Index

The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Originally published by London Record Society, London, 2003.

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Citation:

Elspeth M. Veale, 'Index', The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages, (London, 2003), pp. 243-251. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-record-soc/vol38/pp243-251 [accessed 17 June 2024].

Elspeth M. Veale. "Index", in The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages, (London, 2003) 243-251. British History Online, accessed June 17, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-record-soc/vol38/pp243-251.

Veale, Elspeth M.. "Index", The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages, (London, 2003). 243-251. British History Online. Web. 17 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-record-soc/vol38/pp243-251.

INDEX

Place-names will as a rule be found under subject headings such as Fairs, Furs and skins, Merchants, Skinners.

A.

Addington, Thomas, skinner, and his wife, Katherine, 207–8.

Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham, 36.

Animals: hunting of, 57–58, 72, 172–5, 211; warrens and coneygarths, 58, 178 n., 209–13.
-, types of: bear, 57; beaver, 23, extinction of, 175; boar, 57, 212; cat, 23, 59; coney, rabbit, 24, 174, introduction to England of, 209– 14; deer, 57–60, 212; dormouse, 25; fox, 23, 58, 174, 211; goat, kid, 25; hare, 24, 58, 211, 212; lynx, 23, 57; mink, 23; otter, 23; pine marten, 23, 174; polecat, 23; sheep, lamb, 25, 173; squirrel, 24, 174, 223; stoat, 23; stone marten, 23; weasel, 23; wolf, 57, 59, 174.

Anne, Queen to Richard II, 109.

Antwerp, 162, 189.

Apprenticeship, see Skinners: London: Gild.

Archer, John, skinner, 83 n.

Arnolfini, G., and his wife, portrait of, 141.

Ashburn, William, fellmonger, 61, 62 n.

Atwell, Laurence, skinner, 194.

B.

Banbury, 114.

Bannister, Thomas, skinner, 189.

Barbaro, Giosofat, 166.

Barbour, John, skinner, 153.

Barley, Nicholas, skinner, 206–7.

Barlow, John, skinner, 185 n.

Barnwell, William, upholder, 118.

Barton, Henry, skinner and alderman, 81, 131 n., 206–7.

Becket, Thomas, 17.

Bedding, bed-covers, bed-hangings, 8, 15–16, 18, 21, 29, 82, 86, 118 n., 140, 146, 184, 186.

Bedford, John de, skinner, 91–92.

Bedyll, Roger, skinner, 88.

Bermondsey, 26.

Berwick, 60.

Betele, Thomas, skinner, 55, 82–83, 86–87.

Bohemia, 173.

Bondene, Henry de, skinner, 44 n.

Bonenfaunt, William de, skinner, 79.

Borde, Andrew, physician, 35.

Bosenho, Peter de, skinner, 49 n.

Boston, 61, 68, 71, 169 n.; see Fairs.

Boteller, John, tawyer, 129 n.

Bougie, kingdom of, 25, 216.

Bradmere, Thomas, skinner, 99.

Bradshaw, Richard, skinner, 203.

Bray, Adam, skinner, 81.

Brembre, Nicholas, grocer and alderman, 124.

Bremen, Adam of, 3, 57.

Bristol, 11, 60–61, 114, 169, 170 n.

Broker, see Skinners: London: Gild.

Broughton, William de, skinner, 51.

Bruges, 25 n., 55, 66, 69, 70, 74–76, 160, 162, 163, 168, 216, 217, 218, 226, 227.

Bryene, Lady Alice de, 58.

Brykett, Richard, skinner, 208.

Bucknell, John, skinner, 184 n.

Burgh, Elizabeth de, Lady of Clare, 7, 12.

, Hubert de, 211.

Burgundy, Dukes of, 135–6, 141, 162.

Burskavory, John, skinner, 114 n.

Bury, Adam de, skinner and alderman, 90–92, 122, 128.

Byzantium, 62, 63.

C.

Calabria, 24, 217.

Calais, 91.

Canterbury, 114, 212.

Caster, John, skinner, 206.

Castile, 168, 173.

Catherine de Medici, 147.

Cave, William de, skinner, 54, 106.

Champagne fairs, see Fairs.

Champneys, Sir John, skinner and alderman, 188.

Charlemagne, 4.

Charles V, Emperor, 168.

Charles V, King of France, 19, 20.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 5, 8, 14, 15.

Chester, Cheshire, 59, 60, 114, 169.

, Earls of, 212.

, William, skinner, 184.

Chevisance, 91.

