter as certain, but said the king of England was displeased at it, and now would wish to give him his eldest daughter. His inconstancy was incredible. Sends the copy of a proclamation issued in England.
Ital., pp. 11, modern copy. Headed; Al S. Mons. Ambrogio, ali 4 di Luglio, data alla Fiera.
R. O. 2. Extract from the original letter in the Vatican archives.
Pp. 4. Among the Roman transcripts.
4 July.
Add. MS. 8,715, f. 89 b.
B. M.
986. Bishop of Faenza to Cardinal Palmieri.
Mentions the death of Fisher on 22nd June. Wishes him to remind the Pope that Reginald Pole, a relation of the King, but of the White Rose, is at Padua. He is of great learning and virtue, but now in a low state and ruined, because he would not consent to the King's disordered and impious appetites, or write in favour of his cause. Thinks he knew him twelve years ago in Padua.
If the Pope were to give him Fisher's hat, besides other advantages, it would seem to the people of England a Christian and praiseworthy revenge against the King. Card. Contareni, the bishop of Verona, and others, can speak to Pole's character. "Da Chaver (qu. la Fère?) ut supra."
Ital., pp. 2, modern copy. Headed: Al Rmo Palmieri, ut supra.
More's Eng.
Works, 1455.
987. Sir Thos. More to Antony Bonvyse.
Does not expect long to have liberty to write, and has therefore determined to declare by this letter how he is comforted by the sweetness of his friendship. Has been for almost forty years not a guest but a continual nursling in the house of Bonvyse, and in requital has not showed himself a friend, but a barren lover only. Comforts himself with the thought that he never had occasion to do him pleasure; for such was always his great wealth, that there was nothing left in which More might be beneficial to him. Few men so fawn upon their fortunate friends as Bonvyse favors and honors him, now overthrown and in prison. Such friendship is not one of the brittle gifts of fortune, but a high and noble gift, proceeding from a singular benignity of God. Considers that it was ordained by the great mercy of God that such a friend should be long before provided to assuage a great part of these troubles. Prays God to requite this bountifulness to him, his dear friend, and of all mortal men the dearest to him, and to bring them from this wretched and stormy world to His rest, where shall need no letters, where no wall shall dissever them, where no porter shall keep them from talking together.
Bids him farewell, the most trusty of all his friends, and, as he was wont to call him, the apple of his eye.
"Thos. More, I should in vain put to it 'Yours,' for thereof can you not "be ignorant, since you have bought it with so many benefits. Nor now "I am not such a one that it forceth whose I am."
Lat., with an English translation.
Note at the beginning.—Sir. Thos. More, a little beforè he was arraigned and condemned in 1535, 27 Hen. VIII., being shut up so close in prison in the Tower, that he had no pen nor ink, wrote with a coal an epistle in Latin to Master Anthony Bonvyse, merchant of Luke, and then dwelling in London, his old and dear friend, and sent it unto him, the copy whereof here followeth.
5 July.
More's Eng. Works, 1457.
988. Sir Thos. More to Margaret Roper.
"Our Lord bless you, good daughter, and your good husband, and your little boy, and all yours and all my children, and all my godchildren and all our friends." Desires to be recommended to his good daughter Cicily, to whom he sends a handkerchief, and to his good son her husband (fn. 7) and her children. "My good daughter Daunce has the picture in parchment that you delivered me from my lady Coniers; her name is on the backside." Wishes it to be sent to her again.
Asks her to be good to Dorothy Coly and "my good daughter Joone Aleyn," (fn. 8) who sued to More today to pray Mrs. Rooper to be good to her. Tomorrow is St. Thomas Even, and the Utas of St. Peter, and therefore he longs to go to God; it were a day very meet and convenient for him. Never liked her manner towards him better than when she kissed him last. (fn. 9) Thanks her for her great cost. Sends to his good daughter Clement (fn. 10) her algorisme stone, and God's blessing and his to her, his godson, and all hers. Desires to be recommended to his good son John More. Liked well his natural fashion. (fn. 11) Our Lord bless him and his wife. If More's lands come to his hand, desires him not to break his will concerning his sister Daunce. Our Lord bless Thomas and Austen, (fn. 12) and all that they shall have.
Note at the head.—Sir Thos. More was beheaded at the Tower Hill in London on Tuesday, 6 July 1535, 27 Hen. VIII.; and on the day next before, being Monday, 5 July, he wrote with a coal a letter to his daughter Mrs. Rooper, and sent it to her, which was the last thing that ever he wrote. The copy whereof here followeth.
