Folios 110b - 135b

Pages 207-230

Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London: A, 1275-1298. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1899.

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Folio 110 b-129.

[Fos. 110 b-129 are devoted mainly to a record of Assizes of Bread—held yearly for the purpose of fixing the price of bread—for the years 5-20 Edward I., after which period the several Assizes are entered in a separate book preserved in the Guildhall, known as the Assisa Panis. The Assizes are not entered in strict chronological order. Thus on fos. 110 b-112 b we find the Assize for the years 16-20 Edward I.; on fos. 113- 115 b the Assize for 9-13 Edward I.; on fos. 116 b-117 that for 14-15 Edward I.; and on fos. 128-129 that for 5-8 Edward I.—the earliest Assize recorded. The method of fixing the price of bread was intricate, and it is doubtful if it would serve any good purpose to set it out in extenso, whilst an abstract of it would be impracticable. On the same folios there are interspersed here and there various items of interest, of which due notice is taken.—Editor.]

Folio 112 b.

Sir John le Bretun, Warden of the City; Henry le Galeys, (fn. 1) Ralph le Blunt, (fn. 2) Anketin de Betevile, (fn. 3) William de Farndone, (fn. 4) William le Mazeliner, (fn. 5) Richard Aschewy, (fn. 6) Thomas Box, (fn. 7) Robert de Rokeslegh, (fn. 8) Martin Box, (fn. 9) Joce le Acatur, (fn. 10) and William de Betoynne, (fn. 11) Aldermen, undertook to pay to "Dono" de Podio of Luka the sum of £20 at the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula [1 Aug.], 17 Edward I. [A.D. 1289], which sum he had lent to the Commonalty of the City for pressing business; and unless, &c.

Be it remembered that on Friday before Ash Wednesday [7 March], 19 Edward I. [A.D. 1290-1], the said "Dono" de Podio, citizen of London, acknowledged that he had received from James Hugelini de Luka and "Dynus" his partner the sum of 12 marks in part payment of the above £20 owed him by the Commonalty of the City, as appears supra, &c.; in which sum of 12 marks the aforesaid James and "Dynus" were indebted to the said Commonalty for receiving the freedom of the City, &c.

Folio 113 b.

Provisio de molendin'.

Provision made for millers by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City. These Aldermen were present: John Horn, Philip the Tailor, Robert de Basinges, Nicholas de Wynchester, William de Farendon, Robert de Rokeslee, Henry de Frowyk, and Robert de Meldeburn; Richard de Chykewell and William le Mazeliner, Sheriffs.

[Here follow ordinances touching millers and fraudulent brewsters, commencing Provisum est quod salvatur pro pondere, &c., and ending habeat judicium, as set out in 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 354, 355, with trifling variation. Cf. 'Liber Horn,' fo. 263 b, and 'Liber Memorandorum,' fo. 3. The ordinances touching the weighing of corn and flour as here given were made in 1282. See 'Chron. Edward I. and II.' (Rolls Series, No. 76), i. 90.—Editor.]

Folio 116.

Proper Names of the Wards of the City of London and the Names of the Aldermen.

Ward of Chepe Stephen Aswy.
Ward of Lodgate and Neugate William de Farndone.
Ward of Castle Beynard Richard Aswy.
Ward of Aldreidesgate William le Mazener.
Ward of Bredstrate Anketin de Betevile.
Ward of Queen-hithe Simon de Hadestok.
Ward of Vinetrie John de Gisors.
Ward of Douegate Gregory de Rokesle.
Ward of Walebrock Thomas Box.
Ward of Colemanestrate John Fitz Peter.
Ward of Bassieshawe Ralph le Blound.
Ward of Crepelgate Henry de Frowick.
Ward of Candlewystrate Robert de Basinge.
Ward of Langeford Nicholas de Winchester.
Ward of Cordewanerstrate Henry le Waleys.
Ward of Cornhull Martin Box.
Ward of Limstrate Robert de Rokesle.
Ward of Bissopesgate Philip le Taylur.
Ward of Alegate John de Norhampton.
Ward of Tower William de Hadestok.
Ward of Billingesgate Wolmar de Essex.
Ward of Bridge Joce le Achatur.
Ward of Lodingeberi Robert de Arras.
Porsoken Prior of H. Trinity de Alegate.

Names of reputable men sworn of every Ward to consult with the Aldermen on Common Affairs of the City of London.

Ward of Chepe Elias de Honilane,
Henry le Coffrer,
John le Coffrer,
[Ralph le Mazeliner (fn. 12) ].
Ward of Lodgate and Neugate [Walter de Assindon (fn. 12) ],
Henry Belhus,
Robert le Paumer,
John de Cestrehunte.
Ward of Castle Beynard [Gilbert de Dunton (fn. 13) ],
Richard Poterel.
Ward of Aldreidesgate [Richard Aswy (fn. 13) ],
Henry de Keyles.
Ward of Bredstrate [Fauk le taverner (fn. 13) ],
William de Beverley.
Ward of Queen-hithe Ralph de Brumle,
Robert de Chalfhunte.
Ward of Vinetrie Henry de Herford,
John called Clerk.
Ward of Douegate [Peter Cosin (fn. 13) ],
Robert de Preston.
Ward of Walebrock [Thomas Box (fn. 13) ],
Fulk de St. Edmund.
Ward of Colemanestrate William Gratefige,
Tristram le Cheverell.
Ward of Bassieshawe Richard de Caumpes,
[William Heyrun (fn. 13) ].
Ward of Crepelgate [William (fn. 13) ] Walter de Finchingfeud,
Thomas de Stanes.
Ward of Candlewystrate Matthew le Chaundiler,
Robert le Surgien.
Ward of Langeford William de Kelwedon,
John le Poter.
Ward of Cordewanerstrate Hugh Motun,
[Osbert de Suffolk (fn. 13) ].
Ward of Cornhull John Skip,
Ralph de Berkinge.
Ward of Limstrate Thomas le Convers,
Richard le Paumer.
Ward of Bissopesgate Henry le Bole,
Geoffrey de Hundesdiche.
Ward of Alegate Laurence le Potter.
Ward of Tower Martius Lupus,
Benedict de Hakenee.
Ward of Billingesgate Thomas Cros,
John Baudri.
Ward of Bridge [Richard Knotte (fn. 13) ],
Edmund Horn.
Ward of Lodingeberi Walter Hautein,
Nicholas de Hedresete.
Porsoken Edmund Trentemars.

