Affairs of the East India Company: Index to the principal matters detailed in the evidence, A-J

Pages 1173-1194

Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 62, 1830. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, [n.d.].

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Index to the Principal Matters detailed in the Evidence.

General Heads. Names of Witnesses, and Page of Evidence in Printed Report.
Abcarry Duties, what, Mangles, 52.
Absentee Allowance to Civil Servants
of East India Company, (See Revenue, &c.)
Abstract Statement of the Charges for the Year 1827-8, whether stated as Deductions from Revenues or as Charges appertaining to the Civil and Military Government of India, Melvill, 201 to 206.
Account of the Gross and Net Produce of the Revenues of Bengal, Madras and Bombay combined, and the Gross and Net Charges defrayed out of those Revenues from the Year 1823-4 to 1827-8, and as estimated for 1828-1829, Melvill, 177. 199.
- of the Value of Foreign and Domestic Cottons, Woollens and Metals exported from America in 1827-1828, Everett, 580.
Accountant General of Bengal, Duty of, Sherer, 14. 15.
Accounts at Bengal are kept in Sicca Rupees, Lloyd,
Achmuty, Mr., a Half-caste, Ricketts, 297.
Administration of Justice. (See Justice, Administration of.)
Admiralty Court of Ceylon, (See Maritime Jurisdiction.) Johnston, 188. 220.
Admiralty Jurisdiction, whether it belongs to the Recorder of Prince of Wales Island, Rice, 141.
- exercised by Chief Justice of Bombay, Rice, 143.
Adoption, Inheritance and Contract - Hindoo and Mohamedan Law administered by the Supreme Court in Cases of, Clark, 150.
- Mr. Sutherland's Translation of original Treatises on, Strange, 401.
(See Opium.)
Adulteration of Opium, Swinton, 22.
- of Tea in England, Toone, 539.
- a Proof that Sale Price to Consumers is too high, Bates, 565.
Advocate Fiscal of Ceylon, his Functions, Johnston, 187. 219.
(See Bombay, Supreme Court of - Madras, Supreme Court of.)
Advocates, Number of, practising in the Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 97 to 99.
Agencies for Salt, Number of, under East India Company, Ramsay, 356.
Agency Houses of Calcutta make Advances to Indigo Planters, R. Davidson, 386. 391. 392.
- secured by Insurances on Lives, Harris, 460. 461.
Dunlop, 485.
- Rate of Interest paid to, R. Davidson, 386.
Harris, 458.
Dunlop, 486.
- Rate of Interest paid by, to their Customers, R. Davidson, 392.
Dunlop, 486.
- old established ones have large Capitals, R. Davidson, 392.
Agents Commission on Private Trade at Canton, Toone, 524.
- of East India Company are not allowed to transact Business for any but East India Company, Magniac, 618.
Agra, Population of, how composed, Christian, 68.
Agricultural Capital increased, Fleming, 89.
- Community in India, their Rights involved in Confusion, Christian, 65.
- Produce of India has risen considerably, Mangles, 51.
Agriculture of India is miserably defective from Sub-division of Land and Want of Capital, R.Davidson, 396.
Alceste, the, attacked by Pirates, Alsager, 719.
Allahabad, Population of, Christian, 68.
- District of, its chief Produce is Wheat, Barley, Maize, Pulse, Sugar Cane, Cotton, Rice, &c. Christian, 67. 68.
America, how Duties on Tea paid in - Rate of Discount of Bills received in Payment for Tea, Milne, 645.
- Rate of Interest on Money in, higher than in this Country, Bates, 558.
- whether Rate of Insurance in, is higher than in this Country, Milne, 645.
American China Trade, as likely to be affected by opening of China Trade, Maxfield, 604.
- embarked in too largely in 1825 and 1826, Bates, 547.
- diminished after 1826, but is now recovering, Bates, 547.
American China Trade, Fortunes have been acquired in, Bates, 553.
- has for the last Three Years been on the Decline, this not a Criterion for Free Trade under the British Flag, Stewart, 589.
- has rather increased, Bates, 546. 559.
Milne, 643.
- not carried on in the same way as by British Merchant, Bates, 560.
- Four Fifths carried on in Dollars because they have not Manufactures of their own, Craufurd, 636.
- is not acknowledged by the Chinese, but they look to the Hong or Outside Merchant who is the Security, Magniac, 628.
- formerly derived great Benefit from East India Company's Agents at Canton, Magniac, 625.
- how Representations of Grievances in respect to, are conveyed to Chinese Authorities Urmston, 651. 658.
- no Want of Capital in, Milne, 650.
- Mode of examining Piece Goods, Bates, 561.
- imperfect Goods vended in, Bates, 560. 561.
- Losses in, are from Insufficiency of Capital, Bates, 565.
- how conducted, Toone, 527.
