The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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The earliest mention I have found of this place is in a charter of Henry the Second (fn. 1). It is there written Hestune, perhaps the same as Hegeston—the inclosed town.
Situation, boundaries, extent, &c.
The village of Heston is situated at the distance of about ten miles and an half from Hyde Park Corner, and a mile and an half to the north of the great western road. The parish lies in the hundred of Isleworth, and is bounded by Cranford, Norwood, Isleworth, and Bedfont. It is three miles and a furlong in length, two miles and a half in breadth, and about ten miles three furlongs in circumference. It contains, according to Glover's survey (fn. 2), (taken anno 1635,) 2654 acres of land, of which, in his time, 1276 were arable, 610 pasture, 81 wood, and 686 common, including a considerable part of Hounslow-heath. A modern calculation makes the quantity of arable land nearly the same, but diminishes the whole extent about 150 acres. The soil is in general a strong loam, and is noted for producing wheat of a very fine quality. Camden speaks of it as having, long before his time, furnished the royal table with bread (fn. 3); and Norden, who bears the same testimony to its superior quality, says it was reported that Queen Elizabeth had "the manchets for her highness' "own diet" from Heston (fn. 4). This parish pays the sum of 625 l. O s. 3 d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1794, was at the rate of 2s. 8 d. in the pound.
It appears by an inquisition taken after the death of Edmund Earl of Cornwall, anno 1300, that he died seised of the manor of Isleworth, to which the hamlet of Heston was annexed (fn. 5). They were assigned the next year for the payment of a pension granted to his widow (fn. 6). In 1316, the manor of Heston belonged to the Crown (fn. 7). It became afterwards vested in the master and wardens of St. Giles's hospital, who surrendered it to Henry VIII. in 1537 (fn. 8). It continued in the crown till 1570, when Queen Elizabeth granted it to Sir Thomas Gresham (fn. 9), who died in 1579, having made over the feesimple of this and other manors to his wife. After her demise (fn. 10) it was inherited by Sir William Read, her son by a former husband. Sir William's only son, Sir Thomas Read, dying without issue, his estates were inherited by his daughter Anne, who married Sir Michael Stanhope, and left three daughters, coheirs, Jane, married to Lord Fitzwalter, and afterwards to Sir William Withipole; Elizabeth, to George Lord Berkley; and Bridget, to George Earl of Desmond (fn. 11). The manor of Heston was sold by Sir Michael Stanhope's representatives, about the year 1655 (fn. 12), to Sir William Waller the parliamentary general, who died in 1668. It was soon afterwards purchased by Sir William Thompson, Knt. (fn. 13), and appears to have been sold by his son Samuel Thompson, Esq. about the year 1683, to Nicholas Barbon, M.D. who mortgaged it soon afterwards to Sir Francis Child and the Earl of Devonshire. In or about 1713, Francis Child, Esq. son of Sir Francis, became possessed of the fee-simple by purchase. From him it descended to the late Robert Child, Esq. whose widow married the Right Hon. Francis Lord Ducie, and died May 23, 1793. It is now the property of Robert Dent, Esq. and others, as trustees for Lady Sarah Child, daughter of the Earl of Westmoreland, and grand-daughter of Robert Child, Esq.
Manor of Osterley.
The name of Osterle, or Osterlee, first occurs in the reign of Edward I. when John de Orsterlee held two carucates of land in Isleworth and Heston (fn. 14). In the year 1443, John Ford of Iver, in the county of Bucks, released to John Somerset (Chancellor of the King's Exchequer,) and others, all right in the manor of Osterley, 15 messuages, and about 650 acres of land in Heston and Norwood, which had been formerly the property of Thomas, son and heir of John Osterley (fn. 15). It appears by an inquisition taken in the reign of Edward IV. that John Somerset died seised of a capital mansion newly built by him, at a place called Pyked Acre, the Manor of Osterley, &c. The record adds, that he had granted the said premises in fee to Thomas Kirkby Master of the Rolls, and William Bredon, who, in 1459, had aliened them to Richard Plokyndon (fn. 16). It appears by an inquisition ad quod damnum taken that year, that it was Plokyndon's intention to give the manor of Osterley to the brothers and sisters of the fraternity or guild of All Angels, (founded, as the record says, by the late John Somerset,) for the purpose of endowing a chantry and hospital, being in part of lands to the value of 40l. per ann. which the said guild were allowed by the king's patent to enjoy (fn. 17). It seems doubtful whether Plokyndon's endowment took effect; for it appears by the record of 4 Edw. IV. above quoted, that, in the year 1462, he conveyed the manor of Osterley to Philip Malpas, from whom it passed to John Fereby and John Wylkynson, who, in the year (4 E. IV.) 1465, were seised of it in fee. In the year 1508, Hugh Denys, Esq. died seised of the manor Osterley, and by his will bequeathed that and other manors to the prior and convent of Sheen, charged with certain payments for the purpose of maintaining two priests in the chapel of All Angels, and seven poor men in the adjoining hospital. By an indenture, bearing date 1530, the manor was conveyed, subject to the same payments, to the abbess and convent of Sion (fn. 18). When the monastery of Sion was suppressed, and its revenue seized by the crown, Osterley was granted to Henry Marquis of Exeter (fn. 19), and, reverting to the crown upon his attainder, was given by Edward VI. in the first year of his reign, to the Duke of Somerset (fn. 20). Being again forfeited by the duke's attainder, it was granted, in 1557, to Augustine Thaier (fn. 21). Between this period and 1570, it came into the possession of Sir Thomas Gresham; for it appears, by the grant of Heston in that year, that Osterley was already his property, and that the park had been then lately inclosed. Having been thus united, the manors have since passed through the same hands.
