Freeman's Letters, 1678: nos 1-28

The Letters of William Freeman, London Merchant, 1678-1685.

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'Freeman's Letters, 1678: nos 1-28', in The Letters of William Freeman, London Merchant, 1678-1685, (London, 2002) pp. 1-27. British History Online [accessed 11 April 2024]

In this section


1. Anthony Henthorne [Chester]

London, May 23, 1678
I have yours of the 21st Instant wherein I take notice you want Mr. Legays order for payment of the fr.t and charges of his suger. You need not give yourself the trubel to pay it Mr. Claveland for I have already charged it to youre accotts, as I formerly writt you. – Also: that I had disscoursed wth Mr. Legay concerning it, who then tould mee he had given you orders about it. But if he naver gave you aney, its all new to mee. For you having reced the goods are oblidged to pay the charges. The primadg is as dew as the fraight. And I shall not abate anythinge of that, neether the pettey charges in proportion as I have gave. Nor do I know what pretext Mr. Legay can have to refuse payment of itt. I gave you an accott in my last what the charges was, which, if you againe permit me, shall send it you for the staves. They cannot lye upon my accott, being not put on bord the ship according to my agreement. I have noe use for them at Laverpoole. You will know more how to dispose of them other waies. But whenever I have another vessell thare, shall excep them, provided thay are not rotton with linig. Had you sent them by aney the first lighters, thay had lain anough to take them in the shipe longer, neare too months theare too days. Sence I called upon my gouldsmith to know what was of youre bill, thare was then only £10 rec.d of the 80£ bill and 120£ of the first drawers bill. The other is not yet dew. Doubtles they will bode boeth well. My occasion at present not grat soe that I am well contented with it. But if you can get eny sattisfaction of the drawar for the 80£ bill, you may. None can bee expectted here. My gouldsmith tells me he hath sent neare 80 times for the money. He thinks I am lazy. I canot suply you with a vessell soe soone as midsumer. Had I known youre minde sooner, I would have don it hare, being one of mine new discharged. I did fully datarmine Capt. Tarrys retourne to you. But the thrates of my Lord Derby ocasioned me to order him otherwais, not knowing but his power thare might create an extraordanary trubele to him, it bing at a distance from me. But, howaver, if I can overtake him with letters at Navis, will send orders for him to retourne the other and run the haszard of his displasure which canot bee very prejuditiall. I now am dayly on expextation of a small vessell from Nevis. Will bring about 50 or 60 tunidg. If you will adventure to give the same price you did last, will send her about to you. If I can pravile with the Master, which I doubt not, she being a hired ship, thought I mos let you know it is 2£ 0s or 2£ 6s higher then oure market now goverens. And yet I shall bee no very inconsidarubel gainer thereby, for I will bee content to give 12 p.r c.t fraight to the Master to carey it about. And this since I canot get it insured und. five p.r c.t which 9 p.r c.t more. If you have an inclination, lett me know youre positve resolution by Rason. I houerly expect the ship in. I belive the sugers will prove extraordanary good by Rason. Thes I have now com which I sould to John Fleet for 26 p.r c.t unsight or sin, proves. (fn. 1) Soe you know he must get 6 p.r c.t by them of the refiner, which I hard rather he should then take them up myself to coop. Being going to spend a litell tim in the cantrey, this, with my sarves, is what at present offers.

2. [p. 2] Antonio Soarez Conscientia [Lisbon]

London, April 22, 1678
Yours of the 28th March received. Wherein take notice you were disappointed in not receiving the 30 ps. blu Colchester baies wee laded upon the Grenada, Richard Martine, Master. (fn. 2) Wee ordered our friend Mr. Wm Baxter in Lis.a to deliver them to you, haveing consigned same to him before. (fn. 3) Had advised for Sen.r De Gamma that you should receive them. But how our f.d Baxter in Lis.a did not deliver them to you, wee are not sensible. The reasons heere is bourne out of this port the ship Venetian, Capt. Jos. Haddock, Comand.r. I presume she will saile with the first faire winde as convoy to Lis.a, on whome wee shall have 30 Colchester baies & consigne the same to you p.r Sen.r De Gamma's ord.r. What other goods you shall order to be bought & sent, wee shall send them you when have your advice. As to our friend Mr. Will Baxter paying you in Lisb.a in regard wee have drawne bills upon him for another And our agreem.t with your freind S.r De Gamma is to send goods to you to Lis.a as you have order.

Wee have rec.d a letter fr. Capt. George Pattison, Com.dr of the Industry, beareing date the 21st Feb.y Past, fr. Maderas. Who acquaints us he hade del.d all our goods to Sen.r D. Gamma, & that he had laded but nine pipes wine then on board, and those very meane wines. If yore fr.d does not lade us good wines of the best sorte, wee would not deale with him upon any tearmes whatsoever. Not only the enevitable losses wee shall bee loosers p.r them, but the disparagem.t will bringe up.on our wines, & the disreputation of our freinds in the Leeward Islands that makes sale of them. But of this wee shall write more of to your fr.d Sen.r De Gamma. ...

3. Antonio Soarez Conscientia [Lisbon]

London, May 27, 1678
It's now the 27th May; the foregoeing lines is a copy of our laste. Since which have rec.d a letter of the 26th April fr. Madera from Sen.r De Gamma who adviseth us he hath laded our first 100 pipes of wine on board Capt. Pattison, & that he had paid the Master 14$900 rs. to pay his port charges, wee are to allow. And seeing he hath been punctuall to p.rforme the contract on his part, he shall not say wee shall be wanteing in the same to him to p.rform the same on our parte with all punctuality. Wee sent him in good p.r s.d Pattison 284£ 16s 02d. & Now wee have remitted you a bill up.n Mr. Wm Baxter for 115£ 08s 10d makes up the just paymt for the first 100 pipes & more 4£ 05s 06d for his port charges p.d. in Madera to the Master, make, after the rate of 350$000 rs. for 100£ sterl., 418$400 rs., the bill wee have made payeable to yourselfe or ord.r on the 30th Sept. Next, please to rec.e & give your friend Sen.r D. Gamma an acco.t p.r the first ship that offers, that wee have made him the paym.t as aforesaid for the first 100 pipes wine, & his mony disbursed on us for port charges & c. The above 30 prs. Colchester baies wee are now lading up.n the Venetian wee send you in part of paym.t for the 1/2 of the other 100 pipes of wine he is to paie the latter p.t of the year. And what other goods you will have sent to make good the 1/2 paym.t of ditto wines. As soone as have your advice, shall send them to you, to make good the sume of 200£ sterl., being the moiety wee are to pay in Lisb.a according to our contract. ...

4. [p. 3] Antonio Soarez Conscientia [Lisbon]

June 14, 1678
This is p.r the ship Venetian, Capt. Joseph Haddock, Comandr. Inclosed you have Invoice & Bill Lading for 30 Colchester baies abovementioned, which please to advise your freind Da Gamma after the recett of them. As also to advice us what other goods to send them to make up the 400£, is the moiety of the 200 pipes he is to lade this yeare for us ...


William Baxter to William Baxter [Lisbon]

Bro. Freeman drew a bill upon you payable to the order of Senior Anto. Soarez Conscientia for 418$400, rece.d upon the 10/20 Sept. Next, sent overland p.r post., if said bill should miscarry, desire you to pay the said sume unto Anto. Soarez Conscientia without any further advice. ...

4a. Colonel Roger Osborne

[London, June-July 1678]
Honored Sir,
I hav rec.d both yours of the 10 of June and 2d of July which I should have given answar to sooner but have bin absent from the town this month upon som occasions. Now this may advis you that I had disposed the 19 hhds. of sugar at 25s 3d p.r c.t to Mr. John Fleet togeather with a p.rcell of my own, imported on the same bottome before thay ware landed, which was the uttermost price the markett would afforde for good marchanabell suger of Navis. But when thay ware taken up and viewed, that proved such goods that I naver before have seen. Indeed thay could not bare the name of sugers, which occasioned the party to refus his bargin, and not without just causes. But however I contested it with hime and refered it to honest men who ware of the opinien thay could not bare the name of sugers. Soe that the bargin was voyd in itself. Thay ware soe intolerabell black and without any bodey, that I belive the worst trash that ever the iland of Barbados meade could not be soe bad. However, Mr. Fleet was soe fare in a proposall he mead mee that noe man in justis could refuse. That was that I should trye the markett and, whatever any man would bid for them, hee would give 12d p.r c.t more in conformity to his bargin which I did and brought seaverall sugers bakers to looke upon them. Some whareof would not bid any mony for them; others bid 19s and 20s. The highest bid 20s 6d p.r c.t which was the utermost I could get them to advance. Soe that in fine I was forced to sell them to the said Fleet at 21s 6d p.r c.t. Whoever Capt. Meade recd them of was basely abused in it. (fn. 4) I judg allso ther was extreordinary wastidge upon som of the hhds., espetialy on which the molasses run out of like water & wayed extreordinary light. Which I got 3£ alowed for damadg by the Master, though I am of openion it naver had race.d any damadg on bord the ship. Thus I have given you an accout of its quallity. And according to your desire have herwith sent you an Account of Sales. And when the mony becomes due, bee plased to draw upon mee for it or I will ramit it you, which you shall pleas to order the first opportunity that offers. I shall render an of to Capt. Meade of its quallity. In the intrm, am sorey can give you no better. ...

