Appendix 2: Biographical Details of Individuals Mentioned in the Accounts

The Estate and Household Accounts of William Worsley Dean of St Paul's Cathedral 1479-1497. Originally published by Shaun Tyas on behalf of Richard III and Yorkist Trust and the London Record Society, Donington, 2004.

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'Appendix 2: Biographical Details of Individuals Mentioned in the Accounts', in The Estate and Household Accounts of William Worsley Dean of St Paul's Cathedral 1479-1497, (Donington, 2004) pp. 129-177. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/london-record-soc/vol40/pp129-177 [accessed 1 March 2024]

Appendix 2: Biographical Details of Individuals Mentioned in the Accounts

This appendix provides brief biographical information on the individuals mentioned in Worsley's accounts. It is not intended to give full biographies, and where published biographies are available elsewhere, only the briefest of details have been given and reference has been made to the relevant published works.

Abingdon, Berks, abbot of.

John Sant (d. 6 January 1495), elected abbot December 1469 following the resignation of his predecessor, William Asshendon. He came into contact with Worsley's household in 1489–90 as collector of a clerical tenth. In that same year – 1489 – Sant became guilty of a conspiracy against Henry VII, the so-called Abbot of Abingdon's Plot, an attempt to free the Earl of Warwick, which ultimately failed. (fn. 1)

Aleyn, William, of Runwell, Essex.

Aleyn was Worsley's farmer of Runwell from 1495, in succession to John Bek (q.v.). He is difficult to identify as there were several men of this name active in the south-east in this period, including a clergyman alive in Henry VIII's reign and a London baker. (fn. 2) However, the Dean's farmer was probably one of two more prominent men. He may have been the man who was alleged to have been a creditor of Laurence Damlet (q.v.) in a suit against Damlet's executors, brought in the London mayor's court by the London ironmonger Hugh Aleyn, who may have been a kinsman. This man, a London citizen and mercer, had married Barbara, widow of Robert Grene, but seems to have died childless in late 1519 or early 1520. (fn. 3) Another plausible candidate is William Aleyn of Rayleigh, an Essex landowner, who died in 1517, survived by his wife Anne and three sons. At some point between 1474 and 1485 this man was accused of an act of extortion by a priest, John Rome, whom he had had imprisoned by the sheriffs of London. (fn. 4)

Alyff, John, of Essex.

In 1495–96 deputy of the Earl of Oxford (q.v.), then chief steward of the Dean's estates in Essex, the following year Alyff was described as steward of the estates in the soke of St. Paul's in Essex. He is likely to have been a kinsman of the William Ayloff who acted as an executor of the Dean's will. (fn. 5) Another putative kinsman, Thomas Ayloff, had married the daughter of Robert Forster (q.v.), brother of the archdeacon of London. (fn. 6)

Armar, John, of London.

An armourer by trade, Armar was the otherwise unidentified craftsman who supplied the apparel of the Dean and his retinue for their Scottish journey in 1480–81. (fn. 7)

Arnoldson, Arnold

In 1487–88 Arnoldson held an unspecified tenement from the Dean, for which a lock was bought at Worsley's expense. He died in December 1496 and was survived by his wife whom he had appointed his executrix. (fn. 8)

Audley, Master [Edmund], bp. of Hereford.

Son of James Tuchet, Lord Audley. Educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, Audley (d. 23 August 1524) soon assembled a number of benefices, including a canonry at St. George's, Windsor, and the prebend of Mora at St. Paul's, which he held from 1476 to 1480, also becoming archdeacon of Essex. A significant pluralist, he was absent from Worsley's election, but had appointed the future Dean, Thomas Jane (q.v.) and Richard Luke his proxies. In 1480 Audley was preferred to the see of Rochester, in 1492 translated to Hereford and in 1502 finally made bishop of Salisbury, at the same time becoming chancellor of the Order of the Garter. In 1495–96 Audley occurs in Worsley's accounts as tenant of Drayton, evidently having succeeded the Dean as the chapter's lessee. (fn. 9)

Ayskows, Thomas, of Edmonton, Mdx.

Not known to have been otherwise connected with the Dean, Ayskows occurs as one of the collectors appointed at Edmonton to collect the lay tenth granted to Henry VII in the 1497 Parliament. The original appointment shows that it was in fact his father, William Ayskows (d. 1499) of Edmonton, who was made collector that year. It is therefore probable, that Thomas served as his father's subcollector. Thomas died before 1523, and was succeeded by his son, Nicholas. His wife, Margaret, survived him and married Robert Wales. Elizabeth, the eldest of his six daughters, married Robert Page, two others, Margaret and Anne, married one David Jones and one Robert Vaughan respectively, and in 1532–33 the three were suing their father's executors for the marriage portions of £20 each which he had bequeathed to them in his will. (fn. 10)

Baldewyn, John, of London

In 1483–84 Baldewyn held a messuage adjacent to one of the Deanery's tenements. He may be the clergyman of that name who in June 1477 was pardoned his outlawry on account of a refusal to appear in court to answer for a debt of 50s. owed to a London embroiderer, John Lambe. (fn. 11)

Ballard, Richard, of Norton Folgate, Mdx.

Worsley's farmer at Norton Folgate in 1487–88, Ballard was probably a kinsman of M. Robert Ballard, the treasurer of St. Paul's 1474–78. (fn. 12) Likewise, he may have been related to, or even be the Richard Ballard of Romford, in the parish of Hornchurch, Essex, one of six siblings, who made his will on 26 July 1527. (fn. 13) Other Ballards, who were related to M. Thomas Kent, were resident in the parish of St. Katharine by the Tower, London, in the later fifteenth century. (fn. 14)

Bardolf, Edmund, of Watton, Herts.

Edmund was the eldest son of Henry Bardolf of Crowborough. Both Henry and his father, another Edmund, had died in rapid succession by July 1472, leaving Worsley's later farmer embroiled in a series of suits over both his paternal inheritance and his sister Elizabeth's marriage portion. Edmund died in late 1512 or early 1513, survived by his wife Elizabeth and his son Edmund, a minor. (fn. 15)

Bardolf, William of Ardleigh, Herts.

William Bardolf was the younger brother of Edmund Bardolf (q.v.), who in 1497 paid some of his brother's farm to the Dean's receivers. William Bardolf occurs in April 1497 as a petty constable or 'headborough' (capitalis plegius) at a view of frankpledge at Ardleigh. He died in April 1504, leaving three sons and a daughter, and survived by his wife Margaret who had previously been married to a member of the Halfched family. (fn. 16)

Barlowe, Robert of Heybridge, Essex.

A tenant or official at Heybridge in 1493–94, when he paid part of the preceding year's arrears to Roger Radcliff (q.v.). (fn. 17) He may have been the Colchester mercer of this name. This man's uncle Roger was a London tailor, and John Barlowe, a skinner of the London parish of St. Mary Colechurch, may have been another relative. Both Londoners mainperned for Robert's good behaviour in the aftermath of the Warbeck conspiracy in April 1495. (fn. 18)

Barthorn, Master John, of London.

Barthorn was one of the minor players in the vicious quarrel between Archbishop Morton and Bishop Hill of London (q.v.) in the first half of the 1490s. In April 1494 Hill had bills of excommunication against Thomas Percy, the prior of Holy Trinity Aldgate (q.v.), displayed in various prominent spots in the city, but the prior appealed against the bishop's actions to the primate. A proctor of the court of Canterbury, it fell to Barthorn to attempt to remove these documents while the appeal was pending. At the bishop's bidding he was arrested by the city authorities and imprisoned, and found himself forced to appeal to his master, the archbishop, in the latter's capacity as Chancellor of England to regain his freedom. In 1482–83 he occurs in Worsley's accounts buying a horse from the Dean. (fn. 19)

Bath and Wells, [Robert Stillington D.C.L.], bp. of

Son of John Stillington of Acaster near York, Stillington studied at Oxford where he was admitted to the degree of D.C.L. and served as principal of Deep Hall in 1442 and 1444. By August 1445 he served as chancellor of bishop Bekynton of Bath and Wells, and five years later he became archdeacon of Taunton and prebendary of Milverton at the bishop's cathedral. Further preferment and office were to follow: in 1458 he became Dean of St. Martin le Grand, London, and in the summer of 1460 the Yorkists appointed him Keeper of the Privy Seal, an office in which he continued after Edward IV's accession. In 1465 he was preferred to the see of Bath and Wells and two years later he was appointed Chancellor. He continued in this office until 1473, only being replaced during Henry VI's readeption. He eventually fell out of favour with Edward IV and in early 1478 was placed in the Tower, having to pay a heavy fine for his release. Richard Ill's accession was advantageous for Stillington as he was close to the King, but when the tables turned in 1485 he was once more threatened with arrest and had to take refuge in Oxford. By the later 1480s he was growing increasingly old and frail and was dead by May 1491. The bishop held a tenement in Sutton from Worsley, for which arrears were owing in 1480–81. (fn. 20)

Bedmaker, Thomas

A clothworker, probably an upholder, by trade, Bedmaker supplied several items including a pavillion for the Scottish expedition. (fn. 21)

Bek, John, of Runwell, Essex.

Worsley's farmer of Runwell by 1487, Bek (or Bekke) continued to hold the farm until 1494–95, when he was succeeded by William Aleyn (q.v.). (fn. 22)

Berebrewer, Alexander, of London.

Alongside the ale supplied by a series of brewers based at London and Hackney, the Worsley household also consumed quantities of beer, which were for much of the period covered by the accounts bought from Alexander, resident at 'le Hermitage'. He supplied beer to the Dean's household as early as 1479 and continued to do so until at least 1484–85, but probably as late as 1487–88. (fn. 23)

Bernard, John, of Chepyng Lambourn, Berks.

Bernard was procurator at the Dean's church of Chepyng Lambourn between at least 1480 and 1485, but had been replaced by Thomas Garrard (q.v.) by 1487. He is likely to have been related to the John Bernard of Lambourn who acted as a feoffee for lands in Berkshire in 1429. (fn. 24)

Bocas or Bogas, Thomas, of Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

Bogas succeeded James Raderford (q.v.) as bailiff and collector of rents of assize in the soke of St. Paul's in Essex in 1482 and continued in this office until at least 1497. From at least 1487 to 1489 he also held the rectory of Kirby to farm. (fn. 25)

Booth, Laurence, abp. of York.

A member of the prolific Booth family and a kinsman of Dean Worsley, Booth (d. 19 May 1480) was a younger and probably illegitimate son of John Booth (d. 1422) of Barton, Lancs. He was educated at Cambridge, where he became a fellow and subsequently master of Pembroke College. In March 1451 he was made chancellor of the household of Queen Margaret and in September 1456 Keeper of the Privy Seal. Less than two months later, he was elected Dean of St. Paul's, but within a year of his election he was preferred to the see of Durham (1457–1476). Despite his close links to Henry VI's government, he was appointed confessor to Edward IV in April 1461. Yet, for some years Edward did not fully trust him and only after the Nevilles' fall from grace, as a result of their involvement in the Readeption Crisis was he made archbishop of York (from 1476 to his death), as which he appears in Worsley's account of 1481–82. Two of his numerous kinsmen also rose into the episcopate: his brother William Booth (d. 12 Sept. 1464), Worsley's particular patron, became bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1447–52) and archbishop of York (1452–d.) and his nephew John Booth (d. 5 April 1478) bishop of Exeter (1465–d.). (fn. 26)

Booth, Philip, esq., of Bergham, Suffolk.

Born in about 1455, Philip was son and heir of William, eldest son of Richard Booth (d. 1471) of Bergham by his wife Katharine, the daughter and sole heiress of the Suffolk esquire Philip atte Oke (d. 1421). (fn. 27) He married Margaret, daughter of Sir William Hopton (d. 1484), and they had a single daughter, Adriana, who married a son of Robert Litton (q.v.). (fn. 28) The connection of the Booths of Bergham with the main line at Barton is uncertain, but it is likely to have been a close one, for Philip's paternal uncle Robert (d. 1488) became Dean of York in 1477, a year after Laurence Booth's (q.v.) translation to the archiepiscopal see, and his father Richard had earlier also been associated with the later archbishop. (fn. 29) Also related to Worsley, he appears in the Dean's household accounts in the aftermath of the Warbeck conspiracy. In 1495 he acted as one of the mainpernors for Worsley's future good behaviour, and his links within the London mercers' company, to which he had been admitted in 1494 on payment of £5, became crucial in raising securities for the Dean. (fn. 30) Yet, his relationship with the ageing Dean was a stormy one: Worsley brought suits for accounts against Booth and his fellow receiver Edmund Worsley (q.v.); Booth countered with a suit for securities for the bonds he had made on the Dean's behalf in 1495. (fn. 31) Within a few years Booth also took his place in the administration of his county. He was added to the Suffolk bench in July 1500, and, having been knighted in November 1501, at the wedding of Arthur, prince of Wales, served as sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1506–07. (fn. 32) He became close to Henry VIII, and was appointed knight of the body in 1516. (fn. 33) In 1523 he was appointed collector of a subsidy in Suffolk. (fn. 34) Booth died on 13 September 1528, leaving his grandson Robert Litton (b. c.1510) as his heir. (fn. 35)

Bordeman, Robert, ?of Lincolnshire.

Presumably a member of Worsley's household, he was equipped to accompany the Dean to Scotland in 1480. (fn. 36) A John Bordeman held lands in 'Gosberkirk', Lincs., in the right of his wife Margery, which by the end of Henry VII's reign had descended to their daughter Agnes, wife of William Cheell. (fn. 37)

Botery, William, of London.

By 1477 Botery was attached to St. Paul's cathedral as chaplain of the Dungeon chantry, and he continued in this position until at least 1488. He first occurs in Worsley's accounts in 1480–81 along with Thomas Smith (q.v.) as executor of Adam Friday (q.v.), clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's cathedral. The following year he was one of the executors of the deceased subdean, Laurence Damlet (q.v.), who sold certain items to Worsley. Along with his co-executor, Thomas Elys, a minor canon, he fell victim to the machinations of a London ironmonger, Hugh Aleyn, who sued them in the mayor's court of London for a debt of £20 supposedly owed by Damlet and caused them to be imprisoned. (fn. 38)

Bovour or Bover, Thomas, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1493–94 Bovour took a newly built watermill at Thorpe to farm from Worsley and continued as farmer there until at least 1497. He may be the Thomas Bowar who by the early sixteenth century had married Joan, widow of Robert Willis of the parishes of St. Dunstan in the East and Allhallows in the Wall, London. (fn. 39)

Bower, Richard, of Barling, Essex.

Bower was Worsley's farmer of Barling between at least 1487 and 1490. (fn. 40)

Braddows, Robert, of Markshall, Essex, and London.

Braddows was rector of Markshall, Essex, and from 1484 until his death in 1493–94 rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, London. He occurs in Worsley's 1480–81 account as commissary general of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. His responsibilities included the administration of the goods of persons dying intestate within the Chapter's jurisdiction and thus he was involved in acrimonious disputes in the courts on more than one occasion. (fn. 41)

Bray, John, of Caddington, Beds.

Worsley's farmer of Caddington from 1482–83, he was still farmer there in 1497. (fn. 42)

Bray, Sir Reginald kt., of Woking, Surrey.