- how managed with Outside Dealers, Toone, 538.
- Americans never had a Difficulty in carrying on, Bates, 564.
- with Outside Merchants, Alsager, 716.
Urmston, 662.
- in general deal with Hong and Outside Merchants, Bates, 548. 549.
- Commission charged by Agents at Canton, Bates, 547.
American Cotton. (See Cotton.)
American Cotton Trade, Mode in which the Americans purchase Cotton by their Agent in England, Everett, 577. 578.
- Cottons sent from America to China and Manilla are superseded by Cottons from England, Bates, 551.
American Exports, largest Amount of, was in 1822, Bates, 547.
- of Woollens and Cottons have increased at lower Prices, Everett, 571.
- of Woollens to China could not be executed on account of high Price prior to 1818, Everett, 571.
- to China, prior to 1818, consisted of Specie, Iron and Lead, Everett, 571.
- to China, Sale Value of, in 1824-5 and 1826-7, Everett, 577.
- of Silk from China for European Consumption, Stewart, 589.
- of Cottons is largely increased, Everett, 576.
- of Camlets to China from 1820 to 1826, Everett, 576.
- to China, Manufactures and Dollars in Exchange for Tea, Toone, 530.
- of Woollens from 1826 to 1830, Bates, 546.
- to China, are Woollens, Cottons, Opium, Metals, &c. &c. Bates, 546.
- of British Manufactures are confined to the Houses of Baring, Brown and Everett, Everett, 572.
- from China, Sale Value of, in 1821-22 and 1824-25, Stewart, 595. 596.
- of Cotton Manufactures to China, Bates, 546.
- of Tea depends on the State of the Dutch and Hamburgh Markets, Bates, 550.
- large Quantities of Opium to China, Bates, 546.
- of British Manufactures is yearly increasing, Craufurd, 636.
- Manufactures to China bearing the Name of British, Bates, 551.
- from China for European Consumption, how far they have been profitable, Stewart, 589.
- and Imports from 1825 to 1827, Bates, 547.
American Imports of Cotton into China, Failure of, Toone, 535.
- of Chinese Goods for American or Continental Market, Stewart, 594.
- from England to China, in preference to Articles of Straits Produce, Craufurd, 633.
- of British Manufactures into China, in 1824, 5, 6, & 7, Bates, 551.
- of Tea. (See American Tea Trade.)
American Investments to China, Bates, 546.
American Fur Trade to China is fallen off, and Reasons for this, Bates, 547. 548.
American Fur Trade, Quantity of Furs imported into China in 1806-7, 1811-12, 1825-6, 1826-7, Bates, 548.
- Quantity imported into China in 1823-4 greater than in 1821-22, Bates, 547.
- Diminution of, is owing to Regulations of Russians, Bates, 548.
American Merchants, if Trade to China thrown open, would give it up, Everett, 580.
- Capital advanced to Hong Merchants by, Toone, 540.
- occasionally draw Bills on London in Payment of Tea in China, Toone, 530.
American Ships, Class and Size of - Number of Men-Measurement of - Convenience for loading, Alsager, 716. 717.
- their sailing, as compared with British, Alsager, 717.
- Measurement of, Mode differs from that of English Ships, as including Depth, Alsager, 716. 717.
- great Care taken in Selection of Captains for, Milne, 645.
- how Security is given by Hong Merchants for, Urmston, 662. 663.
- small, attacked and plundered by Pirates, Alsager, 719.
- frequently arrive at Canton from South America, Magniac, 625.
- of 400 or 700 Tons, Advantages of, in Indian Trade, Maxfield, 610.
- Owner of, is the Merchant in China Trade, Bates, 560.
- Shipment of British Manufactured Goods purchased by C. Everett for the China Trade, from 1818 to 1829, and Supplement by Bates, to 1830, Everett, 567 to 571.
American Tonnage in China Trade, Milne, 643.
- Amount of, employed beyond the Cape of Good Hope in 1816, 1817 and 1818; 1826, 1827 and 1828, Bates, 556.
- employed in British India in 1816, 1826 and 1827, Maxwell, 607.
- from British Ports in India, Amount of, in 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1824, 1826 and 1827, Falling-off of, to what Causes owing, Bates, 557.
American Trade with India and China, Causes of Fluctuations in, Bates, 557.
- as affected by Free Trade, Maxfield, 604. 607.
- with India, Probability of their carrying it on with Dollars, Magniac, 624.
- to Bengal, is now confined to the Consumption of the United States, Bates, 557.
- to North-west Coast of America and China, is carried on by one American Ship once in Two Years, Toone, 534.
- is carried on in Dollars and Goods from the United States and England, Craufurd, 633.
- Scotch Plaids are manufactured at Norwich for, Milne, 707.
American Traders, Character of, is established with Chinese, and it would be difficult to dispossess them of the Trade, Everett, 581.