Cheyney, John, skinner, 201 n.

Chichester, Bishopric of, 212–13.

Cinderella, 137–8 and n.

Cistercians and forest clearance, 172.

Clare, Bogo de, 8, 43.

Clement, Robert, skinner, 82.

Clothing: see Furs, wearing of; Textiles.
-, articles of: cloaks, pilches, 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 17, 29, 141; headgear, 5, 6–9, 15; footwear, 10, 14–15, 137; gloves, 14, 34; nightwear, 15, 144, see Bedding; robes, 1–3, 5–13, 16, 17–21, 29–30, 32–35, 133–7, 140– 5, 147, 176; underclothes, 145.
-, ceremonial: christenings, 10; coronations, 10, 32, 54, 82 and n., 93, 206; ecclesiastical vestments, 93, 140; weddings, trousseaux, 10–11, 15, 16, 19, 81 n., 136, 137, 142–3, 206.
-, inventories of, 6, 9, 133, 142–3.
-, liveries, 7, 8–9, 10, 11–13, 17, 20, 55, 144.

Cocke Lorell, 12.

Coco, John, tawyer, 129 n.

Cole, John, skinner, 207.

, Thomas, skinner, 186 n., 207.

Cologne, 75, 76, 163.

Comberton, William, skinner, 131 n.

Commynes, Philippe de, 136.

Coneygarths, see Animals, hunting of.

Contarini, Ambrosio, 166.

Corpus Christi, festival of, 45 n., 111, 205; see Skinners: London: Fraternities.

Cotun, John de, skinner and alderman, 61 n.

, Nicholas, skinner, 79.

Coventry, 114, 170.

Crafts, see Misteries; Gilds.

Croke, John, skinner and alderman, 184.

Customs duties and accounts, 69 n., 70 n., 139 n., 155 n., 156–60, 164 n., 168, 170 n., 177 n., 185 n.

D.

Danyell, William, skinner, 98, 153, 185 n.

Danzig, 74–76, 177, 188–9, 218.

Dawtre, Thomas, skinner, 83 n.

Dekker, Thomas, 145.

Despenser, Hugh, the Younger, 55.

Devenysshe, John, skinner, 88.

Devon, 169 n., 211.

Dixie, Sir Wolstan, skinner and alderman, 201.

Dixton, Richard, esquire, 11.

Dod, Benedict, of Northampton, 38.

Dodeford, Robert de, skinner, 106 n.

Dorpat, 75.

Dortmund, 75–76.

Dounton, Thomas, mercer, 88.

Draper, John, skinner, 85.

Dudley, Edmund, 136.

Dundee, 60.

Dunstaple, John de, skinner and alderman, 44 n., 49 n.

Dunster, Somerset, 213.

Durham, Cathedral Priory of, 8.

E.

East Indies, 182, 190.

Eastland Company, 171 n., 178.

Edward I, 48–49, 50, 53.

Edward II, 7, 52, 53.

Edward III, 6, 21, 29, 52, 54, 90, 91, 109.

Edward IV, 8, 34.

Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince, 55, 81, 91, 109, 173 n.

Egill Skallagrimsson, 62.

Eleanor, Queen to Edward I, 18.

Elizabeth I, 143, 146, 148.

— Wydeville, Queen to Edward IV, 114 and n.

Ely, Cathedral Priory of, 8.

Exeter, 36, 114.

Eyck, Jan van, 141.

Eynsham, Robert de, skinner, 91 n.

F.

Fairs, 53, 54, 68, 71, 120.
-, Boston, 8, 39, 43, 67, 117, 120; Braintree, 199; Bristol, 199; Bury St. Edmunds, 39, 117; Ely, 199; Lichfield, 199; Northampton, 38, 39; St. Ives, 39, 67, 68 n., 117; Stamford, 39, 67, 117; Stourbridge, 199; Westminster, 47; Winchester, 39, 43, 67, 68, 117; Wye, 119.
-, Champagne, 65, 66, 217.

Fanne, John, skinner, 85 n.

Fastolfe, Sir John, 7.

Feasts, 195, 212, 213.

Felt hats, manufacture of, 176 n., 178, 180.

Field of the Cloth of Gold, 143 n.

Fitz Aylwin, Henry, alderman, 41.

Fitzroy, Henry, Duke of Richmond, 142.

Fitzstephen, William, 39 n., 67.

Flanders, 53, 61, 67, 161, 166, 167, 169, 177.

Forests, 57, 58, 59, 62, 172–4.

Forster, William, skinner, 85 n.