5 July.
R. O.
989. Henry VIII.
[The King's g]estes the xx[vii. year of] his reign, from [Windsor to] Bristowe.—Monday, 5 July, Windsor to Reading, and there Tuesday and Wednesday, St. Thomas Day; three days, 12 miles. Thursday, 8 July, Reading to Ewelme, and there Friday, 2 days, 10 m. (In the margin, [M]yssenden.) Saturday, 10th July, to Abingdon, and there till Monday, 3 days, 8 m. (In the margin, ... arringden [p]ark, [W]odstock.) Tuesday, 13 July, to Langley, and there till Friday, 12 m. (In the margin, .... wnell.) Saturday, 17 July, to Sydley, and there till Thursday, 14 m. (In the margin, ..... mbe .... aylles.) Friday, 23 July, Sedley to Tewkesbury, and there till Monday, 7 m. (In the margin, ...... gtor the .... ttes place.) Tuesday, 27 July, Tewkesbury to Gloucester, and there till Sunday, 7 m. (In the margin, ...... eyerd the .... ttes place.) Monday, 2 Aug., Gloucester to Berkeley Heron, and there till Sunday, 15 m. (In the margin, ..... Pointz.) Monday, 9 Aug., Berkley Heron to Thornbury, and there till Monday, 5 m. (In the margin, [Mr. W]alshes.) Tuesday, 17 Aug., Thornbury to Bristowe, and there till Friday, 10 m. Saturday, 21 Aug., Bristowe to Acton, Mr. Poyntz's place, and there Sunday, 7 m. Monday, 23 Aug., Acten to Mr. Walshe's, where he dwelleth, and there till Wednesday, 6 m. Thursday, 26 Aug., from Mr. Walshe's to Bromham, and there till Wednesday, 12 m. (In the margin, .... stock.) Thursday, 2 Sept., Bromham to Whofall, there till Monday ... m. Tuesday, 7 Sept., Whofall to Thrukstone, there till Thursday, 12 m. Friday, 10 Sept., Thruckeston to Pryor's Horsborne, and there a night, 8 m. Saturday, 11 Sept., Priors Horsborne to Winchester, and there till Wednesday, 10 m. Thursday, 16 Sept., Winchester to Bishop's Waltham, and there till Tuesday, 7 m. Wednesday, 22 Sept., Waltham to Alsford, 7 m. Thursday, 23 Sept., Alsford to Alton, to dinner, that night to Farnham, and there till Sunday, 14 m. Monday, 27 Sept., Farnham to Esthamstede, and there till Thursday, 12 m. Friday, 1 Oct., from Esthamstede to Windsor, and there during the King's pleasure, 6 m.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
5 July.
R. O.
990. Edward Archbishop of York to Sir Ralph Evers and Others.
As to the foolish and lewd priest who has spoken the words mentioned in your bill, signed by your hands and his, I advise you to report the case to the King or his Council. Meanwhile, I have charged my baylie of Beverley to make him sure as a traitor. I will write about him to Mr. Secretary in my next, but advise you to make speed as you have spoken with him. Send up a copy of the bill he has signed, and write what he has done about erasing the bishop of Rome's name. Bishop's Thorpe, 5 July 1535. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my loving friends Sir Rauf Evers, Sir John Constable, Sir Christopher Hylliard, and Sir Raufe Ellerker, the younger, knights.
5 July.
R. O.
991. H. Earl of Northumberland to Henry VIII.
Since my last letter, stating that I had appointed a session to inquire touching the late insurrections in Craven, I have received your letters in accordance with those Mr. Secretary and others had written to me before. Both my lord of Westmoreland and I had intended to be there, but Sir Ric. Tempest, who sent me the said letters "by a foot fellow," had appointed a session before, and gave me but one day's notice, and the place was too distant for us to attend. But Sir Marmaduke Constable, the elder, who was with me at Topclyf, and had a letter from Mr. Secretary, rode thither in the night; by whom I wrote to my cousin Hamerton to assist in apprehending malefactors. About four-score were indicted, among whom were 40 of my lord of Cumberland's own freeholders and tenants, for pulling down his enclosures and those of one John Lambert, which he had lately purchased of Lord Dacres of the South, of the inheritance of the late lord Fitzhugh; also 14 of the abbot of Fournes' tenants and mine, for pulling down enclosures of one Caterall's, which were an encroachment on their common; 19 of the most notable offenders are committed to divers wards, viz., Skipton, Sandall, and Wresyll Castles. There is no manner of other "business" in Yorkshire or elsewhere under my rule, except in Northumberland, a dispute between the Fenwicks for title of land, and another between one Shaftowe and Waddyngton; both which my brother Sir Ingram had pacified under sureties; but my lord of Westmoreland has committed both the parties to your castle of Newcastle till your pleasure be further known. Topelyf, 5 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
5 July.
R. O.
992. Sir Ric. Tempest and others to Cromwell.
Sir Ric. Tempest and Rob. Chaloner received, 25 June, Cromwell's letters, dated at the Rolls the 18th, to apprehend and send to Cromwell the capital doers of the riots in Yorkshire, and bind the rest to be of good abearing. Went to Craven, and staid there five days. Held a sessions, at which Sir Marmaduke Constable showed us a letter and credence from the King. 82 persons were indicted for three several riots. Believe many more took part in them, mostly women and children, but cannot yet learn their names. Their object was to pull down recent enclosures of moors and wastes. They had no man of substance with them. According to Sir Marmaduke's credence, have taken 18 of the principals and sent them to different prisons, awaiting the King's pleasure before sending them up. Braswell, 5 July. Signed: Ric. Tempest—M. Constable—Rob. Chaloner —John Lambart, th'elder.