- their Mode of trading, Milne, 645.
- Mode in which they purchase Cottons and Woollens by their Agent in England, Everett, 577. 578.
American Woollens, Quantity exported to China, Everett, 579.
- Cloths exported to China, Species of, Bates, 546. 565.
- Amount of, exported, from 1826 to 1830, Bates, 546.
- Mode in which the Americans purchase Woollens and Cotton by their Agent in England, Everett, 577 Tea Trade of, carried on at Canton on as low Terms as that of the Company, but the Tea not of as good Quality, 8
Americans, Tea Trade of, Milne, 642 to 650.
- generally purchase Teas by Contract, Urmston, 651.
- Tea Trade of, bad in 1824, 1825 & 1826, from large Importations, Milne, 646. 647.
- what Teas they chiefly buy, Toone, 541.
Bates, 549.
- Tea Duty of, is about 75 per Cent. Bates, 565.
- Teas sold to, are inferior to those sold to East India Company, Toone, 539. 541. 564.
Urmston, 652. 657. 660.
- Quantity of Teas exported by, in 1826, Bates, 550.
- depends on the State of the Dutch and Hamburgh Markets, Bates, 550.
- imported from China in 1828-29, Bates, 549.
Americans, Quantity of Teas exported by, Causes of a Falling-off in 1827, Bates, 550.
- Tea Trade of, decreased, and why, Brown, 638. 639.
- is not at a remunerating Price, Milne, 648.
- introduced an Assortment of Tea into Foreign Europe in 1828-29, Bates, 564.
- give higher Price for Green Teas than East India Company, Toone, 525. 526.
Bates, 549. 564. 566.
Urmston, 652.
- Consumption of Tea by - has increased, Bates, 550.
- Tea Trade of, carried on at Canton on as low Terms as that of the Company, but the Tea not of as good Quality, W.S.Davidson, 676.
- prefer an inferior Sort of Tea as being more marketable, and not from Difficulty in procuring superior Sorts, W.S.Davidson, 677.
- how Teas imported are bonded and sold, Milne, 644. 647.
- make a Profit on British Manufactures, Toone, 538.
- buy British Manufactures cheaper than East India Company, and why, Bates, 556.
- sell British Manufactures at about the same Price as East India Company, Bates, 556.
- have for many Years possessed the same Facilities for exporting Manufactures to China as would be possessed by British Merchants if the Trade opened, Everett, 573.
- and Dutch, Competition of, as affecting the Price of Tea on Continent of Europe, Bates, 550.
- are not allowed to trade to Sincapore, Bates, 557.
- make very circuitous Voyages, Maxfield, 604. 608. 610.
- have nearly given up all China Produce, except Tea, Toone, 532.
- seldom effect Insurances on their Ships in England on their Voyage to China, Simpson, 599.
- gave a Man up at Canton, rather than submit to the Detention of their Ships, Toone, 534.
Amildars, Causes settled by, in the Deccan, Chaplin, 280.
Amoy, People of, disposed to trade, Returns would be Sycee Silver in Ingots or Bars, Magniac, 626.
- Trade at, disallowed by the Chinese Government, and Exactions of Mandarins, Magniac, 626.
Amulneer, Briggs, 439.
Antud Beg Khan's Jamma, an Officer under Tippoo's Government, Warden, 185.
Appa Dessye, Exaction and Oppression by, in his Jaghire, Elphinstone, 253.
Appeals to The King in Council, whether beneficial, Smith, 77.
- Means of asserting Supremacy of King, Smith, 81.
- why not proceeded in, Smith, 81.
- no Decision on Merits, Smith, 81.
- Mode of proceeding in, Clark, 151. 152.
- from Sudder Adawlut inconvenient - Instances of Inconvenience - might be advantageous if rendered efficient, Clark, 150 to 154.
- lay formerly to Governor General at Calcutta, why altered, Clark, 151. 153.
- to Privy Council, from Courts in India, Arrangement for expediting their hearing, Johnston, 189.
- from Supreme Court of Bombay, should be facilitated, Rice, 146.
- Cases in which Government a Party, Clark, 153.
- Amount of Sum in Bengal, Madras and Bombay entitling to, Clark, 153.
- Deposit on, in Bengal, Madras and Bombay, how invested, Interest on it, Clark, 151 to 154.
- as to Notice to Parties to appoint Agent for prosecuting their Appeal, Clark, 154.
- under what Rule admissible, when required by substantial Justice, Smith, 82. 83.
- System of, from lower to highest Court, and consequent Litigation, Smith, 82.
- chief Business of Upper Court, Smith, 83.
- to Provincial Courts, Smith 83.
- Court of, in Upper Provinces, Advantages of one, Robertson, 163. 164.
Appeals, no Series of consecutive Appeals, One only allowed, a Second at the Discretion of the Court, Robertson, 164.