Folio 117 b.

Be it remembered that in the fifth year of the reign of King Edward, in the first week of Lent, there came into the Guildhall, before G[regory] de Rokesle, then Mayor, the Aldermen, and twenty-four reputable men appointed to discharge the City's debts, Simon Godard, tenant of lands and tenements in the City aforesaid formerly belonging to Geoffrey Godard, and made fine for all quarterages and arrears due for the same for 100s.; one moiety to be paid on Wednesday after Letare Jerusalem and before the Feast of St. Gregory [12 March], and the other on Easter Eve. And be it known that the lands and tenements of the said Geoffrey, held by Margery his wife by way of dower, are also quit by reason of the above fine, so that after her death they revert to the said Simon, his heirs or assigns.

Thursday after the Octave [sic], 5 Edward I. [A.D. 1276-7], came William de Durham before Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor, John Adrian, Henry de Coventre, Walter le Poter, William le Mazaliner, Walter le Engleys, Hugh de Dunthon, Gilbert de Dunthon, Maurice de Wautham, Roger le Corder, and other reputable men, and rendered a true account of arrears of all his rents in London, so that he was indebted to the City to the amount of £6 13s. 1¾d.; and of this debt he was acquitted by judgment of the above reputable men by reason of his various labours at the last Iter at the Tower (fn. 14) undertaken on behalf of the City.

Thursday the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], 5 Edward I. [A.D. 1277], came the executors of A[nketin] de Auverne and paid £6 12s. 4d. for a fine due to the City, so that the said A[nketin], his heirs and executors, are for ever quit, viz., before G[regory] de Rokesle, Mayor; J[ohn], son of J[ohn] Adrien, Walter le Cornnewaleys, Sheriffs; William de Durham, John Horn, H[enry] de Coventre, N[icholas] de Wynchester, R[obert] de Meldeburne, J[ohn] de Northampthon, Ralph le Fevere, William de Hadestok, Symon de Hadestok, John de Blakethorn, Robert de Araz, Peter Cusyn, John de Gisors, and other reputable men, &c.

[Here is set out—fos. 118 to 125b—the Statute of Westminster the First, 3 Edward I., A.D. 1275, printed, with translation (excepting two short paragraphs on fos. 119 b and 120, each of them commencing E si viscuntes ou coroners ou autre Bailifs, &c.), in the 'Statutes at Large,' ed. 1758, vol. i. pp. 40-57. This is followed—fos. 125 b, 126—by extracts from the Statute of Gloucester, 6 Edward I., A.D. 1278, viz., caps. 11-15; and on fo. 126 b is a copy of cap. 12 of that statute as amended anno 9 Edward I., (fn. 15) with the King's letter forwarding the same attached on a cedula. This statute and amendment are also printed, with a translation, in the 'Statutes at Large,' vol. i. pp. 62-68, 71-72.—Editor.]

Folio 126.

Statutory provisions for the proper cleaning, &c., of furs, and setting the assize and regulating the sale of cloth, on pain of forfeiture to the King. (fn. 16)

Folio 126 b.

It is agreed by Ralph de Sandwych, Warden of the City of London; Thomas Cros and Walter Hauteyn, Sheriffs; (fn. 17) Gregory de Rokesle, John Fitz Peter, William de Farendon, Robert de Rokesle, William le "Manezeliner," Richard Aswy, Nicholas de Wynchester, Martin Box, and Thomas Box; and afterwards by John de Banquell, Ralph le Blunt, Joce le Akatour, and Robert de Basinges, that the course of the Wallebroke shall be entirely freed from dung, rotten matter, and other obstructions and nuisances, and that gratings (rastalli) be replaced at each tenement on the course aforesaid from the Moor (fn. 18) of London down to the Thames, under penalty of 40s. to the use of the Chamber of the Guildhall of London.

Folio 127.

Writ of King Edward I. to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London enjoining them to punish all bakers, brewers, and other misdoers walking the City by night with swords and bucklers and assaulting those they met; and further commanding that all corn sent to mills to be ground within the City should be delivered by weight to the miller, who was to return the same weight in flour. Dated Westminster, 28 Nov., 10 Edward I. [A.D. 1281]. (fn. 19)

Tuesday after the Feast of Nativity of St. John Bapt. [24 June], 13 Edward I. [A.D. 1285], there came into the Guildhall—before G[regory] de Rokesle, the Mayor; Stephen de Cornhull and Robert de Rokesle, Sheriffs; Stephen Aswy, Philip the Tailor, John Fitz Peter, John de Gisors, Thomas Box, Martin Box, William le Mazeliner, Ralph le Blound, Robert de Arraz, Joce le Akatur, Nicholas de Winchester, Anketin de Bettevile, Richard Aswy, Aldermen, and other reputable men of the City—Master Robert de Ros, Archdeacon of London, and other Canons of St. Paul's, with the King's writ as follows:—

Edward, &c., to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London greeting. Whereas, on the recent complaint of the Venerable Father R[ichard de Gravesend], Bishop of London, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, that Henry le Galeys, at the time that he was Mayor of the City, had erected houses near the wall of St. Paul's Churchyard to the prejudice of the said Bishop, Dean, and Chapter, we sent our beloved lieges Ralph de "Hengeham" and William de Burneton to St. Martin le Grand in order to hear what both parties had to say in the matter, and to view the aforesaid houses and the injury, if any; and whereas the said Ralph and William, having heard the matter argued and viewed the houses and wall, returned and reported to us that the said houses had been built to the injury of the parties aforesaid, inasmuch as their height exceeded the height of the wall, and the tenants threw dirt out of the windows and doors into the churchyard, and walked to and fro the churchyard and their houses; and whereas they further reported that the houses stood so near the wall that their rain water dropped on to the wall, and the Bishop and Dean and Chapter were prevented by the proximity of the houses to the wall from building tenements (as they before had done) within their close for housing canons, vicars, and other ministers, because they could make no doorways to the King's highway; it is therefore adjudged in our Court that the said houses be pulled down so far as they are prejudicial to the said Bishop and Dean and Chapter. We therefore command you to see the said judgment executed without delay. Witness, R[alph] de "Hengham," at Westminster, 21 June, 13 Edward I. [A.D. 1285].