Born in about 1440, Bray became steward to Lady Margaret Beaufort, Henry VII's mother, and he owed his subsequent exceptional advancement to Henry Tudor's accession. Knighted at the King's coronation, he was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster and Lord Treasurer in 1485, and although he was replaced in the latter office by John, Lord Dinham, in 1486 and thereafter served as undertreasurer, he is likely to have continued to be the more dominant of the two men. He had helped Dinham secure a pardon for his brother-in-law, Lord Zouche, from Henry VII in return for generous remuneration. His connection with Worsley was a similar one, for it cannot be doubted that the Dean's grant to Bray of his Hackney property and an annual fee was the price of his pardon in 1496. Bray died in 1503. His executors included Sir John Shaa (q.v.) and Simon Digby (q.v.). (fn. 43)

Bray, Thomas, of Caddington, Beds.

A probable kinsman of John Bray (q.v.) he paid some of John's rents to Edmund Worsley in April 1497. (fn. 44)

Breych, Richard, of Southwell, Notts.

An official of the archdeaconry of Nottingham in 1479–80 when he was answerable to Worsley for the issues of this northern benefice. He may have been a trained lawyer, for he later occurs as a mainpernor for members of the Nottinghamshire gentry. (fn. 45)

Broke, John, of Essex.

Broke was one of Worsley's tenants in the soke in Essex in 1493–94 in which year he paid a fine in the Dean's court there. (fn. 46)

Bromley, Sir Thomas, of London.

By 1477 Bromley was active at St. Paul's cathedral as chaplain of the chantry of Gilbert de Brewer and he continued as such until at least 1488, but possibly even into the sixteenth century. In 1480–81 he was to accompany the Dean on his journey to Scotland and equipment was bought for him. He continued his association with Worsley and in 1495 mainperned for his loyalty. (fn. 47)

Bukke, William, of London.

A London tailor, Bukke (d. 1501) annually supplied the cloth liveries for the Dean's servants throughout the period covered by the accounts. Presumably because of this supply activity the accounts regularly describe him as a draper. He rose through the ranks of his profession to become master of the Merchant Tailors' Company in 1488–89. Apart from his house in the parish of St. Mary Aldermanbury, London, he also owned further property in the same parish as well as a garden in St. Laurence Jewry. He had four sons and a daughter and was survived until 1522 by his wife, who after Bukke's death married Stephen Jenyns. (fn. 48)

Bulman, John, of London.

In 1482–83 Bulman was paying rent for a Deanery tenement to Roger Radcliff (q.v.). By late 1484 he also held to farm from the Dean and Chapter a small mansion in Pope's Alley, part of the endowment of Pultenay's chantry. He continued as tenant there until at least 1489. He may be the same man who was preferred to a parsonage in Norfolk by May 1484, and later, described as a 'chaplain', became one of the executors of Walter Lihert, bishop of Norwich. (fn. 49)

Bunewell, Thomas, of Hackney, Mdx.

Alongside Roger Radcliff (q.v.) Bunewell was a prominent member of the Dean's household throughout the period covered by the accounts. Acting as rent collector at Hackney and Ardleigh in the late 1480s and 1490s, he was referred to as steward of the Dean's household in 1482–83, but under all circumstances appears to have been subordinate to Radcliff. (fn. 50)

Burgh, John, of Walton-le-Soken, Essex.

Burgh was the Dean's tenant of the bakehouse of Walton at some point prior to 1493–94. (fn. 51)

Butler, Laurence, of London.

In March 1473 Butler was presented by the mayor of London to the second of the three chantries of Sir John Pulteney and of the former archdeacons of Colchester, William Milford and John Plesseys. He resigned this benefice in mid-1488, presumably to concentrate on more administrative duties at the cathedral, for in 1489–90 he, together with John Farman (q.v.), took on the offices of chamberlain and clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's. He was still in office in 1495–96, by which date he appears to have been specialising in the latter position. (fn. 52)

Candish, John, of Heybridge, Essex.

Farmer of Heybridge mill 1479–83, Candish had previously in 1478 become involved in a violent quarrel with his neighbour Robert Pere (q.v.). The men beat each other and Candish was said to have drawn a dagger. (fn. 53)

Carter, John, of Bancroft in Walton-le-Soken, Essex.

Carter, William

John Carter was farmer of Bancroft rectory between 1479–88. By 1493 he had been succeeded as farmer there by his putative son William. In 1458 a John Carter was churchwarden at Kirby, while the same man or a namesake held a similar post at Walton. In 1489–90 a man of the same name, probably another younger kinsman, occurs at Thorpe. A William Carter held lands at Gestingthorpe, Essex, until his death in 1498. (fn. 54)

Cartwryght, Thomas, of Southwell, Notts.

Cartwryght probably entered Worsley's service during his time at Southwell, where he served as a vicar choral from 1476. His conduct during his early years at Southwell was somewhat unorthodox, and he was one of a small group of vicars choral who were disciplined several times for wearing daggers, absenting themselves from divine service, staying in town until late, and taking their breakfast in town while prime was being sung at the minster. On other occasions he was said to have been playing at backgammon at times of service, and, even more seriously, boasted of his wrongdoing. In February 1479, Cartwryght and a fellow vicar, Robert Layn, were charged with having begun a fight in the churchyard, Cartwryght armed with a dagger, while his opponent wielded a cudgel. More interesting, however, were Cartwryght's musical talents. He appears to have been somewhat of an innovator, introducing a new form of harmonic plainsong to the choir. Such innovation did not meet with the approval of his fellows, who at visitations complained unanimously that Cartwryght had a singular and new-fangled way of singing, did not listen to the others and disturbed the chorus. Cartwryght only aggravated matters by boasting of his own ability and mocking his fellows' performance. It is interesting that Worsley nevertheless chose this man as one of his household chaplains in the early years of his Deanery, paying him an annual salary until c. 1483–84. (fn. 55)

Chace, [John], of Isleworth, Mdx.

In 1495–96 a man called Chace was deputy of the collector of the first half of a clerical tenth at Willesden. He was presumably the same man who acted as collector of a lay subsidy in Middlesex in 1489. This John Chace married Maud, daughter of Geoffrey Godelake, a servant of John Stafford, then bishop of Bath and Wells. Chace aquired much of his property in the parish of St. Clement Danes, as well as some in Isleworth from his wife's parents. They had a daughter Elizabeth, who married William Merston. Chace, however, failed to fulfil the marriage agreement reached with Merston, forcing his son-in-law to sue for his wife's dowry. (fn. 56)

Chaddekyrke, Henry

A member of the Dean's entourage accompanying him towards Scotland in 1480–81. (fn. 57)

Chalk, John, ?of Walden, Essex.

In 1479–80 Chalk was paid for the carriage of a quantity of wood to the Dean's household in London. He may have been the Walden man who was connected with the Say family or a kinsman. (fn. 58)

Charlton, Sir Richard, kt., of Edmonton and Hillingdon, Mdx.

Born in about 1449 as eldest surviving son of a former Speaker of the Commons, Richard was a minor at his father's death in 1465. Having proved his age in 1470, he became close to the Yorkist court, and was knighted alongside the Prince of Wales at Westminster on 18 April 1475. In spite of this initial connection with Edward IV's son, Charlton served Richard III on a number of royal commissions and fought for him at Bosworth where he was killed. Posthumously attainted, some of his forfeited lands were subsequently restored to members of his family. Worsley's accounts record the payment of an annual rent to Charlton during his life and afterwards to his heirs. This rent was presumably derived from the manor of Edmonton, which after Sir Richard's attainder passed to his sister Agnes and her husband, who appear in the accounts simply as 'the lord of the manor of Edmonton' (q.v.). (fn. 59)

Chaterton, Thomas, of Heybridge, Essex.

Chaterton and Katharine his wife were Worsley's tenants at Heybridge, holding a cottage and a croft of 1½a. of land. He may be identical with the man who in 1502–3 was indebted to the London mercer Roger Bowecer and who around 1480 was dealing in large quantities of wood. (fn. 60)

Clarkson, William, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

A Lincoln's Inn lawyer, Clarkson was steward of the soke of St. Paul's between at least 1487–90, in succession to Robert Forster (q.v.). He was probably the man who appeared in the manor court of Wickham St. Paul in 1482 to sue the clerk Robert Blakwalle for a debt of 6s. 8d. (fn. 61)

Clerk, John, of London.

By 1480 rent collector of the Dean, and probably also of the Chapter of St. Paul's, within the city of London, Clerk continued to serve in the same office until 1489, when he was succeeded by William Trent (q.v.). (fn. 62)

Cleydon, John, of Essex.

Cleydon was one of the Dean's tenants in the soke in Essex, and paid a fine in a court held there in 1493–94. (fn. 63)

Colles (alias Scholes), Master Nicholas of London.

Thought to have been an Oxfordshire man, Colles trained in the law to become a notary public and set up a London residence in a house near St. Paul's. By the summer of 1474 he was employed by Richard Martyn, one of the clerks of Chancery. By May 1477 he was acting as proctor at law of New College, Oxford, five years later he served Magdalen College in the same capacity. Admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1479, by the 1480s he was also employed by the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's as notary and registrar. In this capacity he took responsibility alongside the Chapter's commissary general, Robert Braddows (q.v.), for the administration of the goods of persons having died intestate within the Chapter's peculiar jurisdiction and occasionally had to defend their actions in the courts. Worsley's 1487–88 account describes him as scribe to the commissary of the Deanery of St. Paul's, but may be referring to his previous position. Between 1488 and 1490 he delivered the fines for corrections in the Deanery of St. Paul's to Roger Radcliff (q.v.). By 1490 at the latest, Colles can be found practising in the court of Canterbury. His precedent book survives to the present day in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. (fn. 64)

Colyngham, Master Robert B.Cn.L., of Notts.

A Cambridge graduate like Worsley, Colyngham was instituted as vicar of East Stoke, Notts., by 1470–71. He exchanged this for the church of Bishop's Wickham, Essex, but in June 1480 was re-admitted to East Stoke. About the same time he was also admitted to the vicarage of Mansfield, Notts., which he surrendered in June 1499. In the summer of 1486 he vacated East Stoke a second time in favour of the rectory of St. Peter's Nottingham, which he retained until his death. In 1496–97 Colyngham was an official of the archdeaconry of Nottingham. He was one of several men charged with receiving part of Worsley's income from inductions in the archdeaconry on behalf of the collector, Richard Samesbury (q.v.). He made his will in May 1499, asking to be buried in his church of St. Peter's and died within the next two months. (fn. 65)

Comber alias Combes, Robert

A chaplain in the Dean's household by 1484–85, Combes continued in this capacity until 1489–90. (fn. 66)

Cook, Clement, of Drayton, Mdx.

Cook held the mill of Drayton to farm of the Dean by 1480 and continued as farmer there until at least 1490. (fn. 67) A Clement Cook was granted a cottage and lands in Whitton, Mdx., in December 1465. (fn. 68)

Cook, John, of London.

In 1483–84 Cook held land next to a tenement of the Deanery's. (fn. 69)

Cook, Matthew, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Cook was the Dean's farmer of 'Thorpe Hall' in 1479, but was replaced by Thomas Smith (q.v.) at St. Peter ad vincula the following year. (fn. 70)

Cotez, John

In 1480 Cotez sold a number of horses to the Dean for his journey towards Scotland. (fn. 71)

Counteys, Edmund, of Caddington and Kensworth, Beds.

The Dean's farmer of Caddington and Kensworth by 1480, in 1482 Counteys surrendered Caddington (which was then farmed to John Bray (q.v.)), but continued as farmer of Kensworth until at least 1490. He was perhaps dismissed for allowing his farm to fall into arrears and by 1493 he had been succeeded as farmer by Richard Wynche (q.v.) (fn. 72)

Cressy, Marmaduke

A servant of the Dean in the first year of his Deanery. (fn. 73)

Dallyng, Geoffrey, of Heybridge, Essex.

Farmer of Heybridge by 1487, Dallyng later also served the Dean as rent collector there. In 1489 William Colman and Joan his wife surrendered a cottage at the end of the bridge of Heybridge to Dallyng's use. (fn. 74)

Damlet, Sir Laurence, of London.

A minor canon of St. Paul's, Damlet (d. 1481–82) was subdean of St. Paul's cathedral by 1468 and continued in office up to his death. In 1474 he acted alongside Worsley as a trustee of the London stationer Nicholas Sylverton. In 1481–82 Worsley bought number of items from Damlet's executors, Thomas Elys, a minor canon and later subdean, and William Botery (q.v.). (fn. 75)

Dene alias Deyne, Richard, of Hackney, Mdx.

Dene was a brewer based at Hackney, close to Worsley's main residence. He was one of a number of men of his trade to supply the Dean's household with ale and is recorded as doing this from 1495 to 1497. (fn. 76) He may have been related to the synonymous London skinner and Calais stapler who took John Fitzherbert's (q.v.) closes in Hackney to farm from him for 13 years in March 1502. This man died in the second half of 1519, survived by his wife Joan. (fn. 77)

Dey, Thomas, of Mdx.

One of the Dean's servants, who took charge of receiving some of his rents and farms in Middlesex in 1496–97. (fn. 78)

Digby, Simon, of Coleshill, Warwicks.

A younger son of Everard Digby of Tilton-on-the-Hill, Leics., Digby and his brothers fought for Henry VII at Bosworth and rose rapidly in the victorious Tudor King's service. Simon became deputy constable of the Tower of London, in which capacity he received payment from Worsley. He was well connected in Henry VII's inner circle, for his brother John became Marshall of the King's household. Simon himself became closely acquainted with Sir Reginald Bray (q.v.), and was to act as one of his executors. It was as a consequence of his connections that Worsley granted him an annual fee in 1495–96. Digby died on 24 February 1520, survived by his wife, Alice, and was succeeded by his son Reynold. (fn. 79)

Dorset, Thomas Grey, Lord Ferrers of Groby, Marquess of

Born in about 1451 as son and heir of John, Lord Ferrers of Groby (alias Sir John Grey), by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Wydeville, 1st Earl Rivers (afterwards queen consort of King Edward IV). Thomas was consequently a stepson of Edward IV, and was created Earl of Huntingdon on 14 August 1471. He renounced this title, and on 18 April 1475 was made Marquess of Dorset, a title which Henry VII confirmed in 1486. He increased his landholdings substantially by his two successive marriages to wealthy noble heiresses, first to Anne, only daughter of Thomas Holand, Duke of Exeter, and secondly to Cicely, granddaughter of William, Lord Bonville (d. 1461). In 1481–82 the Marquess was entertained in the Dean's house, an occasion for which a substantial number of cloth items were specially acquired. He died in 1501. (fn. 80)

Downing, Geoffrey, of Belchamp St. Paul, Essex.

Downing held various lands in Belchamp St. Paul, including a garden called 'Hamondes' in a street called 'Mellegrene', as well as others in nearby Belchamp William and Belchamp Otton. By 1487 Downing also held Worsley's manor at Belchamp St. Paul to farm, and continued as farmer until at least 1495–96. Downing made his will in August 1503 and was dead within two months. He was survived by his second wife, Margery – the first, Alice, had died in his lifetime – and left a son, John, who was betrothed to Mary Carder, a widow. The provisions of his will included prayers for Thomas Watson (q.v.) (fn. 81)

Edmonton, Mdx., lord of the manor of

From 1488–90 Worsley's accounts record payments to the lord of the manor of Edmonton. Until his death in 1485 this manor had formed part of the estates of Sir Richard Charlton (q.v.). By virtue of Charlton's attainder the manor came into the King's hand, who on 7 March 1486 granted it to Charlton's sister Agnes and her second husband, Sir Thomas Bourgchier. (fn. 82)

Essenwolde, John, of London.