5. [p. 4] Colonel Abednego Mathew (fn. 5) [St. Christopher]

London, July 20, 1678
Honored Sir,
I have rece.d boeth yours of the 8 of Marche and that by Capt. Archer without date, and & do hartily thanke you for all youre favors, assuring you that any indavers shall not bee wanting to the utmost of my abilities to sarve youre intrest hare. The 360£ 08s 11d your broth, drew upon mee for long before yours came to hand the which was pounctialley paid us. You may depend upon what more you shall thinke fitt to order at my time. My indavers shall not be wanting in procuring of you a supply of thos nessarcys needfull for the cuntrey, & the careing on the worke of the fort. That I hav allredy sollicited the Counscell for a futher alowance from His Majesty. The hhd. of suger, runlett of indico, and suger lofe have dalivered to broth. Dixon according to order & have allsoe sould the 14 hhds. of suger p.r Archer proved very good. An of Sale thereof have hereinclosed. I sould them 12d. p.r hundred more then any that came in the ship; the proseeds thareof shall allways bee radey to answare your commands. Your Leadys trunke of goods lies in the Custom Hous whare I cannot yet gett it out, unless I will sware that the linens tharein contained ware exported, which you know I cannot doe. I will indaver to gett my Lorde Trasurer's warrant to fech it out, or use what other meanes I can. In the intrime, it must lie thare. The bill of 11£ 8s 9d I have p.d. I canot as yet doe any good upon the arrears nor the Gen.ll's, though I have pravailed with the Duke to move my Lord Trasurer in it, which he hath don. Soe that I am now in greater hopes that sumthing may bee don then firmely.

I am hartily glad to hare of the amicabel League the Generalls have mead in those ilands, the which is aproved off hare. (fn. 6) And His Majesty hath now sent an express to the Genaral with full power to confirme it. (fn. 7) I hope the Articals betwixe you will bee duly parformed on boeths sides, for I see no other proabillity but a brach in all liklyhood will bee speedily made, the Confedarates haveing now profixed armie to the King of France to give his possitive answare to the proposells which is the 26 Instant, after which tim thay will admitt of noe further traty. My Lord Duras & saverall of the prencipell officers of our army yesterday imbarqued for Flanders. (fn. 8) 5,000 men more are now shiping thither, and the rest of our forces drawing toward the see coast in a readines to imbarque. All things now begins to work like a ware. I presume thar will bee a spedy datarmination, whather war or peace. I hop very speedily to recive your last yares pay for the 100 Compenies, which I shall give you an of p.r the first. My wif and sister sends theire sarvis to your Lady. ...

6. William Calhoun [St. Christopher]

London, July 20, 1678
Yours of 5 of April by Capt. Archer with all the good laden upon him came safe to hand and in very good condission and arived to an indifrent good markett, considering the quallity of the sugers which was very meane. An of the Sales thareof I have harewith sent you, whare you will find I sould itt for 23s 6d p.r c.t, the buyer to pay the custom & all other pettey charges. Which is as good as 2 p.r c.t more if it had bin housd. The 4 hhds. RC I have taken the waights distincly & you my asily comput thaire charge. The indico have allso sould at 28s 12d p.r pound which is the haight of this markett.

Sugers are not now worth soe much by 12d p.r c.t as yours ware sold at. Hare is allsoo an of Sales of the former 24 hhds. You will rece. by Capt. Terry 100 barrells of beef, God sending him seafe. Wee have as yett noe sartainty whather war or pace, other ways would order you 100 b.rr.lls [p. 5] more, according to your desire. I judge a very littell tim will datermine the issues – which noe man as yet can judg off. But all things looks like a ware, and the confederate hands profixt the 26 Instant for the K. F. to give his answare to the proposalls. Otherwais the traty to secure our men are daylie shiping off for Flanders and all the principell oficers off the army reparing thether to thaire comands. Soo that undoubtedly if the French doe not comply as its I beelived the contrary, wee shall have very speedily a daclaration out. I am very gld the Gen.lls thare have come to an amicabell understanding, which is very well & esentted here. And His Majestie has dispached a dagger with an express to Generals with full power to confirme it. Soe that I hope the Ilands may continu in frendship, which doubtless will ad greatly to the advantage of all parsons consarned in thos parts. You shall not faile to hare frome me by all oppertunityes how things allter here. Im sorey to hare you give that ill carrector of Tho. Wascoett, for which I am thankfull to you, & doe much wonder that Mr. Helms should rapose any trust in him. I haveing refered all things to his prudant manidgment thare, I could not now send you any of the fraightment of the ship by Rason. The Royall Companys shuger came without any Bill of Lading, soe that the Comp, refus the payment of ther fraight, not knowing what it is. Which plase to advise in the next and dasir Mr. Helmes to send the Bill of Lading. I mead no insurance upon Capt. Archer, finding noo occasion of ware for it. At any tim when you dasire it on any vassall pray advise mee and your order shall bee obsarved. I have p.d the bill to Thornton, but whather the recait runs as you have ordrd I know not, haveing forgot the part of the letter. Hereinclosed I send you a racait for a silver tanke'd sent you now by Capt. Lawrance. ...

7. [p. 6] Henry Carpenter [Nevis]

London, July 20, 1678
I have yours of the 16th March & the 3d of May before me wharein I take notice you complaind of Mr. Helmes for not admiting the R.C. which I hope will bee don ere this comes to hand. For I assure you it is as much to my dissattisfaction as can bee to yours that it should lie thus longe unperfectted. Wharefor I intrate you if not already don, that thar my bee noe further dalay in it.

Youre bill of 400£ I have p.d to Mr. John Cooper, as alsoe 4£ 12s 4d to Mr. Wascote for a box of medicons put up by Mr. Ellice his order. The which I hareinclosed send you Capt. Lawrance receipt for, as allsoe for a small box of paper, wax, wafers, quills, &c., and according to your order.

I here nothing from Mr. Steede yet touching the 61£ 5s. (fn. 9) When his order for payment of the mony comes, shall carrye it to oure joynt as you derect.

Hareinclosed I send you S.r James Russells Bill of Exch. for 462£ 10s processed for nonacceptance, hee haveing like himself very honorabely given my broth. Baxter positive order not to except it, pretending to have the negrows better secured to him befor he parts with his mony. (fn. 10) Which scrupell he ought to have made before he bought them, and not now. He hath boeth yours and Mr. Helmes security, which another man would asteeme and parhaps prefer befor Sir James security. I have not tim to inlarg, being latly retourned out of the cuntry & haveing a world of buisness to doe.

8. Captain Nicholas Meade [Montserrat]

[London, n.d.]
I rec.d yours of the 5 of April p.r the Active with the 17 hhds. of suger for of Coll. Roger Osborne. The which have disposed and rendred him an theroff. Whoever you rec.d those sugers of did basly abuse you, for I neaver saw such a parcell in my life. The wors that ever the iland of Barbados mead could not be soe bad. I had sould them before landed at as good as 21s 3d p.r c.t, but when thay war taken up thay proved soe intollerabell bad that thay could not be judged to bee sugers, which mead the bargin voyde & was forced afterwards to sell them for 21s 6d p.r c.t. That I was ashamed to render Coll. Osborne an of soe mane a sale, but could not make more of them.

Sir, I thanke you for your care in paying my small ballance. If you pay it thare, plese to send me to whom, that I may charge it toe thaire acco.tts. If you can lett it bee to Mr. Helms. ...

9. [p. 7] Colonel Philip Warner [Antigua]

London, July 20, 1678
Honored Frende, Sir,
I have rec.d yours of the 2 of Xber and the 26 of January. As to the first, you may bee confident that if I at any tim should understand of any prajudice likely to hapen to you in corte, my indavers of prevention should not bee wanting. But haveing now removed yourself from all publick imployment, I think thare cannot bee any danger of that kinde.

I obsarve of what you writt of Capt. Lawrance unkind usidg to your daughter, & have taxt him with it. Who affirmes to me that hee trated hur with all the civellerey immaginabell, & had fully designed to have landed hur with the goods at Antigua. But falling in with the Ilands, hee being a strainger found more difficalty and hasard then he expected, and could not doe it with any safty. I assure you if he ware remiss in anything, I am hartily sorry for it, and had it bin the narist ralation I have I could not have given him a grater charg then I did of your daugter. Sir, hareinclosed I send you an of Sales of the tobacco & suger p.r the Leghorne Marchant, which has bin omitted sometime out of forgettfullness. I am sorey it turns to no better It is the best I could mak of it.

I am hartily glad to hare the two Genaralls in these Ilands have come to an amicabell understanding there. (fn. 11) In case of a rupture hare, the which His Maiestie has sent an express to the Genarall with full power to confirme. And I hope the Articells on boeth sids will bee duly obsarved, that will very much conduce to the safty of boeth nations in these parts ...

10. [p. 8] Conrad Allers [Montserrat]

London, July 19, 1678
Yours of 17 of January & 7 of Fabuary I rec.d with the 2 hhds. of suger p.r the Hope which arived to a good markett. An accott thereoff I now send you. I obsarve you complaine of the markett the former came to and the high chargis upon it which is noe other then all others men pays, and how to lessen it I know not. If you can tell me any way I shall asteeme myself obliged, but oure chargis hare are not goverened by thos of Hambourg or any other porte. As to the price thay ware solde for, it was the extent this markett would afforde. I sould none other with them, only 3 hhds. of Geo. Liddells which proved better in qualletey hare then yours did. What thay ware in M.tsarat I know not, but the best sugers of musqovado that ever M.tsarat made at that time would not have given 3 or 4 p.r c.t more as youe mention. But wavng that did my best. & If you think any parson can sarve you mor to your advantage, its your intrest to make use of them, for what ramains in my hands shall follow your orders in the disposing thereof. ...