Osterley House built by Sir Thomas Gresham.
Queen Elizabeth's visit.
Sir Edward Coke at Osterley.
Earl and Countess of Desmond.
Sir William Waller.
Sir Francis Child.
After Sir Thomas Gresham had inclosed the park at Osterley, he began to rebuild the manor-house, but it was not completed till the year 1577. Norden, whose survey was first published in 1596, (the year in which Lady Gresham died,) says, "Osterley, the house nowe of the Ladie Gresham's, a faire and stately building of bricke erected by Sir Thomas Gresham, Knight, citizen and marchant-adventurer of London, and finished about anno 1577. It standeth in a parke by him also impaled, well-wooded and garnished with manie faire ponds, which afforded not only fish and fowle, as swanes and other water soule, but also great use for milles, as paper milles, oyle milles, and corne milles, all of which are now decayed (a corne mill excepted). In the same parke was a very faire heronrie, for the increase and preservation whereof sundrie allurements were devised and set up, fallen all to ruine (fn. 22)." In the year 1578, Queen Elizabeth visited Osterley, where Sir Thomas Gresham entertained her majesty in a very magnificent manner (fn. 23). "The Devises of Warre, and a Play at Awsterley, her highness being at Sir Thomas Gresham's," is the title of a pamphlet by Churchyard, not known to be now extant. It is mentioned at the end of one of his other works. Fuller tells a story of the queen's visit to Osterley, which, though well known, should not be omitted. Her majesty having given it as her opinion, that the court before the house would look better divided with a wall, Sir Thomas Gresham in the night sent for workmen to London, who so speedily and so silently performed their talk that before morning the wall was finished, to the great surprise of the queen and her courtiers, one of whom, however, observed, that it was no wonder that he who could build a change should so soon change a building (fn. 24). Soon after Lady Gresham's death, Lord Chief Justice Coke (then attorney-general) appears to have been an inhabitant of Osterley. His daughter, Bridget, was christened in the chapel there on the 3dof January 1597 (fn. 25). George Earl of Desmond, and his Countess, (who was one of the co-heirs to the estate,) resided at Osterley several years. A very remarkable story is told of this couple in the Strafford Letters, a book which abounds with curious anecdote: "Young Desmond, (says Mr. Garrard, writing to Lord Wentworth,) who married one of the coheirs of Sir Michael Stanhope, came one morning to York-house, where his wife had long lived with the duchess during his two years absence beyond the seas, and hurried her away, half-undressed, much against her will, into a coach, and so carried her away into Leicestershire. At Brickhill he lodged, where she, in the night, put herself into milk-maid's clothes, and had likely to make her escape, but was discovered. Madam Christian, whom your Lordship knows, said, that my Lord of Desmond was the first that ever she heard of that ran away with his own wife (fn. 26)." Modern times, however, have furnished a parallel. Lady Desmond's adventure was in 1635: It was about four years afterwards that she and the earl came to Osterley, where she bore him a numerous family. Sir William Waller, the celebrated parliamentary general, a man whose integrity is said to have commanded the esteem of all parties (fn. 27), became an inhabitant of Osterley soon after the Desmonds quitted it (fn. 28), and continued there till his death, which happened in 1668. On the 21st of February 1661, his daughter Anne was married in Osterley chapel to Sir Philip Harcourt, Knt. (fn. 29), ancestor of the present Lord Harcourt. Dr. Nicholas Barbon, a subsequent possessor of Osterley, and a great projector (fn. 30), published a treatise (anno 1696) on the expediency of coining the new money lighter, in answer to Mr. Locke. In the early part of this century, Osterley became the property of Sir Francis Child, a citizen of great opulence and eminence. He represented the city of London in parliament, and was Lord Mayor in 1699, as was his son, Sir Francis, in 1732.