- from Zillah to Provincial Court, from thence to Sudder Adawlut, Warden, 179.
- from Decision of Munsiffs, is to the Zillah Court, Clark, 148.
- more from Sudder Aumeens than from Munsiffs and Commissioners, and why, Fleming, 88.
- from Mofussil Court, is to the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut in Calcutta, Ricketts, 296.
- from Bareilly to Calcutta frequent, Perseverance of Village Zemindars is great, Robertson, 163.
- in the Case of the Zemindar of Ramnad, and Expences of, Clark, 151 to 153.
- High Court of, at Ceylon, Johnston, 188.
Apples introduced into India in 1805, Hodgson, 378.
Arab Sailors, Character of, Maxfield, 614.
Arabians trade in Rice to and from India, Hodgson, 370.
Arabs, Ports they come from to Malabar, Baber, 310.
- arrive every Year in Malabar, Baber, 306.
Arbitration, System of, in Ceylon, Johnston, 218.
Archipelago, Indian. (See Indian Archipelago.) Arcot, Ryotwar System in, has been attempted, and found well adapted for, Hodgson, 372.
(See South Arcot.)
Arcot,South, Revenue Settlement in, Hyde, 172. 173.
Arnee, in the Carnatic, Indigo cultivated in, Baber, 342.
Arracan, Species of Slavery in, Robertson, 166 to 168.
- Province of, wretched State of - some Improvement in of late - Mugs returning to their Villages, Robertson, 171. 172.
Arrack is distilled from Toddy, Baber, 335.
- Monopoly of, Baber, 335.
Arrears of Causes in Court of Adawlut, Time required for deciding them, Smith, 80.
Ash and Sloe Leaves are mixed with Tea in England, Toone, 539.
Assessment made under Sir T. Munro - if disputed, what Remedy, Chaplin, 277. 278.
- Maximum, recommended to be reduced, and reduced accordingly, Chaplin, 278. 285. 287.
- under Native Governments, as compared with British, Elphinstone, 250. 251.
- over Lands in Malabar, Baber, 320.
- in Nagpoor is low, and Country under it increased in Population and Revenue, Jenkins, 231.
Assessors, Native, as to employing them or Juries to assist Judge in deciding Causes, Elphinstone, 250. 251.
Atcheen, Export and Import Trade from, to Tanjore, Cotton, 156. 157.
Atkinson's Letter on Indian Silk, Wilson, 406.
Attempts made with Success to introduce new Articles of Export to China, Everett, 581.
(See Bombay, Supreme Court of - Madras, Supreme Court of.)
Attornies, Number of, in Supreme Court of Calcutta - some are Half-castes, East, 99. 100.
Aumanie Management of Land, what, Cotton, 155.
Aumeen, a Referee, Smith, 77.
Aumeens of Police, Clark, 148.
Ava, Sums received and due from Government of, Lloyd, 33.
- Mode of cultivating Cotton in, Craufurd, 516.
- Species of Slavery in, Robertson, 166 to 168.
Baber, T. H., Esq., his Statements, Suggestions and Regulations respecting Jury Trials, Baber, 317. 318.
- his Memorial on Smuggling and Tobacco, Baber, 331. 332.
- his Paper on Salt Monopoly, Baber, 333.
Bahar and Benares are the only Districts of Bengal where Opium is grown, Swinton, 23.
- Opium is inferior to that of Malwa, Fleming, 85.
Bahar, Indigo cultivated to a great Extent in, Robertson, 164.
- OPIUM. (See Opium.)
- Species of Slavery in, Robertson, 166 to 168.
Bahia Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Balacarras East Indiaman, built at Bombay, the finest Merchant Ship in the World, Alsager, 717.
Banca Tin is of superior Quality, Stewart, 588.
Banyan, a Hindoo Merchant or Shopkeeper, Craufurd, 513.
Baramahal, Grant of Land in, for Indigo Works, Hodgson, 380.
Bareilly, Appeals from, to Calcutta frequent
- Perseverance of Village Zemindars is great, notwithstanding the Expence, Robertson, 163.
Baretto & Co. were Half-castes, Mangles, 55.
Baring & Co., Shipments by, to China on American Account, Everett, 570. 571.
Bates's Supplement to Everett's Statement of British Manufactures purchased on American Account from 1818 to 1830, Everett, 567 to 571.
Bauleah, large Quantities of Silk made at, without Advances, Ramsay, 347.
- many Europeans conversant with Silk Manufactures living among Natives of - Effects of this, on Silk Cultivation, Ramsay, 350.
Bazah Maund is 80 lbs., Swinton, 22.
Bega of Land, how much, Ramsay, 360.
R. Davidson, 386.
- Extent of, at Kisnagur, Harris, 553.
- Government Demand on, Briggs, 445.