Son of the London brewer Robert Essenwolde, John took up his father's trade and became one of a number of men who supplied ale to the Dean's household. Worsley's accounts note payments to him between 1479 and 1481. (fn. 83)

Essex, Henry Bourgchier, Earl of

Born in about 1404 as son and heir of Sir William Bourgchier, afterwards count of Eu in Normandy, by Anne, daughter of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Essex. He succeeded his father as Count of Eu in May 1420, and was created Viscount Bourgchier in 1446, and Earl of Essex on 30 June 1461. He married before 25 April 1426 Isabel, daughter of Richard, Earl of Cambridge. He served as Lord Treasurer of England in 1455–56, 1460–62 and from 1471 until his death on 4 April 1483. (fn. 84)

Essex, Henry Bourgchier, Earl of

Born in about 1472 as son and heir of Sir William Bourgchier (d.v.p. February 1483), eldest son of Henry Bourgchier, Earl of Essex (d. 1483) (q.v.), by Anne, 3rd daughter of Richard Wydeville, Earl Rivers. He married Mary, elder daughter and coheiress of Sir William Say (q.v.) of Broxbourne and Essenden, and, having found significant favour under Henry VIII, died as a result of a riding accident on 13 March 1540, leaving a single daughter. (fn. 85)

Farman, John, of London.

A chaplain in Worsley's household from 1487, in 1489–90 Farman, together with Laurence Butler (q.v.), took on the offices of chamberlain and clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's. He was still in office in 1495–96, by which date he appears to have been specialising in the former position. At the same time, he appears to have assumed some duties as collector of the Dean and Chapter, an office which by 1501 had been assumed by Thomas Nutson. (fn. 86)

Felix, John, of Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

A butcher by trade, Felix came from a family long-established at Kirby. Two kinsmen, Robert and William Felyx, were churchwardens in 1458. It was also there that he acted as a subcollector of the King's taxes in 1497. (fn. 87)

Fitton, George, of Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

Fitton was vicar of Kirby in 1496–97 when he received some of the issues of Walton on behalf of Edmund Worsley (q.v.). (fn. 88)

Fitzherbert, John, of London.

Fitzherbert was born in about 1435 as son of Sir Nicholas Fitzherbert (d. 19 November 1473). He began his Exchequer career in 1464 as Clerk of the Estreats, subsequently serving as a teller (c. 1472–85), Foreign Apposer (1474–85) and King's Remembrancer (1480–d.), with a brief spell as a Deputy Chamberlain during Richard III's reign. He married Joan (fl. 1528), daughter of Robert Babington, and they had at least one son and two daughters. As Fitzherbert's son Henry died in his father's lifetime, his eventual heir at his death on 18 November 1502 was his grandson Eustace (1491–1518). In 1481 he was appointed collector of a clerical tenth, in which capacity he occurs in Worsley's account for 1480–81. Holding lands as far afield as Derbyshire he also owned property in Hackney, including a house in Humblonstreet which he had bought, but he lived in a rented house in St. Bartholomew's close, West Smithfield. Fitzherbert's wider family also had links with Worsley's circle and family: in his will he mentioned his cousin Odeby, and his great-niece Dorothy later married a Ralph Langford. (fn. 89)

Fitzwarren, Thomas, of London.

A London goldsmith, Fitzwarren was not a regular supplier of the Dean's household, but is only known to have sold a gilded cup to Worsley in 1479–80. Nothing further is known of him, but he may have been related to a synonymous leatherseller of the parish of St. Benet with landholdings in Berkshire and Gloucestershire who died in 1499. Another possible kinsman of the same name was a verger of St. Paul's. (fn. 90)

Flynte, Nicholas, of London.

A London goldsmith, Flynte's youth saw some unruly incidents, such as his quarrel with David Panter, whom he called a 'roughfooted Scot'. Henry VII appointed him controller, changer and assayer of the mint, and in 1487 also graver of the irons. In March 1490 Flynte was appointed surveyor and controller of the Irish mints and mines. He continued to hold his posts at the London mint until April 1495 when he was succeded by Henry Wyott, to be made royal pavillioner in April 1496. (fn. 91)

Ford alias Forth, Roger, of London.

A taverner, Ford held a tenement called 'Powles hede' from the Deanery until Michaelmas 1483. (fn. 92)

Ford, William

A servant of the Dean who, alongside John Morton (q.v.), transacted certain business at the Exchequer on his behalf. (fn. 93)

Forster, Robert, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, and London.

By 1480–81 Forster served Worsley as steward of the soke of St. Paul's, and continued in this post until 1484–85, to be eventually replaced by William Clarkson (q.v.). (fn. 94) He should probably be identified with the lawyer Robert Forster of Islington and London, clerk of hell at the royal courts at Westminster, and brother of Master John Forster, the archdeacon of London. He held lands in Tottenham, Westminster and Hendon and died on 13 May 1485, leaving a 15-year-old son and three daughters. (fn. 95)

Fourth, [–], of Oakley, Essex.

Alongside John Felix (q.v.), one of the sub-collectors of the King's taxation at Kirby-le-Soken in 1496–97. (fn. 96)

Fox, John, of Edmonton, Mdx.

Fox was probably of low origins, for a man of this name recorded at Edmonton in 1469 was described as a 'husbandman'. Our John is first known to have been associated with Worsley in 1480–81, when he was paid for the making of a jack for the Scottish expedition. By 1481 he was, jointly with Edward Westby (q.v.), farmer of Bowes and Polehouse, but he still occurs in this capacity in 1497. A reference to a William Fox as farmer in 1495–96 is probably the result of a scribal error. (fn. 97)

Freman, Robert, ?of London.

Freman was a chaplain connected with the Dean at the time of his imprisonment in the Tower. (fn. 98)

Frende, Joan, of Acton, Mdx.

Frende, Robert, of Acton, Mdx.

Frende, Roger, of Willesden and Acton, Mdx.

In 1460 Roger Frende (d. c. 1483), originally a yeoman of Willesden, leased three fields and two crofts in Acton from Master William Say, then Dean, and the Chapter of St. Paul's. By 1480 at the latest, he was the farmer of Worsley's lands at Acton. (fn. 99) He was dead by 1483–84, when Joan, his widow, brought a suit in chancery for his landholdings. Three years later, in 1487–88, Joan herself accounted for the farm. (fn. 100) That same year Robert Frende, younger son of Roger and Joan, acted as a royal tax collector at Willesden. Robert subsequently went on to become farmer of Acton himself. (fn. 101)

Frost, William, of Wadende in Ardleigh, Herts.

By 1482–83 Frost held Wadende to farm from Worsley and continued as farmer there at least until 1497. He was probably the same man who served as decennarius (tithingman) in 1495–96 and as constable from 1496–98 at Ardleigh. (fn. 102)

Friday, Adam, of London.

Clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's cathedral in 1479–80, Friday died that same year, probably while still in office, and was succeeded by Thomas Skypwith (q.v.). Thomas Smith (q.v.), one of Worsley's chaplains and farmer of 'Thorpe Hall', and William Botery (q.v.) were appointed his executors. (fn. 103)

Fuldon alias Fulledene, John, of Hackney, Mdx.

Fuldon was an official of the Dean's receiving an annual fee of 13s. 4d. in 1479–80. The following year, Fuldon took charge of the acquisition of various types of grain and hay on his master's behalf. In 1482–83 and 1484–85 he also acted as the Dean's collector at Ardleigh, at the same time as acting as 'appruator' at Hackney. (fn. 104)

Garrard, Thomas, of Chepyng Lambourn, Berks.

By 1487–88 Garrard had succeeded John Bernard (q.v.) as procurator of Chepyng Lambourn. He continued there for some years, and occurs again as farmer of the rectory of Lambourn in 1495–96, and continued in the farm until at least 1501. However, after the Dean's death he was forced to bring a suit in chancery against Worsley's executors who demanded payments of his farm which he claimed already to have made to Worsley and his successor, Robert Sherborne. (fn. 105)

German, John, of Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

Worsley's farmer of the rectory of Kirby between 1479 and 1485, in 1458 German was executor of the will of Alice Poppes, who had bequeathed a cow to the church there. (fn. 106)

Godde, Master Robert B.Cn.L., of Kingston and Taunton, Som.

Descended from a westcountry family, Godde was instituted to the vicarage of Kingston at the presentation of the prior of Taunton in 1471. Some years later, in 1478, he acted as proctor for his brother, Master William Godde, at the latter's institution to the prebend of Warminster at Wells cathedral. When William died five years later, Robert acted as one of his executors and received a bequest of various books and garments. By 1495–96 Godde was an official of the archdeaconry of Taunton, who that year was charged with the collection of Worsley's revenue from the archdeaconry. (fn. 107)

Gray's Inn, London, steward of

At least in Worsley's early years at St. Paul's, the steward of Gray's Inn was paid an annual pension of 3s. 8d. by the Dean. (fn. 108)

Grege, John

In the course of the preparations for the Scottish expedition of 1480, Grege was paid for mending a jack. (fn. 109)

Grene, John, of Wickham St. Paul, Essex.

Worsley's farmer at Wickham St. Paul between 1480 and 1496, he may have been one of the two men of the same name who served as churchwardens there in 1458. One of the latter two, perhaps father and son, that year also acted as a surety that a new light or lamp would be found for the church. Grene, who also held lands at Gestingthorpe, probably resided in his house called 'Walshes' at Wickham. He made his will in February 1506 and died shortly afterwards. He left a daughter, Anne, who married George Reynew and was survived by his wife, Joan. (fn. 110) Grene may have been related or even identical with the synonymous stepson and apprentice of the mercer William Aleyn (q.v.). (fn. 111)

Grymston, Sir John, of London.

Grymston served as chapain of the Wendover chantry at St. Paul's from at least 1477 and continued in this capacity until about 1486–87 when he was replaced by John Rogers. In 1481–82 he received a payment for the memory of the souls of the Dean's parents. He may have been the chaplain who in 1450 was appointed one of the executors of the London draper William Bangore, and who as such was shortly afterwards sued by Bangore's next heir. (fn. 112)

Hale, William, of Norton Folgate, Mdx.

A servant of the Dean who first occurs in the 1481–82 account in connection with a payment for an estreat, Hale seems to have taken responsibility for holding the Dean's court at Norton Folgate in 1483–84. He may have been either the same man who was appointed a tax collector in Middlesex in 1492 as William Hale the younger, or his father. The younger man later became keeper of the London palace of Richard Nykke (q.v.), bishop of Norwich. (fn. 113)

Haliwell, Mdx., prioress of

Worsley held several tenements in London, including one called 'le Spaldynghouse', from the priory, for which annual quit rents of 3s. were paid in 1483–84. The name of the prioress at the time is uncertain, but either Elizabeth Prudde, elected 1472 and documented in 1474, or Joan Lynde, who had been elected by 1515, may have been in office. (fn. 114)

Harlesley, John, of London.

In 1483–84 Harlesley held a tenement at 'Paules Cheyn' to farm from the Dean. (fn. 115)

Harnes or Herneys, John, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

From at least 1493 John Harnes held John Kent's (q.v.) former tenement at Thorpe to farm of Worsley. He was still farmer there in 1496–97. (fn. 116)

Haryngton, John

One of the last chaplains to become attached to the Dean's household, his salary first occurs in the account for 1495–96. (fn. 117) He may have been a kinsman of William Haryngton, canon of St. Paul's and prebendary of Islington from 1497 to 1523. (fn. 118) Another contemporary putative kinsman, Dr. John Haryngton, was a canon lawyer and advocate in the court of Arches. (fn. 119)

Herde, John, of Runwell, Essex.

Joint farmer of Runwell with John Hey (q.v.) in 1484–86, they had themselves been replaced by John Bek (q.v.) by 1487–88. (fn. 120)

Herdyng, William, of Maldon, Essex.

In 1496–97 Herdyng sold a millstone for a grain mill to the farmer of Heybridge manor. (fn. 121)

Heron, Sir John, of Hackney, Mdx.

An Exchequer official close to Henry VII, Heron eventually became a chamberlain of the Exchequer in his son's reign, serving in the office from 1516 until his death on 15 June 1521. Under Henry VIII he rose to become Treasurer of the Chamber to the King. Like other members of Henry VII's inner circle, he received payments from Worsley after his pardon for his involvement in the Warbeck affair. At his death he was survived by his wife Margaret and left five sons and three daughters, one of whom married the illegitimate grandson of Henry VII's Treasurer, John, Lord Dinham. (fn. 122)

Hethe, Robert, of London.

Hethe served as rent collector of the Dean and Chapter in London and its suburb from about 1476–77. In 1480–81 he paid £4 to William Hill (q.v.), his successor in this office. (fn. 123)

Hewet, John, of Ratcliff, Mdx.

Hewet, William, of Ratcliff, Mdx.

John Hewet held the mill of Ratcliff to farm from Worsley from at least 1480, and he was still farmer there in 1484–85, then described in the Dean's accounts as the miller. Two years later he had been succeeded by his putative son, William. (fn. 124)

Hewyk, John, of Chipping Ongar, Essex, and London.

John Hewyk served as auditor of the Dean's estates from at least 1480, and still held the office in 1484–5, but presumably surrendered the office when he was appointed King's auditor by Henry VII in December of that year. He held a number of tenements in Greenford, 'Merston', High Ongar and Stanford Rivers as well as a house in Chipping Ongar in which John Saperton (q.v.) lived. Hewyk appointed Saperton, who succeeded him as Worsley's auditor, one of his executors, and in his will left him and his wife his house in Chipping Ongar. Hewyk made his will in February 1491 and died on the following 3 April, survived by his wife Isabel (d. 1495) and five daughters. (fn. 125)

Hey, alias At Hey, John, of Runwell, Essex.

At Hey was the Dean's farmer of Runwell from at least 1481 to 1483. He was joined as farmer by John Herde (q.v.) in about 1484, but by 1487–88 they had been replaced by John Bek. (fn. 126)

Hill, Edmund, of Norton Folgate, Mdx.

Hill, William

Rent collector of the Dean and Chapter in 1480–81, William Hill held Worsley's lands at Norton Folgate to farm from 1480 to 1489. He was succeded as farmer there by his putative kinsman Edmund. William, pardoned by Richard III in 1484, by which date he had been succeeded as rent collector by William Pope, was probably the same man, a former rector of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, who served as a minor canon and subdean at the cathedral after 1488, and became Master of St. Thomas of Acon in 1501. (fn. 127)

Holt, Stephen

In 1479–80 Holt was one of Worsley's feed household servants. (fn. 128)

Holy Trinity Aldgate, London, Thomas Percy, prior of.