Description of Osterley House.
Osterley House was rebuilt by Francis Child, Esq. about the year 1760. In the front, where was formerly a square court, is now a spacious portico, supported by twelve columns of the Ionic order. The ancient ground-plan was, for the most part, preserved, and the turrets at the corners remain, having been newly cased. The house, from east to west, is 140 feet in length, from north to south 117. The inside, which is fitted up with taste and magnificence, was finished by the late Robert Child, Esq. who succeeded to his brother Francis's estates in 1763. The stair-case is ornamented with a fine painting, by Rubens, of the apotheosis of William the First, Prince of Orange, brought from Holland by Sir Francis Child. The most remarkable of the rooms are, a noble gallery 130 feet in length, containing a good collection of pictures by the old masters, and some valuable portraits (fn. 31); the state bed-room, very magnificently furnished, and a drawing-room hung with beautiful tapestry procured at a great expence from the Gobeline manufactory in 1775. The library contains a large and valuable collection of books (fn. 32), of which there is a printed catalogue drawn up by Dr. Morell in 1771. The house stands in the centre of a park containing about 350 acres. In the garden was a menagerie containing a large collection of rare birds, which has been dispersed since the death of Lady Ducie. William Hayes, an ingenious artist, who keeps the post-office at South-Hall, is now publishing, in monthly numbers, coloured prints of rare and curious birds from the menagerie at Osterley. The trustees under Mr. Child's will are empowered and authorised, in case of his widow's demise, to keep up the mansion-house at Osterley (in the same state in which it was during his life) till the heir shall be of age to take possession.
Manor of Allcotts.
Lands called Allcotts, in Heston, were given by Hugh Denys, with the manor of Osterley, to the priory of Sheen, charged with certain payments to All Angels chapel (fn. 33). The manor of Allcotts was granted anno 1547, together with the site of the monastery of Sion, to Edward Duke of Somerset (fn. 34); after whose attainder it remained in the crown till the year 1566, when it was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Gresham (fn. 35), being four years before he obtained the manor of Heston. They have since passed, I presume, through the same hands; but the manor of Allcotts is not now known.
Edmund Fauconer, who died in 1398, was seised of a house and lands in the parishes of Heston and Isleworth, which he held for term of life, under Queen Isabel, by a grant of Edward the Third. The value of the premises was 5l. per annum; and the record adds, that the tenant was bound to ride among the reapers in the lord's demesnes at Isleworth, upon the Bedrepe-day in Autumn, with a sparrow-hawk in his hand (fn. 36). This estate (called Fawkner-field) is now part of the Child property.
Lands in Heston descend by the custom of borough-english.
The parish church, dedicated to St. Leonard, is a Gothic structure, built principally of flints, and consisting of a nave, two aisles, and a double chancel; on the south side of which is a small aisle, or chapel. At the west end of the church is a handsome stone tower, square and embattled. Some of the pillars which divide the nave from the aisles are circular, others octagonal; the arches pointed. The font is octagonal, and has a Gothic canopy.
On the wall of the south chancel are the monuments of the Right Honourable Walter Cary (fn. 37), who died in 1757, and Robert Child, Esq. (fn. 38), of Osterley Park, who died in 1782; and a brass plate in memory of Richard Amondesham (fn. 39), or Awnsham, parson of Craynford, who died in 1612. On the floor are brass plates for Thomas Bownell, vicar, 1570; and Constance, wife of Mardocheus Bownell, vicar, 1581. In the north chancel are the monuments of William James, Esq. (fn. 40), (son of Sir John James, Knt. by the Countess Dowager of Denbigh, and descended from the Dukes of Hostrich in Holland,) 1727; Giles Taylor (fn. 41), Gent. 1752; and Samuel Child, Esq. (fn. 42), M. P. for Bishop's Castle, (12th son of Sir Francis Child,) 1752. On the floor is a brass plate, in memory of two infant daughters of George Earl of Desmond, 1647; and the tombs of James Rothwell, 1649; George Rothwell, 1653; and Mrs. Elizabeth Styleman, 1704. In the small chapel on the south side of the chancel, which is the property of General Guydickens, are the monument of William Denington, Esq. of Wallingford (fn. 43), 1686; Henry Collins, Esq. of the Middle Temple, 1705; Henry Lovibond, Esq. (fn. 44), 1710; and Lord George Bentinck (fn. 45), son of Henry Duke of Portland, 1759. At the east end of the nave is the monument of Elisha Biscoe, Esq. (fn. 46), 1776. On a flat stone is an inscrip tion in memory of Mary Offley, widow, who died in 1753, aged 92. On the wall of the north aisle is the monument of Thomas Skinner, M.A. vicar of Christ-church and Whitston in Monmouthshire, 1775. In the south aisle is the tomb of Mr. John Paulfreman, 1737. The church-yard contains nothing of note, except the tomb of John Ash, Esq. (lessee of the great tithes,) son of Joseph Ash, Esq. of Langley Burrell, Wilts, who died in 1781.