Fouler, Thomas, of Essex, 80.

Framlyngham, William, skinner and alderman, 85.

Francis I, King of France, 168.

Fraternities, 44–46, 52, 103–4, 107–8, 125; see Gilds; Skinners; London: Gild.

Fripperers, 13; see Misteries: upholders.

Froissart, Jean, 133.

Furnishings, see Bedding; Houses.

Furs and skins, see Glossary; Clothing.
-, exports of, 60, 61, 177–8, 200, 209, 214.
-, and health, 16–17, 35, 148.
-, in heraldry, 23, 30 and n.
-, imports of, 67–71, 134, 156–62, 164, 167–71, 185, 188, 211; manufactured furs, 31, 154–5.
-, making of, 19–21, 27–34, 144–5.
-, measures, 25.
-, pawning of, 16, 91–92.
-, places of origin:
-,-, Africa, 25, 65, 66, 169.
-,-, America, 175–6.
-,-, British Isles, England, 58–59, 61– 62, 176–8; Ireland, 59–61, 169– 70; Scotland, 59–60, 170, 217; Wales, 59.
-,-, Europe, Baltic states, 74; France, 24, 57, 65–66, 154, 169, 217; Italy, 24, 65–66, 167, 217; Russia, 24, 62–63, 66, 67, 74, 166, 174–5, 224; Scandinavia, 24, 57, 62–63, 65, 66, 67, 74, 224; Spain and Portugal, 24–25, 65–66, 167, 169, 175, 217; elsewhere, 62, 65, 66, 74, 224.
-, preparation and treatment of, 25–27, 34–35, 120–1, 150.
-, prices and labour costs, 6–9, 11, 12, 14, 17–19, 29 n., 31–32, 33 n., 50, 86–87, 93, 121, 128 n., 129–30, 135 n., 143 n., 144, 149–50, 171–2, 206.
-, purchases of, by ecclesiastics, 8–9, 43, 54; by nobility, 6–8, 41, 54, 55–56, 135–6; by royalty, 3 n., 6–8, 17– 21, 38, 41, 43, 53–55, 67–68, 90– 92, 134–6, 143–4; by others, 9, 11–12, 55–56, 136–7.
-, second-hand, 13–14, 82 and n., 87, 90, 120, 123.
-, types of: general, 22–23.
-,-, beaver, 4, 7, 12, 14, 15, 23, 27, 57, 59–61, 62, 69, 135, 148–9, 158– 60, 162, 169, 175, 176 n., 177.
-,-, budge, 5, 7, 8, 11, 19, 25, 28, 55, 68, 69, 80, 81, 117, 128, 134, 136, 137, 143, 144, 146, 148–9, 158–9, 167–8, 186.
-,-, calabre, 24, 29, 137, 139, 171.
-,-, cat, genette, 4, 5, 16, 23, 58–61, 65– 66, 68, 84, 136, 141, 146, 158–9, 169.
-,-, coney, rabbit, 5, 11, 12, 15, 17–20, 24, 27, 58–62, 65–66, 68, 84, 136–7, 141, 150, 169, 176–9, 187, 189, 200, 205, 211, 214.
-,-, ermine, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17– 20, 23, 29, 32, 55, 62, 69, 130, 134, 136, 140, 146, 147–8, 158–9, 160, 162, 171.
-,-, fitch, 11, 23, 30, 61, 137, 158–9, 169.
-,-, fox, 4, 5, 17, 23, 57–61, 62, 65–66, 68, 84, 136–7, 158–9, 169–70.
-,-, foynes, 11, 23, 61, 65–66, 69, 146, 148–9, 158–9, 169.
-,-, goat, kid, 4, 14, 25, 27, 34, 68, 169.
-,-, hare, 14, 24, 57–61, 65, 68, 169.
-,-, lamb, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12–19 passim, 25, 28, 35, 58–62, 65–66, 68, 84, 117, 133, 134–6, 141, 143, 150, 158–9, 169–70, 176, 179, 198–9.
-,-, leopard, 6, 15, 29, 136, 143, 148, 169.
-,-, lettice, 5, 12, 18–20, 23, 69, 140, 147, 150, 158–60, 162.
-,-, loirre, 25.
-,-, lynx, 23, 29, 30, 66, 136, 141– 4 passim, 147–8, 158–9, 169, 171.
-,-, marten, 4, 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 16, 20, 23, 30, 43, 57, 59–60, 62, 81, 134–7, 140, 141, 143, 147–9, 158–60, 169–70, 201.
-,-, mink, 23, 29, 55, 133, 136, 137, 158–9, 162.
-,-, mouse, 17.
-,-, otter, 17, 23, 58–61, 65–66, 84, 148, 150, 158–9, 169–70.
-,-, pampelion, 11.
-,-, paws, potes, 31, 169.
-,-, sable, 4, 10, 11, 15, 17–21, 23, 30, 62, 130, 133–7, 140–1, 143–5, 147–9, 158–60, 171–2, 175, 188.
-,-, shanks, 148, 167.
-,-, sheep, 4, 14, 25 n., 176.
-,-, squirrel, 5, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17–21 passim, 24, 28, 62, 65–66, 68–69, 76, 81, 84, 117, 133, 135, 137– 41, 148–50, 158–9, 160–2, 171– 2, 175, 177, 198.
-,-, — names for: bis, 117; blackwerk, 24; cristigrey, 29; greywerk, 19, 24, 67, 128 n., 129, 150; gris, 5, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 18–20, 24, 29, 54, 65–66, 92, 133–7, 139; hugrewerk, 74; letowerk, 74; lucewerk, 24, 76, 134, 139; minever, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18–20, 24, 30, 31, 54, 92, 133, 134, 137; minever pured, 19–21, 24, 29, 31, 117, 139; polane, 74; popel, 24, 77, 117, 134, 139; redwerk, 24; ruskyn, 24, 77, 117, 134, 139; russewerk, 76; schönwerk, 24; smoleynswerk, 139; stranling, 24, 134; swethewerk, 76; troynes, 76; vair, 13, 18–19, 24, 27, 30, 65–66, 137–8.
-,-, wolf, 66, 169.
-, wearing of, 1–21, 133–7, 141, 147–8; decline in, 141–7.