Pp. 2. Add.: Master Cromwell, secretary to the King's highness.
5 July.
R. O.
993. Sir Ric. Tempest to Cromwell.
Encloses copy of letters from Sir Marmaduke Constable, himself, and others, to the King, with another to his mastership, showing what they have done about the riots. Did not receive the King's letter till he had taken order according to Cromwell's. My lord of Northumberland received Cromwell's letter before the King's came, but was so sick that he could not act. Their words were so "regulus" that Tempest got a company to have suppressed them, which made them easier to deal with. Had no company with him of the King's Commissioners, but Master Chaloner, who has been very diligent. Depends entirely on Cromwell in his suits about the King's parks. Gysborne, 5 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Master Cromwell, secretary, &c. Sealed.
5 July.
R. O.
994. Sir Marmaduke Constable to Cromwell.
Before the delivery of the King's letters to the justices of the peace in Yorkshire, the Archbishop had sent his archdeacons and officials to every deanery, who have instructed the curates as to bidding beads, mending their books by putting out the name of the bishop of Rome, called the Pope, and have instructed such as could preach how they should order themselves in their sermons. He also preached himself in his church at York, setting forth the King's authority against that of the bishop of Rome; of which I doubt not my cousin Bygott, or some other that heard it, will have informed you. It was in a plainer fashion than was ever heard there before. As for the business of Craven, you will see by the certificate of Sir Ric. Tempest and Robt. Chaloner, the people are now quiet, and sorry for their misdemeanours. At Sir Ric. Tempest's house in Craven, 5 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mr. Secretary.
5 July.
R. O.
995. Stephen Hamerton to Cromwell.
I have received your letter, dated the Rolls, 28 June, commanding me, as in the commission of the peace, to inquire into such misdemeanours and unlawful assemblies as have late been among my neighbours in Craven. I am not in the commission, but by the command of my lord of Northumberland, my master, I put myself in readiness to assist Marmaduke Constable and Sir Ric. Tempest, the King's commissioners, for apprehending the malefactors. All is quiet here, and the offenders will submit to correction. Yesternight I received the King's letter for my discharge in that behalf. Wyglesworth in Craven, 5 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
6 July.
MS. Bibl. Nat., Paris. Castelnau's Memoirs, I. 415, (Ed. 1731, Brussels.)
996. Sir Thomas More. (fn. 13)
On the 1st July 1535, Master Thomas Murio, chancellor of England, was brought before the judges and the accusations against him read in his presence. The Chancellor and the duke of Norfolk turned to him and said, "You, Master More, have gravely erred against the King; nevertheless we hope by his clemency that if you repent and correct your obstinate opinion in which you have so rashly persevered, you will receive pardon."He replied "My lords, I thank you very heartily for your good will. I pray God preserve me in my just opinion even to death. As to the accusation against me, I fear words, memory, and judgment would alike fail me to reply to such a length of articles, especially considering my present imprisonment and great infirmity."A chair was then ordered to be placed for him, and he proceeded as follows:—
"As to the first article, charging me with having always maliciously opposed the King's second marriage, I will only answer that what I have said has been according to my conscience. I never wished to conceal the truth, and if I had, I should have been a traitor. For this error, if error it should be called, I have been condemned to perpetual imprisonment, which I have already suffered for fifteen months, and my goods confiscated. For this reason I will only reply to the principal charge against me, that I have incurred the penalty of the Statute made in the last Parliament since I was in prison, by refusing to the King his title of Supreme Head of the Church, in proof of which you allege my reply to the Secretary and Council, that as I was dead to the world, I did not care to think of such things, but only of the passion of Christ. I reply that your Statute cannot condemn me to death for such silence, for neither your Statute nor any laws in the world punish people except for words or deeds,—surely not for keeping silence."To this the King's proctor replied that such silence was a certain proof of malice intended against the Statute, especially as every faithful subject, on being questioned about the Statute, was obliged to answer categorically that the Statute was good and wholesome. "Surely," replied More, "if what the common law (fn. 14) says is true, that he who is silent seems to consent, my silence should rather be taken as approval than contempt of your Statute. You say that all good subjects are obliged to reply; but I say that the faithful subject is more bound to his conscience and his soul than to anything else in the world, provided his conscience, like mine, does not raise scandal or sedition, and I assure you that I have never discovered what is in my conscience to any person living.