11. James Walker [Nevis]

London, July 19, 1678
This sarves only to accompiny an Sales for the sugers by the Abraham, the proceeds whareof shall bee apaid to your order as soone as rec.d. That will be speedily, the time of payment given being now expired. And the gentellman I sould it to advise me thaire money is all rady. Only wants retournes for it, which if it doth not soone [p. 9] offer will send it up by the carier. The men are very honest, & thaire fare dealing togather with the icuridgment the markett gives, makes me of opinen to lett Capt. Lawrance retourne to that porte, which I have left to the discression of Mr. Helmes. And if he shall thinke fitt soe to order it, I shall bee rady to sarve you. Ime lately retourned out of the cuntry and have not time at present to inlarge but ame verily of opinien a speedy warr will insue, all things bending thate way more then ever. ...

12. General William Stapleton [Montserrat]

London, July 23, 1678
I omitted wrighting to you by Mr. Rivett, a small vessall hired by myself, being then in the cuntrey, frome whence I retourned this last weeke & have now saverall of yours before mee to give answare to, viz. of the 24 January, 16th & 30th of March, the 26 of April & 4 & 10 & 15 of May. Which I fare time will not parmit me to doe soe fulley as I would, haveing at present a world of buisness, being in a hurey to give Capt. Lawrance his dispach, fareing an imbargo will speedily bee out. However, will indaver to answare the chiefe heads if possibell. As to the first I have hareinclosed sent you Capt. Lawrance racip.t for a large silver tankerd, 6 poringers, and The Present State of England. The prooduce of your ould plate have carried to the creditt of your & made it Dr. for this. The 500£ for the forte I have rec.d and caried to the creditt as you ordred, except 20£ which Mr. Bradshaw chargis for his labor in looking affter that business, in the time of my absence at Chester, which charg I have under his hand for; and you may give the Lords an of if you think fitt. For my Lorde Trasurer would not alow of itt & allthough I am willing to give my owne labor yet other men will not. I was forced to alow it him for the ramainder being 480£ is post to your creditt and sence you made noe use of my bills of 400£ for that use, plese to retourne them at your lasure.

I have pravailed with the Duke to move my Lord Trasurer for the arears in Sir Toby's redgment who hath promised it shall bee setled. But att present he hath soe much buisness upon him that I cannot gett itt affected, but doubt not but in a littell tim itt will bee don. The bill of a 100£ to Mr. Cary have paid and have rec.d Percy Helmes bill & p.d the mony to Sir Robart according to your order. I am now to retourne my thankefullness for the cind offer in making use of the mony but I hope you believe I have better principallities than to purches with any bodies mony but my owne, though the cindness in that particular is beyond anything I could marritt or expect. And asshoure yourself that what I cannot find convaience for in placeing out for your owne, it shall all ways lie in a radiness to answare your commands. My Councell tells me he hath a good sacurity now that offers for a 1,000£ more, which I shall hareafter give you an of. Mr. Cary informes me you designe your sonne J.mey upon Capt. Hare when I shall bee glad to see and shall take all imaginable care of him.

I communicated to His Royall Higness and the Lords of the Counsell the intent of traty with the French beefore Mr. Carys arrivall which His Majestiies & the Lords Consell aproves of that a dogger was dispached away before that came to hand with full power to you to confrme it. The which I presume you will have rec.d before this can come to hand. I hope the Articells will bee duly obsarved which will conduce gratly to the safty of the inhabetance of boeth parties in thos parts. [p. 10] I am very sencibell of the great trubell you had during the tim of the French fleet was there. His Majestie and Royall Higness are noe less sencibell of it, and greatly applaud your care and prudente conduct therein.

I have entred a caveat in the Prorogative Corte against the probat of Coll Russells will according to your commands and you may assure yourself that what I can sarve you in that perticular or any other shall navor bee wanting. The Duche Agent hath naver moved as touching the neagrows. I hope will not. But Sir Richard Haddocke hath made a complaint to the Duke of your stoping the payment of his unkells 1/2 parte which the Duke resents ill, as I am tould, though he naver spoke of it to me. Howaver, Capt. Haddocke, giveing in security as Richard Haddocke, offers here to doe to indamnifie you frome the Duch. It will not bee convenient to put any stoep to his payment. Sir Richard proposed the payment to bee made in my hands untill he gives the security which is vary fare and what I tould him. I was confident you would not refuse. He is a very curious obliging man and gratly in faver with the King and Duke one of the Commissioners of the Navy. What his unkell may bee I know not, but hee stands very much upon his justificasion. Capt. Cotter complaines very much of his ill doeing of his tanants, not one of them haveing made him payment. Only 15 hhds. suger consigned my broth. Baxter by Mr. Russell, which will amount to about 100£. Sum goods I have alsoe rec.d from Mr Magher but noe orders as that from him for payment of Capt. Cotter. It is prittey bare with him & his dependencey ralies thereupon. (fn. 12)

Sir, I am dasired by a particuler accquaintenc of mine to wright to you in the behalfe of one Mr. Lawrance Keck whoe went upon the kech Indaver, James Rivett, Master, for Navis. He is a gentellman borne and educated, but for some misdamanuers was a prisnor hare some tim; and to prevent further inconvanienceys that may hapen, thay have sent him to Navis whare it is thaire desire he should bee cept and by noe manes would have you to parmitt him to come off. But if you possiball can put him on any imployment and sue him countenance, I shall esteeme it as a particuler faver. Hee is an ingainious man capabell of what undertaking so ever.

About a month sence wee had grate hopes of a ganarall pace, the Articalls being agreede upon betwen the French, Duch and Spaniard and all things concluded. But when the French came to sine, he refused to daliver up the townes according to the Traty untill the King of Sweden was put in possesion of all his lossis in Sweden & Pomarenia, the former traty having noe ralation thare. Unto which the Duke of Brandenburgh possitively refused assuring the States that he would part with noe part of his conquests unless by the sword as he had gained it, that being part of his own dominions formerly which had bin taken from him. This altred the current of affares & now as great praparations for war as aver. The Confederatts haveing profixt the 5 of August their stile to the King of France as give his possitive result & affter that the Traty to close. It is ralley belived the King of France's grateness will admit of no other termes. Soe that all things looks with an ill aspect. Five thousand men ware transported the last week for Flanders. Your frend my Lord Duras now one of our L.t Genaralls of our army with most of the principall officers. Allsoe imbarqued for Flanders 2 rigments of Foot & Dragounes. More ware yesterday ordred thather. All the rest of oure army drawing twords the seacosts in radiness to imbarque. And it is said commissions will bee given out for the raising of 12 Rigments more with expedission tomorow. The King goes to Portsmouth whare all oure men of [p. 11] warr are ordred to randevoze. A very littell tim will doubtless datermine what the issue will bee, but now nothing discorsed but ware. Mr. Sacratary Coventrey upon his one request is dismist and itt is said one Mr. Hid in his place. (fn. 13) The sartainty of which will advis in my next. ...

13. Robert Helme [Nevis]

[n.d., c. July 23, 1678]
I have many of yours before mee to give answare to, viz., of 12 & 15 & 30 of Marche 5 & 19 of April & 1, 2 & 10 & 15 of Maye, hveing omitted wrightin to you by the ketch Indaver, James Rivete, Comd.r, fraighted by ourselves for Madara and Navis & was dispached by my broth. Baxter before I came to towne, haveing bin at Bristoll Bathes and those partes a month or 5 weeks, taking a prograce. Which occasioned my neglect that I hope you will pardon & I will indaver futerly to make it good.

This now comes by the ship Olive Branch, Gyles Lawrance, Comd.r, on whome we have laden a very considarabell cargo of dry goods & consigned to your broth., being the particulers hee advised for. & Sence he dasires such large suppleys, wee hope his retournes will bee answarabell which you must prompte him to. Wee inclined to dispach the ship soe, some faring a spedy imbargo & beliveing the first ship may bee welcom, sopposing thare has gon less suplyes of late than usiall & that he may have betwen this & Crismas for sales which is usually the best sason & take the advantage of all the insuing Somer to make retourns. I shall now indaver to give answare to the heds of yours, viz., to the 1 of the 12 of March. The 21 hhds. of suger frome oure plantation proved indiffarant good & sould 6d p.r c.t more then the parsall prr him that was for 24s 6d p.r c.t, the buyer paying the costom and all other pettey chargis that is as good as 2s p.r c.t more. The ginger by him came to an intollarabell bad markett. Sould for 12s p.r c.t & was glad of that price. That at Laverpool lies still unsould and hardly worth bringing aboute. Wharefore wee dasire no more of that commodity by no manes, it being a druge in all parts of the world. The 120 pounds of indico Geo. Liddell & John Bedingeild advised you had laden on Lawrance was under 1,000£. Your bill of 68£ to Capt. Croxill I p.d. Allsoe your 210£ bill to Mr. Knight. The 31 tunns of suger ladon p.r yourself & brother, for of oureselves and Comp., came all well condissioned p.r Capt. Lawrance, as allsoe the 15 tunns p.r Capt. Archar. The former sould at 24s p.r c.t, the latter at 23s 6d p.r c.t, the buyer paying custom & all other peattey chargis. Its sence fallen about 12d p.r c.t. Capt. Archers rect of 9£ have discounted out of his fr.t and carried to oure j.a. but cannot make it up the ships account of fraightment, youe haveing omitted, in your let.r, the Royall Companys Bill of Lading, to mantion the price of the fraight, soe that thay refuse the payment untill thay are sattissfide in that particuler.