G.

Gage, Sir John, 143.

Garlande, John de, 3 n., 57.

Garlek, Walter, tawyer, 88.

Gascony, 41, 170.

Ger, Henry, skinner, 97.

Gesner, Conrad, 175, 214, 224.

Gilds and Livery Companies: general: 103–5, 107–8, 110, 116–17, 123–5, 182–3, 191–3, 195–7.
-, London companies: clothworkers, 198; drapers, 109, 122, 193; feltmakers, 196; fishmongers, 108–9, 122, 124–5, 182; girdlers, 119; goldsmiths, 119, 127 n., 182, 193 n., 196; grocers, 98, 99–100, 113, 122, 125, 193; haberdashers, 196; mercers, 93, 109, 193; merchant tailors, 193, 198; vintners, 122, 205 n.; wiredrawers, 85; see Fraternities; Misteries; Skinners.

Giraldus Cambrensis, 59, 60 n.

Gotland, Island of, 63.

Graunger, Thomas, skinner and alderman, 184 n.

Grauntoft, Roger, skinner, 99 n., 185 n.

Great Wardrobe, the King's:
-, office of King's Skinner in, 31, 55, 81, 129, 186, 206–8.
-, sales to, 6, 53–55, 83, 88, 90, 114, 134–5, 201 n.
-, settlement in London of, 53.
-, work done in, 30–31 and n., 33, 81– 82, 129, 130, 187 n., 206–7, 224.

Gregory, William, skinner and alderman, 183.

Grey, Richard de, Lord of Codenore, 54.

Grey, Roger, skinner, 71 n.

Guildford, 212–13.

Guinea, 169, 189.

Gunter, Philip, skinner and alderman, 171 n.

Guyon, Louis, 147.

H.

Hakluyt, Richard, 148, 194, 214.

Hall, Edward, 10.

Hallingbury, Adam de, skinner and alderman, 49 n.

Hamburg, 74, 75 n., 190.

Hampden, Edmund, esquire, 11.

Hanchett, Richard, skinner, 86 n.

Hanington, William de, skinner, 43–44.

Hanse (German), Hansards:
-, general, 63, 69, 161–4.
-, in Russia and Eastern Europe, 72–75, 157, 160, 162, 226.
-, in England, 69–70, 75–77, 114, 157, 161, 164, 177, 186.
-, in Scotland, 60 and n.
-, relations with skinners, 44, 54, 70, 83, 90.

Harby, Erasmus, skinner, 190.

Harris, Ralph, skinner, 206.

Harrison, William, 145.

Hatfeld, John, hansard, 76.

Haymonde, Thomas, skinner, 185.

Henry II, 17.

Henry III, 7, 18, 19, 41, 48, 53, 212.

Henry, Earl of Derby, 6, 14, 81; Henry IV, 20.