"As to the second article, that I have conspired against the Statute by writing eight letters (fn. 15) to the bishop of Rochester, advising him to disobey it, I could wish these letters had been read in public, but as you say the Bishop has burnt them, I will tell you the substance of them. Some were about private matters connected with our old friendship. Another was a reply to one of his asking how I had answered in the Tower to the first examination about the statute. I said that I had informed my conscience, and so he also ought to do the same. I swear that this was the tenor of the letters, for which I cannot (fn. 16) be condemned by your statute.
"Touching the third article, that when I was examined by the Council, I answered that your Statute was like a two-edged sword, for he who approved it would ruin his soul, and he who contradicted it, his body; and that the bishop of Rochester answered similarly, showing that we were confederates, I reply that I only answered thus conditionally, that if the Statute cut both ways like a two-edged sword, how could a man behave so as not to incur either danger? I do not know how the Bishop replied, but if he answered like me, it must have been from the agreement between us in opinion, but not because we had ever arranged it between us. Be assured I never did or said anything maliciously against the Statute, but it may be that this has been maliciously reported to the King."
Then they ordered an usher to summon 12 men according to the custom of the country, and these articles were given to them that they might judge whether More had maliciously contravened the Statute. After a quarter of an hour's absence they declared him guilty of death, and sentence was pronounced by the Chancellor "selon la lettre de la noble (fn. 17) loy."
More then spoke as follows: "Since I am condemned, and God knows how, I wish to speak freely of your Statute, for the discharge of my conscience. For the seven years that I have studied the matter, I have not read in any approved doctor of the Church that a temporal lord could or ought to be head of the spiritualty."The Chancellor interrupting him, said, "What, More, you wish to be considered wiser and of better conscience than all the bishops and nobles of the realm?" To this More replied, "My lord, for one bishop of your opinion I have a hundred saints of mine; and for one parliament of yours, and God knows of what kind, I have all the General Councils for 1,000 years, and for one kingdom I have France and all the kingdoms of Christendom."Norfolk told him that now his malice was clear. More replied, "What I say is necessary for discharge of my conscience and satisfaction of my soul, and to this I call God to witness, the sole Searcher of human hearts. I say further, that your Statute is ill made, because you have sworn never to do anything against the Church, which through all Christendom is one and undivided, and you have no authority, without the common consent of all Christians, to make a law or Act of Parliament or Council against the union of Christendom. I know well that the reason why you have condemned me is because I have never been willing to consent to the King's second marriage; but I hope in the divine goodness and mercy, that as St. Paul and St. Stephen whom he persecuted, are now friends in Paradise, so we, though differing in this world, shall be united in perfect charity in the other. I pray God to protect the King and give him good counsel."
On his way to the Tower one of his daughters, named Margaret, pushed through the archers and guards, and held him in her embrace some time without being able to speak. Afterwards More, asking leave of the archers, bade her have patience, for it was God's will, and she had long known the secret of his heart. After going 10 or 12 steps she returned and embraced him again, to which he said nothing, except to bid her pray to God for his soul; and this without tears or change of colour. (fn. 18) On the Tuesday (fn. 19) following he was beheaded in the open space in front of the Tower. A little before his death he asked those present to pray to God for him and he would do the same for them [in the other world.] (fn. 20) He then besought them earnestly to pray to God to give the King good counsel, protesting that he died his faithful servant, but God's first.
(fn. 21) Such was the miserable end of More, who was formerly in great reputation, and much loved by the King, his master, and regarded by all as a good man, even to his death. Dated 4 Aug. 1535.
Add. 28,587,
f. 240.
B. M. 1b.
2. A Spanish version of the preceding narrative, undated.
Pp. 10.
3. Another copy of § 2, imperfect.
Pp. 8.
4. "Beschreibung des Urtheils Herrn T. Morus."
A German translation of § 1, without date of publication, but clearly contemporary.
5. "Glaubwürdiger Bericht von dem Todt des Edlen Herrn Thome Mori, und anderer herlicher Menner in Engellandt getödtet, durch ein Epistel eynem guten freundt zugeschickt ausz Latein in Teutsch vertholmetschet." An independent translation of the same account, with Epistle Dedicatory to Friderich von Hadstat, Regent of the king of the Romans in Upper Alsace, dated Colmar, Wednesday, 22 Dec. 1535.
Add. MS.
28,786, f. 3. B. M.
997. Sir Thomas More.
Account by Odinet Godrand of the trial and execution of Sir Thos. More, 1535.
The writer was President of the Parliament of Burgundy, and died about 1581. See Papillon, Bibliotheque des Auteurs de Bourgogne. The account seems to be merely a compilation, and of no original authority.
Lat., pp. 27. With an illumination representing More's execution.
6 July. 998. Morette, the French Ambassador.
See Grants in July, No. 6.