Folio 127 b.

Edward, &c., to R[alph] de Sandwych, Warden of the City, greeting. Whereas we have recently been given to understand by our citizens of London and others that all merchants whosoever coming to the said City with wine for sale have been accustomed beyond memory to pay for each cask of wine sold by brokers of the City aforesaid the sum of 6d. for brokerage, and lately have understood, by certain persons on behalf of our beloved Gregory de Rokesle asserting the contrary, that merchants were accustomed of old to pay no more than 2d. for each cask of wine sold, by reason of which we on a former occasion commanded that brokers of wines in the City aforesaid should thenceforth take no more than 2d. for brokerage on every cask of wine sold; and now we understand, both from the said Gregory and others, that they have continued up to the present day to pay 6d. for every cask of wine sold:—We, wishing to be informed on the matter, command that you make inquiry by the oath of trustworthy citizens and foreign merchants, and certify the truth to us on the morrow of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary [8 Sept.] at Winchester. Dated "Ammbresberi," (fn. 20) 13 August, 13 Edward I. [A.D 1285].

Inquisition thereupon held on Tuesday after the Feast of St. Giles [1 Sept.] by Henry de Hereford, Robert Skot, Thomas de Conduit, Alan de Suffolk, taverner, Alan de Suffolk, cordwainer, John de Cestrehunte, and Roger Pigesfles, merchants of England; Hugh Megge, Thomas de Villanova, Peter de St. John, Paul de Luca, Bertin de Luka, and Emeric de St. John, foreign merchants; who declared on oath that brokers were never accustomed to take, nor they to pay, less than 6d. for every cask of wine sold in the City. (fn. 21)

The names of brokers of wine sworn this year: Nicholas de Suffolk, Robert Heyrun, William le Blound, Robert Corp, Andrew de Pavely, and John de Watevile.

Folio 129 b.

Anno regin regis Eadwardi quinto incipiente sexto.

These are the Assizes of the City of London read by the Mayor and reputable men, the second year of the Mayoralty of Gregory [de Rokesle], Robert de Arraz and Ralph le Fevere being Sheriffs [A.D. 1276-7], and the third year of the same Mayoralty, Walter le Cornewaleys and John, son of John Adrian, Sheriffs [A.D. 1277-8]. (fn. 22)

First, that the peace of the lord the King be well kept between Christians [and Jews]. (fn. 23)

Also that two loaves be made for 1d. and four loaves for 1d., and that none be coated with bran (furratus) or made of bran.

Also that no baker sell his bread before his oven, but in the market of the lord the King, and if he be found selling it in his own house he shall be in the mercy of the Sheriff; nor shall any one [so] buy, under pain of losing the said bread if it be found; and that no one make bread beyond the assize.

Also every baker shall have his seal on his bread, as well brown bread (bissus) as white, that it may the better be known whose the bread is.

Also that each Alderman shall view (fn. 24) the seals in his ward (custodia).

Also that no baker of white bread make tourte bread (turtum), (fn. 25) nor maker of tourte bread (turturarius) make white bread, for sale under the same penalty, nor any baker buy corn to sell again.

A gallon of ale [to be sold] for three farthings, and [another] for one penny and no dearer. (fn. 26)

And that no brewster (bracerissa) (fn. 27) henceforth sell except by true measures, viz., the gallon, the pottle, and the quart. And that they be marked with the seal of the Alderman, and that the tun be of 150 gallons and sealed by the Alderman. (fn. 28)

Also that no one take another into his house for more than one night, unless he hold him to right (fn. 29) if he make default, and his host answer for him if he departs.

Also that no one shall remain in the ward of an Alderman beyond a day and a night, unless he be in frankpledge [or] his host be willing to hold him to right.

Also that places and lanes shall be cleared of every impediment, as dung, logs, ladders (scalar'), pigs (porther'), (fn. 30) &c., under heavy penalty.

Also that no pig be henceforth found by the streets or lanes of the City or suburb, nor in the ditches of the City; and if found they shall be killed by whoever finds them, and the killer shall have them without challenge or redemption for 4 pence from the owner. Whoever wishes to feed his pigs, let him feed them in the open (in franco) away from the King's highway (fn. 31) [or] in his house, under heavy penalty.

Also that no retail dealer of corn, fish, poultry, or victuals shall buy victuals before the hour of Prime, (fn. 32) nor before the reputable men of the City have bought, under penalty of forfeiting the goods bought.

Also that no cart serving the City by bringing water, wood, stones, &c., be shod with iron (ferrata).

Also that no pentices, gutters, or jetties be of such a height (adeo alta) as to prevent persons riding under them without impediment and hurt, and that they be of the height of nine feet at least.

Also that no regratress go beyond London Bridge to buy bread and to carry it into the City, because the bakers of Southwark are not of the Justice of the City nor are allowed to be brought back from (reduci) outside the City.

Folio 130.

And that no stall be of any other breadth than 2½ feet, and that it be movable or adjustable to the height (fn. 33) of its neighbours.

And that no foreign butcher sell meat in the City except in the manner accustomed, nor cause meat to be harboured or permit it to be again carried out of the City; nor buy meat from the Jews to sell again to Christians, or meat slaughtered for Jews and by them rejected.

Also the course of the Walebroke and all the King's road shall be freed......

And that a porter of corn shall not sell nor measure corn, nor presume to enter a churchyard, house, or ship to remove corn, nor lay his hand upon corn, until he be called by those who have bought the corn. (fn. 34)

Also that no carman shall for the future enter the City with wood or charcoal for sale, but shall remain outside the gate at Smethefeud or elsewhere as provided, except only at Cornhull, under forfeiture.