The church of Heston was given at a very early period to the Monks of St. Waleric in Picardy, to whom it was confirmed by Henry the Second (fn. 47). They were proprietors of the rectory, and patrons of the vicarage, to which the Prior of Takeley (a cell to St. Waleric) presented (fn. 48). In the year 1391, the Prior of St. Waleric granted the rectory and advowson of Heston to the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College (fn. 49), whose successors surrendered them to the crown in 1544 (fn. 50). Queen Elizabeth granted them to Bishop Grindall, and his successors in the see of London (fn. 51).
The rectory of Heston was leased by Bishop Juxon, in 1640, to Robert Long, Esq. for three lives, paying a reserved rent of 23l. per annum (fn. 52). The yearly value was reported, upon a survey taken in 1647, to be 250l. The commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benefices in 1650 reported, that Sir Thomas Stafford was lessee of the rectory of Heston in right of his lady, during her life and the lives of Sir William Killigrew and his lady; that the reserved rent was 24l., and the annual value of the parsonage 280l. The vicarage was then valued at 60l. per annum (fn. 53). An augmentation of 24l. per annum was granted to Nathaniel Bostock the vicar during the inter-regnum (fn. 54). The rectory of Heston was leased to Joseph Ash, Esq.; in 1758 the lease was renewed to the Rev. Robert Ash, from whom it devolved to the late Edward Hodsoll, Esq. who died Oct. 7, 1794; his only son William Hodsoll, Esq. survived him only a few weeks.
In 1327, the church of Heston was rated at 26 marks (fn. 55); the vicarage is valued in the king's books at 11l. per annum.
The present vicar is John Livett, M. A.
The earliest date of the parish register is 1560.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
By some MSS. in the vicar's possession, it appears that in the year 1723 there were 135 families in this parish. During the period 1730—9 the registers were inaccurately kept, the vicar (Mr. Horton (fn. 56) ) being absent at Leghorn, as appears by a note of his insertion. In 1763, the computed number of houses were 200. Sir Joseph Banks, who is always among the first to encourage endeavours which may in any degree tend to public utility, or afford an interesting subject of information, having the means, in consequence of his residence at Smallbury-green in this parish, of procuring an accurate account of its present population, has favoured me with the following parti culars, as they existed in the month of July 1794. The total number of houses (exclusive of the workhouse) was 280: of these 17 were gentlemen's houses; 20, farm-houses; 18, public-houses; and 225 shops and cottages. In the village of Heston were 62 houses; in that part of Hounslow which is in Heston parish, 127; in Lampton, 31; in Sutton, 19; in Scratedge, 10; Spert, 4; Fern, 6; North-hide, 8; Cranford-end, 3; the Heath-houses, 3; and at Smallbury-green, 6. The number of inhabitants was 1632; of these 151 were lodgers; of the resident inhabitants 745 were grown persons, (368 males, and 377 females,) and 736 children (351 males, and 385 females). The soldiers in Hounslow barracks, being 410 in number, (in July as above-mentioned,) are not included in this account; nor those quartered in Hounslow, being 36 in number, on the Heston side.
In 1603 there were 26 burials at Heston, a number not much exceeding the average of that period; yet, as five persons were buried out of one family within a few days, it is most probable that this parish was visited with the plague. In 1625 there were 60 burials; in 1665, 48. Thirteen persons are said to have died of the plague that year.
Extracts from the Register.
Family of Fielding, Earl of Desmond.
"Elizabeth, daughter of George and Bridget Fielding, Earl and Countess of Denbigh, born Dec. 12, 1639." George Fielding, second son of William the first Earl of Denbigh, was created Earl of Desmond in 1622; he married Bridget Stanhope as before-mentioned. Elizabeth, the daughter here mentioned, married Sir Edward Gage. William, whose birth (Dec. 29, 1640) is recorded in the register, succeeded his father as Earl of Desmond, and his uncle in the Earldom of Denbigh. George, born Jan. 12, 1642, married a daughter of Sir John Lee. Charles, baptized at Heston, July 2, 1643, was knighted; and married Ursula, daughter of Thomas Stockton, Esq. and relict of Sir William Aston. Basil was baptized at Heston, Aug. 23, 1644; Ann, Mar. 22, 1646; Susanna, May 16, 1647; (buried the next day;) John, baptized Mar. 12, 1650; Bridget, Feb. 19, 1652; she died in her infancy.