6 July.
R. O.
999. Sir Will. Parre to Cromwell.
On the execution of the monks of the Charterhouse, a priest in Northamptonshire said the King would never leave the heading of the priests so long as there was a priest in England; and that on Sunday, when he prayed for the King in the Church, he grudged in his conscience to take him for Head and Supreme of the Church. For these lewd words he was taken by Sir Thos. Griffyn, sheriff of Northamptonshire. Let us know what is to be done with him. I beg your fayor for my said kinsman. Dunstable, 6 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
6 July.
R. O.
1000. The Preaching of Novelties.
Articles against Sir Phelip, late parish priest of St. Mary Woolchurche, (fn. 22) which promotion belongeth to Dr. Bookmaister.
1. He said that Dr. Barns was a false fellow and a naughty wretch, in that he made no comparison in his sermon betwixt the water of the Thames and the water made holy by priests. 2. That better men than he was lost their heads in these days. 3. That he believed St. Peter, being with God, knows what a man asks of him on earth, and they were heretics who would not believe in such like authorities. 4. That Dr. Barnes made two abominable sermons,—one on Sunday last at St. Mary Woolners, the other at St. Dunstan's in the West, on St. Peter's Day, and that it was a great shame to suffer him, or such as he was, to preach anywhere. 5. That they were heretics that would assure priests' matrimony, and that for such articles he would willingly die.
These articles were spoken, 1 July at 7 p.m., in presence of Robt. Assheby, priest, John Busshe, John and Wm. Smythe.
P. 1. Endd.
R. O. 2. Articles against Sir Philippe.
He said that all those who preached at the King's commandment nowadays were heretics, and that he would prove; "that if the King do follow such heretics as thou, and other such as thou art, he shall not long continue, I warrant him;" also, "that if he were complained of to Mr. Secretary, he forced not, for every man now ran to him that eleth any matter, and makes him Jacke Napis; but I force not. I trust he will hear me, and if he do not, I care not a point; I shall be heard with his Masters, &c." He rebuked a priest, who keeps the cure of St. Mary Woolchurche, for speaking against the bishop of Rome. He said that if he were committed to the Tower, he cared not, for he knew the jeopardy to recant his words and do penance and go quit from them all.
These words were spoken July 6, in Colenwod's house, at 7 p.m., in presence of Robt. Assheby, priest, and Thos. Empsson, &c.
P. 1. Same hand as § 1. Endd.
6 July.
R. O.
1001. Prisoners in the Tower.
A list of prisoners [in the Tower], with dates (of commitment) affixed to each, except the first; viz., William Delapoole; Edward Brymmyngeham, 8 Feb. 24 Hen. VIII.; William Hebberdyn, priest, 4 July 25 Hen. VIII.; Thomas Abell, priest, 24 Feb. 25 Hen. VIII.; Nicholas Wilson, doctor, 10 April 25 Hen. VIII.; Christopher Plommer, priest, 27 May 26 Hen. VIII.; Edward Powell, doctor, 10 June 26 Hen. VIII.; Miles Willen, priest, 12 June 26 Hen. VIII.; Richard Fetherston, priest, 13 Dec. 26 Hen. VIII.; William Wright, of Nauntwiche, in Cheshire, for coining, 10 June 27 Hen. VIII.; Robert Hale, goldsmith, Philip Constantyn, Thomas Codgrave, Stephen Somner "out of Cheshire, for coining," 6 July 27 Hen. VIII.
Mem. at the end.—"Yt may please your maistership to have me in remembraunce to the King's grace for two monethes licens unto the countrey, that is to say, oon monethe, and then to retorne ayen iiij. or v. dayes, and so to repaire ayen another monethe."
Pp. 2. Endd.: The names of the prisoners that been in the Tower of London.
R. O. 2. Another copy.
R. O. 3. Another list.
In the Garden Tower, Thomas Fzthegarrat (Fitzgerald). Becham Tower, Thomas Abelle, priest, William Hoberdyn, priest, Edward Bermegam, squire, of the town of Bermegam, Peter Bryne, in the town of Terwene, parreche [priest ?].
In Becham Tower, "of them for qwenynge" (coining), Ric. Berker, of Westchester, Thos. Welffe, and Rob. Jenner, servants to the abbot of Nortun. In Coll Harber, John Hale, of Chester. In the White Tower, Rob. Sallesbere, of the abbey of Vallacrucis, Roger Sparke, of the Nawntweche, Rob. Halle, of "Occhefortchere," goldsmith, Steven Summner, smith, of Terperlay, Chesh., John Wryce, smith, of Nawntweche, Thomas Cotgreve, of Barrow, Ph. Constandyne, of Chester.
Sir Edward Powell and Sir Nic. Welsun, King's chaplains, Ric. Federstone, priest, Sir Miles Wyllene, King's chaplain, and Sir Ch. Plomer.