Prior of Holy Trinity Aldgate by 1489–90, Percy's conduct in office soon attracted the attention of his diocesan, Bishop Hill of London (q.v.). By 1491 he faced accusations of having wasted the goods of his monastery, of associating suspiciously with various women of questionable reputation, including one Joan Hodges for whom he secured the appointment for life as embroidress to his priory. The bishop's inquiry found the accusations to be true and Percy to be an adulterer, a perjurer and a simoniac and to have wasted the monastery's resources up to the huge sum of 3000 marks. The prior then appealed to the archbishop of Canterbury against bishop Hill's decision. This appeal triggered a full-blown quarrel between Hill and Archbishop Morton, in which Percy continued to play a colourful role. On 16 April 1494 the bishop himself appeared before the gates of Holy Trinity to remove Percy from office, but the prior refused him entry and held his house with armed men. Five months later, on 3 September, the bishop's men broke into the priory at night, dragged Percy out and imprisoned him. Yet, the intervention of some of the King's senior ministers and councillors forced Bishop Hill to submit to the archbishop, and as a consequence Percy was released on 22 November and reinstalled as prior on 3 December. The archbishop, however, also brought pressure to bear on the prior and Percy resigned again less than two weeks later. In compensation, he received one of the priory's most valuable manors as a pension from which he drew an annual income of £40, and was later also made vicar of Bexley. Ironically, towards the end of his life, in late 1506, Percy was for a second time elected prior of Holy Trinity and died in office. (fn. 129)

Honyborne, John, of London.

In 1483–84 Honyborne was paid a quit rent of 4s. p.a. from the Deanery. He may have been the same London citizen who on one occasion in the late 1450s was bound by statute merchant to pay 20 marks to a London butcher, William Stalon. (fn. 130)

Horward, John, of Walton-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1496 Horward succeeded John Toose as the Dean's farmer of Walton. (fn. 131)

Hudson, [–], of Ratcliff, Mdx.

In 1495–96 Hudson was Worsley's farmer of Ratcliff mill, a part of the Deanery of London. (fn. 132)

Hugh, John, of Essex.

In 1493–94 Hugh was one of the Dean's tenants in the soke of St. Paul's and in that year paid a fine in the court at Kirby. (fn. 133)

Hulme, William, of London.

A London draper, Hulme was not one of the Dean's regular suppliers, and only occurs in the accounts in 1484–85. Born in the parish of St. Nicholas Acon, he resided in the parish of St. Christopher le Stocks, where he asked to be buried, and where he held several tenements. He died in late October or early November 1495 and was survived by his wife Joan and a daughter, Mary, who had married Thomas Hertwell. A second daughter, Margaret, had predeceased him and had been buried at Woolwich, Kent. (fn. 134)

Hurley, Berks., John [Hilston], prior of

Head of Hurley Priory in Berkshire, a cell of Westminster Abbey, John Hilston had been elected abbot in early 1487 following the death of his predecessor, Thomas Preston, in the previous year. Soon after his election, he was one of the heads of religious houses appointed by the bishop of London in 1487–88 to collect the King's taxation in the diocese. He died in 1497 when he was succeeded by John Hampton. (fn. 135)

Hykman, John, of Essex.

From at least 1493–94 to 1496–97 Hykman was a tenant in the soke of St. Paul's in Essex, paying tithes to the Dean. (fn. 136)

Jane, Thomas, D.Cn.L. of London and Norwich, Norfolk.

Appointed a canon of St. Paul's and prebendary of Reculversland in 1471, Jane was one of the three important lawyers, including Worsley, who were chosen as proxies by most of the absentee prebendaries at the time of Worsley's election. He was translated to the prebend of Rugmere in 1480 and to that of Brownswood in 1487, becoming Archdeacon of Essex in July 1480. He became Dean of the Chapel Royal to Henry VII, and was preferred to the see of Norwich in 1499, but died in September 1500. In 1483–85 he held a mansion in London from Dean Worsley. (fn. 137)

Jolyff, Martin, of London.

A junior administrative official of the Chapter of St. Paul's, Jolyff served as clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's from 1482–83, in succession to Thomas Skypwith (q.v.). From 1487 to 1489 he seems to have combined this office with that of chamberlain of St. Paul's. Even earlier he had officiated as 'Keeper of the Guild of Jesus' at St. Paul's and in 1489 he gave up both his administrative offices, presumably to concentrate on pastoral duties: in his will of 1493 he called himself 'prieste' and left a bequest of money to the London church of St. Bartholomew the Less. Indeed, he may have been ordained rather late in life, for his will mentions a son, Richard Jolyff, although his executors at his death in early 1496 were two Exchequer officials. (fn. 138)

Jordan, John, of Charlwood, Surrey.

A yeoman, Jordan held the manors of Gatwick (in Charlwood) and 'Salmans', which he acquired after a legal dispute with the Cobham family. In 1482–83 he made a payment to the collector of the Deanery of London for wood he had sold. He died in March 1512, survived by his wife, Alice, and leaving an under-age son and two daughters. In his will he asked that Master Henry Saunder, perhaps a kinsman of the synonymous collector of the Deanery, should assist his widow in its execution. (fn. 139)

Kemp, Ralph, of London.

Kemp was a London mercer, married to Margaret, the daughter of a fellow mercer, John Burton (d. 1460), whose apprentice he had been and who eventually was to appoint him one of his executors. Burton settled much of his property on his daughter Margaret, to the disinheritance of his own son, William. Kemp rose in his trade, and in 1470 and 1476 served as master of the London Mercers' Company. He died in October 1477 and was survived by his wife who had a life-interest in his estates, and his two sons John and Thomas to whom they passed thereafter. Several tenements in the Deanery were held from Kemp, for which he was paid quit rents of 8s. p.a., still recorded under his name in 1483–84, but by then presumably paid to his widow. (fn. 140)

Kendale, Master John, of Notts.

In 1496–97 Kendale was registrar of the archdeaconry of Nottingham, receiving an annual fee of 13s. 4d., as well as a robe worth 6s. 8d. for his office. He cannot be readily identified with any of the John Kendales known to have been active in the period, although he was certainly not Richard III's secretary of the same name. (fn. 141)

Kent, John, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Between 1481 and 1483, and perhaps as late as 1487 Kent held the rectory of Thorpe to farm of Worsley. The lands attached thereto probably constituted the holding there later known as 'Kent's tenement'. (fn. 142)

Kent, Master, of London.

Kent held a tenement in Knightrider Street, London, from Worsley at some point prior to 1483–84, when it had passed to William Say (q.v.). (fn. 143) It is possible, but by no means certain, that he was the William Kent who, having been admitted to Cambridge university in 1474–75, from 1478 until his death in 1485 was a fellow of Corpus Christi College. (fn. 144)

Kilburn, Mdx., Prioress of

Like Hurley, Kilburn Priory was a cell of Westminster Abbey. The names of few of its heads are known and the identity of the lady who headed the house in 1479–80 and appears in Worsley's account for that year is likewise uncertain, but she may have been the same Katharine who was prioress in 1484. (fn. 145)

Langford, Ralph, of Southwell, Notts.

Langford was probably a half-brother of Dean Worsley, a younger son of his mother by her first marriage to Sir Ralph Langford (d. 26 February 1432). Described as Worsley's 'frater', in 1496–97 he was paid a weekly wage of 12d. by the Dean. He may have been the man who in November 1492 headed a panel of 12 oathhelpers at Southwell. They were summoned to swear to the innocence of two servants of Master William Talbot who were accused of sodomy and fornication, as well as of robbing Thomas Orston (q.v.). (fn. 146) If so, it is probable that he was the man who succeeded his brother Nicholas (c. 1419–81) at the latter's death and who was subsequently sued by Nicholas's widow for her dower. (fn. 147)

Lawshull, William, of Great Stambridge, Essex.

Lawshull held various lands in Great Stambridge from the bishop of Bath, some of which he appears to have granted to Worsley, for in 1480–81 he received money paid for respite of the Dean's homage for certain lands in Rochford hundred, Essex. He was still active as a feoffee in the county two years later, but died on 1 May 1485, leaving his 12-year-old son John as his heir. (fn. 148)

Lee, Richard, of London.

Lee was a London grocer with landholdings in Essex, Surrey, Sussex and Kent. He appears to have resided in a house in the parish of St. Stephen Walbrook which his father, another Richard Lee (d. 1472), had taken to farm from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's in 1457 for a term of 95 years. He made his will in 1494, asking to be buried in his parish church of St. Stephen Walbrook, London, but seems to have lived on until 1498. He was survived by his wife Joyce and several sons, the eldest of whom was called Richard like him. (fn. 149) He occurs in Radcliff's accounts in 1479–80 receiving a payment of £50, the nature of which is obscure. Alongside the dean he served as a feoffee of Richard Culpeper, first husband of William's kinswoman Isabella Worsley (q.v.). (fn. 150) In 1496 Lee was among the men to stand surety for William Sutton, rector of his parish of St. Stephen Walbrook, who had been arrested alongside Worsley for involvement in the Warbeck conspiracy. (fn. 151)

Leyke, Thomas, of Notts.

In 1479–80 an official of the archdeaconry of Nottingham who, along with Thomas Orston (q.v.), conveyed some of Worsley's income to Roger Radcliff (q.v.). He cannot be identified with certainty, as there were several men of this name active in Nottinghamshire in this period. (fn. 152)

Lindsey, John, of Heybridge, Essex.

In September 1479 John Lindsey and Joan his wife were admitted to a tenement of 6 acres called 'Mynhouyez'. In the same year Lindsey was acting as Worsley's receiver at Heybridge, where he also held the Dean's demesne lands to farm from 1480–85. By Michaelmas 1482 Lindsey had married a second wife, Alice, who was to survive him. He died c. 1496. His widow paid as a heriot a cow worth 6s. 8d. (paid in 1503–04). The John Lindsey senior and junior who held lands at Heybridge to farm in the early years of the sixteenth century were probably his descendants. (fn. 153)

Litton, Sir Robert, kt., of Stanwell, Mdx.

Litton (d. 1505) made his career in royal service at the Exchequer, which he entered in the reign of Edward IV, serving successively as Clerk of the Estreats (1474–85), teller (c.1482–85), and Treasurer's Remembrancer (1485–d.). In 1487 he replaced Sir Reginald Bray (q.v.) as Undertreasurer, holding the latter two posts until his death. In 1492 he was also appointed Keeper of the Great Wardrobe and in 1501–02 he served as Treasurer at War. Litton died in the first half of 1505, survived by his wife, Elizabeth, and leaving two sons and several daughters. One of his sons, between whom his lands were split, married Adriana, daughter and sole heir of Philip Booth (q.v.). (fn. 154)

Lokear, Master John, of Belchamp St. Paul, Essex.

Lokear was a Scotsman by birth, and only procured letters of denization as Anglo-Scottish relations rapidly deteriorated in the first half of 1480. From at least 1479 to 1485 he was vicar of Belchamp St. Paul and also took responsibility for the collection of the Dean's rents and farms there. At the same time, he also held the rectory of nearby Wickham St. Paul to farm. (fn. 155)

Lokkey, William

In 1479–80, a household servant of the Dean. (fn. 156)

London, Thomas Kemp B.Th., bishop of

Preferred to the see of London in August 1448, Kemp (d. 28 March 1489) held the bishopric for over 40 years. It was during his episcopate that Worsley was elected Dean. (fn. 157)

London, Richard Hill B. Cn.L., bishop of

Chosen as bishop of London in the summer of 1489 after Thomas Kemp's death, Hill held the see for seven years before his own death on 20 February 1496. Much of this time was taken up by an acrimonious quarrel with Archbishop Morton of Canterbury over the jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal and episcopal courts. The quarrel was triggered by Hill's measures against Thomas Percy, the corrupt prior of Holy Trinity Aldgate (q.v.). (fn. 158)

London, Thomas Savage D.C.L., bishop of

Bishop of Rochester (1492–96), Savage was translated to London after Bishop Hill's death in 1496. He did not remain there for long, for in early 1501 he was preferred to the archbishopric of York, which he held until his death six years later in September 1507. (fn. 159)

Lovell, Sir Thomas, kt., of Elsing by Enfield and Haliwell in Shoreditch, Mdx.

A prominent retainer of Henry Tudor, Lovell (d. 24 March 1524) was appointed chancellor of the Exchequer in 1485, when the Commons in Henry VII's first Parliament also chose him as their Speaker. The following year, Henry appointed him Treasurer of his household. It was by reason of his proximity to the King that Worsley granted him an annual fee after the conspiracy of 1494. Earlier, in 1488–89, the Dean's steward and receiver were paid for their expenses in riding to Lovell's mansion at Enfield on their master's business. After his accession, Henry VIII made Lovell steward of the Household and Constable of the Tower, but dismissed him from both offices in 1516. (fn. 160)

Marke, Master [Richard], of Heybridge, Essex.

In 1484–85 Marke acted as the Dean's steward at Heybridge. He may perhaps be identified with Richard Markes, receiver general of the bishop of London from the mid-1450s and surveyor of the bishopric estates. He was probably the same man who served as a bailiff, alderman and parliamentary burgess for the town of Colchester in the 1470s, 1480s and 1490s. In May 1480 and July 1483 Markes was appointed to royal commissions of sewers and on the Thames banks alongside Dean Worsley. (fn. 161)

Matyn, Master [Thomas] D.C.L., of London and Rome.

After an unruly youth as a student at Oxford, Matyn successively served as principal of two halls there in the early 1460s. He was proctor in the chancellor's court from 1458, and still in 1470, but in 1468–69 he was granted grace for inception as a D.C.L. at Cambridge. By 1474 he was serving as auditor of the English Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr in Rome. It was probably in the course of one of his journeys there in his official capacity that, in 1480–81, he acted for the Dean at the Papal curia and received payment for letters of absolution procured there. He also had other connections with St. Paul's, for by 1478–79 he held a tenement in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen in the Fishmarket from the Dean and Chapter. (fn. 162)

Michell, Thomas, of Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

Until his death in about 1492–93 Michell held certain lands and tenements in Kirby from the Dean. As these were taken into the King's hand at his death, he may have been a tenant in chief. (fn. 163)

Milen, Richard, of London.

A saddler, Milen occurs among the Dean's suppliers in 1489–90, but is otherwise not known to have had any connection with the household. (fn. 164) He might be Richard Milard, a London saddler active around 1500. (fn. 165)

Montgomery, Sir Thomas, kt., of Faulkbourn, Essex.

Sir Thomas was a younger son of Sir John Montgomery of Faulkbourn (d. 1449), by Elizabeth Botiller, lady of Say, sister of Ralph, Lord Sudeley. Although he served Henry VI as Marshall of the Hall and Keeper of the Mint, he fought for Edward IV at Towton and was knighted after the battle. In favour with King Edward throughout his reign and generously rewarded, he also prospered under Richard III, who made him one of his counsellors, and under Henry VII. He judiciously avoided the battle of Bosworth, and managed to survive until 2 January 1495. In the same way as he amassed grants of office and rewards from successive Kings, as a result of his proximity to the Crown, he also attracted fees from members of the gentry and clergy, including Thomas Kemp, bishop of London (q.v.), and Worsley who retained him at least from 1482 to 1490 at an annual fee of £4, and from whom he held the manor of Landymer Hall, Essex. (fn. 166)

More, John, of Willesden, Mdx.