I take notice in yours of the great plenti of wines that was arived & of Geo. Pattisons injustice in taking abord 30 or 40 pipes contrary to his promis & to oure grate detrimente in the sales of oure owne. I formarly advised you to keep as many of the tavarnes custom as you possibel could &, at any tim when any such glut hapens, to undersell others at what price so aver thay sell. Wee being rasolved to cary on that treade which is of the less trubell & doubtless will tourne best to, taking one tim with another.

I take notice in yours of the 2d of May of the jellosie you have of T. Wascotes idleness & of the corse of life he lades which Mr. Calhoun was soo cind to give me an of. & If you see caues, you must indaver to prevent him & not intrust him.

The Gen.ll hath ordred me to carry the 500£ for the fort to creditt owne, soe that I have made oure deb.r to him for the 400£ bill. Which plese to take up and cancill or retourne it mee. – turne over – [p. 12] And advis what prograce you have made in the payment of the other bills. I belive in a littell tim I may recive anothers yares pay for them.

You advis for sarvants to bee sent giveing an acco.t of the incuridgment that is given for thaire payment, but thay are naither to bee procured in England nor Ireland at this tim, the army entertaing all thos cind of loose falows. Hareinclosed I send you a Bill of Lading for 4 coppers for the use of our plantation, haveing forgot the still till now I came to parus your letter. But thare are som in the Gen.lls cargo as thase coppers ware also intended for, but before yours came to hand. It was toe late to have them made to put on borde this ship which occasioned mee to take thes to oure owne Pray stocke oure plantation very well with abell yong men slaves before you come off. Wee shale not have the like oppertunity hareafter.

We dasigne this ships retourn for Laverpoole, which if possibell you can accomplish upon oure owne or upon fraight. Would have you soe order her, wee being assured of 18d p.r c.t more then this markett which is considarabell, besid the advantag of the outsett to Ireland whare wee may lade hur with provissions and horsis.

Mr. James Rivett, the Master of the ketch that wee have hired, is a broth, to a particuler frend and ould acquaintance of mine. Wharefore I intrat you to bee as cind to him as possiball in all cassis whataver, which will bee a particuler frendship to mee. ...

14. John Bedingfield [Montserrat]

London, July 23, 1678
I have rec.d yours of 11th of January, 8th of March & 5th of April. In the the first I take notice you had examined my books at Navis & that you could find noe payment to appare for the hors & mule. I cannott but admire that you should missintarprat my letters soe. I formarly writt you that the hors, mule, and sundry other goods war charged p.r Mr. Helmes (that ware for the use of the plantation) as allsoe some other goods that ware bought for Mr. Bramblis owne perticuler use, to Mr. Bramblis, and tharefore had noe ralation to my that was mad up but ought (if not allrady) to be brought to the plantation & the payment [p. 13] to bee made for them by him & not to be any wais intarmixt with my And why should Mr. Brambly give me creditt for them out of the suger p.d? Doe you think it possibell for me to hould accounts hare of what is transacted thare? Why should he impos such things on me at a distance to confuse me for the 29,000 lbs. of suger Mr. Liddell rec.d? He must be accountabll to Mr. Bramly how he p.d it. And if he p.d for the hors mule and other goods out of it, he must have creditt by the plantation for soe much as he p.d and must be charged by Mr. Brambly for the ramainder, which he must discount for out of his storehous with the plantation, if he hant otherways p.d it for him. You must allsoe be carfull that thos thing bought at Navis for Mr. Bramblyes owne perticuler use [in margin: to observ] must not bee charged to the plantations, which Mr. Brambly can distinguis if he pleas for the payment mad Mr. John Farrill. Mr. Liddell brings it in his last of 14,000 pounds of suger, the gratest part of which he hath rec.d frome my plantation. And what remains of the s.d unp.d you must alow him for out of my of cooperidge. Pray make up the betwen your Mr. Fox & him & see that I have no wrong don me. I left him no debts at all to pay for me, only a ballance of due to Aldarman Dunscombe which to the best of my remembrance was 5,000 & 00 hundreds pounds of sugar. Which if he make apare by Bill of Lading that he hath shipt the same to the s.d Dunscome, I must pay that; if not, let me know it what the sume is.

And if you have any suger of mine, you may lade the ball. of the s.d upon any ship bound for Corke or this porte for his, the doing the same to himself or me. But if you have not suger of mine to doe it, lett me know what the sume is that I may make him sattisfaction hare. I canot explaine the otherwais to you at this distance, but let Mr. Fox peruse this letter & desire his assistance in settling of it betwixt us.

I have rec.d the 8 hhds. of suger by the ship Action upon my of coopridg and dasire I may have the ball. of that sent me if not allrady done. For my nagros I formarly writ to dispose of, if thay are not yet allrady sould, if Mr. Bramly will give as much as another for them and pay present suger, let him have them for the use of the plant.n. The 174 lbs. of indico p.r the Olive Branch wee have rec.d and hop you will take car to ball. all oure former acco.tts as soone as possibell which wee might rasonably have expected this yare or the gratest part thareof. Hareinclosed I send you a Bill of Lading and Invoyce for thos goods you dasire. I could not send the ballance, not haveing tim to make up the, but will hareafter send it. I allsoe send your and have charged no commission on your sugers nor goods out, being willing to assist you in what I can. I do nothing convaniant to inlarg my owne adventuers, haveing now as grate a prospect of ware as aver. Wee have writ to Mr. Helmes to suply you with a parsall of wines and allso what drye goods will turne to a good which you may advise him of the sorts proper. Wee haveing now sent a very large cargo to Navis, pray lett me know your resolution whather you intend to stay upon M.tsarat or settell upon Navis that I may ordar affares accordingly, for my indenture upon you shall be no hindrance to eaither. You know I dasigne noe advntage by you. ...

15. [p. 14] William Fox [Montserrat]

London, July 24, 1678
I have yours of the 4th of April and am hartily ashamed I am constrained to heape soe many trubells upon you haveing noe other freinde there that I can repose trust in, thats capable of it but youre goods selfe. & If you plase to sattisfie youreselfe what you shall thinke fitt for youre exterordinary truble in my concearnes, I shall thinke myself greatly oblidged to you for soe doeing.

I perceive by yours, Mr. Bramly now finds new objections against my The one is part of the 8,000 lbs. suger p.d Mr. Liddell, pretending 5,000 lbs. of it was given him in muridge which I owne & admit of it to bee truth. Hee well knowes when he made it his request to me to ramitt the intrest pretending it to bee soe greate a discouridgment that he had not the harte to goe about his buisness with any charfullness. After some discourse, I tould him it was possible I might bee parswaded to remitt it all but 8,000 lbs. suger, provided he undertooke the shiping of my goods for my debt & was industrious in the manidgement of the concerne which 8,000 lbs. suger I had p.d & given Mr. Liddell in considaration of the trubell & care he had taken in the plant. concarne which in justice he ought to have borne his proportion of had thare bin noe such thing in dispute as intrest. This he radily consented to & past it in his under his owne hande. & If he now danys this, I shall dany to remitt one pound of the whole intrest – he may dany the whole if proufe under hand be not sufficant. Thare is noe dealing with a knave. Pray when you make up the next, alow of noe charge for wine, fresh provitions, or anythinge in that kinde. I utterly disalow of any such charge, or to find anyething that is for the use of his family or owne mantainance. As for his manidgement he is at his plasure whather he will stay upon it or not. I had rather rune the haszard of being cheated by a stranger, then to intruste my esteate in the hands of one I know will doe it, & I dasire some parson may be imployed who will render an upon oath betwixt us, for I will not be any longer abused by hime. I refir it to you to keepe this to youreselfe or communicate it which you thinke fitt. I matter it not. I have writt to John Bedingfilde touching some things, which pray paruse – and doe me the favere to settell all things betwixt me and Mr. Liddell that I may have noe further disputes with any of them for quietness sake.

Sir, Youre 4 hhds. suger p.r the Active & the indico formerly I rec.d & have disposed of which will now send you an of, if time will parmitt. Hereinclosed I send you a Bill of Lading & Invoyce of goods you dasired amounting to 62£ 6s 3d. I find I have omitted some perticulers which desire youre excuse for, being in a greate hurey of buisness & nuly retourned out of the cuntrey. Shall send them p.r next. ...

The ladles and skimers you ordred are put into oure invoyce by mistake, which you may take of Mr. Helmes, paying theire cost there (as thair) coste here.

[p. 15] Which, if he disputes, lett him see this order. & I am shore he will not refuse it. I know not how otherways to alter it now, thay being charged in oure Inv.e thats now sealed up. The goods ware all bought up before I went out of towne, when wee all thought a gen.ll peace had bin concluded. Soe that a man knows not what to doe. However, if a warr hapens before the shipe goes out, will insure it for you.