(See Opium.)
Benares and Bahar are the only Districts of Bengal where Opium is grown, Swinton, 23.
Benevolent Institution at Calcutta, Ricketts, 305.
Bengal, Accounts at, are kept in Sicca Rupees, Lloyd, 5.
- Accountant General of, his Duty, Sherer, 14.
- Civil Charges at, Increase of, from 1823 to 1827, Wood, 13.
- Increase of, how checked, Sherer, 14.
(See Cotton.)
- Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- many European Settlers in, Hodgson, 379.
- Export and Import Trade with Tanjore, Cotton, 156. 157.
- Exports from, to Great Britain, Amount of, in 1826-27, Melvill, 225.
- Imports into, from Great Britain, Amount of, in 1826-27, Melvill, 225.
- Land and Sea Customs at, Swinton, 25.
(See Estimate.)
- Military Reductions ordered at, Melvill, 208.
- Proportion of Military and Naval Expences to whole Revenue as compared with like Proportion in Bombay, Elphinstone, 275.
- Monopoly of Salt in, Swinton, 23 to 35.
- Natives of, have no Confidence in the Judicial Integrity of their Brethren, Mangles, 61.
(See Opium.)
- Opium very pure, Larkins, 27.
- Regulations, in respect to Offences and Punishments, generally the same as in Bombay, Robertson, 172.
- recommended to the Nagpoor Authorities, and adopted by them for Punishments for principal Crimes, Jenkins, 239.
(See Silk.)
- Wound Silk is used in East India Company's Factories for Piece Goods, Ramsay, 345.
- Upper Provinces of, too hot for Silk Worm, Ramsay, 347.
- Tobacco smuggled from, Baber, 337.
- Transit Duty at, reduced, where collected, Swinton, 25.
Bengal Proper, Silk grown in nearly the whole of, Ramsay, 347.
Bengal and Madras, comparative State of, Hodgson, 374.
- comparative Expence of Litigation in, Strange, 399.
Betel, no Monopoly of, in Malabar, Warden, 180.
Bhangulpore, Extent of Davidson's Indigo Plantation at, R. Davidson, 386.
- popular Excitement at, on account of House Tax, R. Davidson, 387.
Bhaudary is a Toddy Drawer, Rickards, 423.
Bheels, Attack of, on Candeish and Villages in the Neighbourhood, and Measures taken to reduce them. Briggs, 435. 436. 439.
Bills, American, Rate of Discount on, Milne, 645.
- on England, Difficulty of obtaining, in China, Stewart, 585.
- on India, are at the Mercantile Rate of the Day, Toone, 528.
Bird, Mr. Wilberforce, Head of a Commission for investigating and correcting Abuses in the Collection of the Revenue, Robertson, 160.
Birds Nests, a large Article of Trade in the East, Craufurd, 633.
Bishops College at Calcutta, Education in, is confined to Missionary Purposes, Ricketts, 301.
Blaquire, Mr. (See Decoity.) Blowing Machine for Cotton, Bruddock, 479.
Board of Revenue, its Duties, Christian, 68. 69.
- how far it has Controul over Moota Districts, Revenues of which sold to Natives, Clark, 150.
Bombasins, some Merino Wool used in, Shaw, 707.
Bombay Army not proportioned to its Population, but to Circumstances of surrounding States, Elphinstone, 275.
- Military Reductions ordered at, Melvill, 210.
- Military and Naval Expences, the Proportion they bear to whole Revenue as compared with like Proportion in Bengal, Elphinstone, 275.
- Marine, Extent of, Maxwell, 613. 614.
- Court of Requests in, Rice, 144.
- Education, State of, in, Elphinstone, 251.
- of Civil Servants in, Suggestions for Improvement of, Elphinstone, 255. 256.
Bombay Jaghires, in what Cases resumed - in general not resumed under the Native Governments - in what Cases resumed under our Government, Elphinstone, 261.
- in the Mahratta Country, and in the Deccan, Elphinstone, 261.
- Principle of Resumption, Elphinstone, 261.
- when resumed, and no fresh Grants, how disposed of - might form a Fund to reward meritorious Servants, Elphinstone, 261.
- what Extent of Interest given to Native Servants as Rewards, Elphinstone, 262.
- how far such Grants are a Stimulus to Exertion, Elphinstone, 262.
- some granted for Life, some for longer Terms, some perpetual, Elphinstone, 262.
- granted to Family of Putwardens, Elphinstone, 262.
- are held on paying Quit Rent called Enaum, Elphinstone, 244. 245.
Bombay, Population under, principally Agricultural, Elphinstone, 246.
Bombay Presidency, Governor and Members of Council, as to their joint or separate Functions, Elphinstone, 257 to 259.
- how Government of, might be relieved from Attention to Details, Elphinstone, 259.