"Oct. 19, 1653, SrJohn Heydon buried."
"July 2, 1658, Frances Fenne, wife of SrRichard Fenne, Knt. of Kensington, buried in Hounslow-chapel." She was daughter of Sir Thomas Crompton (fn. 57).
"Mar. 9, 1663, matrimonio juncti Jacobus Howard, Thomæ Comite; & Charlotta ard Armigero patre, avo prænobili Suffolciae Comite; & Charlotta. Boyle, patre Francisco vicecomite Shannon, in capellâ de Hounslow." The peerages call Charlotte Boyle a natural daughter of Charles II. by Lady Shannon. Her only child by Mr. Howard was named Stuarta.
Sr James Brook, Bart. buried May 3, 1734."
Instances of Longevity.
"Johanna Mason vidua 90 ætatis suæ, sepult. 28 die Maii 1587."
"John Weedon, aged 108, buried Dec. 29, 1756."
"Frances Woodyer, widow, aged 99, buried Aug. 26, 1758."
Anthony Collins, the celebrated deistical writer, is said to have been born at Heston in 1676 (fn. 58); but it appears by the register at Isleworth that he was baptized there. His father resided many years in this parish, and lies buried in the chapel, on the south side of the chancel. Catherine, sister of Anthony, was baptized at Heston in 1692; and Elizabeth in 1693.
Gifts for obits, &c.
Benefactions since the Reformation.
Alice Danby gave a messuage called North-hide in this parish, and 55½ acres of land in Heston and Norwood, for an obit; at which it was customary to give away as much white bread as could be made of three bushels of wheat, as much ale as could be made of four bushels of malt, and twelve-pennyworth of cheese. Fourteen acres had been given to the parish also, previously to the Reformation, out of an estate called Grover's Place, for the purpose of distributing as many wafers at Easter as could be made of four bushels of wheat. There was one acre and three roods belonging to the church, and one acre belonging to the poor; the produce of which (being in the reign of Edward VI. 2s. per annum) was distributed on Good Friday (fn. 59). These small parcels of land still belong to the parish, and are let at 3l. 15s. per annum. The larger benefactions were seized by the crown at the Reformation, as having been appropriated to superstitious uses. The following benefactions have been given since the Reformation:—William Millet in 1632 gave some lands, let at 8l. per annum; Francis Rothewell in 1687, lands which produce 4l. 7s.; William Barker, the same year, an annuity of 10s. being a rent-charge; Henry Collins, Esq. who died in 1704, gave the sum of 200l. which produces three per cent.; Mary Wotton in 1722 left the house she lived in for the use of the poor, after the death of her sister. An act of parliament, which passed in 1777, enabled the parish to permit this house to remain to the person at whose expence it was about that time rebuilt and enlarged, on condition of its being charged with an annuity of 12l. per ann. for ever, to answer the purposes of Mary Wotton's bequest. This benefaction is distributed among the poor by the vicar on St. Thomas's Day. Millet's gift has been lost.
Name and situation.
The hundred of Honeslawe (now Isleworth hundred) is mentioned in the Conqueror's survey. The hamlet of Hounslow is called in ancient records Hundeslawe and Hundeslowe. It has long been noted as a great thoroughfare, being situated on the principal western road. It stands in the parishes of Heston and Isleworth. As the chapel and site of the manor are in Heston, I shall treat of it here. In the parliamentary survey (fn. 60) taken anno 1650 it is said, that the town of Hounslow contained 120 houses; most of them inns and alehouses, depending upon travellers. Since this it has been much increased, there being now 127 houses in the parish of Heston only.
During the insurrection of the barons in King John's reign, William de Albini was summoned by Robert Fitzwalter to appear at the tournament at Hounslow (fn. 61). Among the records in the Tower is a patent (fn. 62), bearing date 1217, (the first year of Henry III.) which grants safe conduct to four peers and twenty knights of Lewis the Dauphin, to go from Brentford to Hundeslawe, for the purpose of holding a conference there with the same number of nobles and knights on the part of King Henry.
The priory at Hounslow was founded in the thirteenth century; but by whom or at what time is uncertain (fn. 63). It was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and belonged to the brethren of that order (fn. 64); whose peculiar office it was to solicit alms for the redemption of captives. Robert de Hounslow, a native of this place, and a friar of the house, is said to have been remarkably zealous and successful in the execution of this office, being grand provincial of the order for England, Scotland, and Ireland. He died in the year 1430, and is mentioned among the eminent writers of that period (fn. 65).
Hounslow priory bore for its arms Gules, a lion rampant guardant, per sesse Or and Argent, between three plates, each charged with a cross of the first.