16. William Helme [Nevis]

London, July 24, 1678
Yours of the 16th March, with the 13 tunns of suger & 153 baggs of ginger by the Olive Branch, Giles Lawrance, Comd.r, we received in good condision. The former came to a good markett, but exterordinary wastidge upon it, which makes us doubt youre waits. For the prevention thareofe futurely, we have now sent you a good beame & waits, & dasire you will be careful in takeing the weights of what goods you receive, that wee may not have such exterordinary wastidge which puts out all oure proffitt. Alsoe pray lett what you shipp for oure be in large caske such as are very stronge, & very well hooped & hhds. for the most parte, to which intent wee have now sent you a parcell of staves & hoops which wee desire may be wrought up for oure owne perticuler uses, or as many of them as you finde occasion for, only chargeing us for the workemanshipe of the same & such other charges as you are at. The ginger proved exterordinary bad & is now such a drug that there is noe vent for it at any reate. Wherefore wee dasire you to medle with noe more of that comodity on any termes whatever.

This goes by the ship Olive Branch, Giles Lawrence, Comd.r, on whome wee have laden a cargo of dry goods to the vallew of 2,300£ 04s 7d & consigned them unto youreself for oure acco.tts in thirds as formerly. Invoyce & Bill of Lading for the same you have heareinclosed. Thay are all choice goods & of the sorts you advised for. & Since you dasire sitch large supplies of goods, wee hope your retournes will bee answerable, which hitherto you have bine very slow in. Yet hope youre care this insuing yeare will bee to make us amends for what you have bin wanting in this yeare. Wee designe this ship shall retourne for Laverpoole, which wee heave refered to the discretion of Mr. R. Helmes & desire you will leave as much as possible you can accomplish as allsoe upon the ketch Indaver, James Rivet, Comd.r, whome wee have ordred to Madera to take in 130 pipes of wine & to daliver the greatest part thereof to youreselves. Wee formerly wright you of our designes to cary on that treade thoroughly & therefore desire you to ceep as many of the taverens customes as you could, & in case at any time a glut of that comodity hapens, as wee understand there was leatly, to undersell all other men at whatsoeever price thay sell. & This you may assure your costomers you will doe to oblidg them to buy of none other then yourself.

Wee desire to here from you by all opertunities, advising timely the quantityes of goods you designe to lade for oure acco.tts & the vessall you lead upon that soe may make oure insurances accordingly. Be very carfull in calling over this Invoice. We haveing shippt the goods in a hurey to give the ship her dispatches, feareing a speedy warr with France. ...

17. [p. 16] Piers Granteberrae [Waterford, Ireland]

London, August 16, 1678
The inclosed I lately rec.d from Gen.l Wm Stapleton, with orders from him to remitt yourself or Tho. Banclinch of Gallwey 100£ for the use of his father Mr. Redmunde Stapleton. (fn. 14) In compliance with his s.d order, I harewith send you a bill drawne by Mr. Maurice Roche upon Mr. Nicholas Porter at 21 dayes sight for 53£ 10s, the 3£ 10s being the exchang. I have charged one other bill myself for the like sume upon Mr. Steephen Deane of Gallwey payable to Tho. Linch haveing that sume lying thare, which please to acquaint Mr. Stapleton. & At your leasure pleas to give me a line of the receipt of this bill, in which you will oblidge, Sir, your humble sarv.t.

18. Stephen Deane [Galway, Ireland]

London, August 16, 1678
Haveing lately had advice from Mr. Tho. Banlinch that you would pay 50£ with the exchange for the same to Capt. James Cotter for of Tho. Nugent of Mountsarratt, I have now therefore charged upon you for 53£ 10s, the exchange being the same. I had this day for Watterforde payable to Mr. Tho. Banclinch or his order at tenn dayes sight, the mony I have suplyed Capt. Cotter with long since, his occations being urgent & his tenants in gen.ll in those parts haveing fayled him. Sir, I requeste youre punctuall complyance herein, the mony being to bee paid to a gent. of the cuntry that may have more then ordinary occasion for it. ...

19. Thomas Lynch [Galway]

London, August 16, 1678
I lately retourned out of the cuntry where I have bin two months &, findeing yours of the 6 of July, judge you thought I might be dead for not giveing answare thereunto. I take notice of youre proposall of selling me 500 barrells of beefe which by next I will answare you. Whether I shall execpt thereof or not, that I canot yett doe, all things hare being soe unsetled, but if I should dale with you, you must suply that which is choyes good; other wayes I will on noe termes maddle with it. Sir, I have lately received letters from Gen.ll Stapleton with the inclosed for youreselfe, & orders to remitt a 100£ into youre handes or Mr. Piers Grantiberrie of Watterforde for of his father Redmund Stapleton. & Capt. Cotter haveing that 50£ in Mr. Danes hands which you write he will answare my bill in payment, as allsoe for the exchange, I have therefore herewith drawne a bill upon him for 53£ 10s payable to youreselfe for the use afforsd. The like sume have by this poste remitted Mr. Piers Grantibarrie, 7 p.r c.t being the exchang alowed thir. I dasire you will please to advise Mr. Redm.d Stapleton. ...

20. Colonel Edmund Stapleton [Montserrat]

London, August 19, 1678
I writt you by Capt. Lawrance in answare to youre former. Since which I have received youres by Capt. Pattison with the 16 hhds. suger that are disposed of at 29£ 6s p.r c.t but not yett wayed of. I have by Capt. North sent you a gowne, cap & slipers, wich cost 4£ 16s. You need not have questioned but you mighte have comanded me to a far greater vallew, which I hope you will not scruple to doe as youre occasions requires. If you should, I can esteeme it nothinge but breach of freindshipe. In my laste I gave you an of the occation of my former requeste which then I was in a manner necessitated to, but am very well pleased you have not altered it for youre owne payment to me ÿs sattisfactory. There hath been lately an ingagement betwixe the two

[p. 17] armies, viz. the Prince of Orange & Duke Luxemburgh, where was a great dale of blood spilte on both sides, the fight was before Mons & the Prince had the better of it. My Lorde Orsery comanded 6 regements of oure Kings subjects that did great sarvis, but ware neere halfe of them cutt of. (fn. 15) Col. Wiselys regiment had but 570 men remaining after the fight was over. The Duke of Monmoth in parson was in all the ingagement. (fn. 16) All our new raised forces are this weeke shipt off to reinforce the Princes army, Luxemburgh haveing had such recruits since the ingagement that the Prince writt he shall not be able to keepe the feild unless supleys comes speedily. Soe that wee expect sume further action & yett noe warre daeclared betwixte us & the French. How things will ende I know not. Inclosed I send you the Princes letter to the States, & the Gazette that will give you a more parfect how my freind Brambly dales with me, which I doubte not but you will indaever to doe mee right in. At my comeing last from M.tsaratt, he made his requeste to me to remitt my intrest of 10 p.r c.t upon my sugar debt dew from the plantation, alleadgeing how greatly it would incouridge him to follow & promote the intrest which hee then had not the harte to follow. By meanes of that discouridgem.t & upon his faire promissies & good words I tould him it was possible I might bee perswaded thereunto, provided his dilligence was answerable to his promissis. Only 8,000 lbs. sugar I told him I would not which I had been oute of pocket to Geo. Liddle, in consideration of his trouble hee had taken upon & for the plantation. That was a yeares sallery & 5,000 lbs. given him. This hee consented to paye with all willingness, provided I would acquitt the rest, which I alsoe was content with & past an under his hande, in which the s.d sume is allowed of. & Now hee refuses the payment of 5,000 lbs. thereof, alleadgeing I gave it in maridg with G.L. Which is true but was in consideration of the good servis afforesd. But what was that to him if I never had given him or p.d a pounde. I researved soe much of my intrest, as I might have donne the whole if I pleased. & I thinke since he refuses to comply on his parte, I may as well on mine, & require the whole intrest, which I have given my attorny order to sue for in case he refuseth payment of the affores.d summe. & If the paste under his hande be not proofe suffitient, I will, if you please, send my oath that I accepted that sume. & I thinke Mr. Bramly canot compelle mee to give him my estate. An article he objects against is 2,000 lbs. sugar for passage of 40 negros to M.tsarat, which 40 negros I bought at Nevis & sent up to M.tsarat upon my owne adventure &, had thay been all loste, must have p.d for them all myselfe. Nevertheless, I gave Mr. Brambly an offer of them for the plantation at the same rate. Thay coste only paying 50s pr head for theire passages, of which it cost mee 7 or 800 lbs. sugar out of pockett for rumme & provision besides the run of the sloope upon my owne & Its well knowne that 50s pr head is a comon rate p.d for passingers without victualling, had I run noe adventure in the negros. I am shore noe man can deeme that an unjuste charge. One thing more I have to informe you that I had bought a negro which I intended to bring up to that trade of a cooper, a very stout man, the choise of a shipe, but proveing lefte handed was not fitt for that purpose. Which I discourseing Brambly upon hee volluntarily offered (Bando) in exchange, which I excepted of, the other for plant. sarvis being worth 2 of him; & brought him up to the treade, that I belive coste me 1,000 lbs. of sugar to teach. Which the books at Navis will make oute that I am charged upon that, but there beeing noe wittnes to the exchange, though I know Liddell canot but know sumthing of it, he denyes the excha & claimes him still as a plantation negroe, now he is master of his trade, & not only soe, but refuseth to pay for his larninge, alleadgeing his servis has made me sattissfaction for teaching him, allthough hee had the other man slave as he now calls mine all the time at worke upon the plant. in his roome. Soe that you may judge of his honesty. This is the whole truth of the matter & what I can safly sweare to. If there bee any occation, I have desired my attorny to bringe an againste him for the affores.d artiecles & dasire you to give them youre advice & assist me therein. Alsoe forbid them to alowe of any charge in hereafter as well as any superfluis charges that may arise by means of his liveing upon the plantation.