More was Worsley's first farmer of Willesden, where he was succeeded in 1482 by William Northcote (q.v.). (fn. 167)

Morton, John

In 1480–81 Morton acted as the Dean's attorney at the Exchequer. (fn. 168)

Morys, Thomas

Morys was attached to the Dean's household by 1488–89 and by the following year had been given specific responsibility for the keeping of the horses. (fn. 169)

Nayller, John, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1480 Nayller was granted certain lands and tenements in the soke of St. Paul's by the Dean in return for a substantial fine. It is possible that he was the synonymous son of the London tailor Richard Nayler (d. 1483) and his wife Elizabeth, who in 1483 acted as his father's executor. This Nayler family held lands at Shingleford in Essex as well as in Kent. (fn. 170)

Nevyll, Robert, of Sutton, Essex.

Robert Nevyll was the Dean's farmer of Sutton by 1480 and continued to hold the farm until at least 1488–89. (fn. 171)

Northcote, William, of Willesden, Mdx.

In 1482 Northcote succeeded John More (q.v.) as farmer of the prebend of Willesden. He may have died in the first half of the 1490s, for by 1495 he had himself been succeeded by William Swete (q.v.), who had previously only held the 'grace' there to farm. (fn. 172)

Nykke, Master [Richard] L.L.D., of London and Norwich, Norfolk.

A Cambridge graduate, Nykke gained a doctorate from an Italian university. He assembled a series of benefices, including the rectory of Ashbury, Berks, and a canonry at Wells cathedral. In 1489–90 he held a tenement in Ivy Lane, London, from the Dean, which was subject to various repairs that year. Several further prebends, including one at Southwell, and the archdeaconries of Exeter and Wells followed, before Nykke was appointed Dean of the Chapel Royal in 1497 and eventually preferred to the see of Norwich in 1501 in succession to Thomas Jane (q.v.). He retained this see until his death in 1535. (fn. 173)

Odeby, Master [Walter] D.Cn.L., of London.

A student at Cambridge by 1460, around the same time as Worsley, by the end of the 1470s Odeby had assembled a number of benefices, including a canonry at St. Stephen's Westminster and prebends at the cathedrals of Exeter and Hereford. In November 1482 he also became rector of St. Margaret Moses in London and three years later vicar of Stepney. In July 1485 he was collated to the prebend of Harleston at St. Paul's cathedral and the following year he was appointed a royal chaplain. He retained his London prebend until his death in August 1498. He appointed John Fitzherbert (q.v.) as one of his executors. He occurs in Worsley's accounts as a residentiary of St. Paul's who received the issues of the manor of Sutton in 1489–90. (fn. 174)

Orreys, Robert, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Otherwise unknown, Orreys appears to have succeeded Thomas Smith (q.v.) as farmer of 'Thorpe Hall' in about 1485, but was himself succeeded by John Percy (q.v.) within the next two years. (fn. 175)

Orston, Thomas, of Southwell, Notts.

A trained lawyer, Orston was a kinsman of William Worsley and maintained links with both the Dean and his brother Thomas, who left him two books in his will. From 1474 at the latest he was active at Southwell, regularly acting as proctor at the installations of new canons. He is often found as an executor of both the minster clergy and the local gentry, including two generations of the Clifton family in whose wills he was remembered. Orston was closely connected with the Dean by 1479–80 and serving as his receiver in the archdeaconry of Nottingham. He upheld his links with Worsley throughout the period covered by the accounts, acting for him in his various northern benefices. In 1482–83 he acted as one of the executors of Thomas Byngham of Nottinghamshire. The executors came into conflict with the law in some form and in February 1484 successfully sued for a pardon from Richard III. In 1495 Orston was one of the Dean's mainpernors, but he died in 1499 around the same time as the Dean himself. (fn. 176)

Oxford, John de Vere, Earl of

Born on 8 Sept. 1442 as second son of John de Vere (1408–1462), Earl of Oxford, by his wife Elizabeth Howard, he was allowed to succeed his father despite the latter's execution for treason. Having joined the Lancastrian side at the Readeption, he was attainted in 1475 and imprisoned. He escaped, joined Henry Tudor in France, and returned to England with him. He was in great favour with Henry VII and served him as Lord Great Chamberlain and in other important offices. He continued to hold high office under Henry VIII. He died childless on 10 March 1513, survived by his second wife. In 1495–96 he occurs in Worsley's accounts as chief steward of the Dean's lands in Essex, an office that he executed by a deputy, John Alyff (q.v.). (fn. 177)

Palmer, Robert, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1496–97 Palmer held the manor of Thorpe to farm from Worsley. (fn. 178)

Peckham, Peter, of London.

A clerk of chancery, Peckham was admitted to the London mercers' company in 1466. Within three years of his admission an acrimonious quarrel broke out between Peckham and his fellow mercer, the alderman John Tate, in the course of which Peckham publicly tore up his letters of freedom. Fined 100 marks by the mayor's court, he was committed to Newgate, and only the Chancellor's personal intervention succeeded in having his fine reduced to £20. Nevertheless, by the end of Edward IV's reign Peckham had risen to become Usher of the King's chamber. It was probably his earlier legal experience that led to his becoming Worsley's advisor after the Warbeck conspiracy. Peckham married Agnes, widow of John, son and heir of the wealthy London grocer Stephen Brown (d. 1463), who was buried in the church of St. Michael Bassishaw. Peckham acquired landholdings in Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Middlesex and the city of London and was probably the same man who sued a series of men for debt in the 1480s and 1490s. In the reign of Richard III he himself appeared in court as a defendant, facing charges of forgery. He died in the early months of 1501 and was survived by his second wife Elizabeth and two sons and two daughters. (fn. 179)

Percy, John, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

By 1487–88 John Percy held the manor and rectory of Thorpe to farm, probably the same tenement otherwise known as 'Thorpe Hall'. He continued to hold this farm until late 1496. (fn. 180)

Pere, John, of Heybridge, Essex.

Pere, Robert, of Heybridge, Essex.

Two members of a somewhat unruly family, Robert (1481–82) and John Pere (1484–88) successively held the mill of Heybridge to farm of Worsley. (fn. 181) Both men made appearances in the manor court there for their riotous behaviour: on 1 November 1477 John Pere, son of John Pere, together with John Bray (q.v.) assaulted and maltreated Thomas Gawge, (fn. 182) and in 1478 Robert Pere was involved in a violent quarrel with John Candish (q.v.). They beat each other and Candish was said to have drawn his dagger. (fn. 183)

Pomfret, Alice, of London.

Like Ralph Kemp (q.v.), Pomfret, a widow, occurs in the London rent collector's account for 1483–84 as drawing a quit rent of 3s. 2½d. from the Deanery for a tenement in the city. As in Kemp's case, her name may simply have been copied from an earlier account and she may in fact have been dead by this date. (fn. 184)

Prentesse, Edmund, of Drayton, Mdx.

A Middlesex yeoman and Worsley's farmer of Drayton by 1480–81, Prentesse continued as farmer there until at least 1489–90. He was probably still farmer in 1497, when he provided a loan of 10 marks to the Crown. He made his will in August 1504 and died shortly afterwards. (fn. 185)

Prowell, Richard, of London.

A brewer by trade, Prowell was one of a number of men of his craft supplying ale to the Dean's household. Payments to him for such supplies are recorded between 1481 and 1483. (fn. 186)

Radcliff, Roger, of London and Hackney, Mdx.

Roger's place in the prolific Radcliff family is unclear, but it is clear that he was related to the Dean of St. Paul's of the same name. Dean Radcliff had a brother, Master Robert Radcliff, who acted as one of the younger Roger's executors. Roger Radcliff served Worsley at the head of his household and is described in the accounts as steward of the household or receiver. He held office from at least 1479 until his death and was the accountant in the majority of the Dean's surviving household accounts. As one of the last services he performed for his master, he stood surety for him in 1495 in the aftermath of the Warbeck conspiracy. Radcliff died unexpectedly and intestate around Christmas 1496. He was survived by his wife Alice, who, alongside her former husband's kinsmen Master Robert and John Radcliff, was entrusted with the administration of his affairs. (fn. 187)

Raderford, James, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Raderford alias Ratherford alias Retford, George, of Ardleigh, Herts.

James Raderford served as the Dean's rent collector at Thorpe from the time of Worsley's appointment, but had retired or died by 1482–83. He may have been the same man who had earlier also served Dean Roger Radcliff and was remembered in his will. (fn. 188) A putative kinsman, George Raderford or Retford held the nearby manor of Ardleigh from 1482 to at least 1490. (fn. 189)

Reading, Berks., abbot of

The abbot of Reading in 1495–96, when he was appointed as a collector of a clerical subsidy, was John Thorne. He was abbot from 1486 to 1519, the second man of his name successively to head the abbey. (fn. 190)

Reynold, Master, of London.

In 1483–84 Reynold held a tenement in Ivy Lane, London, from the Deanery. He cannot be identified with certainty, but is likely to have been one of two men: a Thomas Reynold was a canon of Lichfield cathedral and died by August 1497. A second man, John Reynold, studied at Cambridge and rose to become Dean of King's College from 1472 to 1474. He later became a canon of Southwell, as well as being preferred to a prebend at York. In 1499 he became archdeacon of Cleveland, a benefice which he retained until his death on 4 December 1506. (fn. 191)

Ricas, Thomas, of Walton-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1495–96 Ricas was the Dean's bailiff and collector at Walton-le-Soken. (fn. 192)

Robson, Robert, of Hackney, Mdx.

Robson was a member of Worsley's household who accompanied him to the north in 1480. The following year he was entrusted with making a payment for the benefit of the souls of the Dean's parents to Sir John Grymston (q.v.). He was probably the Hackney man who made his will on 18 August 1496, leaving his wife Katharine as sole executrix, and may have died soon after. (fn. 193)

Roke, William, of London.

One of Worsley's longest serving chaplains, Roke drew a stipend in this capacity as early as 1480. He served in the household throughout the Dean's tenure. In the aftermath of the Warbeck conspiracy in 1495, he acted as a mainpernor for his future good behaviour. He was probably the same man who served as a minor canon by 1464 and chaplain of the chantry of Richard Foliot at St. Paul's from at least 1477. He held a tenement in the parish of St. Faith from the Dean and Chapter, annually paying 4s. in rent. (fn. 194) He may have been the son and heir of like name of another William Roke, an Oxfordshire man. (fn. 195)

Rokes, John, of London and Kirby-le-Soken, Essex.

In 1493–94, Rokes was one of the Dean's tenants in the soke in Essex who paid a fine in the court at Kirby-le-Soken. Although there is no certain evidence to this effect, he may have been related to the Dean's chaplain, William Roke (q.v.). A John Rokes, son of Thomas Rokes, a London goldsmith active in the late 1480s and early 1490s, inherited various shops and other buildings in Bridgestreet, London, leased from Sir Thomas Lovell (q.v.) by his father, and was still alive in 1515. (fn. 196)

Roos, Edmund, Lord.

Born in about 1455 as son and heir of Thomas, Lord Roos (1427–64), his father's attainder of 1461 was reversed after Henry VII's accession. However, as Edmund was found unsuitable for his dignity, so custody of his lands was granted to his brother-in-law, Thomas Lovell (q.v.). He died in 1508. (fn. 197)

Saddler, Richard, of London.

Between at least 1480–81 and 1483–84, Saddler was one of the Dean's tenants of a tenement belonging to the Deanery in London at 'Paules Cheyn'. (fn. 198)

Samesbury, Richard, of Southwell, Notts.

Samesbury was a member of the Dean's household early on in his career, accompanying him towards Scotland in 1480. He probably first came into contact with Worsley at Southwell where he was a chorister from 1475 to 1476. In 1496–97 he was Worsley's collector of his income from the archdeaconry of Nottingham. For this office he received an annual fee of 53s. 4d. and a robe worth 13s. 4d. By this date he resided at Southwell, where he served as keeper of the archbishop's park. There he owned a messuage, two tofts and two crofts, which after his death descended to his son Thomas. (fn. 199)

St. Mary without Bishopsgate, London, prior of the hospital

William Sutton was prior until replaced in 1484 by Richard Cressal, who found that his predecessor had allowed the hospital's London property to fall into disrepair. In 1483–84 the prior was paid a quit rent of 9s. for a tenement of the Deanery. (fn. 200)

Sanders, Henry, of London.

In 1495–96, Sanders was the Dean's collector of rents and farms in the city of London and in the London parcels of the Deanery. (fn. 201) He may have been the Henry Saunder of Ewell, Surrey, who died by February 1519 and asked to be buried in the Savoy, or one of his numerous kinsmen. A branch of the same family resided at Charlwood, Surrey, and one of their number, a Master Henry Saunder, occurs in the will of John Jordan (q.v.). (fn. 202)

Saperton, John, of Chipping Ongar, Essex.

John Saperton lived in a house in Chipping Ongar rented from John Hewyk (q.v.). Hewyk, who appointed him one of his executors, later bequeathed it to him and his wife Isabel. Saperton succeeded Hewyk as the Dean's auditor, holding the office from at least 1487 to 1497, and probably until Worsley's death. He was one of the Dean's most trusted servants and was appointed one of his executors. (fn. 203)

Saver or Saber, John, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Saver, William, junior.

At some point in c. 1487 John Saver replaced John Kent (q.v.) as farmer of the holding at Thorpe known as 'Kent's tenement', but he may have died within the year, for in 1488–89 the tenant there was William Saver junior, perhaps his son. By 1493 he had in his turn been replaced as farmer by John Harnes (q.v.). John Saver may have been the same man to whom the chancellor of St. Paul's, Dr. Henry Saver, bequeathed two houses in his will of 1471. (fn. 204)

Say, William, of Broxbourne, Herts.

Probably William, son of Sir John Say (1420–78). He served as sheriff of Essex and Herts. in 1482–83 and sat in Parliament for Plympton Erle in 1472 and Herts. in 1491 and 1495. He married twice, firstly Genevieve, daughter of the Somerset landowner John Hill of Spaxton and secondly Elizabeth, widow of Sir Thomas Waldegrave and daughter of Sir John Fray. He died on 4 December 1529, survived by his daughter Mary who had married Henry Bourgchier, Earl of Essex (q.v.). In 1480–81 Say held a tenement in Knightrider Street to farm from the Dean and continued as a tenant there until at least 1483–84. (fn. 205)

Shaa, Sir Edmund, of Ardern, Essex.

Son of John Shaa of Dukinfield, Cheshire, Sir Edmund was farmer of Worsley's lands at Tillingham in 1487–88, but died in the course of that year on 20 April 1488. He had long been associated with St. Paul's, where his brother Ralph (d. 1484) was a canon, and in his will stipulated that restitution should be made for a sum of about £14, of which he had defrauded Roger Radcliff when Dean. Among the executors of this will was Sir Reginald Bray (q.v.), whom he described as his 'right especiall frend'. Shaa was survived by his wife, Juliana, until July 1494 and left a 22-year-old son, Hugh. When Hugh died only three years later, most of Sir Edmund's lands fell to his nephew John (q.v.), a London goldsmith. (fn. 206)

Shaa, Sir John, of Ardern Hall, Essex.

Son of John Shaa of Rochford, Essex, Sir John was nephew and ultimate heir of Sir Edmund Shaa (q.v.), to whom he was apprenticed. John was appointed a graver at the royal mint for life by Edward IV in 1482. In Henry VII's reign he was elected Prime Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company 1491–92 and Joint Master of the Mint by May 1492. He represented the City in Parliament in 1495, was elected an alderman in 1496, serving as sheriff the same year.