Henry V, 6, 135.

Henry VI, 6, 20, 135.

Henry VII, 15, 16 n., 136, 206.

Henry VIII, 10, 15, 20, 136, 142–6 passim, 176, 206, 219.

Herberstein, Sigismund von, 175.

Hereford, Thomas de, skinner, 43.

, Bishops of, 114, 115, 212.

Hill, Patrick, skinner, 81 n.

Hillyard, Nicholas, 141.

Hoccleve, Thomas, 9.

Holbein, Hans, 30, 141.

Honilane, John de, skinner, 41 n.

Horscroft, William, skinner, 9, 84–87.

Horse-trappings, 7–8.

Households, purchases of furs for, see Furs.

Houses and furnishings, 2, 10, 18, 43, 82, 85, 86 and n., 145–6, 184; see Bedding.

Howard, Sir John, 32, 55.

Hudson's Bay Company, 176 n., 205.

Hull, 68, 71, 209.

Hungary, 76, 173.

Hungerford, Dame Agnes, 142.

Hunt, Thomas, skinner, 194.

Hunting, see Animals.

Hurell, Jerome, skinner, 99.

I.

Iceland, 185.

Idley, Peter, 5.

Ilger, Robert, skinner, 91 n.

Isabella, sister of Henry III, 19.

, Queen to Edward II, 6, 21.

, Queen to Richard II, 20.

Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow, 162, 165.

J.

Jenyn, Nicholas, skinner, 186 n., 206–7.

Jenyn, Thomas, skinner, 206–7.

Jenyns, William, skinner, 80.

John, King of England, 7, 17, 18, 41, 211.

John II, King of France, 19, 34, 92.

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 13, 55, 173 n.

Jonson, Ben, 205.

Judde, Sir Andrew, skinner and alderman, 171 n., 188, 189, 194.

K.

Katherine of Aragon, Queen to Henry VIII, 35.

Kelmer, Andrew, hansard, 76.

, Christian, hansard, 70, 76.

Kent, 91, 114.

Kiev, 63, 174.

Knapwell, Robert de, skinner, 106 n.

Knight de la Tour Landry, 1, 34 n.

Knight, William, fellmonger, 61.

Königsberg, 75 n., 163.

L.

Lancaster, Sir James, skinner, 190.

Lane, Henry, 147.

Langland, William, 7, 15, 59.

Legge, Thomas, skinner and alderman, 78, 90, 106, 127, 128.

Legislation:
-, sumptuary decrees and statutes, 4–5, 11, 18, 136, 137, 146–7, 192.
-, others, 99 n., 101 n., 124, 144 n., 154, 170, 179, 196–7, 201 n., 202.

Leicester, 81, 84.

Leipzig, 167.

Lestrange, family of, of Hunstanton, 58.

Libelle of Englyshe Polycye, 60.

Lithuania, 164, 166.

Livery Companies (London): see Gilds and Livery Companies.

London, Bishopric of, 212.

London:
-, citizenship, foreigns, 48, 50–52, 79–80, 94–100, 102, 104–5, 116, 117, 123, 125, 191.
-, government of, 47–49, 52, 104–5, 109, 192–3; officers of, 11, 49 wards, 44, 45 n., 48, 85, 107, 128 n.
-, parishes and religious houses: St. John Walbrook, 45, 106, 112, 119; St. Stephen Walbrook, 45 n., 106 n., 119; others, 34, 112.
-, political crises: 1263, 1267, 1272, 48; 1285–99, 49–50; 1319–27, 52; 1376– 94, 104, 109, 122, 123–5, 131.
-, population, 39–40, 50, 181, 195.
-, topography, 39; Bishopsgate, 112; Blanchappleton, 116; Budge Row, 119, 205; Candelwyk St., 44 n.; Cheap, 43, 44, 107; Cornhill, 47, 82, 119; Dowgate, 92, 110; St. Sithes Lane, 86 n.; Smithfield, 198; Steelyard, 75; Walbrook (river, street, and ward), 25, 44 and n., 45, 54, 85, 92, 93, 106, 112, 119, 128 n., 205.
-, trade of, 39–40, 50, 53, 56, 60–62, 67, 69, 71–72, 75–77, 78, 119, 122–3, 126, 134, 139, 154–71 passim, 177–8, 181–3, 184–6, 188–90, 195, 205.
-, See Eastland Company, Muscovy Company, and Merchants.

Louis XI, King of France, 136.

Louis XII, King of France, 10–11.