Also that no one cause cloth to be woven [for sale] except in the City, or in Porsoken, or within the franchise of the City, and not in Suthwerk [under pain of forfeiture]. (fn. 35)

Also that no woollen cloth be dyed black except in woad [under pain of forfeiture].

Also that no market be held on London Bridge, nor elsewhere except in places appointed.

Also that no one of the City go to Suthwerk to buy corn, cattle, or other merchandise there, so as to create a market there, under penalty of forfeiture of the thing bought. (fn. 36)

Also that all the lanes leading to the Thames from the highway from Castle Baynard as far as the Tower be forthwith cleaned, so that horsemen and footmen may approach the Thames freely and without hindrance; otherwise the Sheriffs shall do it at their expense (sumptibus eorum), and still they shall be heavily amerced. (fn. 37)

Also that no whore of a brothel be resident within the walls of the City. (fn. 38)

Also that lime be measured by the basket which holds half a quarter, well burnt and honestly measured.

And that tiles be well burnt and well leaded, and of ancient pattern (de veteri scantilone). (fn. 39)

Also that no one shall carry on merchandise in the City, nor make bread nor ale for sale, unless he be willing to be of the Justice of the City.

Also that no broker presume to lead merchant strangers out of the City to deal with them, nor buy any merchandise for his own use, nor harbour any strangers, nor shall any stranger harbour other merchant strangers.

No merchant who brings woad to London shall measure it, but only he who is sworn for the purpose, and by the quarter (per quarterium) of the City assigned for the purpose.

No leper shall be in the City, nor come there, nor make any stay there.

No one shall hire houses from Jews, nor demise the same to them for them to live in outside the limits of the Jewry.

Also vendors of fish shall not throw their water into the highway, but cause it to be carried to the Thames.

Also no one shall throw any filth into the highway, nor allow it to be raked in the time of rain, nor remove it so as to be a nuisance to the neighbours.

Also that no one shall have a measure, beam, or other weight, unless it be good and just and agreeing with the King's beam and weights. (fn. 40)

Folio 130 b.

cedula (1).

[Here follow ordinances as to the trade carried on by foreign butchers. Printed, with translation, in 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 274; ii. 92. Cf. 'Liber Custumarum,' fo. 204 b; 'Liber Horn,' fo. 265.—Editor.]

cedula (2).

Ordinances touching tenants of houses, distress, &c. (imperfect).

Thursday after the Feast of H. Trinity came William le Espicer, of Oxford, into the Guildhall and sued Roger le Escot, citizen of London, for 59s. lent by request to William, a nephew of the said Roger. The defendant pleads no mandatum. The plaintiff rejoins that the debt has been acknowledged before witnesses. Witnesses to be produced.

cedula (2). dors.

[A repetition of the order entered supra, p. 212, for cleansing the Walbrook.]

Folio 130 b.

[Proclamation regulating the trade of skinners and furriers. Cf. 'Liber Custumarum,' fo. 206 b; 'Liber Horn,' fos. 249, 267. In the 'Liber Horn' the date of the Proclamation is given as 16 Edward I. Printed, with translation, in 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 279; ii. 97.—Editor.]

Names of skinners: William May, Roger de Ludelawe, Roger de Beverle, Adam de Burton, Thomas de Oxford, petit, Robert May, William Red, senior, Robert de Wytcherch, William Red, junior, Ralph de Cestre, Thomas Sely, Thomas de Oxford, Robert de Tefeld, Henry de Bannebyri, William de Wynchester, Geoffrey de Ayllesbiri, Thomas de Ildinton, Geoffrey de Cotton, Henry de St. Eadmund, who say, &c.

It is provided and commanded that no woman of the town shall henceforth go to market nor into the highway out of her house with a hood furred with budge, whether it be of lamb or of conies, upon pain of forfeiting her hood to the use of the Sheriffs, except dames who wear furred capes the hoods of which bear fur such as they wish. And whereas brewsters, nurses, other servants, and women of disreputable character, adorn themselves and wear hoods furred with gros veer (fn. 41) and minever after the manner of reputable women ...... (fn. 42)

Moreover that no pig nor rubbish (trunk) nor timber lying be henceforth found in streets, and after Monday [the pig so found] to be killed and become the property of him who shall kill it for 4 pence; the rubbish and the timber forfeited to the use of the Sheriffs; hay also and bran henceforth found in Westchepe ...... (fn. 43)

Folio 131.

Monday the Feast of Translation of St. Edward [13 Oct.], 9 Edward I. [A.D. 1281], in full Husting, Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor, William le Mazerer and Richard de Chekewelle, Sheriffs, and the Aldermen, with the assent of the reputable men of the City, released and quitclaimed to Philip le Taillur all arrears of socage of 5 pence per annum for a tenement in the parish of Aldermariecherche up to Michaelmas next.

Names of Oynters (unctarii) holding selds in Chepe.

Roger le Chaundeler holds three shops of his own property.

The same Roger and William de Manhale, executors of Warin de Mimmes, hold two shops, viz., one of Roger the chaplain celebrating for the soul of Roger Beyvin, and another shop of the Prior of H. Trinity.

Adam de Manhale holds two shops, viz., one shop of the aforesaid Roger, and another of the aforesaid Prior.

Lucy de Manhale holds two shops.

Richard de Lamhuthe holds a shop of John Pratis.

William de Manhale holds a shop of Michael le Oynter.

John de Chelse holds a shop of the aforesaid Michael.

Walter de Waldegrave holds a shop of the aforesaid Prior of H. Trinity.

Richard de Kent holds a shop of the aforesaid Prior.

Peter de Lamhethe holds a shop of the same.

Stephen le Chaundeler holds two shops of the same.

Friday after the Feast of St. Dunstan [19 May], 11 Edward I. [A.D. 1283], all the above oynters were warned to remove all goods appertaining to their trade from within their selds in Cheap before the Feast of Nativity of St. John next ensuing, so that they make provision elsewhere if they should see expedient.

[facie inversa.]