Probably through his offices at the mint he became associated with Sir Reginald Bray (q.v.) and acted as a co-feoffee when Bray acquired Worsley's lands in Hackney and Tottenham in 1496. For his services as sheriff of London in defending the city against the Cornish insurgents Shaa was knighted by the King at the bridgefoot on 17 June 1497. He subsequently continued his civic career, serving as an alderman until his death in 1503, as mayor and escheator of London 1501–02 and as auditor of the city 1501–03. He succeeded his uncle as farmer of the Dean's lands at Tillingham at least until 1490 and occurs again in Worsley's accounts as tenant of Tillingham in 1495–96. (fn. 207)

Shaa or Shaw, Thomas, of London.

Shaa was probably a junior scion of the important London family of the same name, and may indeed have been the youngest son of that name of Sir John Shaa (q.v.). By 1484–85 he had entered Worsley's household, and remained there as a servant, probably until the Dean's death. By 1489–90 Shaa's wife was also a member of the Dean's familia. Shaa was a trusted confidant of the Dean who appointed him an executor of his will. (fn. 208)

Shuldham, Edward D.C.L.

A fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in the mid-1470s, Shuldham's first benefice was the vicarage of Southoe, Hunts., which he vacated in 1477. In addition he was admitted to the rectory of Buckworth, Hunts., which he resigned in late 1479, having earlier that year become rector of Cranfield, Beds. He exchanged this church for the rectory of Therfield, Herts., in October 1485, which he retained until his death. He also acted as an official of the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, which had rights in the ville of Ardleigh, and in 1481 functioned as its collector there. In June 1488 he was collated a canon of Lincoln cathedral, but vacated his prebend in February 1490. Five years later, he was made a canon of Newarke College, Leicester, a final benefice which he also retained until he died. Shuldham made his will, one of the executors of which was Master John Wryght (q.v.), on 28 November 1499, but appears to have lived on for several more years, for it was not proven until August 1503. (fn. 209)

Skypwith, Thomas, of London.

Skypwith succeeded to the position of clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's in c.1479, and remained in office until about 1482–3, when he was succeeded by Martin Jolyff (q.v.). By this time he was one of the four chaplains of the perpetual chantry at the altar of the Holy Ghost at St. Paul's, and in August 1482 he was granted papal dispensation to hold an additional benefice. Earlier, in the second half of the 1470s, Skipwith had clashed and come to blows with a Dutch goldsmith, Simon Gerardson, who brought legal action against him in Chancery. (fn. 210) He may have been the same clerk who served a a feoffee of John Doreward and who by January 1491 had become Master of the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, Colchester. (fn. 211)

Slade, John

Probably the John Slade from the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield who was studying at Cambridge in January 1479 and ordained priest in September 1480. He drew a stipend as one of Worsley's chaplains in 1489–90 and had a hood made for him. (fn. 212)

Smith, Thomas, D.Th., of London.

In 1480–81 Smith, alongside William Botery, acted as one of the executors of Adam Friday (q.v.), the former clerk of the bakehouse of St. Paul's. It is likely that he was the man who served as chancellor of St. Paul's cathedral from August 1471 until his death in late 1488. (fn. 213)

Smith, Thomas, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

A man of this name held the tenement called 'Thorpe Hall' in Thorpe-le-Soken to farm from Worsley from the summer of 1480 to at least 1485, but he cannot with certainty be identified with the chancellor of the cathedral, for there were several prominent Essex men of that name in the period. A Thomas Smith, thought to have died in 1485, represented Colchester in the Parliament of 1478 and served several times as bailiff of that town, on one occasion alongside Richard Marke (q.v.). Another man served three terms as escheator of Essex and Herts. between 1488 and 1496. (fn. 214)

Smith, Thomas, of London.

Smith was one of the last clergy to join the Dean's private household as a chaplain, occurring in the accounts only in 1495–96. His origins are uncertain, but like the Dean himself he was probably a Cambridge graduate, admitted to the university in 1465. He played a prominent part in the life of St. Paul's cathedral in 1495–96, acting as collector of a clerical tenth in the city of London that year and also receiving payments for repairs to the cathedral's property. (fn. 215)

Staveley, William, of Bignell and Burchester, Oxon.

Staveley, who on 19 October 1480 repaid a debt of £4 13s. 4d. to the Dean, was a landholder with estates in Oxfordshire, Yorkshire and Buckinghamshire. In Buckinghamshire he held the manor of Broughton, which he bought from Sir Thomas Tresham. He died on 10 October 1498 and was survived by his wife Alice. She subsequently married the later chief justice Sir Humphrey Coningsby. Staveley's heir was his son George, but he also left two other sons, William and John, and two daughters, Isabel and Mary, the latter of whom married Thomas Giffard the younger. (fn. 216)

Stephens, Joan, of Norton Folgate, Mdx.

Stephens, John, of Norton Folgate, Mdx.

Stephens, William, of Ardleigh, Herts.

In 1495–96, and perhaps as early as 1489–90, John Stephens held Worsley's lands at Norton Folgate to farm, but died in the course of 1496. He was survived by Joan, his putative wife. William Stephens, a canon lawyer who occurs at Ardleigh in 1495–96, may have been another member of the same family. (fn. 217)

Steward, William, of London.

By the mid-1470s Steward was one of the minor canons of St. Paul's and also served as chaplain of two united chantries there. In 1476 he also acquired the rectory of Wrentham in the diocese of Norwich. He did, however, pay a sum of money to the lay patron for the preferment and consequently had to obtain papal dispensation to absolve him from charges of simony. By 1479 he served as chamberlain of St. Paul's, in which capacity he occurs in Worsley's accounts until 1481. He was a minor canon at the cathedral until at least 1488 and held a tenement to the east of the house called 'la Sonne' in the parish of St. Bride Fleet Street at an annual rent of 66s. 8d. (fn. 218)

Stykeswolde, Robert

Stykeswolde was a member of the Dean's entourage on his journey towards the north in 1480. He was still in the household in 1484–85, when he rode to Wimpole with Roger Radcliff (q.v.). (fn. 219)

Swete, William, of Willesden, Mdx.

William Swete was one of Worsley's farmers at Willesden. Initially, from c.1487, he was farmer of the 'grace' there, but at some point before 1495 he succeeded William Northcote as farmer of the prebend. (fn. 220)

Symsone, John, of London.

Symsone sold ten bows to Worsley in 1480–81. He was a London citizen and bowyer resident in Fleetstreet. He was a parishioner of St. Bride, and may have been a member of the fraternity of Our Lady based in that church, to which he made a bequest in his will. He owned extensive lands at Lambeth (Surrey), Norton Mandeville (Essex), Plomstede and East Grenwich (Kent), as well as one called 'the Rose' in Turnmillstreet in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate and a garden in Redcrossestreet. He was predeceased by his first wife, Maud, but married a second, Agnes, widow of John Baker, who survived him. Symsone died in late 1497 and was buried in the church of St. Bride Fleetstreet. He left a son, John (d. c. 1509), who later entered the mercery trade, and a daughter, Elizabeth, both under age at their father's death. A second daughter, Agnes, was a nun at Clerkenwell priory. (fn. 221)

Thomas, Thomas, of Sutton, Essex.

Along with Robert Nevyll (q.v.), Thomas was joint farmer of the Dean's demesne lands at Sutton between at least 1480 and 1482. He may be the man who in 1472 occurs as witness to a land transaction at Chiswick. (fn. 222)

Thurston, William, of Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex.

Thurston was Worsley's tenant at Thorpe in 1493–94, holding ½ acre in 'Hobbesdale'. He still held from the Dean in 1496–97. (fn. 223)

Toose or Toyse, John, of Walton-le-Soken, Essex.

One of William Worsley's longest-serving farmers, Toose held the manor of Walton by 1479 and continued as farmer until his death in about 1496. (fn. 224)

Trent, William, of London.

William Trent succeeded John Clerk (q.v.) as rent collector of the Dean in the city of London at some point in 1489, but by the mid 1490s may himself have been superseded by John Farman (q.v.). (fn. 225)

Turle, John, of Mdx.

Not known to have been otherwise connected with the Dean, Turle was one of the collectors appointed at Edmonton, Mdx., to collect the lay tenth granted to Henry VII in the 1497 Parliament. (fn. 226)

Turnour, Thomas, of Nottingham and London.

Perhaps the Thomas Turner studying at Cambridge in 1470–71 and instituted as vicar of St. Mary's, Nottingham, in January 1477. He drew a stipend as Worsley's chaplain between 1480 and 1485, vacated the Nottingham benefice in 1498 and went on to become rector of St. Margaret's Friday Street, London, between 1505 and 1510. He was probably also the Master Thomas Turnour who was presented to the church of Stratford St. Andrew, Suffolk, in April 1507. (fn. 227)

Vyntener, Charles, of London.

A London vintner, Worsley's accounts often refer to him merely as Charles. He supplied wine to the Dean's household from at least 1481–82 until 1489–90. (fn. 228)

Walden, Essex, John, abbot of

John Sabrisford (d. 8 June 1509) was elected abbot in January 1485 following the death of his predecessor John Halstede. He occurs in Worsley's accounts in 1487–88. (fn. 229)

Watson alias Weston, Thomas, of Belchamp St. Paul, Essex.

Probably the man of northern origins studying at Cambridge by 1474–5 and ordained deacon in April 1476. He was instituted as vicar of Long Bennington, Lincolnshire in July 1479, but had vacated the benefice a year later. He served as a chaplain in Worsley's household between 1487 and 1490. Between 1487 and 1495 Watson also acted as the Dean's rent collector at Belchamp St. Paul, and also for the same period held the rectory there to farm. He died soon after, for prayers for his soul were provided for in the will of the former farmer of Belchamp St. Paul manor, Geoffrey Downing (q.v.), in August 1503. (fn. 230)

Westby, Edward, of London.

Together with John Fox (q.v.) Westby was Worsley's farmer of Bowes and Polehouse between at least 1481 and 1490. Westby was a London gentleman with landholdings in various parts of Middlesex, including one called 'Aleynsbury' and tenements at Hampstead. He was predeceased by his wife Margaret who was buried in St. Bartholomew's hospital, West Smithfield. He made his will in early April 1501, asking to be interred alongside her, and died shortly after. (fn. 231)

Westminster, Mdx., John abbot of

John Esteney (d. 1498) was appointed abbot in 1474 when his predecessor Thomas Milling was elevated to the see of Hereford. Like many heads of religious houses he was on occasion appointed to collect clerical taxation and it was in this capacity that he came into contact with the Worsley household in 1488–89. (fn. 232)

Wilby, Master [Robert], of Woollaton, Notts.

In 1496–97 Wilby was an official of the archdeaconry of Nottingham. He was responsible for receiving some of Worsley's fees from inductions on behalf of the collector, Richard Samesbury (q.v.). He did this through a deputy, Simon Yates (q.v.). He may have been M. Robert Wilby, a son of Richard Wilby of Moulton. After study at Cambridge, this man assembled several Lincolnshire benefices, before becoming rector of Woollaton, Notts., in August 1491. He surrendered the rectory in October 1496, but lived on until 1500–01, becoming rector of Dartington, Devon, shortly before his death. (fn. 233)

Witheney, William, of London.

Witheney was a London brewer, who is only known to have supplied ale to the Dean's household on one occasion in 1484–85. (fn. 234)

Wode, John, of Molesey, Surrey.

Wode was an Exchequer official, who in 1481 was appointed to receive a clerical tenth alongside John Fitzherbert (q.v.), and appears in Worsley's accounts in this capacity. By this date he was the King's deputy treasurer. As such he was that year deputed to address convocation, where Worsley was present, and outline the need for a subsidy, which he notably did in English, rather than the customary Latin. He represented the borough of Midhurst, and the counties of Surrey and Sussex, respectively in eight Parliaments between 1435 and 1483, and became Speaker of the parliamentary Commons in 1483. He died the following autumn and was survived by his second wife, Margery, daughter of Sir Roger Lewknor. (fn. 235)

Worsley, Edmund, of London.

Resident in the London parish of All Saints Honey Lane, Edmund Worsley may have been a kinsman of Robert Worsley, a well-connected mercer active both in England and on the continent from the early 1420s until at least the late 1450s. He himself entered the same trade by the early 1490s. (fn. 236) In the 1490s he invested some of his wealth in the acquisition of an estate in Havering. Edmund may also have been related to the Dean, although their exact relationship is obscure, and was a member of his household by 1496. After the Warbeck conspiracy, Edmund Worsley, along with Philip Booth (q.v.), took on some of the responsibilities previously discharged by Roger Radcliff (q.v.), probably at least in part to keep control of the financial affairs of the Dean, for whom he mainperned in 1495. Alongside his position in the Dean's household, Edmund remained very much part of London's mercantile society, acting as feoffee for fellow mercers, such as Thomas Shelley (d. 20 January 1500). Worsley died unexpectedly and intestate by early 1502, survived by his wife, Agnes. For some years after his death the administrators of his estate were in litigation over his unfinished affairs, some cases dating back to the 1470s. One such case was a suit for debt brought by Edmund's former apprentice George Urswick. (fn. 237)

Worsley, Isabella, of Stockwell, Surrey.

Isabella was the daughter of the Dean's kinsman Otwell Worsley (d. 24 March 1470), who bequeathed 300 marks to her for her marriage and charged William Worsley with paying the money to her. Part of the payment, which was made on 1 May 1480 on her marriage to the Kentish landowner Richard Culpeper (d. 4 October 1484) is recorded in the receiver's account. Dean Worsley was later to act as one of Culpeper's feoffees. Isabella survived her first husband, by whom she had two daughters and, a few months before his death, a son. By early 1494 she had married Sir John Legh (d. 12 June 1523) of Stockwell. She also survived her second husband and acted as his executrix. She died in the spring of 1527, asking to be buried next to Sir John Legh in the chapel that he had built in the parish church of Lambeth. (fn. 238)

Wryght, Master John, of Ardleigh, Herts.

In 1495–96, as a bachelor of decrees, Wryght alongside William Stephens (q.v.) received a payment from the Dean for two procurements at Ardleigh. Three years later, when rector of Clothall, Herts., Wryght was appointed one of the executors of Edward Shuldham (q.v.). (fn. 239)

Wyle, William, of London.

Wyle was a London hosier who sold a range of items of apparel to the Dean in 1489–90. He may be the same man called 'Wylle' who supplied a pair of shoes for Worsley in 1481–82. (fn. 240)

Wylly, Edmund, of Westminster, Mdx.

Described in Worsley's accounts as the King's deputy Receiver, Wylly (d. by 20 January 1515) served as Foreign Apposer of the Exchequer under Henry VII and Henry VIII from 1495 until his death. In 1496–97 he served as undersheriff of Middlesex for Sir John Shaa (q.v.) and Sir Richard Haddon, sheriffs of London and Middlesex. He married Agnes, widow of Robert, brother of Thomas Langton, bishop of St. David's (1483–85), Salisbury (1485–93) and Winchester (1493–1501). (fn. 241)

Wynche, Richard, of Caddington, Beds.

During Worsley's final years, between at least 1493 and 1497, Wynche held the Dean's manor of Kensworth to farm. He was probably the Richard Wynche of Caddington 'the younger', who was active in Bedfordshire in 1502–3 and held lands in Caddington, Kensworth and Flamstead. He died childless by 1515 and was survived by his wife, Alice. (fn. 242)

Yates, Simon, of Notts.