Market and fair.
Manor of Hounslow, and site of the priory.
In the Bishop's registry at Winchester are letters (dated 1507 and 1511 (fn. 66) ) to the clergy of that diocese, exhorting them to make collections for "the hospital at Howndeslowe, of the order of the Tri"nity, for the redemption of captives." No writers date the institution of this order at an earlier period than 1196. Hospinian fixes it in 1211 (fn. 67). The most ancient record I have seen relating to the priory at Hounslow is a charter, bearing date 1296, which grants to the brethren of the Holy Trinity a weekly market at that place on Wednesday, and an annual fair on the Eve and the Feast of the Holy Trinity, the morrow and the five ensuing days (fn. 68). The market has been discontinued, but the fair is still held on Trinity Monday (fn. 69). Various grants relating to the priory will be found in the notes (fn. 70). At its suppression in 1530, its revenues were valued at 78l. 8s. 6d. per annum (fn. 71). The manor and site of the priory, having been annexed by Henry VIII. to the honour of Hampton Court, was leased in 1539 to Richard Awnsham, Esq. for twenty-one years; and by Edward VI. in 1553 to William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, for the same term, commencing after the expiration of Awnsham's lease (fn. 72). In 1557 the reversion of the said premises, consisting of the friars' house, 117 acres of land, with all the appurtenances thereto belonging, together with the fair, market, court-leet, &c. was sold for the sum of 905l. 13s. 4d. to William Lord Windsor (fn. 73); whose son Edward Lord Windsor, in 1571, sold the priory and all its appurtenances, with the demesne lands, to Anthony Roan, Esq. the queen's auditor, for the sum of 300l. reserving to himself the manor, with the right of holding courts in the great hall of the manor-house, and an annual rent of 17l. Mr. Roan was bound also to keep in good repair the tombs of the Windsor family in the chapel (fn. 74). These premises were re-purchased by Henry the fifth Lord Windsor before the year 1596 (fn. 75); when the priory with the manor, &c. were aliened by him to Thomas Crompton, Esq. of London (fn. 76), afterwards Sir Thomas Crompton, Knt. whose only child Katherine married Sir Thomas Lyttelton, and jointly with her husband conveyed this estate in 1625 to Justinian Povey, Esq. (fn. 77) It was sold by the Povey family in 1671 to James Smith and Henry Meuse, who conveyed it the ensuing year to Henry Sayer, Esq. (fn. 78) It was purchased in the year 1705, of Loftus Brightwell, Esq. and others, by Whitlocke Bulstrode, Esq. (fn. 79) From him it descended to his grandson Richard Bulstrode, Esq. whose widow Mrs. Sophia Bulstrode (daughter of Charles Tryon, Esq. of Bullwick in the county of Northampton (fn. 80) ) is now lady of the manor.
The manor-house, which stands at the western extremity of the town, and adjoins to the Heath, is an ancient brick structure; the north and east wings were rebuilt by Whitlocke Bulstrode, Esq. in 1711.
Monument of Whitlocke Bulstrode, Esq.
The only remaining part of the priory is the chapel, which exhibits evident traces of the architecture which prevailed in the early part of the 13th century, (about which time the monastery was founded,) particularly in the stone-stalls, three of which are to be seen in the south wall of the chancel, and a double piscina, with narrow pointed arches divided by a column. The chapel consists of a chancel, nave, and south aisle. On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Whitlocke Bulstrode, Esq. (fn. 81), with the following inscription: "In hâc suâ capellâ in conditorio prope hoc marmor per seipsum structo reliquias suas jacere voluit Whitelocke Bulstrode, Arm. sacræ theologiæ amator, philosophiæ naturalis cultor, justitiæ moderator; animi caritate, morum probitate clarus, in suos amantissimus, in totum genus humanum benignus. Filius suit Richardi Bulstrode militis ad Bruxellas a regibus Carolo secundo & Jacobo secundo plurimis annis legati; nepos Edwardi Bulstrode de Soleyend in com. Warw. Arm. Walliæ septentrionalis capital. justic. pronepos Edwardi Bulstrode de Bulstrode in com. Bucks, Arm. Obiit 27 die Novembris, anno Dom. 1724, ætatis 74. M. S. patris benignissimi. H. M. P."
Mr. Bulstrode's writings.
Portraits of the Bulstrodes, &c.