The custom of taking distresses, as appears on another folio following. (fn. 44)

Also that all tenants of the City be warned each term on the day following the term that they pay their rents, and if they decline to do so, the lord of the tenement aforesaid shall make distress in his rents from day to day, which being done he [the tenant] ought to be warned by the Sheriffs of the City aforesaid to redeem the distress levied upon him within eight days. And if he refuse to do this, let him be summoned before the Sheriffs; and whether he come or not, the said distress shall be sold, and he shall satisfy the lord of the fee of his rent, and if anything remain over, let it be restored to the tenant.

Folio 131 b.

Mandamus from the King to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London to hold an inquisition ad quod damnum, before Giles de Audenard and Master Robert de Beverley, the King's mason, and the Aldermen of the City, (1) as to whether any, and, if so, what, damage would arise if the King were to allow a certain ditch dividing land in Castle Baynard, the property of the Archbishop of Canterbury, to be filled up in order that the two parcels of land might adjoin, and (2) if a part of the City wall near Ludgate were to be pulled down and a new strong wall built from the turret of the said gate between the inhabitants of Flete Street and the Archbishop's place as far as Flete Ditch, for the City's protection. Dated the Tower of London, 8 Jan., 6 Edward I. [A.D. 1277-8].

Inquisition held in the presence of Alan de Castell, Nicholas the Moneyer, Richard de Exeport, Thomas de Hales, William Dibel, Robert de Neddinge, Roger le Estumor, Roger le Chaundeler, John de Cestrehunte, John called Kyng, Nicholas Rok, John de Horthon, Richard Mel, William de Notingham, and many other reputable men [not named] of the neighbourhood of Castle Baynard Return made non ad damnum. Dated 12 Jan., 6 Edward I.

Folio 132.

The King's letters to the Mayor and citizens of London directing them to put into execution certain articles presented by them at the late Parliament, according as it may seem best for the common weal (the King not having had leisure to examine into the matter), and to reserve any difficulty for the consideration of the next Parliament. Dated "Sothewyk," 18 Sept., 6 Edward I. [A.D. 1278].

Edward, by the grace, &c., to the Mayor, Sheriffs, and the rest of the citizens of London, greeting. Know ye that in aid of the repair of the walls and enclosures of our aforesaid City we have granted to you that from the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord in the seventh year of our reign, for a term of three years next ensuing, you take in the said City of every frail (fn. 45) of woad put to sale and brought into the City by foreign merchants the sum of 18d.; from every wey of cheese brought by foreign merchants into the City, for exportation or otherwise, 1d.; from every wey of unguent, 1d.; from every wey of tallow, 1d.; from four loads of corn, 1d.; from every hundred of wax, 2d.; from every hundred of almonds, 1d.; from every kark (carco) (fn. 46) of grain, 18d.; from every hundred of pepper, 2d.; from every hundred of cummin, ½ d.; from every kark of Brisell.; (fn. 47) 12d., from every hundred of lake, (fn. 48) 3d.; from every hundred of copper, 1d.; from every thousand of tin, 2d.; from every thousand of greywork (grisei operis), (fn. 49) 12d., from every hundred coney-skins, 1d., from four frails of figs, 1d., from every barrel of vinegar, 2d.; from seven sheaves (garbis) of iron, (fn. 50) 1d.; from every millstone, 1d.; from every dozen of leather, 1d.; from every cask of honey, 6d.; from every trusell (fn. 51) of cloth, 18d.; from every half trusell of cloth, 9d.; from every thousand of herring, ½d.; from every kark of cymac, (fn. 52) 2d.; from every hundred of alum, 2d.; from every pound of silk (?), 1d.; from every sieve of salt, 1d.; from every kark (karrato) of lead, 2d.; from every cask of wine, 2d.; from every hundred of licorice, 1d.; from every "curda" (fn. 53) of ginger, 1d. And so we command you to take the custom for a term of three years as aforesaid, after which term the custom shall entirely cease. Witness myself at Westminster, 24 Jan., 7 Edward I. [A.D. 1278-9]. (fn. 54)

Folio 132 b.

The King's writ enclosing a copy of certain articles ordained by his Council at Gloucester, (fn. 55) and commanding the Mayor and Sheriffs of London to see that the same be read and published in the Husting and duly observed in the City. Dated Gloucester, 14 Aug., 6 Edward I. [A.D. 1278].

Sunday before the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], 17 Edward I. [A.D. 1289], the King delivered to the Warden, Sheriffs, and Aldermen of London a certain writ in these words:—Edward, by the grace, &c., to the Warden, Sheriffs, and Aldermen of his City of London, greeting. Whereas the Commonalty of the City of London have granted to us and our most dear consort Alianora, Queen of England, a courtesy of £1,000 at our next coming to the said City after our last return from parts beyond the sea, we command that the money be raised by poll of the men of the City aforesaid who shall be sufficient and able to be assessed thereunto. Witness myself at Westminster, 14 Oct., the seventeenth year of our reign.

The names of Aldermen and others elected to sit at the Guildhall to superintend and regulate the assessment to be made by poll of the men of the City of London according to the tenor of the above writ:—John de Banquell, (fn. 56) Robert de Basinge, (fn. 57) William de Hereford (fn. 58) (these in place of the Warden), William de Bettoyn, (fn. 59) Josep le Akatur, (fn. 60) —Aldermen; John de Canterbury, Walter Hauteyn, John de Vintry, clerk.

Folio 133.

Monday the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedra [22 Feb.], 22 Edward I. [A.D. 1293-4]—in the presence of Sir John Bretun, Warden of London, Robert de Rokele and Martin de Aumbresberi, Sheriffs, Henry le Galeys, (fn. 61) Robert de Basinge, John de Banquelle, (fn. 62) William de Hereford, (fn. 63) John le Blound, (fn. 64) Adam de Foleham, (fn. 65) Walter de Finchingfeud, (fn. 66) William de Bettoyne, (fn. 67) Aldermen-Silvester de Farnham was admitted and sworn for weighing by the great beam (per magnam stateram) of the lord the King. (fn. 68)

Folio 133 b.