[p. 18] For I had rather he ware removed, since I find his dishonesty, & am shure there is noe articles can oblidge me to the maintenance of his family or himselfe, upon my estate. Tis too trublesome to informe you further. You may better judge, than I am able to write, soe that I shall now only tell you, that Jemy & I often drinke youre good health & have noe greater misfortune then that of beeing robd of youre conversation, which I praye God restore us to once more. ...

21. John Bedingfield [Montserrat]

[London, August 20, 1678]
The foregoeing is a copie of my laste, since which have have received none frome youreself, though Capt. Pattisons shipe is arived; but severall from Mr. Helmes in one of which is an under Otto Curtius his hand of the debt due from G. Liddell plantation that I find was then 7,600£ sugar which is alsoe since p.d. Which hath manifested to us how notoriously false youre informations have been frome time to time that hath in a manner created a difference betwixt us and oure good frend Mr. Helmes. & Now I muste plainely tell you, you are a p.rson noewayes fitt to bee corisponded with, & that all youre information have appeared to us untruths. I shall not insist futher upon that subject, only to lett you knowe that the power wee designe you to call Liddell to an wee have desisted from sending & desire you to make us a speedy retourne of oure affects in youre hands; otherwise, wee shall bee compelled to send one to call youreselfe to an I have gained the displeasure of my frends on youre behalfe, in which justification I canot any longer stand. Mr. Bramley informes me you had received my plantation from him, which would come p.r Pattison, but is not yet come to hand. I have writte Mr. Fox touching some p.rticulers relating thereunto, which you may take notice of, if you please, & pray render me an of my coopridge accott & my negros with the proceeds for the same. I have received 21 caske of sugar p.r Pattison marked WF. Upon what thay are, I knowe not, haveing neither letter, Bill of Lading, nor Invoyce with them, I am youre unkle as you use mee.

22. General William Stapleton [Montserrat]

[London, August 20, 1678]
Honored Sir,
Wee are now att the 20th of Aug.t. The foregoeing is a copie of what wrote you by Capt. Lawrance, since I have rec.d yours of the 8th & 18th of June, wherein I take notice of your desires touching the negroes, the which I shall take the first oppertunity to move the Duke of York in, & give you an acco.t what his pleasure is, should be done in that particular, by all meanes follow, be it more or lesse, though the grant gives them all to yourselfe. Two daies since I gott an answer fr. my L. Treasurer up.n your petition for your arreares in Sir Tobias regim.t, was only that the King must be mooved in it, & the Thursday the King & Duke being just come from Windsor & goeing to Councill, I just gott an oppertunity to give it the Duke, & desired him to moove His Maj.tie, he saide would doe. (fn. 17) What answer up.n it I cannot yett tell. I coulde not find an opportunity to moove the other businesse to him.

The seale is not yett done, notwithstanding Mr. Harris promise to the Lords. As soone as it is, I will take care to send it. I have remitted according to your orders 107£, halfe to Galleway & halfe to Waterford, for acco.t of your father as you directed, the 7£ being so much I gott for the excha. of the 100£. Your bills run att 10 daies after sight.

Capt. Hare is not yitt arrived. As soone as he doth, I shall not be wanting to take care of your sonn. God send him safe. 10 p.r c.t is usually given for intrest of mony in Ireland. But the securities no man in Engl.d is able to judge of. If you would have him putt out there, you must impower some freind up.n the place

[p. 19] to act for you therein. & Whatever orders you please to send mee, for paym.t of the mony, I shall be carefull to observe.

Serveants att this time are not to be procured in England or Ireland, the armye taking up all straglers. For the mallisfactors, they are worth no mans time to take out, there being seldome above 4 or 5 att a time, & uncertaine to be had when ships are goeinge. I have been att 2 p.r.s charge to gett some out to have putt on board Hare last yeare, butt could nott gett them before the ship was gone, & so left them with the losse of my charge. There hath lately been an engagem.t betwixt the two armies, viz. the Pr.s of Orange & Luxemberg, the inclosed will give you an acco.t of. This weeke was 15,000 Horse & Foote, being all the rem.dr of our new rais.d forces shipt for Flanders to reinforce the Princes army, Luxemberg haveing had new recruits sent him. No man knowes what to make of it. All the talkes are peace, & in my opinion greater reasons to believe a warr then ever being now come to action. ...

23. William Calhoun [St. Christopher]

[London, August 20, 1678]
The foregoeing is a copie of my last since have rec.d yours of the 18th June, & have now sent you by the William & Anne, Francis North, Com.dr, 5 ps. of Hollands duck & 1 quoile of rope. (fn. 18) I hope the rope may fitt your purpose, but I wonder you did not mention the size you would have it of. No warr yett declared, but this last weeke wee had 15,000 Horse & Foot more transported to Flanders to joyne the Prince of Oranges army. The inclosed will give you an acco.t of the late actions there betwixt the Princes army & D. Luxembr. army. Pray communicate the inclosed news to the Gouvernour. Capt. Hare is not yett arrived. ...

24. Robert Helme [Nevis]

[London, August 20, 1678]
My Deare Freinde,
It is now the 20th Aug.t. The foregoeing is what wrote you by Capt. Lawrance. Since which have rec.d severall of yours of the 10th of June & 18th by Geo. Pattison who is arriv.d. In all which I take notice of the dissatisfaction you have taken att my lines, if you do not misconsider I cannot finde you have so much cause for as you seemingly resent, nor do I know how I could take lesse notice to you then I did. Since his advice was so possitive to 1/3 p.rson concerned, who seemingly often reflects as much up.n mee as you in that kinde. For reason I have sev.ll times modestly desired him to decline being any further concern.d with us, as I wish he woulde, but he only takes notice of it sometimes in humoure. & Now I do assure you I am & allwaies was so farr from haveing the least ill thought of you that I thinke whatever I have under your managem.t better then in my owne, & take more satisfaction therein. & Should I ever be of another opinion, I should be unjust. I shall not insist further up.n that subject, only to tell you that I intende nevermore to concerne myself with that young jackanape (fn. 19) that should so possitively write mee so notorious a lye. & If you think fitt to have any power sent you to call him to an acco.t, you shall have it by first. [p. 20] & Were he my bro. as hee is my coz., I would not shew him the least favour or countenance therein.

I wonder you should expect any order for sending Terry to N.E. Whatever you thinke fitt to do with him there, or any other our concernes, wee leave to your discretion, as you do to ours here. So that to send I think needlesse. I wish I knew how you had dispos'd him, that I might make some insureance up.n him. pray advise up.n all vessells, as I formerly have requested.

All our by Pattison is rec.d & sold (except the HF) att 24s 6d p.r c.t. The HF proveing very bad, have not yett disposed of them. Capt. Hare is not yett arrived. Wee have no warr yett declared, nor do wee know what to make of it. The inclosed will give you an acco.t of the late action betwixt the two armies, pray communicate to my freind Knight. (fn. 20) & Excuse my not writeing, haveing not time. ...

25. William Fox [Montserrat]

London, August 20, 1678
The within lines is a copie of my last. Since Capt. Pattison is arrived, but have not a line by him from J. Bedingfeilde or yourselfe, though had one from Mr. Bramly, wherein he tells mee I should rec.e the plant. acco.t from J.B. by the same conveyance, I perceive it his neglect that I had it not. I take notice by Mr. Bramley's letter that he had given the plant. creditt for the 2 articles of 5,000 lbs. sug.r & 2,000 lbs. sug.r. & If he be allowed to make up his owne acco.ts I am like to have faire ones renderd. If he doth not allow of them & make paym.t, I desire you to bring two actions against him. Viz. for my whole intrest to 10 p.r c.t, the sume you will finde by the acco.ts recorded in the Secretaries Office. For I never remitted it but conditionally that he should allow mee 8,000£ sug.r charges I had been att & given G.S. & If I never had paid him 1£ of it, I hope it lay in my owne breast to reserve w.t part I pleased, since the whole was att my owne disposeall. & If the acco.t past under his owne hande be not proofe sufficient for that sume, I will sende you my oath that I made that reserveation of 8,000 lbs. sug.r. Certainly no man or court can compell mee to give away my estate. As to the other article of 2,000 lbs. sug.r, I desire you may sue for all of it.

[p. 21] For when I bought the negroes att Nevis, I run the adventure of them to M.tsarratt & victualled them with rum & provisions, on my owne charge, that cost mee 7 or 800 lbs. sug.r. besides the run of the sloope, & sold them him att the same rate they cost mee, though I run the adventure of them up myselfe. Wherein was sev.ll casualties, viz. – mortallity & the dang.r of the seas – yett onlye charged 50s p.r head more, the common rate for passages, he then freely allowed of. & I think whatever his pretences may be, no court can disallow the common rate of passeng'rs should be paid mee in my owne sloope. If I had borne no other adventure, you know the advantage he had above all other men in that p.rcell each of slaves, & the conveniency he hath had in time of payeing that none but such a knave would boggle att.