Whitlocke Bulstrode was descended from a very ancient family in Buckinghamshire. He enjoyed the office of Prothonotary of the Marshal's court, in which he was succeeded by his son. Mr. Bulstrode published a treatise on transmigration, which went through two editions, and was translated into Latin by Oswald Dyke; a volume of letters which passed between himself and his brother-in-law, Dr. Wood, (physician to the pretender,) and a compendium of the crown laws in three charges, delivered to the grand jury at West minster. To the first-mentioned work his portrait is prefixed. Mr. Reed of Staple Inn has a MS. by Whitlocke Bulstrode, in his own hand-writing, on the equivocal generation of plants, infects, &c. dated 1692, and addressed to Sir Robert Southwell, P. R. S. Sir Richard Bulstrode his father, who was envoy at Brussels, died at St. German's at the great age of 101. There is a good portrait of him at Mrs. Bulstrode's, who has also Kneller's picture of Whitlocke Bulstrode, which has been engraved; and some other portraits, among which is that of Dr. Lucas, author of an Essay on Happiness, &c. Sir Richard Bulstrode's Essays were published in 1715 by his son; and his Memoirs and Reflections on the Reign and Government of Charles I. and Charles II. by N. Mist, in 1721.
In the nave of the chapel is a small monument with the effigies of a man in armour, and his wife, in kneeling attitudes; the inscription is gone. On the west wall is a monument to the memory of Mary, wife of George Trevelyan, Esq. (fn. 82) of Nettlecombe in Dorsetshire, who died in 1646. In the windows of the south aisle is a figure of St. Catherine, and some other ancient stained glass. On the floor is a brass plate to the memory of Thomas Lupton, who died in 1512, and his wife Alice.
Burials of the Windsor family.
There are no vestiges of any monuments of the Windsor family, unless that on the south wall of the nave, without an inscription, be one. Andrews Lord Windsor, by his will, bearing date 1543, directs his body to be buried "in the quire of the church of the Holy Trinity at Hounslow, between the pillars, where his entire well-beloved wife Elizabeth, Lady Windsor, lieth buried, and that there be made a convenient tomb of free-stone, with such arms, images, and scriptures as shall be thought best by the discretion of his exe cutors; likewise that his son George's tomb (fn. 83) be also finished; and "that at the day of his interment there be 24 torches and 4 great ta"pers about his hearse, to be holden by 28 poor men, every torch "weighing 16lb. and every taper 12 lb. and every of the poor men to have 6 d. and a gown of frize (fn. 84)." William Lord Windsor, by his will, bearing date 1558, directs his body to be buried at Bradenham, if he should die within the county of Buckingham, otherwise in the conventual church of Friars at Hounslow, in such place as shall be thought most decent and convenient by his executors, if it shall so come to pass that the church of Hounslow, at the time of his decease, should be a parish-church. He was buried at Bradenham (fn. 85).
Weever mentions a tomb at Hounslow to the memory of William Jacob, who gave a close called Bushiheme to find a lamp. He died in 1478 (fn. 86).
Henry Elsynge, Esq. clerk of the House of Commons during the greater part of King Charles's reign, and author of some tracts relating to parliaments, retired to his house at Hounslow in the year 1648, having quitted, at his own desire, a place which he had held to the satisfaction of all parties, during those troublesome times. Whitelock speaks of him as a learned, just, and honest man, and the most excellent clerk that had ever sat in the House of Commons (fn. 87). He died in the month of August 1654, and was buried in his private chapel at Hounslow. It is probable that he was tenant to Justinian Povey.
On the outside of Hounslow chapel, towards the road, is an escutcheon with the arms (fn. 88) and quarterings of Windsor, much mutilated and worn. Over the door is the following inscription. Domus Dni. Ornata. A. D. 1710. A great part of the chapel was destroyed by fire about the beginning of the last century, and rebuilt by a brief (fn. 89). It appears by the date to have been repaired by Mr. Bulstrode soon after his purchase of the manor. It has been long used as a chapel of ease for the inhabitants of Hounslow. Anthony Roan, Esq. auditor to Queen Elizabeth, gave 2l. per ann. to the minister of the chapel, upon condition that the inhabitants should contribute farther towards his support. In 1659 the sum of 30l. per ann. was allowed by the committees to Samuel Rowles, then minister at Hounslow (fn. 90). Wetenhall Wilkes, minister of this chapel, in 1748 published a poem called Hounslow Heath. The present minister is the Rev. John Chapeau, appointed by the Bulstrode family, in whom the property of the chapel, and the right of nomination, are vested.
Register of the chapel.
A register has been kept of the baptisms and burials in this chapel during the greater part of the present century. The number of children baptized from 1730 to 1739 inclusive, was 175; of these 101 were of Heston, and 74 of Isleworth parish. In the period of 1780—9 there were only 57 children baptized, most of them belonging to Isleworth parish; none to Heston. The only burials during the present century have been of the Bulstrode family.