Monday before the Feast of St. Nicholas [6 Dec.], 7 Edward I. [A.D. 1278], came Geoffrey Roger le Settere (fn. 69) to the house of Hugh Motun, the Chamberlain, when the Jews were at the Guildhall, (fn. 70) and acknowledged that he had granted to John de Lyndesey land and houses in the parish of St. Mary de Aldermariecherche. To hold for life after the decease of Isabella, mother of the said Geoffrey, paying to the said Geoffrey annually 20s., and to the Prior and Convent of St. Mary de Suthwerk 42s. Witnesses of grant and enrolment, viz., Hugh Motun, Chamberlain; Roger Herwy, William le Cirger, Richard le P......, Robert ......, John le Seur, junior, and others [not named].

Folio 134.

[facie inversa].

Wednesday before Pentecost [18 May], 5 Edward I. [A.D. 1277], it was agreed between Richard de Miseberi, butcher, and Johanna his wife, on the one part, and Roger "the lame horsemonger" (claudum mercatorem equorum) and Alice his wife on the other part, viz., that the said Richard and Johanna granted to the said Roger and Alice their house in the parish of St. Sepulchre, situate near Smethefeud between the houses of Roger Atestaples and Thomas Hod. To hold for a term of ten years from Michaelmas next, for 5 marks in hand paid and an annual rent of 8s. to the lords of the fee. It is further covenanted that no testament of the said Richard and Johanna shall be executed unless caution for sufficient warranty shall first be found; and if the said Johanna should die during the term, the house with which the said Johanna was legally dowered at the church door (ad hostium ecclesie dotata (fn. 71) ) shall be warranted by her heirs or by the tenants of the fee. In case of sale or further lease, the said Roger and Alice to be preferred to others by 2s. Witnesses, Gregory de Rokele, Mayor; Ralph le Fevere, Robert de Arraz, Sheriffs of London; Stephen de Munden, and Hugh Motun, Chamberlain, and others.

Folio 134 b.

[facie inversa].

The Ward of Henry de Frowyk within the Gate. (fn. 72)

Monday the Feast of St. Hillary [13 Jan.], 4 Edward I. [A.D. 1275-6], came John Ballard, "armerer," to the Guildhall and acknowledged himself indebted to Symon Godard, pepperer, in the sum of 15s., or in lieu thereof to give him a coat of mail of the same value; to be paid a fortnight after the Feast of St Hillary, and unless, &c.

The Ward of Anketin d'Auverne within the Gate (fn. 73)

Monday the octave of St. Hillary [13 Jan.], 4 Edward I. [A.D. 1275-6], came John Arnold, "garlecmongere," and became principal debtor to Henry the Seal-maker (Sigillarius) in the sum of 40s.; to be paid, viz., 20s. at Carniprivium and 20s. at Michaelmas, under this form, viz., that the aforesaid Henry has granted and released to the aforesaid John William Elys, his apprentice, for the above sum, to be paid at the terms named; otherwise, &c.

The same day came Roger Oriel, "paternostrer," and acknowledged a release to Marion, daughter of Cristina de Lymeseye, his apprentice, of a term of seven years for which she was bound to him for the sum of 14s.; to be paid by instalments of 6d at Easter, and so from term to term until, &c.

Wednesday the Feast of St. Vincent [22 Jan.], the same year, before Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor, and other reputable men at the Guildhall, it was agreed between Walter de la Ford, corder, and Richard Maunsel, late his apprentice, viz., that the said Walter released the said Richard from his term for the sum of 17 marks, whereof 1 mark is paid in hand and the rest is to be paid by instalments of 2 marks, commencing at Easter.

Folio 135.

Monday the Feast of Invention of H. Cross [3 May], 11 Edward I. [A.D. 1283], Henry le Galeys, Mayor; Anketin de Betevile, Sheriff; Stephen Aswy, William le Mazeliner, Josep le Akatur, Robert de Basinge, Robert de Rokesle, Wolmer de Essex, Nicholas de Winchester...... consented that the house which formerly belonged to Roger de Clifford (fn. 74) should be sold or pledged for public purposes.

Monday before the Nativity of B. M. [8 Sept.], Henry le Galeys and thirty-four other reputable men who made a loan of 100 marks to the City, in order to complete the payment of the great loan made to the lord the King, had seisin of the great hall formerly the property of Roger de Clifford in the form contained in a deed of feoffment, and the said reputable men appointed Henry le Galeys and Philip the Tailor their attorneys to hold seisin in their name until Michaelmas.

Saturday the eve of SS. Peter and Paul [29 June], 15 Edward I. [A.D. 1287], it was considered by Ralph de Sandwich, the Warden of the City of London, and the Aldermen of the same City, that the gates of the City should be guarded, each gate daily, by two men well and properly armed, and that they should be closed at night by serjeants living in the said gates, and that the said serjeants should have a woyte (fn. 75) at their own expense.

It was considered that at the gates of Ludgate and Neugate The Ward of William de Farendon within and without.
The Ward of Castle Beynard.
The Ward of Anketin de Bettevile. (fn. 76)
The Ward of Henry le Galeys. (fn. 77)
At the gate of Aldridesgate The Ward of William le Mazeliner. (fn. 78)
At the gate of Crepelgate The Ward of Chepe.
The Ward of Simon de Hadestok. (fn. 79)
The Ward of John de Banquell. (fn. 80)
The Ward of John de Gisors. (fn. 81)
Bissopesgate guarded by The Ward of Philip the Tailor. (fn. 82) The Ward of Cornhull. The Ward of R. de Arraz. (fn. 83) The Ward of Limestrate. By Danes, so that they be in the middle, and the men of the Wards below and above.
Alegate guarded by The Ward of William de Hereford. (fn. 84)
The Ward of Porsoken.
The Ward of Nicholas de Winchester. (fn. 85)
The Ward of Robert de Basinges. (fn. 86)
The Ward of Walebrock.
[The Ward of Cornhulle. (fn. 87) ]
[The Ward of Limstrate. (fn. 87) ]
Of William de Hadestock. (fn. 88)
The gate of London Bridge The Ward of Bridge.
The Ward of Billingesgate.
The Ward of Douuegate.
And three Wards are exempt from keeping guard [The Ward of W. Hadestok. (fn. 89) ]
[The Ward of Robert de Arras. (fn. 89) ]
[The Ward of Porsoken. (fn. 89) ]
The watches by night at the gates Of Ludegate, I watch.
Of Crepelgate, I watch.
Of Alegate, I watch.
Of Bridge, I watch.