- different Modes of Revenue Settlement in Zemindarry, Mozawarry and Ryotwar, which preferable, Elphinstone, 243. 244.
Bombay Judicial Department, Sudder Adawlut, Head of, his Functions, Elphinstone, 256.
- Secretary of, his Functions, Elphinstone, 256.
- Charges of, since 1824, are increased from Establishment of Supreme Court, Rice, 146.
Bombay, Recorder's Court at. (See Recorder's Court.)
Bombay Political Department, Governor, either at or on leaving the Seat of Government, how far authorised to act independently of his Council, Elphinstone, 257. 258.
- Members of Council, their Duties, not as in Bengal, Heads of separate Departments, and whether such an Arrangement desirable, Elphinstone, 257. 258.
- how far Powers of Government require to be altered, modified, or defined, Elphinstone, 257.
(See Account, Estimate, Revenue.)
Bombay Revenue Department, Collector and Accountant General, their Duties, Elphinstone, 257.
- Falling-off of Land Revenue, in 1828-29, from what Causes, Melvill, 177. 178.
- Imperfections in System of, Elphinstone, 246.
- Diminution of, and Increase of Charge, how far temporary or permanent, Elphinstone, 274. 275.
- Excess of Charge above Revenue greater there than in the other Presidencies in 1825, 1826 and 1827, in the last Year to what Causes owing, Elphinstone, 274. 275.
Bombay, Supreme Court of, its Constitution, Nature, and Extent of its Jurisdiction, Rice, 143.
- Judges, Officers, Practitioners, Barristers and Attornies, Rice, 140. 141. 142. 146. 147.
- Native Assistants to Attornies, Rice, 143.
- Proceedings of, in English Language, Rice, 143.
- in Criminal and Civil Cases, Justice administered according to Law of England, Rice, 143.
- administers English Law to English and European Subjects, Rice, 143.
Bombay, Supreme Court of, administers Hindoo or Mohamedan Law to Natives, Rice, 143.
- administers Civil Law to Portuguese, Rice, 143.
- Knowledge of Native Law, how attained by the Court, Rice, 143.
- Native Interpreters, Rice, 142.
- no Arrears of Suits in it, Rice, 139. 145.
- Trial by Jury in Criminal Cases, Rice, 144.
- Magistrates may punish Natives for small Offences without Jury, Rice, 144.
-whether Natives fit to serve on Juries, Rice, 144.
- Modes for improving Constitution of, Rice, 145.
- Collision between Courts within and Courts without the Presidency to be prevented, Rice, 145.
- Nature of Courts without the Presidency same as in other Settlements; they administer Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws modified by Government Regulations, Rice, 145. 146.
-no Native Officers attached to, except Interpreters, Rice, 142. 147.
- Appeal from, to Privy Council, should be facilitated, Rice, 146.
- stands high in Opinion of Natives of Presidency, Chaplin, 284.
Bombay, how far the System of Punchayets prevails in the Provinces under Presidency of, Elphinstone, 248.
- how Justice administered in the Provinces under - Judges - Extent of their Jurisdiction - Emoluments, Elphinstone, 247.
- Native Judges decide Causes satisfactorily, Elphinstone, 247.
- taken from middle Classes, none of higher Ranks, Elphinstone, 247.
- means of Education of Persons for College of Poonah, Elphinstone, 247.
- Mohamedan Law less prevalent in, since the Mahratta Conquest, Elphinstone, 248.
- Regulations respecting Offences, and Punishment in, nearly the same as in Bengal, Robertson, 172.
- Code of, Elphinstone, 248.
- by them, Natives are more employed, and Native Prejudices more consulted, Elphinstone, 248.
- Tax on Salt in, Elphinstone, 246.
- different Opinions as to the Nature of the Tenure of Lands in, Elphinstone, 245.
- Territory, Cultivation of it has been extended, since it came into our Possession, but has met with a recent Check, Elphinstone, 272.
- Tributary States connected with the Government of, their Condition-in a State of Decay and Decline, Elphinstone, 254.
- Portuguese Half-castes, their Number - how esteemed - Mercantile Houses carried on by, Elphinstone, 271.
- Cultivators, whether subject to heavy Exactions of Officers, Elphinstone, 272.
- Land Assessment, as it affects Condition of small and large Proprietors, and their Means of improving their Lands, Elphinstone, 272. 273.
- Objection to subjecting Europeans residing at a Distance from, and not in Service of Company, to the Jurisdiction of local Tribunals, Elphinstone, 269.
- whole Marine Charge of India borne by, Elphinstone, 275.
- Town Duties in, not applied to local Improvement, as in Bengal, Elphinstone, 275.
- Weavers in, whether thrown out of Employ since Renewal of Charter, Elphinstone, 275. 276.
- Reduction made by East India Company in Charges of Government of, Elphinstone, 271.