Lübeck, 63, 74–76, 163, 166.

Lundy Island, rabbits in, 210, 214.

Lylly, Roger, skinner, 98, 186 n.

Lynn, 58, 60, 61, 68, 71.

Lynne, Thomas, skinner, 83 n.

Lytell, Edward, skinner, 97.

M.

Maghfeld, Gilbert, ironmonger and alderman, 85, 89.

Maineley, Ralph, skinner, 203.

Mannyngton, John, skinner, 55 n., 71.

Margaret of Anjou, Queen to Henry VI of England, 114 and n.

Margaret Tudor, Queen to James IV of Scotland, 10 n., 15, 81.

Martyn, Sir William, skinner and alderman, 184 n.

Mary Tudor, Queen of England, 143.

— —, daughter of Henry VII, 10–11, 206.

Mechynghous, Bernard, hansard, 76.

Medina del Campo, Treaty of (1489), 168.

Melmerby, Thomas, skinner, 186 n.

Ménagier de Paris, 35, 81.

Merchants:
-, Merchant Adventurers, 182, 184–5, 188.
-, Merchant Staplers, 184.
-, others: alien, 50, 69, 71, 123, 124, 157–9, 164 n., 177; Arab, 63; Dutch, 163–4; Fleming, 164, 177, 217; French, 65, 66, 68, 164; German, 63, 67 and see Hanse; Italian, 53, 54, 114, 164, 167, 217; Jewish, 63; Portuguese, 68; Scandinavian, 67, 69; Scottish, 60, 164; Spanish, 68, 164, 167, 168.

Mesta, 167.

Misteries: general, 47–49, 50–52, 102– 5, 107–8.
-, leather crafts, 26, 36–37, 41–43, 109, 126, 127 n., 150, 170, 176, 177 n.
-, See Skinners: London: relations with allied crafts.
-, and: fellmongers, 61–62, 70, 102, 103, 115, 119, 123, 177; glovers, 58; tailors, 56, 89, 100 n., 102 n.; tawyers, greytawyers, 88, 102, 115, 153, 178, 196; upholders, fripperers, 13, 90, 118, 186 and n.
-, others, 41–43, 56, 89, 95, 100 n., 114, 187.
-, See Gilds and Livery Companies.

Montfort, Eleanor de, Countess of Leicester, 41.

Moscow, principality of, 164–6, 171, 189.

Muscovy Company, 147, 171, 182, 188, 189.

Myddleton, Thomas, grocer and alderman, 182, 190.

Myrfyn, Thomas, skinner and alderman, 92, 100, 132 n., 170, 187 n., 188.

N.

Narva, 166, 173.

Nettlestede, Roger de, skinner, 54, 106.

, William de, skinner, 44 n.

Newcastle, 60.

, Peter de, skinner, 106 n.

Norris, Robert, furrier, 205.

North Dvina Land, 165, 175.

Northalle, John de, skinner and alderman, 42 n.

Northampton, 40, 56.

, John de, skinner, 41.

, John de, draper and alderman, 124.

Noumbre of Weyghtes, 74.

Novgorod, 63, 69, 72–76, 157, 162, 174; conflict with Moscow, 164–6.

Nuremburg, 174.

O.

Olavus Magnus, Archbishop of Uppsala, 72.

Olyver, William, skinner and alderman, 85.

Oxford, 36.

, Earl of, 114.

, Thomas de, skinner, 43.

P.

Paris, 13–14, 25 n., 31, 53, 66, 67, 217.

Pasmer, John, skinner, 185 n.

Paternostermaker, Nicholas, hansard, 76.

Pays, Thomas, skinner, 86 n.

Pegolotti, F. Balducci, 66, 217, 223.

Pelliparius, see Skinners.

, Johannis, of Northampton, skinner, 38.

, Radulphus, 40.

Peltry, see Furs and skins.

Penne, Matilda, skinner, 100.

Pennyngton, Sir William, of Muncaster, Cumberland, 56.

Penson, Robert, skinner, 185 n.

Percy, Thomas, skinner, 208.

Perrault, Charles, 137.

Persia, 171, 189.

Persone, Robert, skinner, 51, 53–54, 78, 90, 92–93.

Peter the Venerable, 65.

, Count of Savoy, 212.

Philipot, Sir John, grocer and alderman, 109.

Philippa, Queen to Edward III, 19, 109.

, daughter of Henry IV, 10, 14–15, 16.

Plympton Priory, 210 n.

Poitou, 68.

Poland, 163, 164, 166, 173.

Polotsk, 63, 74.