P. 1.
R. O. 4. Fragment of an index to some ledger or account book (apparently of the expenses of prisoners in the Tower), containing these names in the margin: "Wylson, servus Fyssher," "Golde, servus locum tenentis," "Wode, servus T. More, militis," "Doctor Fyssher," "Sir Thomas More."
P. 1.
7 July.
R. O.
1002. John Husee to Lord Lisle.
As to the forfeit of wools, can find no means to try the same besides the advice of Mr. Densill and Mr. Marvyn, your Lordship's council. I have heard it debated before all the Judges and my lord Chief Baron, and most of the experts of the Exchequer, and others, both of the Temple and Lincoln's Inn. Clearly the law "doth extinct" the penalty of those wools at the death of the party unless it had been a case of false packing, and the party died upwards of three years ago, while the fault was only found at Christmas last. Doubts if false packing can be proved even against the executors. The bill for Leonard Mell's goods and lands is not yet signed, as Mr. Nores has been sick these 15 days, but he has desired me to meet him at Uelme, where he hopes to despatch me. Mr. Treasurer says he will now bring your gelding himself, and be at Calais in 40 days. It is said he and Chr. Hales are going thither on a commission for the reformation of certain causes. Hopes to obtain the search of Oye sluice by means of friends who have made further mediation than he thought. Lord Mortagyw (sic) is said to be sore sick or dead. My lord of Norfolk is sorry you have not the forfeit, and says he hopes to prefer you to a better thing. London, 7 July.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 July.
R. O.
1003. Leonard Smyth to Lady Lisle.
Bought a French hood, with all the habiliments thereto belonging, of as rich and good sort as he could get in London, chosen by those who have more knowledge than he has. Gave it to Mr. Steward. It cost 15s. Mr. Bassett is in health. More towardness cannot be in a young gentleman than in him. Lord Mountejoy (fn. 23) is sore sick and like to die in London. Mrs. Bonham is dead. London, 7 July.
Has spoken to Thakker for her cup of Mr. Hacket's gift. Smyth's master commanded it to be delivered long since, and now Thakker has promised to speak to Mr. Richard Cromwell for the delivery of it out of hand.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.
7 July.
Lamb. MS. 602, f. 85. St. P. ii. 341.
1004. Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam to Cromwell.
The King intended to speak to Cromwell yesterday about a matter which he forgot. As he has now made a new conquest of Ireland, he desires Cromwell to devise an Act of Parliament whereby he may have all such lands as any person spiritual or temporal holds there, or else that the holders shall become contributors with him towards the charges of the said conquest. He was doubtful whether he had better take the lands by reason of his conquest or by Act of Parliament. Windsor, Wednesday, 7 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
7 July.
Cleop. E. v. 360.
B. M. Strype's Eccl. Mem. i. ii. 274.
1005. Tunstall to [Cromwell].
A little book printed in English, called Ortulus Animæ, has been brought me by some folks of Newcastle. I am told many have been lately brought into the realm. They will do much mischief if suffered to go abroad, for they contain a manifest declaration against the late Act of Succession. See the Calendar of the book at the end of August on the day of the Decollation of St. John the Baptist. Letters should be sent to all haven towns to have search made for them. I have already written to the mayor of Newcastle to seize such as he can find, and think like letters should be sent to Hull. Stockton, 7 July. Signed.
Pp. 2.
8 July. 1006. Nich. Shaxton, Bishop of Salisbury.
See Grants in July, No. 7.
8 July.
R. O.
1007. The Queen's Cooks to Sir Rob. Dymmok, the Queen's Chamberlain.
Desire his favour to Robert Logge in the causes he has, touching title of land. Windsor, 8 July. Signed: William Mereman—Martyn the Quene's coke—John Case, "and all the fellows of the Queen's side, cooks."
P. 1. Add.
8 July.
R. O.
1008. Jas. Layburn to Cromwell.
I received the King's letter by John Appylbye the morrow of St. Thomas's Day, respecting certain persons who made unlawful assemblies in the counties of Northumberland, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Lancashire, and Craven. Sir Marmaduke Tunstalle gathered a large assemblage of men in harness, with bows and bills, to the number of 200, on the Sunday before St. Thomas's Day, sending to his friends to assist him. My lord Monteagle's servants, and one Rob. Cansfelde, when my lord was away, did the same for a like matter between Sir Marmaduke and the said Robert. Asheton, 8 July. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
8 July.
R. O.
St. P. v. 23.
1009. Bishop of Aberdeen to Cromwell.
Has received his letters, dated London, 19 May, complaining that James sent no one to be installed in the Order of the Garter, and that his subjects aided the King's rebels in Ireland. James has appointed a nobleman (lord Erskine) to take installation, and sends the bearer for a safeconduct for him. There is no Scotch subject in Ireland, unless it be some private person escaped from the Isles for poverty. Knows Cromwell's zeal for peace, which he will always promote himself. The days of meeting on the Borders are ill kept. The English lieutenants on the East and Middle Marches are men of insufficient weight. Disagreement broke out at a meeting lately, between Thos. Suttell, deputy of Berwick, with some broken men in his company, and lord Hume. Edinburgh, 8 July. Signed.