- Sea Customs, Proportion they bear to Transit Duties in, Elphinstone, 267.
- has a larger Demand for China Goods than the other Presidencies, Toone, 531.
Bombazets, increased Demand for, Everett, 578.
Bond is entered into by Owners of Ships, with the Government of India, to conform to the Orders of the East India Company's Agents in China, W.S.Davidson, 673.
Bondsmen, numerous in District of Ramgur, Fleming, 96.
Boorhampoor, Silk made at, superseded by Silk of British Manufacture, Chaplin, 287.
Bopaul & Kotah, Revenue of, equitably settled and flourishing, Elphinstone, 246.
Brahmins, Warden, 179.
- well educated, and fit for all Offices, Chaplin, 284.
- Mahratta, are corrupt, Baber, 321.
- are all educated, Briggs, 449.
Brazilian Cotton. (See Cotton, Brazilian.)
Break of Tea is from 200 to 1,000 Chests, Mills, 682.
Brightman, House of, Half-caste, Mangles, 55.
British Authority in Nagpoor, Extent of Country subject to, Jenkins, 231.
British Consul. (See Consul.)
British Cottons do not wear so well as Indian, Mangles, 51.
British India. (See India.)
British Manufactures, as an Investment, from Great Britain to India, Alsager, 710.
- what, in request among the Natives, Christian, 74.
- used by Inhabitants of the Deccan, how far they have supplanted Native Manufactures, Chaplin, 282. 283.
- of Cotton, are used by the higher Classes, to the Prejudice of Native Manufacturers, Chaplin, 286.
- great Difficulty of obtaining Returns for the Exports of, to India, R. Davidson, 395.
- Howqua is a great Purchaser of, Toone, 529.
- Prices at which sold to Chinese is lowered, but Quantity sold is not increased, Toone, 529.
- in China, produce less Bullion than is paid for them in England, Toone, 529.
- Sale of, at Batavia and Manilla, is carried on by Chinese, Bates, 559.
- Market of Canton lately glutted by - Prices of, have fallen in China more than in England, Alsager, 711.
- better Sale for, in India than China, Alsager, 711.
- what Articles fit for Native or European Consumption in India, Alsager, 712.
- their Export to China increased in 1821, Everett, 574. 575.
- Expence of sending to America, and re-shipping to China, Everett, 580.
- are allowed to be sent to China by the Country Trade to a limited Extent, Stewart, 586.
- Export of, from India to China, would be unprofitable, Stewart, 586.
- Price of, at present, such as to insure a Demand in China, Stewart, 587.
- might be advantageously sent to Singapore, for China Market, Stewart, 587.
- whether any have been ordered from this Country on account of Native Chinese Merchants, Shaw, 705.
- except Woollens, may be sent to China direct by East India Company's Ships, Magniac, 617. 618.
- comparative Charge of sending direct to China, or first to Singapore, Magniac, 617.
- Export of, would be increased by open Trade with China, Magniac, 627.
- suitable to China Trade, Magniac, 628.
- not purchased to any Extent in the Eastern Islands by the Chinese, Craufurd, 632.
- Chinese trading to the Eastern Islands will not take, in consequence of our not taking Tea in return, Craufurd, 632.
- considerable Quantities sent to China by Country Trade, Craufurd, 633.
- exported from Canton to India, from the Want of other Modes of Remittance, Craufurd, 634.
- not sent to China through Singapore, in consequence of not taking Chinese Produce, Craufurd, 635.
- Mode of purchasing for China Market, Brown, 641.
- for China Market, Name of Merchant is put on, Brown, 641.
- sent to China, Out-profit on, good, Return Cargoes unprofitable, Brown, 641.
- Export of, to China has been unprofitable of late Years, and why, Urmston, 660.661.
- Want of Demand for, in China, Urmston, 660 to 662.
- for Woollens and Cottons, Urmston, 660. 661.
- for Long Ells, Urmston, 661. 662.
British Manufactures, in case of open Trade, an increased Demand for, would grow up, W.S.Davidson, 678. 680.
- Trade in, would be stopped gradually by Exactions of Chinese, W.S.Davidson, 680.
- Value of, imported into China by Americans in 1824, 1825 and 1826, Bates, 551.
- purchased by C. Everett for the China Trade, on American Account, from 1818 to 1829, Everett, 567 to 571. 575.
- by Baring & Co., from 1827 to 1830, Everett, 570.
- by Brown & Co., from 1821 to 1829, Brown, 637.
- vending of, in China, by Americans, beneficial, Milne, 647.
Toone, 538.
- bought by the Americans cheaper than by The East India Company, and why, Bates, 556.
- comparative Quality of, exported by Americans and East India Company, Bates, 556.
- Export of, by the Americans, increased, Craufurd, 633.
- imported by Americans, have given Chinese a Taste for them, W.S.Davidson, 678.