Pope, Walter, skinner, 71 n.

Pountfreyt, William, skinner and alderman, 61, 106.

Prague, 63.

Prentys, Thomas, skinner, 26, 27.

Prussia, 74.

Przemyśl, 63.

Pulteney, John, draper and alderman, 9, 133 n.

Q.

Querdelyng, William, tawyer, 88.

R.

Rayleigh Castle, Essex, 210–11.

Red, William de, skinner, 41 n., 44 n.

Regensburg, 63, 67.

Reval, 63, 74–76, 166.

Richard I, 17, 18.

— II, 61, 85, 109, 133, 134.

— III, 82 and n.

, Earl of Cornwall, 18, 211.

Riga, 74–76, 166.

Rose, Thomas, skinner, 89.

Russell, John, 35.

Rynge, John, skinner, 97, 206–7.

S.

St. Columbanus, 57.

St. Vaast d'Arras, tolls for abbey of, 65.

Saltonstall, Sir Richard, skinner and alderman, 190 n.

Sandwich, 68, 168.

Savoie, Marie de, daughter of Amédée VIII, Duke of Savoy, 10, 16, 136.

Scalton, Robert, skinner, 131 n.

Scilly Isles, rabbits in, 210.

Sely, Thomas, Robert, Laurence, and John, skinners, 49 n., 61 n., 70, 84.

Sexton, Thomas, skinner, 177 n., 188.

Shaw, William, skinner, 152.

Shukburgh, William, draper, 118.

Siberia, 166, 175.

Skinners: general, 37, 120, 134.
-, in London:
-,-, general: relations with City, 43, 44, 49, 85, 90, 108–9; with Crown, 90–91, 109, 122.
-,-, industry: craftsmen in, 25, 79–83, 93, 99–100, 116, 149–50, 152–5, 178–80, 196–7, 201– 4. For wages, see Furs: prices and labour costs. merchants in, 40–47, 53–56, 78– 79, 176–9. as entrepreneurs, 83–89. as moneylenders, 91–92, 186. provincial trade of, 55–56, 71– 72. in sixteenth century, 182–91. shops, 43, 44, 54, 85–87. women in, 100.
-,-, gild and livery company:
-,-, activities: general: of fraternity before 1327, 44–52. of gild and livery company after 1327, 92, 110–12, 113, 131–2. of livery company in sixteenth century, 192–5. regulation of industry: control of apprenticeship, 93– 100, 117, 196–7, 198, 201. purchase of skins, broker, 47, 92, 121, 178; see Hanse. relations with allied crafts: fellmongers, 115; glovers, 126; tailors, 126, 127; tawyers, greytawyers, 50, 88, 115, 127–30, 153, 196, 199–200, 226; upholders, 118, 126, 127, 186. — alien skinners, 151–3, 202. supervision of manufacture and sale of furs, 46–47, 49, 87, 107, 116–26, 130–2, 148, 154, 197–9, 202–4; out of London, 117, 119–20, 123, 152–4, 199; of imported furs, 123, 125–6, 154.
-,-, archives, 95 and n., 101 n., 106 and n.
-,-, charters, ordinances and petitions, 28, 46–47, 50, 52, 82 n., 85, 89 n., 94, 109–11, 117–19, 121– 3, 125, 127–8, 148, 180 n.
-,-, finances, 112 n., 193 n., 194 and n., 197–8.
-,-, fraternities: livery (Corpus Christi), 78, 88, 106–12, 114–15, 187, 191, 200–1. yeomanry (Our Lady's Assumption), 71–72, 83, 88, 89 n., 107, 112–15, 200–1, 205 n.
-,-, hall and other property, 110, 113, 192, 193, 194, 199.
-,-, liveries, 109, 111 n., 113.
-,-, officers, 110, 111, 112 n., 113, 187, 191.
-,-, problems 1590–1607, 154–5, 156, 177–9, 203–4.
-, outside London: Beverley, 37; Boston, 72, 114; Bristol, 71, 89, 134, 154, 217; Bury St. Edmunds, 31, 55; Colchester, 37; Coventry, 60, 72, 154; Exeter, 71 and n.; Leicester, 72; Lincoln, 37, 38, 151; Lynn, 71, 92; Newark, 72, 114; Newcastle, 62; Northampton, 38– 39, 72; Norwich, 37, 71, 120 n.; Nottingham, 71; Oxford, 37, 71, 151, 195, 199; Reading, 53; Salisbury, 72; Shrewsbury, 37 n.; Southampton, 176; Southwark, 34 n., 152; Warwick, 177 n.; Wells, 71; York, 25–26, 31, 33, 37, 53, 71, 150–1.
-, in Scotland: Glasgow, 25 n., 84 n.
-, in other European towns: Amiens, 120 n.; Arras, 28 n., 84 n., 226; Basle, 67; Bruges, 29 n., 84; Chartres, 28–29; Florence, 34, 84; Freiburg, 100; Lübeck, 28 n., 84; Nuremburg, 29; Paris, 32, 67, 80, 84, 120 n.; Rouen, 27, 32 n., 120 n.; Stendal, 32 n.; Strasbourg, 93, 100; Ypres, 29 n., 31, 226.