Folio 135 b.

Be it remembered that Sir R[oger] de Clifford, senior, enfeoffed the Mayor and citizens of London of his house, &c.; also of 8s. annually to be levied on the tenement of the Prior of H. Trinity, London, in Chepe, between the tenement of John Fitz Peter on the one part and the lane called Ismongerelane on the other, under penalty of one tiercel (fn. 90) of the value of 10s. if the said rent be not paid on the day named; also of 4s. to be derived from the house of Benedict Bateman the Jew, situate in the Jewry between the tenements of Stephen Aswy and Gamaliel the Jew.

Elyas, son of Elyas de Hertford, puts in his place Thomas de Gersingdon against Peter May and Emma his wife.

Tuesday after the octave of H. Trinity [24 May], 10 Edward I. [A.D. 1282], Arnald de St. John was admitted to the freedom of the City on the surety of Thomas de Suffolk and Richard de Morton (?), who testify that they are not bound in any debt in parts beyond the sea whereby the City could suffer prejudice. And for his [Arnald's] admission to the freedom aforesaid Hugh Moton received 40s. to the use of the City.

[facie inversa].

Thursday before the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula [1 Aug.], 5 Edward I. [A.D. 1277], came Richard de Bury, Henry de Pelham, and Hugh de Byflete to the Guildhall and became sureties for William de Wautham, cordwainer, that he would faithfully guard the gate of Ludgate and maintain the same according to the wishes of the Mayor and other reputable men of the City.


Henry le Joevene, Nicholas Horn, William de la Hithe, and Alfred le Bureller attached for detaining the sum of 6s. due for woad delivered for the purpose of assay by Hugh le Riche.

The defendants plead that they had assayed the woad according to the custom of the City and had paid all the money due under that assay. The plaintiff declares that the woad was worth more than the price put upon it by the defendants. Both parties demand a jury, &c....... and whereas it was proved by reputable men of the City that the custom of the City and of the woad-mongers is such that when any woadmonger delivers woad to any one for assay, the assayer shall not pay more than a certain price per quarter fixed by the assayer—it is adjudged that the aforesaid Hugh shall not take more than the price at which his woad was assayed by the defendants, and that he shall be in mercy for a false claim.