I allso finde that he keepes Bando & hath returned Valentine, & refuseth paym.t for teaching him his trade, alleadging his work hath made mee satisfaction. But I admire how he can pretende to that when, if there had been no excha. (as I will give my oath there was & freely proffer'd by himselfe), he had a farr abler slave the whole time to work up.n the plant. in his roome, as you can easily make appeare. I desire you will please to send to Nevis for an acco.t what charges I am charged with for the negro dureing the time he was there learneing the trade. 500 lbs. sug.r I ordered our serve.t to teach him. W.t other charges I know not. & Pray bring an action against him for the sume.

I intreate you allso to allow of no charges whatsoever that relate to his owne or familie exp.s up.n the plant. as I have in my former desired, for I will allow of nothing since he putts these tricks up.n mee, except such things as are necessary for our slaves & serv.ts. I am not bound to maintaine him for his managem.t. He may acquitt it & putt in an overseer up.n it as soone as he pleaseth. I finde no Article obligeth mee to maintaine him up.n it. If he lives up.n it, lett it be up.n his owne charge. I never designed any dispute in this kinde, had he not forced mee to it. He allso gives mee a caution that he might soone fetch up that charge when he buyes good pennyworth to make the plant. pay dearer, but I never yett saw any of his good pennyworth. & Since he hath so fairly precaution'd, I desire you to be carefull that he may buy nothing without your privity & consent, that so I may not be overreached. & Whatever is wanting lett an indifferent p.rson be imployed in the buying betwixt us. If Mr. Curtius will undertake it, I desire you to all.o him w.t you may judge convenient for his trouble, as allso in takeing an acco.t as occasion requires of all thinges in my behalfe att the plant. (fn. 21) I have requested the Gouvernour up.n all occasions to be assistant, & I intreate you to require of Mr. Bramly that a stock my be putt in for supply of the plant., att the best hande, according to Articles, I am ready to do on my p.t. (fn. 22)

I am heartily ashamed of this trouble I have putt you to, pray excuse & assure yourselfe I shall up.n all occasions be ready to searve you to the uttmost of my power. I have been in the country, otherwise I had putt you a hhd. worme on boarde this ship; you shall not fayle of it by next. ...

26. [p. 22] Thomas Lynch [Galway]

London, August 24, 1678
This searves to advise you that I have considered of your proposition of disposeing mee 500 barrells of beefe att 20s p.r barr.ll, clear on boarde of all charges. & Allthough I have been proffer'd cheaper by others, yett pr.sumeing that you will be carefull to make mee of the very best, & take care to pack it well, I shall accept of your proposeall, for 500 barrells or 6 if you please. But then you must accomodate mee with buying butter, candles, & such other things as I shall have occasion for, att the best hand, without chargeing any comiss. up. the same. As those I deale with in Doublin & other parts of Ireland have allwaies done. It will be after Xmas before I can ship these provisions off. So that you make take your owne time in prepareing such as may be good. I writt you the last post, & inclosed one to you from Gen.l Stapleton, & charged a bill up.n Mr. Stephen Deane for 53£ 10s for acco.t of the Gen.l's father, the 3£ 10s being the excha. of the 50 he is to pay Capt. Cotter. Pray be carefull to pay it the Gen.l's father. The like sume I also ordered him from Watterforde. ...

27. Robert Helme [Nevis]

London, September 1678
In my two last by Lawrance and North, I writt you fulley in answer to severall of yours. And now I think itt time to putt you in minde of the settlement of all oure concerns there in order to your coming for England the next sumer, your company being expected, which by noe meanes would not have obstructed. And therefore doe now intreat you now to begin to put all our concernes in as good a method as possible, knoweing that of necessity it must be a worke of great trouble and time and as much as you will able to accomplish by the latter end of June, haveing some regard to other buisnes that of necessity will drop in upon you, as cheifely that of the Royall Companys, which I shall onely give you an item of. Viz., that you doe not give out to any p.son your resolutions of coming off this sumer though you may prosecut your buisnes with nevertheles rigor, nor would I have you give the Comp. any notice of it untill a moneth or six weeks before your comeing, and then you may as if you intended speedily to retourne. This I think necessary to give you a hint of, because I judg you may have had some discourses thereof your comeing off already, which hath put Mr. Pruit upon giveing Bawden an thereof who hath been so nimble to moove the committee in Pruits behalfe as a p.rson fitt for theire agent, though they tooke noe notice of it, and doubt not but the intrest I am able to make, with a recomendation from Mr. Carpenter, may settle your brother W.m in it, which futurely, as the Islands grow, will be a buisness of great advantage than hitherto it hath. (fn. 23) And designe before your coming off, to make you some proposalls of joyneing your brother and intresting him with us in our whole consarn, which will be conveniant to enter into Articles upon. But this I shall refer to your consideration, it being timely anough to write youe in relation to that p.rticular.

In the first place, I request you to settle all acco.tts depending betwixt us, the Comp., & Mr. Carpenter p.rticular, and what you finde wee stand indebted in the whole to them. Please to send me an of by the very first, and pray be very circumspect and carefull in the settling the said accounts that there may be no wrong done on either side. And for what you finde us indebted, I will, if you think conveniant, send you to that vallew in peaces of 8/8, p.r the first conveniency, that you may ballance the account on our part; the same put Mr. Carpenter upon doeing on his part that wee may have noe after but a faire settlem.t of all things and for what commissions or other advantages are coming due to us, and of right belongs to us. Lett it all be laden off before you. This is the best method I can proscribe for the settelment of those accounts. I allso request you to make up my p.rticular in the Royall Companeys books and send mee a copie of it home; and for what you finde me indebted make our joynt, allso credite [p. 23] for the same and carry it to my account in our owne books. And allso pleas to adjust my in our owne books and lett it be drawne out as well out of our joynt book as my p.rticular books, and both of them sent me home. And after you well examined mine, pleas to p.ruse and examine your owne p.rticular accounts, and what you finde my surmount yours. I meane our p.rticular accounts of expences, clothes or any other disbursm.ts that hath noe relation to our joynt accounts of expences or otherwise. Pleas to lett me have copies of the same sent me. And for what I am indebted more then you are, I will all send mony to ballance the same there. And when you settle all accounts depending joyntly betwixt us, if you look on the backside of my ould wastbooke, you will finde the time there noted when we entred joyntly in comission, from which time I caryed all proffitts thereby accruing to our joynt account in my books. The same you must observe to doe in yours.

By Capt. Pattison, I received a letter from Mr. Brambly of the 18th June, wherein he adviseth mee you charge him for more negros then the plantation had; and that you will not discharge him becaues I ordered it. If you charge him with more than 51 negros, viz. 11 out of Capt. Andrews and 40 out of Capt. Botegreen, both which you have his and my bonds for, you then charge him for more then you ought to doe. Two more I had upon my owne p.rticular account – one man out of other and one man negroe out of Andrews, which either is or ought to bee charged to my p.rticular account, which maks in all 53. Thats all that the plantation or I ever had that I knowe of, unles such as ware joyntly betwix you and myselfe. And therefore I pray settle that account right and receive the ballance from the plantation and see that that my bonds are cancelled which I comitt to youre care. I hope the debt may be neere or fulley sattisfide before this comes to hand; if not, lett it be donn before any other goods disposed of to any other use whatsoever. And now I shall take the liberty of giveing you a littel truble to inform you in another p.rticular, which Bramley puts me upon concerning the negroe Nero, who he layes a claime to – that you will finde I have charged our joynt accounts for at 3,000 lbs. sugar to the best of my remembrance – for which negro I gave him a negro man by name Petter in exchange for him which is one of the ablest men slaves upon the plant. And, although he was very willing & ready to alow of that exchange and allso another for Bando (which I thought needless to take witness of), yett now, since he findes the improvement Bando hath made in his trade, he hath the dishonesty to deny both. Wherefore I dasire you to wright to him touching Nero and take under his hand for the exchange; otherwise, if he insists upone it, you must take my negro Petter as he calls him and give him sattisfaction for Nero. Mr. Liddell knows the negro Petter, if he pleases to informe you. Allso I intreate you to send Mr. Fox up an account signed under your hand of what charges you paid for mee for teaching Bando his trade, clothing him, or any other charge he put me to dureing the time he was at Nevis learning his trade. Another thing I must put you in minde of: that you must be sure to give my p.rticular account C.r for all the cask you had at Mountsarat of my attornyes, which plase to see that you and they doe agree in the account of. The price must bee 400£ p.r tunn, at which rate allowing the same for all that I have had for my owne use, I shall not have one farthing for the labor three coopers neere three yeares – soe well have our two good factors manadged that account for me – but shall rather be a looser out of my pocket besids theire labor. Doubt not but you will take care to stock our plantation with able slaves and all other stocks needfull, and settle it with good substantiall works and all other conveniancies usfull that we may know our charge before you come off, and that there may be noe further occassion for future disbursments upon it, onely such as allwayes doe attend plantations. And if possible you can buy in Procter's intrest after the expiration of our time, who I judg is now of age to make a good sale. (fn. 24) And if you can accomplish the buildinge of good convenient storehouses for our owne p.rticular trade, it will doe well. Haveing now timber and other necessareys suffitient upon our plantation for the finshing such a worke, it may be donn with less trouble then formerly. Also take an exact account of the charges of the house built betwix ourselves and Mr. Carpenter, and what other slaves, horses or any goods whatsoever belonging to the storehouse betwix us and him; that if it should hapen, that your brother should not be joyned with him in that comission, that we may be able to judge of the true vallew of that intrest in poynt of sales, which will be convenient for us to dispose of to whomesoever may be joyned in that buisness that canot be anywayes separated with conveniency.