8 July.
Cott. App. 62.
B. M.
1010. Henry VIII. to Consuls and City of Lubeck.
Has admitted Dr. Adam Pacæus into his household, on account of his learning, prudence, &c. Sends him to them, and desires credence for him. Windsor, 8 July 1535. Signed.
Lat., p. 1, mutilated. Add.
9 July.
Cleop. E. vi. 241.
B. M. Ellis, 3 Ser. ii. 343.
1011. Archbishop Lee to [Cromwell].
Yesterday I received letters from Sir Rauf Evers, the elder, Sir John Constable of Holderness, Sir Christopher Hyliarde, and Sir Rauf Ellerker, the younger, concerning a priest (fn. 24) who said, "They say there is no Pope. Know well there was a Pope. "The priest does not deny it, and has subscribed a paper containing the words. As he dwells within my liberty of Beverley, they have sent him to my jail there, where I have commanded him to be kept sure till the King's pleasure is known. A servant of Mr. Page's, who came thence today, says that he repents, saying that he spake the words before he heard of the King's commandment.
The prior of Mountgrace was with me today. He was very conformable, and considers that it beseems not him to stand in any opinion against so many of good learning and good living. He is much comforted to hear that the London Charterhouse and other houses of his religion are stayed. As there are in every house some weak simple men of small learning and little discretion, he advises that Dr. Hord, a prior of their religion, whom all the religion esteems for virtue and learning, should be sent to all the houses in the realm. They will give him more credence, and rather apply their conscience to his judgment than to any other, although of greater learning, especially if some other good father be joined with him. He desired me to move this to you; and I think it would do much good, for many of them are very simple men. I have given him a book of declaration to read amongst his brethren. I trust all is well in Cleveland, for I hear nothing thereof now. Bishopsthorpe, 9 July 1535. Signed.
Pp. 2.
9 [July.]
Add. MS. 28,587, f. 356.
B. M.
1012. "News from Germany and England."
"The town of Münster is conquered, and the Anabaptists are taken prisoners or slain. The war of Osterbank is likewise finished to the advantage of the Imperial party.
"In England Christians are martyrized. They have cut off the head of the poor cardinal of Rochester. The execution was publicly done before the Tower. He was not permitted to speak. His head was placed on the point of a lance, where it still is. Orders have been published that the Pope has no power in England, but only in Rome. They call him, therefore, bishop. Those who dare to call him otherwise pay for their daring language with their lives. Few people of sound judgment like to speak at all. At the head of the government there are only bad men, almost all Lutherans. The consequence will be the utter ruin of England.
"The English and the French are not on good terms. They parted in bad humour from Calais. The bishop of Tarbes has since gone as ambassador to England, but has been badly received by the King. The Imperial ambassador, on the contrary, is much flattered by the English.
"The news has just arrived that the king of England has last Monday ordered Thomas Morus to be beheaded, who formerly was Chancellor of the kingdom.
"No date. No signatures.
"Endd.: By letters from Antwerp of the 9th inst.
"Ital., pp. 1½." Modern abstract (by Bergenroth) from original at Simancas.
10 July.
R. O.
1013. Earl of Northumberland to Henry VIII.
Received on 4 July the King's letters, dated Windsor, 29 June, and sends up the persons named whom Wm. Fayrfax, sheriff of Yorkshire, has accused. Doubts not they will exculpate themselves, especially Sir Thos. Johnson, his treasurer, and Thos. Mydleton, his servant. These persons have no rule nor meddling in the lordships where they are complained of, of which Sir Thos. Wharton has the rule. Among other untruths, the sheriff has advertised the King that 300 men of the Earl's lordship of Tadcaster were in wait to disturb him in executing processes. Cannot make 100 men there, and none of his men did anything in offending the said officer. No such officer was authorised as bailiff by the name of Wm. Smyth to execute the King's processes, but one light person was sent "upon malice pretensed" to disturb the laws and break the peace. Desires credence for Johnson and Mydleton. Topclif, 10 July. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
10 July.
R. O.
1014. Northumberland to Cromwell.
Received on Sunday, 4 July, by Will. Fayrefax, sheriff of Yorkshire, the King's letters, dated Windsor, 29 June, commanding him to send up certain of his servants surmised by the sheriff to have committed sundry offences. Has caused them to make their appearance accordingly before my Lord Chancellor and Cromwell, except those who have gone to London already at the sheriff's suit. Trusts it will appear that they have been misreported. The sheriff makes pretence to some ground belonging to a chantry of the Earl's in the lordship of Tadcaster, and had sued out latitats to attach a number of his tenants, who procured supersedeas, and put in sureties. As for the rescue made against Will. Smythe, he is a man of small estimation, was never taken for a bailiff, and is only upheld by the sheriff to molest the Earl's tenants at Tadcaster. Sometimes he has been so drunk that he knew not what he did, and had to be carried out of the town. It is true the Earl, as justice, on the complaint of his tenants, kept him prisoner at Topclyf, but had released him before the King's letters came. Sends the clerk of his courts in these parts, who will give further information. Topclyf, 10 July. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add: Master Cromwell, principal secretary unto the King's majesty. Sealed. Endd.