  • 1. Cordwainer Street.
  • 2. Bassishaw.
  • 3. Bread Street.
  • 4. Ludgate and Newgate.
  • 5. Aldersgate.
  • 6. Castle Baynard.
  • 7. Walbrook.
  • 8. Lime Street.
  • 9. Cornhill.
  • 10. Bridge.
  • 11. Queenhithe.
  • 12. Crossed through in the MS.
  • 13. Crossed through in the MS.
  • 14. The Iter of 1275, anno 4 Edward I., the particulars of which have not come down to us, although the compiler of the 'Liber Albus' appears to have intended to incorporate them in his book, to judge from the following passage (p. 11):— "Responsiones factæ ad Quæstiones per Justiciarios Itinerantes apud Turrim Londoniarum civibus ejusdem civitatis propositas anno regni Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Henrici, quaito."
  • 15. The reasons for the amendment, the exception taken to it by the Judges of the King's Bench after it had been acted upon for more than thirty years, and its subsequent confirmation by Edward II. in 1316 are set out in 'Liber Cust.' (Rolls Series), i. 169- 179, and in Husting, Common Pleas, Roll 40, membr. 20.
  • 16. No date. The provisions are also entered in 'Liber Horn,' fo. 264, with the following marginal note: Hec invemes prope in fine in illo libro signato cum litera A prope ad finem post statutum Gloucestrie. The assize of cloth is also entered in 'Liber Memorandoium,' fo. 3 b.
  • 17. A.D. 1286-7.
  • 18. Finsbury Moor, in the neighbourhood of the present Moorfields.
  • 19. The writ, so far as it relates to the weighing of corn and flour, appears to have been executed without delay, for in the succeeding year we find the following record: "Eodem anno [i. e., 1282] major Londoniarum fecit ponderare bladum versus molendinum, et iterum fecit ponderari farmam ejusdem bladi pro certo pretio" ('Chron Edward I. and II.' [Rolls Series], i. 90).
  • 20. Amesbury, co. Wilts.
  • 21. This is the passage referred to supra, p. 164. Writ and return printed in 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 401-2. Cf. 'Liber Memorandorum,' fo. 1 b; 'Liber Horn,' fo. 261.
  • 22. A copy of these ordinances is transcribed in 'Liber Horn,' fos. 265- 267, with the following reference to Letter-Book A in a marginal note: Et sequitur proclamacio et ordinacio Matoris de a° E. fil. R. H. quinto eodem libro prope in fine. Cf. 'Liber Memorandorum,' fos. 28 et seq.
  • 23. The words et Judeos are crossed through. They do not occur in the other versions.
  • 24. Videat. Cf. Fr. veyt, 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 265, and 'Liber Horn,' fo. 239 b, where similar ordinances are recorded. At the end of the 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 702, where references are given to matters found in the Letter-Books, the reading is habeat.
  • 25. Or bread of unbolted meal; known also as "trete."
  • 26. Cf. 'Liber Custumarum,' fo. 202 b. This passage is omitted in the transcript in the 'Liber Albus' (i. 266 n.). A gallon of the best ale was usually allowed to be sold for three half-pence, and a gallon of the second best for a penny ('Liber Albus,' i. 358).
  • 27. Brewing ale in the City was chiefly the trade of females.
  • 28. Cf. 'Liber Albus,' i. 266, 267.
  • 29. Habeat ipsum ad rectum, i. e., produce him to stand his trial.
  • 30. Porcher', 'Liber Horn.'
  • 31. This alternative is omitted in the French version of the ordinance in 'Liber Albus,' i. 270.
  • 32. The first hour of the day, according to canonical usage. It commenced at sunrise, and therefore varied ac cording to the season of the year.
  • 33. Ad devacionem vicinorum. The French version in the 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series, i. 271) has a la leggance des veisyns, which the editor translates 'for the convenience of the neighbours" (Rolls Series, ii. 89). Cf. 'Liber Horn,' fo. 243 b, where we find a allegeaunce de versines.
  • 34. French versions of this and the ordinance following are to be found in the 'Liber Albus' and 'Liber Custumarum.' See 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 272, 273.
  • 35. Sub forisfactura, added here and in the next paragraph by a different hand. The same ordinance (in French) is to be found both in the 'Liber Albus' and the 'Liber Custumarum.' See 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 273.
  • 36. The version in the 'Liber Albus' (i. 273) adds horsprys merysme, i. e., except timber.
  • 37. Cf. 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 274.
  • 38. Cf. ibid, i. 275.
  • 39. Scantilo, Fr. escantilon; pattern, standard, dimensions (Riley, Glossary to 'Liber Albus,' pp. 314, 401).
  • 40. Cf. 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series), i. 278.
  • 41. Fr. veyr, Lat. varium. The name of a fur much esteemed in olden time, the identity of which has given rise to much difference of opinion. There seems little doubt, however, that gros veer and minever were but slightly different forms of veyr. A passage in the 'Liber Horn' (fo. 249 b) describes "menever" as being the belly of the squirrel during the winter. Gros veyr must not be confounded with Fr. gris-oevre, Lat. griseum, a fur of an inferior quality. See 'Lib. Cust.,' Glossary, pp. 806, 834.
  • 42. Cf. 'Liber Horn,' fo. 267 b.
  • 43. Ibid., fo. 268.
  • 44. It is not clear to which folio this refers. The entry is of a later date than the rest and is by a different hand.
  • 45. Fraello, frail or basket.
  • 46. The "kark," "cark," or "charge" usually weighed 4 cwt., except that of grain, which weighed 3 cwt., and that of pepper, which weighed 3½ cwt. See 'Liber Albus,' i. 223; ii. 331.
  • 47. Brasil, a dyeing material obtained from a wood of that name. See Glossary, 'Liber Albus,' ii. 298; 'Liber Custumarum,' ii. 805, s.v. "granum."
  • 48. A kind of fine linen, used for shirts, &c. Supposed by some to take its name from Liège ('Liber Albus,' Glossary, ii. 332; 'Draper's Dict.,' s. v.. "lake").
  • 49. See p. 220, note 1.
  • 50. Cf. De quibuslibet viginti garbis ascert et ferri ('Liber Horn,' fo. 283b).
  • 51. Or trossel, a package.
  • 52. Symack, sumach, or shumac, a plant used in dyeing and tanning and for medicinal purposes.
  • 53. Perhaps a "cord" of ginger, just as at the present day we speak of a "cord" of wood.
  • 54. The King in the fourth year of his reign made similar grants to enable the citizens to keep their walls in repair. See 'Liber Horn,' fos. 203-4.
  • 55. The Statute of Gloucester ie ferred to supra, p. 212.
  • 56. Dowgate (?).
  • 57. Candlewick Street.
  • 58. Aldgate (?).
  • 59. Queenhithe (?).
  • 60. Bridge.
  • 61. Cordwainer Street.
  • 62. Dowgate.
  • 63. Aldgate.
  • 64. Bread Street.
  • 65. Bridge.
  • 66. Cupplegate.
  • 67. Queenhithe.
  • 68. In 1285 (when the Mayor was made to give way to a Warden of the King's choosing) it was ordained (inter alia) that the King should have his weights in a number of fixed places in the City, and that all goods exceeding 25 lbs. in weight should be weighed thereby under pain of forfeiture ('Liber Albus;' i. 285). This ordinance does not appear to have been strictly observed, for we find that in 1296, when Silvester de Farnham was summoned to carry the King's balance and weights before certain Aldermen, woolmen, pepperers, and corders, appointed by John le Bretun, the Warden, for the purpose of having them proved, the weighing instrument is described as being carried daily from house to house for weighing the goods of citizens and foreigners; and in 1303 the statute De Nova Custuma enacted that the King's balance should be (again) stationary ('Lib. Cust.,' i. 107-8, 208).
  • 69. Maker of arrow-heads (Riley).
  • 70. Cf. Aungier's 'French Chron.' (Riley's translation), pp. 238, 239; 'Chion. Edward I. and II.' (Rolls Series), i. 88 See note supra, p. 26.
  • 71. "This took place when a husband immediately after marriage endowed his wife openly at the church door of his lands which he specified at the time, and on which the wife, after her husband's death, was therefore permitted to enter without further assignment "—' Calendar of Wills, Court of Hust, London,' vol. i., Introd., p. xli.
  • 72. Cripplegate Ward.
  • 73. See note supra, p. 11.
  • 74. He is recorded as having at Midsummer, 1280, made over to the City all his property in the Jewry besides an annual quitrent of 12s. 'Chron Edward I. and II.' (Rolls Series), i. 89. A portion of this property was in 1286, and again in 1293, conveyed by the City to John de Bankewell, or Banquelle, and became famous in the cloth trade as Blackwell Hall. See Hust. Rolls, 19 (19), (20), 22 (55), (56), and Letter-Book C, fo. 6.
  • 75. Perhaps for wayte, i. e., watch or ward.
  • 76. Bread Street.
  • 77. Cordwainer Street.
  • 78. Aldersgate.
  • 79. Queenhithe.
  • 80. Dowgate (?).
  • 81. Vintry.
  • 82. Bishopsgate.
  • 83. Lothbury (Broad Street).
  • 84. Aldgate.
  • 85. Langbourn.
  • 86. Candlewick.
  • 87. Struck out in the original.
  • 88. Tower.
  • 89. Struck out in the original.
  • 90. A male hawk.