In 1497–98 Yates, as deputy of Master Wilby (q.v.), received some of Worsley's income from inductions in the archdeaconry of Nottingham on behalf of the collector there, Richard Samesbury (q.v.). In December 1504 he was presented to the parish church of Beckingham, Lincs., by the King. (fn. 243)

[–], William, of Tottenham, Mdx.

Otherwise obscure, this man occurs as one of the royal tax collectors at Tottenham in 1496–97. (fn. 244)

Footnotes

  • 1. W. Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. J. Caley, H. Ellis, and B. Bandinel (6 vols. in 8, London, 1817–30), i. 509; CPR, 1467–76, pp. 119, 123; VCH Berks, ii. 62; Arthurson, p. 90; document 8, above.
  • 2. PRO, C1/114/17, 415/54.
  • 3. Documents 9, 10, 12, above; PRO, C1/64/689; PROB11/19, fols. 188–189v (PCC 24 Ayloffe).
  • 4. PRO, C1/66/104, 190/29; PROB11/18, fols. 252v–253v (PCC 32 Holder).
  • 5. Documents 9, 10, above; PRO, C1/240/7–8.
  • 6. PRO, C1/83/86.
  • 7. Document 2, above.
  • 8. GL, MS 9168/1, fol. 7; document 6, above.
  • 9. G. L. Hennessy, Novum Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense (London, 1898), pp. 37, xxxix; Emden, Oxford, pp. 75–76; GL, MS 9531/7, pt. ii, fol. 11v; document 9, above; The Coronation of Richard III. The Extant Documents, ed. A. F. Sutton and P. W. Hammond (Gloucester, New York, 1983), pp. 305–6.
  • 10. GL, MS 9171/8, fol. 177v; document 12, above; PRO, C1/647/17–18, 687/2, 707/20; E179/241/365.
  • 11. Document 13, above; CPR, 1476–85, p. 26.
  • 12. Document 6, above; Hennessy, p. 11.
  • 13. PRO, PROB11/22, fols. 180–180v (PCC 23 Porche).
  • 14. PRO, PROB11/11, fols. 157–9 (PCC 19 Horne).
  • 15. Document 9, above; PRO, PROB11/6, fols. 43v–44 (PCC 6 Wattys); PROB11/17, fol. 79v (PCC 10 Fetiplace); C1/41/27–29, 128–130, 1337/60–61; CFR, xxii. 33.
  • 16. Document 12, above; GL, MS 25301/1, m. 3; PRO, PROB11/14, fol. 71v (PCC 9 Holgrave).
  • 17. Document 11, above.
  • 18. PRO, C1/121/20–22, 323/32; C54/376, m. 18d.
  • 19. Document 4, above; C. Harper-Bill, 'Bishop Richard Hill and the Court of Canterbury, 1494–96', Guildhall Studies in London History, iii (1977–79), 1–12, p. 3; PRO, C1/117/64.
  • 20. Registers Stillington and Fox, pp. viii–xix; Emden, Oxford, iii. 1777–79; document 2, above; W. E. Hampton, 'The Later Career of Robert Stillington', The Ricardian, iv (1976), 24–7, repr. in Richard III, Crown and People, ed. J. Petre (Gloucester, 1985), 162–65; idem, 'Bishop Stillington's Chapel at Wells and his Family in Somerset', The Ricardian, iv (1977), 10–16, repr. in Richard III, ed. Petre, 166–72.
  • 21. Document 2, above.
  • 22. Documents 6–9, 11, above.
  • 23. Documents 1–6, above.
  • 24. Documents 2–6, above; PRO, E326/1384.
  • 25. Documents 4–8, 11, 12, above.
  • 26. PRO, SC7/37/9, 9/10; document 3, above; DNB, ii. 849–50; Reeves, 'Lawrence Booth'. For an account of Booth's kinsmen cf. also Axon, 'The Family of Bothe'.
  • 27. PRO, C139/52/68; CFR, xiv. 379; CPR, 1416–22, p. 400.
  • 28. The Visitation of Suffolk, 1561, made by William Hervy, ed. Joan Corder (3 vols., London, Harl. Soc., n.s., 1981–84), pt. ii. 303; PRO, E150/640/6.
  • 29. PRO, C140/60/22; C1/86/20; KB27/790, rot. att. 1; Testamenta Eboracensa, iv. 31–32.
  • 30. Document 12, above; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863.
  • 31. PRO, C1/186/74; C1/453/2–3.
  • 32. CPR, 1494–1509, p. 660; L&P Hen. VIII, I.ii, p. 1544; II.i, no. 207; W. A. Shaw, The Knights of England (2 vols., London, 1906), i. 147; CFR, xxii. 871.
  • 33. L&P Hen. VIII, II.i, no. 2735.
  • 34. L&P Hen. VIII, III.ii, no. 3282, p. 1365.
  • 35. PRO, E150/640/6; C1/1021/70–72.
  • 36. Document 2, above.
  • 37. PRO, C1/300/2.
  • 38. GL, MS 25125/94–99; documents 2, 3, above; PRO, C1/64/689.
  • 39. Documents 11, 12, above; PRO, C1/285/41.
  • 40. Documents 6–8, above.
  • 41. Document 2, above; Hennessy, pp. cxxxiii, 315; PRO, C1/61/371, 479.
  • 42. Documents 4–9, 11, 12, above.
  • 43. Documents 9, 10, above; PRO, PROB11/13, fols. 219–220 (PCC 26 Blamyr); The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 104–5; Condon, 'Ruling Elites'; eadem, 'Caitiff and Villain'; DeLloyd J. Guth, 'Climbing the Civil-Service Pole during Civil War: Sir Reynold Bray (c. 1440–1503), in Estrangement, Enterprise and Education, ed. Michalove and Reeves, 47–62.
  • 44. Document 12, above.
  • 45. Document 1, above; CFR, xxii. 78.
  • 46. Document 11, above.
  • 47. GL, MS 25125/94–99; document 2, above; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863; E. A. New, 'The Cult of the Holy Name of Jesus in Late Medieval England, with special reference to the Fraternity in St. Paul's Cathedral, London c.1450–1558' (unpubl. Univ. of London Ph.D. thesis, 1999), p. 433.
  • 48. Documents 1–8, above. A short biography of Bukke can be found in The Merchant Taylors' Company of London: Court Minutes 1486–1493, ed. M. P. Davies (Stamford, 2000). The authors are grateful to Dr. Davies and Dr. Eleanor Quinton for their comments on Bukke and his trade. Bukke's inquisition post mortem which dates his death to 1502, but which was not taken until 1532, is wrong as the evidence of his will shows: Abstracts of Inquisitions post mortem relating to the City of London, ed. G. S. Fry (3 pts., London 1896–1908), i. 47–8; PRO, C142/54/87.
  • 49. GL, MS 25125/96–99; document 4, above; PRO, C67/51, m. 29; CPR, 1485–94, pp. 2, 330.
  • 50. Documents 1–10, 12, above.
  • 51. Documents 11, 12, above.
  • 52. Documents 8, 9, above; Calendar of Letterbooks: Letterbook L, ed. R. R. Sharpe (London, 1912), pp. 191, 260; New, 'Holy Name', p. 433.
  • 53. Documents 1, 2, 4, above; GL, MS 25281/1, m. 12.
  • 54. Documents 1–9, 12, above; Visitations of Churches, pp. 85, 90; PRO, PROB11/11, fol. 202.
  • 55. Documents 2–4, above; Vis. & Mem. Southwell, pp. 31–34, 40–50, 170.
  • 56. Document 9, above; CFR, xxii, no. 243; PRO, C1/150/98, 214/86.
  • 57. Document 2, above.
  • 58. Document 1, above; CIPM Hen. VII, i. 993.
  • 59. Coronation of Richard III, p. 321; documents 2–9, above; PRO, C140/35/64; BL, Add. MS 46,354, fol. 7; CPR, 1476–85, pp. 344, 394, 465, 490, 566; BL, Harl. MS 433, f. 330v; C. Ross, Richard III (London, 1981), p. 236; The Ballard of Bosworth Feilde, Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript (3 vol., London, 1868), vol. iii, p. 257. The authors are grateful to Miss Jessica Freeman for these references. More detailed biographies of the Charltons will appear in J. Freeman, 'The county community of Middlesex in the fifteenth century' (Univ. of London Ph.D. thesis, 2002).
  • 60. GL, MS 25311, fol. 56; document 3, above; PRO, C1/260/4.
  • 61. Documents 6–8, above; GL, MS 25375/2, rot. 2d; Records of the Honorable Society of Lincoln's Inn, vol. I: Admissions, A.D. 1420 to A.D. 1799, ed. W. P. Baildon (London, 1896), p. 23.
  • 62. Documents 2–4, 6–8, 13, above.
  • 63. Document 11, above.
  • 64. Documents 6–8, above; Emden, Oxford, i. 465; PRO, C1/61/371, 479; CP40/856, rot. 340; J. H. Baker, The Legal Profession and the Common Law: Historical Essays (London, 1986), p. 88; M. R. James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College Cambridge (2 vols., Cambridge, 1912), i. 381–90.
  • 65. Document 12, above; Emden, Cambridge, p. 152; Testamenta Eboracensia, iv. 163–64; CPL, xiii. 727.
  • 66. Documents 5–8, above.
  • 67. Documents 2–8, above.
  • 68. PRO, C146/469.
  • 69. Document 13, above.
  • 70. Documents 1, 2, above.
  • 71. Document 2, above.
  • 72. Documents 2–8, above.
  • 73. Document 1, above.
  • 74. GL, MS 25311, fol. 59v; documents 6–9, above.
  • 75. Document 3, above; PRO, C1/64/689; New, 'Holy Name', p. 334; CCR, 1468–76, no. 1330.
  • 76. Documents 9, 10, above.
  • 77. PRO, E210/9639; PROB11/19, fol. 180 (PCC 23 Ayloffe).
  • 78. Document 12, above.
  • 79. CPR, 1494–1509, pp. 65, 366; document 9, above; VCH Warwicks., iv. 51; PRO, C142/35/61, 65, 94; E150/222/12, 623/1; PROB11/13, fols. 219–220 (PCC 26 Blamyr); PROB 11/19, fol. 227 (PCC 29 Ayloffe).
  • 80. CP, iv. 418–19; document 3, above.
  • 81. Documents 6, 7, 9, above; PRO, PROB11/13, fols. 210v–211 (PCC 25 Blamyr).
  • 82. Documents 7, 8, above; CPR, 1485–94, p. 63; L&P Hen. VIII, I.i, no. 485(2). The authors are grateful to Miss Jessica Freeman for her comments on this point.
  • 83. Cal. Plea & Mem. Rolls, 1458–1482, p. 177; documents 1, 2, above.
  • 84. CP, v. 137–38; L. S. Clark, 'The Benefits and Burdens of Office: Henry Bourgchier (1408–83), Viscount Bourgchier and Earl of Essex, and the Treasurership of the Exchequer', in Profit, Piety and the Profession, ed. Hicks, 119–36.
  • 85. CP, v. 138–39; Coronation of Richard III, p. 314.
  • 86. Documents 6–9, above; PRO, C47/10/28/39, 41; C146/3171; SP46/183, f. 92.
  • 87. Visitation of Churches, p. 85; document 12, above.
  • 88. Document 12, above.
  • 89. Document 2, above; PRO, E210/9639; PROB11/13, fols. 158–159 (PCC 18 Blamyr); CIPM Hen. VII, ii. 631; Sainty, pp. 44, 83, 90, 169, 229; The Notebook of Sir John Port, ed. J. H. Baker (London, Selden Soc. 102, 1986), p. xiii; CFR, xxi, no. 657. For Fitzherbert's earlier activity as a taxcollector see M. Jurkowski, 'Parliamentary and Prerogative Taxation in the Reign of Edward IV', Parliamentary History 18 (1999), 271–90, p. 281.
  • 90. Document 1, above; PRO, PROB11/11, fol. 272v; C1/200/22.
  • 91. T. F. Reddaway, The Early History of the Goldsmiths' Company, 1327–1509 (London, 1975), pp. 154, 201; PRO, E101/298/33; CPR, 1485–94, pp. 19, 96, 173, 299; CPR, 1494–1509, pp. 16, 60.
  • 92. Document 13, above.
  • 93. Document 2, above.
  • 94. Documents 2–5, above.
  • 95. PRO, C67/51, m. 11; C1/83/86; CFR, xxii. 6; CIPM Hen. VII, i. 133.
  • 96. Document 12, above.
  • 97. PRO, KB27/831, rot. 6; documents 2–7, 9, 12.
  • 98. Document 9, above.
  • 99. Documents 1, 2, 4, 5, above; GL, MS 25342.
  • 100. PRO, C1/65/126–127; document 6, above.
  • 101. Documents 6, 9, above; C1/65/127.
  • 102. Documents 4, 6–9, 12, above; GL, MS 25301/1, rots. 2–2d.
  • 103. Documents 1, 2, above.
  • 104. Documents 1, 2, 4, 5, above.
  • 105. Documents 6–9, above; PRO, C1/240/7–8.
  • 106. Documents 1–5, above; Visitations of Churches, p. 87.
  • 107. Regs. Stillington and Fox, nos. 194, 653; Fasti, viii. 62; document 9, above; Emden, Oxford, ii. 776; PRO, PROB11/7, fols. 50v–51 (PCC 7 Logge).
  • 108. Document 2, above.
  • 109. Document 2, above.
  • 110. Document 2–4, 6–9, above; Visitations of Churches, pp. 94, 97; PRO, PROB11/15, fols. 34–35 (PCC 5 Adeane).
  • 111. PRO, PROB11/19, fols. 188–189v (PCC 24 Ayloffe).
  • 112. GL, MS 25125/94–99; document 3, above; PRO, C1/19/317–23; C253/32/218.
  • 113. Documents 3, 13, above; CFR, xxii. 397; PRO, E179/141/109, p. 3.
  • 114. Document 13, above; VCH Mdx. i. 178.
  • 115. Document 13, above.
  • 116. Documents 9, 11, 12, above.
  • 117. Document 9, above.
  • 118. PRO, E314/75/13–14; Fasti, v. 45.
  • 119. PRO, C1/205/42.
  • 120. Document 6, above.
  • 121. Document 12, above.
  • 122. Officers of the Exchequer, comp. J. C. Sainty (London, List and Index Soc. spec. ser. 18, 1983), p. 17; document 9, above; PRO, C1/679/55; C142/35/88, 40/113; PROB11/21, fols. 262–263 (PCC 33 Bodfelde).
  • 123. GL, MS 25125/92–95; document 2, above.
  • 124. Document 2–6, above.
  • 125. Documents 2–5, above; PRO, PROB11/9, fols. 234–235 (PCC 29 Doggett); CIPM Hen. VII, i. 821; CFR, xxii. 45, 169, 368, 528; Sainty, p. 118.
  • 126. Documents 3, 4, 6, above.
  • 127. Documents 2–5, 7, 8, above; Hennessy, pp. 61, 427; PRO, C67/51, m. 17; New, 'Holy Name', p. 430.
  • 128. Document 1, above.