I shall now give you an account of a small ketch my brother Baxter and selfe have bought in thirds betwixt you and I and him, that formerly he was intrested in with his father Herne and unkle Baxter, that cost us 120£. And I believe 80£ more will sett her to sea. Her burthen is about 50 tuns ordinary tunidge. And, now, wee are getting her out [p. 24] with all expedition upon a priviett designe that I will in an inclosed letter relating to that p.rticuler give you a more p.rticuler account of that you must be sure to manadge with discretion. And doubt not but wee have provided a master fitt for the purpos. And if the designe hits, doubtles there will be mony gott by it. I shall saye no more but refer youe to the inclosed.

Wee have contracted for 1,200 barrells of beefe for this next yeares supplye, of which this ketch may bring about 200; the rest, halfe we designe to lade upon Terry or Lawrance, which comes first home, and the remainder about April or May for the latter markett. 500 barrells of it we have contracted with Tho. Lynch of Gallwey for 20s p.r barr.ll; that he doth promise shall be very good. 700 of it, Alland at Watterforde at 21s p.r barrell; and, in considaration of our paying him pr.sent money, he allows us 10 p.r c.t exchange. Soe that will come at 19s cleare on board. And I hope we may depend upon that which will be good from him. We thought fitt to contract in regard three former yeares. We have paid very deare, and by what I can understand its like to be dearer this yeare than formerly. You must spur up the yong men to hesten returnes on. This yeares adventures will be very large, as you may p.rceive by our adventurs upon Rivet, Lawrance, and what further wee designe before the yeare comes about will amount to littel then 10,000£. That will require a carfull and prudent manadgement. I need not tell you that it will be convenient for you to make home as much of your stock as you can before you [leave], since I hope you now designe a settelment here. In order to which, I am preparing a good hous with sutable conveniencey to entertaine us both if you judg it conveniant, which I believe by that time its furnished will stand a brace of thousand pounds and more mony, but will be convenient in all respects.

Our suger p.r Pattison sould at 24s 6d p.r c.t except the HF that proved bad – that I sold at 24s 1d; that by Hare at 24s p.r cent; and, by the 22 hhds. by him, you may judge of the advantage other men have in theire freights of us all. Them hhds. way above 10 lbs. apeece round, whereas our hhds. and butts seldom way round about 7 1/2 lbs. at most, and yett our cask seemingly as large as them. And another thing we have constentley farr greater wastedg then other men. Which pray give the younge man a strict charge that p.rticuler care hereafter taken of, viz.: that he shipps our sugar cheifly in hhds., espetialy that which doth not come in our owne p.ticular shipps; that there be care taken in the waits alwayes in receiving, and that the w.ts be good; that the caske be as large as anybodyes, and very stronge and substantiall caske well hooped, and nayled, though thay put more hoops upon them then usuall if thay require it; and that the cask be well filled. By all which meanes, we have hitherto been great loosers. For the prevention thereof futurely I hope care will be taken.

I would have you take an account what will be needfull for the suply of our plantation yearely either for servants, provisions, clothing or other necessareys for the family, or paying of workemen that wee may send suplyes yearely on our j.a. for that p.rticular occassion. Also if wee ceepe a cooper at the plantation or storehous for the making the cask and send necessaries for that and all other occasions p.rticularly for that purpose, I think it the best way. Pray consider that and all other points relatieng to our intrest seriously before you come off, that we may take such courses for the manadgement thereof as may be most prudent. For you canot expect the same sattisfaction from any other p.rson in poynte of manadgement, as now you are there pr.sent to see all things donn. If you finde wee are in areare to my brother by meanes of payment of the soldiery when a list of debts is taken, and what is shipt him home compared, order him as much p.rticularly as equilizes our 2/3 parts mad use of. And pray ceepe some p.rson that is cearefull and capable to helpe you in the adjusting of all accounts. ...

28. [p. 25] Thomas Lynch [Galway]

[London, n.d. but probably September 1678]
I rec.d yours of the 2d Instant, wherein I take notice of the receipt of both mine, and that you had p.d the Gen.l's father the 53£ 10s 6d from Mr. Nugent, and have taken order for payment of the other 53£ 10s to him remitted to Watterford. Your inclosed letter to the Gen.ll, shall give convayance to p.r first, which I have p.rused according to your desire.

I observe in yours that you intend to prepare me 500 or 600 barrells of beefe, according to advise, and that it shall bee spetiall good, and that you desire mee to remitt you 400£ to Dublin, payable this last of this month, which is impossible for me to doe. If I should send bills by this post in regard, none will draw under 21 dayes sight. Nor did I ever pay or was it required of me to pay for beefe or any other goods from Ireland before laden which, I writt you, would not bee before January or February Next. Yett nevertheless I would have complyed with your desirs therein ware it not for the disadvantage of exchange that is at this season less by 3 or 4 p.r c.t then usually at that season, it being now but at 6 and 7 p.r cent and seldom or never 10 or 11 p.r cent at that season. For which reason Mr. Henry Alland of Watterford whome I have now bought 700 barrells of beefe of, to be laden about the same time, in consideration of his pr.sent occasions for mony, has allowed me 10 p.r c.t exchange for the same. And if you will be content to doe the like, I will either pay or remitt you the afores.d summe you desire, or mor as you shall pleas to order, imeadietly upon the receipt of your next, which pleas to lett mee have in answare. I hope that you will take care that the provissions may be as good as you speak of in yours. For I assure you its not the price only that incouridgeth me to deale with you, for I can buy either at Doublin or Watterford of very honest men on the same tearms, but upon your desire have rather inclined to deale with yourself then any other man, being an old acquaintance, for butter, candles or any other comodity. I canot yett give you an account what my occasions will requir. As soone as I send you orders concerning that, will order you mony sutable for that occation. ...


  • 1. John Fleet, Merchant, of London.
  • 2. "Ps." – "pieces" – usually signifies the units of the cloth under discussion. A piece was the length of the cloth, the standard varying from 24 yards to 100 yards dependent on the fabric. Isabel Wingate, ed., Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles (New York, 1967), p. 435.
  • 3. William Baxter, Merchant, of Lisbon, the uncle of William Freeman's wife Elizabeth Baxter.
  • 4. Captain Nicholas Meade.
  • 5. 1633–1681. Deputy Governor of St. Christopher in 1678. Father of Charles Mathew and Sir William Mathew, Kt. Vere L. Oliver, ed., Caribbeana, vol. 2 (London, 1912), pp. 252–53.
  • 6. Treaty of Neutrality. C.S.S. Higham, The Development of the Leeward Islands Under the Restoration, 1660–1688: A Study of the Old Colonial System (Cambridge, 1921), pp. 113–19.
  • 7. General William Stapleton.
  • 8. Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham, Baron Duras of Holdenby.
  • 9. Edwyn Stede was the Secretary of Barbados, and from 1685 to 1690 its Deputy Governor. He died in 1705. Oliver, ed., Caribbeana, vol. 4 (1916), p. 113, vol. 5 (1919), p. 180.
  • 10. Sir James Russell, Kt., was Deputy Governor of Nevis in the 1660s and 1670s. He died in 1688. Vere L. Oliver, ed., History of Antigua, vol. 3, p. 60.
  • 11. English Governor-General William Stapleton, and French Governor-General de Blénac. Higham, Development, pp. 111–13.
  • 12. Daniel Meagher, Montserrat planter.
  • 13. Henry Coventry (c. 1618–1686), Secretary of State for the Southern Department (1674–1680) and Member of the Privy Council (1672–1686). Basil D. Henning, ed., The House of Commons, 1660–1690, vol. 2 (London, 1983), pp. 148–54. Lawrence Hyde, a Commissioner of the Treasury.
  • 14. William and Redmond, Jr. were the sons of Redmond Stapleton. In addition, the daughter of Redmond, Jr. married Thomas Banlinch.
  • 15. Thomas Butler, Earl of Ossory.
  • 16. James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (1649–1685), illegitimate son of Charles II.
  • 17. Sir Tobias Bridge, one of Cromwell's Major-Generals, now commanded a West India regiment. Higham, Development, pp. 49–56.
  • 18. Duck was a strong, firm, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton. Wingate, ed., Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, p. 198.
  • 19. Referring to John Beddingfield, Jr., William Freeman's nephew.
  • 20. John Knight, Jr. (1616–1679), merchant and sugar refiner of Bristol, or his second son Sir John Knight (d. 1718). Henning, ed., House of Commons, vol. 2, pp. 696–97; and I.V. Hall, "John Knight, Junior, Sugar Refiner at the Great House on St. Augustine's Back (1654–1679): Bristol's Second Sugar House," Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1949, 68 (1951), pp. 110–64.
  • 21. Otto Curtius of Montserrat, planter.
  • 22. Governor William Stapleton.
  • 23. John Pruett of Nevis. Calendar of State Papers (Colonial Series, 1681–1685 no. 439, p. 209. John Bawden (1635 – c. 1688), merchant, of London, who owned an estate in Barbados. In 1687–1688, he served as an Alderman for Aldersgate and was knighted. John R. Woodhead, The Rulers of London, 1660–1689 (London, 1965), p. 27; Shaw, Knights, v. 2, p. 263. Henry Carpenter.
  • 24. See also William Freeman to Richard Helme, January 18, 1678/79.