10 July.
R. O.
1015. Fulke Salisbury, priest, to Cromwell.
The bishop of St. Asaph is dead. I have a benefice, called the deanery of St. Asaph, worth 100 marks a year, which I should be glad to put at your disposal, so that you do help me to the bishopric of St. Asaph, which is not worth more than 200 marks and a half yearly. Thus the King will get the first-fruits of all the benefices I have. I have been chaplain to the King's father and himself 32 years. Give credence to the bearer. Whatever he promises, I will ratify. Denbigh, 10 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
10 July. R. O. 1016. Miles Sly.
Decree in Chancery adjudging a messuage and land in Kyngeswoode to Miles, s. and h. of Nic. Sly, his legitimacy being denied by Alice widow of Nicholas. 10 July 27 Hen. VIII.
Lat., p. 1.
10 July.
R. O.
1017. Antony Waite to Lady Lisle.
Is glad to hear that she and Lord Lisle are in good health. Thanks her for her great cheer at his late being at Calais, and her other manifold kindness. Has been these few days past with his master (the bishop of Chichester), who is now in the Isle of Selsey in good health and merry, and sends thanks for the dainties lately sent him from Calais. He is contented that the first payment of 10l. a year of the 80l. owed him by Lord Lisle shall begin at All Hallow tide next. As there are already three payments in arrear, his master is contented that they shall begin anew. "So that ...... accordingly make up such writings for his ...... as afore my lord of Northfolks late being with you I sent unto your ladyship." She must bind some other friends, as Sir Ant. Wyndesore, and discharge Geberish and the other poor men. Hopes to hear from her shortly, as he intends to go to Hampshire in 16 days and thence to Sussex. "And that our blustering winds that we have, which is to us half a winter, hurt not his ferme, where many times, I thank his Lordship, I have had no small cheer, besides other sports. I am bold here to be merry. Ye may see the sadness of my stomach." The Inner Temple, 10 July.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.


  • 1. Richard Langridge, S.T.B.
  • 2. From the Baga de Secretis. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of Pub. Records, App. ii. 240.
  • 3. This indictment is printed in the Archæologia, xxvii. 370, from two copies (not contemporary) in Arundel MS. 152, ff. 308 and 322 b.
  • 4. Both these were composed by More, and are printed in the Appendix to Roper's Life.
  • 5. He adds a note in the margin to the effect that he could not help the spreading of the rumour, and that he feels himself bound to send the news, without answering for the truth of it. Did not advertise him of the wools, because he had to send in haste to the King, and Cromwell was ill.
  • 6. See No. 689.
  • 7. Note in margin: Giles Heron.
  • 8. "This was none of his daughters, nor no kin unto him, but one of Mrs. Rooper's maids."
  • 9. "This was that she kissed him when he came from judgment."
  • 10. "This was not his daughter, but he had brought her up of a child with his own daughters."
  • 11. "This he meant by that his son asked his blessing when he came from judgment."
  • 12. "These were his son's children."
  • 13. Although this document is dated at the end 4 August, it seems more appropriate to place it under the date of Sir Thomas More's execution.
  • 14. "Ce que l'on dit vulgairement."But the Spanish version says "lo que el direcho comun dize."
  • 15. "Huit paires de lettres." The Spanish says simply,"ocho letras."
  • 16. The negative is omitted in the French, but is given in the Spanish.
  • 17. Apparently a misreading of "nouvelle."The Spanish has 'segun la forma y tenor de la nueva ley."
  • 18. The Spanish version of the document here says the very reverse:—"a la qual el afligido padre, corriendo lagrimas de sus ojos, sin hazer movimiento en la habla ni en el rostro, no dixo otro cosa sino que rogassen Dios por su anima," &c.
  • 19. The Spanish account says Wednesday, which is wrong.
  • 20. Supplied from the Spanish version.
  • 21. This last paragraph is not printed in the Castelnau Memoires, nor does it occur in the Spanish version.
  • 22. His name does not occur among the list of rectors in Newcourt.
  • 23. Apparently meaning lord Montague, whose illness is mentioned in Husee's letter. See No. 1002.
  • 24. Chr. Michell. See Sir John Constable's letter, 11 July.