The chantry-roll (fn. 91), made in the reign of Edward VI. mentions an alms-house at Hounslow, where divers poor and sick persons were maintained. It paid a quit-rent of 4d. to the lord of the manor. The site of this house was on the Isleworth side, and was given to that parish, anno 1610, by Mrs. Margaret Hemp.
Adjoining to the town of Hounslow is an extensive heath, containing, according to a survey made in the year 1546 (fn. 92), 4293 acres of land, and lying and extending into the parishes and hamlets of Hounslow, Heston, Isleworth, Brentford (fn. 93), Twickenham, Feltham, Harlington, Cranford, Harmondsworth, Stanwell, Hanworth, Bedfont, Hampton, and Tedington. About 470 acres of the heath belong to Heston.
Armies encamped and reviewed there.
Review of Fairfax's army.
James the Second's camp.
Grant of a market-fair upon the Heath.
On Hounslow-heath are the vestiges of some ancient camps (fn. 94). History records it as having been the station of armies, and, more than once, the rendezvous of the principal military force of this kingdom. In 1267, the Earl of Glocester, being at the head of the Londoners, then in a state of rebellion, assembled his troops upon this heath, where it was his intention to give battle to King Henry, but fearing that the contest would prove unequal, he retreated before the arrival of the king's forces (fn. 95). King Charles's army is said to have been entrenched upon Hounslow-heath the day after the battle of Brentford in 1642 (fn. 96). On the 23d of November that year, the Earl of Essex's army was mustered there (fn. 97). On the 3d of August 1647 there was a general rendezvous of the parliamentary forces under Sir Thomas Fairfax upon Hounslow-heath, when there appeared 20,000 foot and horse, with a great train of artillery, upon which occasion the Speakers of both houses of parliament, and several of the members, were present (fn. 98). The Perfect Diurnal gives the following account of this rendezvous: "There were present the Earls of North"umberland, Salisbury, and Kent; Lord Grey of Wark, Lord "Howard of Escrick, Wharton, Say and Sele, Mulgrave, and others; "the Speaker of the House of Commons, and about 100 members. "The whole army was drawn up in battalions, near a mile and a half "in length. The General, accompanied with the said Lords and "Commons, rode along through the army from regiment to regi"ment, and were received with great acclamations. Having viewed "the army, they took leave of the General, and some went to the "Earl of Northumberland's at Syon, and others to the Lord Say and "Sele's at Stanwell. Soon after the Palsgrave came into the field, "who, with the General and many gentlemen, viewed the army (fn. 99)." After the review the army was quartered at Hounslow and the adjacent villages (fn. 100). James II. in the year 1686, encamped his army on Hounslow-heath. In a MS. list of the Colonels in that camp (fn. 101) are enumerated, among others, the Duke of Grafton, the Marquis of Worcester, the Earls of Oxford, Shrewsbury, Peterborough, Huntingdon, Litchfield, Craven, Bath, Plymouth, Scarsdale, Arran, Feversham, and Dunbarton, and the Lords Lumley, Churchill, and Dartmouth. King James, by his letters patent, bearing date the same year, granted to John Shales, his heirs and assigns, the right and privilege of holding a daily market upon Hounslow-heath, as long as the camp should continue there, and during any future encampment upon the heath, and a weekly market on Thursdays for ever (fn. 102). This market is still kept in the parish of Isleworth, close to the town of Hounslow. The king granted also to the said John Shales, by other letters patent, the power of holding an annual fair at the market-place upon Hounslow-heath, to begin on the first of May, and continue 12 days (fn. 103). The right of these patents is now vested in William Lowndes, Esq. of Chesham, Bucks. The fair has been discontinued. In the month of May 1688, King James was present in the camp at Hounslow, when he was entertained by the Earl of Feversham, who was commander in chief (fn. 104). The Rev. Samuel Johnson was taken into custody and severely punished for dispersing in the camp 1000 copies of a pamphlet written by himself, intituled, "An Address to all "the English Protestants in the present army (fn. 105)." In the month of June 1740, the army, under the Duke of Marlborough's command, was encamped upon Hounslow-heath (fn. 106). Barracks, capable of containing above 400 men, were built by Government in 1793, upon that part of the Heath which is in Heston parish.
Projected in closure of the Heath.
The land upon Hounslow-heath is supposed to be worth, if inclosed, 20 s. an acre, upon an average. An act of parliament (fn. 107) passed in the year 1546 relating to the inclosure of the Heath, by which power was given to commissioners to assign allotments to the tenants and inhabitants of the parishes who had an interest in the waste, according to their respective claims; and it was enacted, "that such "part and so much of the waste as was certified to belong to the "king, should remain for ever copyhold land, and to be adjudged "of the nature of copy hold lands to all intents, constructions, and "purposes."