  • 129. Harper-Bill, 'Bishop Hill and the Court of Canterbury', pp. 2–3, 5–6; Great Chronicle, p. 440; VCH London, pp. 471, 474; document 8, above.
  • 130. Document 13, above; PRO, C1/26/574.
  • 131. Document 12, above.
  • 132. Document 9, above.
  • 133. Document 11, above.
  • 134. GL, MS 9171/8, fol. 100v; document 5, above.
  • 135. Document 6, above; Monasticon Anglicanum, iii. 431; VCH Berks. ii. 76.
  • 136. Documents 11, 12, above.
  • 137. Document 5, above, 25168; Fasti, v. 11, 22, 58, 60; CPR, 1494–1509, p. 71; DNB, x. 681; Emden, Oxford, ii. 1013–14; PRO, PROB11/12, fol. 74v (PCC 10 Moone).
  • 138. Documents 4–8, above; PRO, C1/66/25; PROB11/10, fol. 248v (PCC 31 Vox).
  • 139. Document 4, above; PRO, PROB11/17, fol. 52v (PCC 7 Fetiplace); STAC1/1/31.
  • 140. Document 13, above; PRO, C1/27/1, 47–49; E13/147, rot. 4; PROB11/6, fols. 244–245; A. F. Sutton, 'Alice Claver, Silkwoman', in Medieval London Widows, ed. C. Barron and A. F. Sutton (London and Rio Grande, 1994), 129–42, p. 134; Acts of court of the Mercers' Company 1453–1527 ed. L. Lyell and F. D. Watney (Cambridge, 1936), pp. 50, 52, 55, 76, 79, 86–94.
  • 141. Document 12, above; A. F. Sutton, 'John Kendale: A Search for Richard III's Secretary', Richard III, ed. Petre, 224–38.
  • 142. Document 2–6, above.
  • 143. Document 13, above.
  • 144. Emden, Cambridge, 336.
  • 145. Document 1, above; VCH Middlesex, i (1969), p. 182.
  • 146. Document 12, above; Vis. & Mem. Southwell, p. 57.
  • 147. PRO, C1/36/1213, 67/229, 363; C139/57/3; CFR, xxi. 614.
  • 148. Document 2, above; CCR, 1476–85, no. 994; CIPM Hen. VII, iii. 611.
  • 149. PRO, PROB11/11, fol. 215v; C106/149; S. Thrupp, The Merchant Class of Medieval London (1949), p. 353.
  • 150. Document 1, above; PRO, C67/53, m. 4.
  • 151. PRO, C54/376, m. 19d.
  • 152. Document 1, above; CFR, xxii. 246; CPR, 1476–85, pp. 395, 400, 489, 569; CPR, 1485–94, pp. 241, 396, 496.
  • 153. Documents 1–5, above; GL, MS 25311, fos. 52v, 54, 56, 62; The First Book of the Churchwardens' Accounts of Heybridge, Essex, c. 1509–1532, ed. W. J. Pressey (Heybridge, 1938), pp. 5, 6, 9.
  • 154. CFR, xxii, no. 807, The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 565–66; Sainty, pp. 54, 90, 199, 229; document 12, above; PRO, E150/640/6; PROB11/14, fols. 274–76 (PCC 35 Holgrave).
  • 155. Documents 1–5, above.
  • 156. Document 1, above.
  • 157. Emden, Oxford, ii. 1032–34; PRO, SC7/37/1; PROB11/8, fols. 226v–228v (PCC 28 Milles).
  • 158. PRO, SC7/37/25; Emden, Oxford, ii. 934; Harper-Bill, 'Bishop Hill and the Court of Canterbury', pp. 1–12.
  • 159. Emden, Oxford, ii. 1646–47; PRO, SC7/37/14; DNB, xvii. 839; Fasti, iv. 24, v. 3, vi. 5; in the accts. 1482–96: documents 4, 5, 7–9, above.
  • 160. Documents 7, 10, above; PRO, PROB11/23, fols. 214–217v (PCC 27 Jankyn); Sainty, p. 38; The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 555–56; J. S. Roskell, The Commons and their Speakers in English Parliaments 1376–1523 (Manchester, 1965), pp. 298–99, 358–59; DNB, xii. 175–76; Condon, 'Ruling Elites'. The most recent biography is Steven Gunn, 'Sir Thomas Lovell (c. 1449–1524): a New Man in a New Monarchy?', in The End of the Middle Ages, ed. J. L. Watts (Stroud, 1998), 117–54.
  • 161. Document 5, above; PRO, SC6/1140/23–27; CPR, 1476–85, pp. 215, 466. Richard Markes seems a more likely condidate for the Heybridge steward than M. Thomas Marke, archdeacon of Norwich 1477–83, Thomas Markes, Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1487–99, and later rector of St. Pancras, Soper Lane, London, or either of the two other Thomas Markes educated at Oxford in the fifteenth century: Emden, Oxford, ii. 1222; idem, Cambridge, p. 391.
  • 162. Document 2, above; GL, MS 25125/95; Emden, Cambridge, pp. 396, 680.
  • 163. Document 11, above.
  • 164. Document 8, above.
  • 165. PRO, C1/64/571, 378/9.
  • 166. Documents 4–8, above; PRO, C67/51, m. 29; PROB11/10, fols. 175–178 (PCC 22 Vox); SC6/1140/27, m. 2; CIPM Hen. VII, i. 1040; The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 605–6; W. E. Hampton, 'Sir Thomas Montgomery, K.G.', The Ricardian, iii (1975), 9–14, repr. in Richard III, ed. Petre, 149–55.
  • 167. Documents 1–3, above.
  • 168. Document 2, above.
  • 169. Documents 7, 8, above.
  • 170. Document 2, above; PRO, PROB11/7, fols. 52–52v (PCC 7 Logge).
  • 171. Documents 2–7, above.
  • 172. Documents 4–8, above.
  • 173. Document 8, above; PRO, SC7/37/30; DNB, xiv. 519–20; Emden, Cambridge, pp. 430–31; Fasti, iv. 25.
  • 174. Document 8, above; PRO, PROB11/11, fols. 233–233v (PCC 29 Horne); Emden, Cambridge, pp. 437–38; Fasti, ii. 38; v. 39; ix. 57.
  • 175. Document 6, above.
  • 176. Documents 1–4, 9, 10, above; PRO, C67/51, m. 9; PROB11/12 (PCC 21 Wattys); Testamenta Eboracensia, iv. 64, 68, 69, 70, 156; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863; CIPM Hen. VII, i. 714, iii. 1036; Vis. & Mem. Southwell, pp. 57, 99, 112, 147–49.
  • 177. Document 9, above; CP, x. 239–44.
  • 178. Document 12, above.
  • 179. PRO, C67/46, m. 37; C67/51, m. 35; CP40/891, rots. 171, 174; CP40/896, rot. 35; KB27/896, rex rot. 7; C146/100; PROB11/12, fols. 124–125 (PCC 16 Moone); Baker, The Legal Profession, p. 81; document 9, above; CPR, 1485–94, p. 444; CFR, xxii. 688; A. F. Sutton, A Merchant Family of Coventry, London and Calais: The Tates, c.1450–1515 (London, 1998), pp. 18, 20.
  • 180. Documents 6–9, 11, 12, above.
  • 181. Documents 3, 5, 6, above.
  • 182. GL, MS 25281/1, m. 12.
  • 183. GL, MS 25281/1, m. 12.
  • 184. Document 13, above.
  • 185. Documents 2–8, above; PRO, E36/14, p. 288; PROB11/14, fols. 132v–133 (PCC 17 Holgrave).
  • 186. Documents 3–4, above.
  • 187. Documents 1–7, 9, 10, 12, 13, above; 9168/1, fol. 10; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863; PRO, PROB11/6, fol. 34v (PCC 5 Wattys); PROB11/8, fols. 95–99 (PCC 12 Milles).
  • 188. Documents 1–4, above; PRO, PROB11/6, fol. 34v (PCC 5 Wattys).
  • 189. Documents 4, 6–8, above.
  • 190. Document 9, above; VCH Berks, ii. 73.
  • 191. Document 13, above; Emden, Oxford, iii. 1572; idem, Cambridge, pp. 478–79.
  • 192. Document 9, above.
  • 193. Documents 2–3, above; GL, MS 9171/8, fol. 132.
  • 194. Documents 2–9, above; GL, MS 25125/94–99; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863; New, 'Holy Name', p. 431.
  • 195. PRO, C1/73/70–71.
  • 196. Document 11, above; PRO, C1/384/41–42.
  • 197. Documents 6–8, above; CP, xi. 105–7.
  • 198. Documents 2, 13, above.
  • 199. Documents 2, 12, above; PRO, C1/361/22; Vis. & Mem. Southwell, pp. 62, 187, 188.
  • 200. VCH London, 534; document 13, above.
  • 201. Document 9, above.
  • 202. PRO, PROB11/19, fols. 116v–118v (PCC 15 Ayloffe); PROB11/17, fol. 52v (PCC 7 Fetiplace).
  • 203. Documents 6–9, 12, above; PRO, PROB11/9, fol. 235 (PCC 29 Doggett); Testamenta Eboracensia, iv. 157.
  • 204. Documents 6, 7, above; PRO, PROB11/6, fol. 19 (PCC 3 Wattys).
  • 205. Documents 2, 4, 13, above; The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 747–48. A new biography of Say will appear in The History of Parliament, The Commons 1422–1504, ed. L. S. Clark (forthcoming).
  • 206. Document 9, above; PRO, PROB11/7, fols. 70v–71 (PCC 9 Logge); PROB11/8, fols. 95–99 (PCC 12 Milles); PROB11/10, fols. 170–171 (PCC 22 Vox); CFR, xxii. no. 154; CPR, 1494–1509, p. 45; CIPM Hen. VII, i, 381, 985, iii, 677; Coronation of Richard III, p. 394. More extensive biographical details can be found in Reddaway, pp. 176–7, 306–7.
  • 207. The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 758–59; CFR, xxii. 720, 786; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 910; documents 7–9, above; PRO, PROB11/14, fols. 98v–100 (PCC 13 Holgrave). For other biographical details see Reddaway, pp. 307–8. A new biography of Shaa will appear in The History of Parliament, The Commons 1422–1504, ed. L. S. Clark (forthcoming).
  • 208. Documents 5, 8, 12, above; Letter Book L, p. 213; Testamenta Eboracensia, iv. 157; PRO, C1/240/7–8; PROB11/14, fols. 98v–100 (PCC 13 Holgrave).
  • 209. Document 3, above; Emden, Cambridge, pp. 526–27; PRO, PROB11/13, fols. 201v–202 (PCC 24 Blamyr); C1/370/69–70.
  • 210. Documents 1–4, above; PRO, C1/67/123; CPL, xiii, pt. ii, p. 746.
  • 211. CIPM Hen. VII, i. 631, 1144.
  • 212. Emden, Cambridge, p. 533; document 8, above.
  • 213. Document 2, above; Fasti, v. 19.
  • 214. Documents 2–5, above; The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, p. 778; CFR, xxii. 194, 325, 490, 537.
  • 215. Emden, Cambridge, p. 536; document 9, above.
  • 216. Document 2, above; PRO, PROB11/11, fols. 210–210v; CIPM Hen. VII, ii. 388; CFR, xxii. 550, 619, 622.
  • 217. Documents 8–10, 12, above.
  • 218. Documents 1, 2, above; GL, MS 25125/94–99; Hennessy, p. 61; CPL, xiii, pt. i, p. 463, pt. ii, p. 514.
  • 219. Documents 2, 5, above.
  • 220. Documents 6–10, 12, above.
  • 221. Document 2, above; PRO, PROB11/11 fols. 95–96v (PCC 11 Horne); PROB11/16, fols. 121v–122 (PCC 16 Bennett); CFR, xxii. 593.
  • 222. Documents 2–3, above; CCR, 1468–76, no. 899.
  • 223. Documents 11, 12, above.
  • 224. Documents 1–9, 11, 12, above.
  • 225. Document 8, above.
  • 226. Document 12, above.
  • 227. Emden, Cambridge, p. 599; CPR, 1494–1509, pp. 427, 533; documents 2–5, above.
  • 228. Documents 2–8, above.
  • 229. Monasticon Anglicanum, iv. 135; VCH Essex, ii. 115; CPR, 1476–85, p. 535; document 6, above.
  • 230. Emden, Cambridge, p. 623; documents 6–9, above; PRO, PROB11/13, fols. 210v–211 (PCC 25 Blamyr).
  • 231. Documents 3, 4, 6–8, above; PRO, PROB11/12, fols. 125v–126v (PCC 16 Moone).
  • 232. Monasticon Anglicanum, i. 276–77; VCH London, 455; CPR, 1467–77, p. 472, 474; document 7, above.
  • 233. Document 12, above; PRO, C1/329/4, 5, 7, 8; Emden, Cambridge, 624–25.
  • 234. Document 5, above.
  • 235. Document 2, above; CFR, xxi, no. 657; Reg. Bourgchier, ed. Du Boulay, pp. 129, 134, 139–41; Roskell, Commons and their Speakers, pp. 291–93; idem, 'Sir John Wood of Molesey', Surrey Archaeological Collections, lvi (1959), 15–28; The Commons 1439–1509, ed. Wedgwood, pp. 965–66; Sainty, 198–99.
  • 236. For biographical details of Robert Worsley see The Bedford Inventories, ed. J. Stratford (London, 1993), pp. 429–30; and also cf. SC6/1291/1/8/33, 9/55; A. F. Sutton, 'Caxton was a Mercer', in England in the Fifteenth Century, Proceedings of the 1992 Harlaxton Symposium, ed. N. Rogers (Stamford, 1994), 118–48, p. 128; CCR, 1435–41, pp. 101, 346, 399; Acts of Court of the Mercers' Company, ed. Lyell and Watney, pp. 225, 226, 306, 573, 577.
  • 237. CAD, vi. C.6991; CIPM Hen. VII, no. 370; CCR, 1485–1500, no. 863; CFR, xxii. 716; PRO, SC2/172/36, rot. 13; SC2/172/40, rots. 4, 4d; C1/186/74, 233/70, 342/74, 371/79, 453/2–3; McIntosh, A Community Transformed, p. 339; F. W. Steer, 'A Medieval Household', The Essex Review, 63 (1954), p. 17; GL, MS 9168/3, fol. 93v; VCH Essex, vii. 69.
  • 238. Document 1, above; PRO, C1/84/2–7; C67/53, m. 4; C140/57/54; C141/6/28; C142/40/12(2), 69; PROB11/21, fols. 112–116 (PCC 15 Bodfelde); PROB11/22, fols. 143–44 (PCC 18 Porche); M. Stephenson, 'A List of Monumental Brasses in Surrey', Surrey Archaeological Collections, xxix. 70–138, pp. 122–24.
  • 239. Document 9, above; PRO, PROB11/13, fol. 202 (PCC 24 Blamyr; C1/370/69–70).
  • 240. Documents 3, 8, above.
  • 241. Document 2, above; Sainty, p. 83; PRO, C1/145/21, 252/26; KB9/412/4; CFR, xxii. 58, 812.
  • 242. Documents 9, 11, 12, above; PRO, C1/54/206, 271/24, 302/8–9.
  • 243. Document 12, above; CPR, 1494–1509, p. 390.
  • 244. Document 12, above.