Skynnere, Adam, 58.

Smolensk, 63, 74.

Smytman, Henry, hansard, 70.

Southampton, 68, 167 n., 168, 176, 185.

Spain, 182, 189.

Spencer, Thomas, skinner, 80.

Stafford, Edward, Duke of Buckingham, 81.

, Thomas de, skinner, 106.

Stanes, William, apothecary, 107.

Staper, Richard, clothworker, 182.

Starkey, Thomas, skinner and alderman, 190.

Staundon, William, skinner, 206–7.

Stephens, William, skinner, 98.

Stepyng, Frowin, hansard, 76.

Steris, Richard, skinner, 26.

Stirop, Robert, skinner, 99.

Stonor family, of Oxfordshire, 184.

Story, Thomas, skinner, 89.

Stow, John, 188, 205.

Stratford-on-Avon, 36.

Subsidies, Lay (London) assessments for, 42, 44 n., 51 n., 53 n., 79, 110.

Suffolk, Thomas de, skinner, 49 n.

Sumptuary decrees, see Legislation.

Sussex, 114.

Swan, Richard, skinner, 97, 185 n.

Swansea, 59.

Syon Abbey, 115, 214.

T.

Tavistock Abbey, 210.

Tennis, 26.

Teutonic Order, Knights of, 75, 163, 173, 224.

Textiles:
-, changes in those worn, 140–1, 143–4.
-, types of: damask, 10, 11, 16, 136, 140–4.
-,-, cloths of gold, 10, 16, 136, 140–1, 143–4.
-,-, satin, 10, 136, 140–1, 143.
-,-, silk, 21, 41, 133, 140–1, 143, 155.
-,-, taffeta, 143, 145–6.
-,-, tissue, 11, 136, 143–4.
-,-, velvet, 6, 10, 11, 16, 21, 32, 134, 135, 136, 140–5, 155.
-,-, woollen cloth, 9, 21, 140–1, 144.
-,-, — export of, 177, 181, 188, 189.

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 7.

, Walter, skinner, 71 n.

Thomasyn, Bartholomew, spicer, 12, 107.

Thorn, 74–76.

Tithes, in rabbits, 210.

Tomlinson, Theodore, skinner, 203.

Tonbridge School, 188, 194.

Trades and occupations, see Misteries.

Trappe, John, skinner, 106 and n.

Trethewy, John, skinner, 55.

Tudenham, Thomas, knight, 135.

Tutbury, 81, 173 n.

U.

Universities, 9, 142 and n., 213.

Ural Mountains, 165, 175.

Utrecht, Treaty of (1474), 160, 161.

V.

Veckinchusen, Hildebrand, hansard, 75–77, 160, 224, 225.

Venice, 6, 67, 75, 76, 160, 173.

Viborg, 166.

Vikings, 62–63.

Vologda, 165.

Vyatka, 165.

W.

Walkeden, Geoffrey, skinner, 171 n.

Walsingham, 58.

Wanschede, John, hansard, 76.

, Tydemann, hansard, 70.

Ware, Thomas de, skinner, 119.

Warenne, Earldom of, 212.

Warrens and coneygarths, see Animals: hunting of.

Warter, Christopher, skinner and alderman, 55 n., 206–7.

Wenlock, Adam, tawyer, 88, 115.

Wight, Isle of, rabbits in, 210, 212.

Wiltshire, William, skinner, 85, 111 n.

Winchester, Bishopric of, 58, 212, 213.

Windsor Park, 19, 213.

Wolverston, Edmund, skinner, 203.

Worliche, Robert, skinner, 202.

Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, 4.

Wygemelle, William de, skinner, 80.

Y.

Yarmouth, 71.

York, Alan de, skinner, 78.

, Yorkshire, 36, 40, 56, 61.

Yugria, 165, 175.

Ziegler, Jacob, 172.