- bought by Private Traders, are as good as those bought by East India Company, Brown, 641.
British Manufactures and Produce, as to Probability of greater Consumption of, under Free Trade, Stewart, 587.
British and Native Subjects of India, Distinction between, East, 117.
- Residents are stationed at Mysore, Travancore, Coorg and Cochin, Baber, 335.
- Ships. (See Ships.)
- System of trading to China must be altered, if China Trade thrown open, Everett, 573.
Brown, Mr., Grant of Land to, in Malabar, for Experiments, Hodgson, 380.
Brown's Statement of Merchandize shipped by him on American Account to China, from 1821 to 1829, Brown, 637.
Brusa Silk has in some measure displaced inferior Bengal Silk, Wilson, 412.
Bullion, Expence of transmitting to England, R. Davidson, 392.
- is passed at Custom House at Canton, on Payment of a small Fee, Stewart, 583.
- Exportation of, from China, is contrary to Law, but can be procured from Outside Merchants, Stewart, 583.
- Amount of, exported from China to India, in 1827-8 and 1828-9, Magniac, 624.
- is the principal Export from China to India, Craufurd, 635.
- not always profitable as an Export to India, Craufurd, 635.
Bullocks, Quantity of Land they can plough, Harris, 462.
- always used in ploughing in India, Harris, 462.
Bulumber Salt, Upper Provinces supplied with, Robertson, 163.
Bunjans are Disposers of Grain, Fortescue, 40.
Burkimdosses or Constables, Fleming, 87.
Burning Villages in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 235.
Butwarahs, what, Mangles, 49.
Calculations showing the Cost Price in English Money of Samples of Foreign Tea, Kelly, 509.
Calcutta, Mahratta Ditch is Limits of, East, 100.
- as to extending Limits of, East, 116.
- different Description of Inhabitants in, East, 118.
- Number of Europeans in, Ricketts, 298.
- Number of Half-castes in, Ricketts, 298.
- College at, Elphinstone, 255.
- Hospitals at, Ricketts, 305.
- Agency Houses in, R. Davidson, 386.
- Salt at, is superior to Salt at Madras, Ramsay, 355.
- Price of Salt in, and in the Interior, Ramsay, 355.
- Supreme Court at. (See Supreme Court at Calcutta.)
Camlets, Yorkshire Manufacturers have Part of East India Company's Order, Shaw, 704.
- more would be sent if Trade opened - English now send them to Sincapore, Shaw, 704.
Camlets, Manufactory, at Dresden, of what is called Camlets, really Mohair, or Half Wool and Half Mohair, Shaw, 706.
- Lincoln and Leicestershire Wool used for, Shaw, 707.
- and Bombasin, Difference between, Shaw, 697.
- principally supplied to East India Company, Shaw, 697.
- Decrease of Quantity supplied to East India Company lately, Shaw, 697. 703. 704.
- purchased by Tender, with Conditions and Offers, Shaw, 697 to 700.
- Circulars relative to Condition of Tender, Shaw, 697 to 699.
- Offer of Supply accordingly, Shaw, 699. 700.
- Quantity rejected considerable, Shaw, 700. 701.
- as to Inspection of Goods offered, its Unfairness, Shaw, 700.
- are delivered in a dyed State, Shaw, 700.
- Demand for, in private American Trade, Shaw, 700.
- on the Increase, Shaw, 700. 701. 704.
- for East India Company and Private Trade, as to comparative Prices, Quality and Colour, Shaw, 701 to 703. 705.
- Orders for East India Company subject to many Deductions, Shaw, 701. 702.
- present Value of, Shaw, 702.
- sold to East India Company, Overlookers have the Power of Deduction or Rejection, Shaw, 702.
- Injury to rejected Pieces by Power of East India Company to cut off Marks, Shaw, 702.
- Private Trade in, on American Account, from 1821 to 1828, Shaw, 702.
- no Order for, completed, on American Account, without being inspected, Shaw, 702.
- Reduction of Prices within last Ten Years, and Causes of, how far affected by Prices of Wool, Dying Materials and Labour, Shaw, 703. 704.
- made from Long Wool, Shaw, 703. 704.
- improved Quality of, in the last Ten Years, Shaw, 703. 704.
- Reduction of Price has increased Demand for, Shaw, 704.
- British, how far exported by Foreign Merchants to China, Shaw, 705.
- in China, are used more for Furniture than Clothing, Toone, 538.
- Quantity exported to China by Americans from 1820 to 1826, Everett, 576.
- worn by highest Ranks in China, Urmston, 662.
- Imports of, into Canton, by Dutch, Urmston, 663.
- by Americans, Urmston, 662.
- their Quality compared with British, Urmston, 662. 664.
- a losing Concern in 1825 or 1826, Urmston, 662.
- at One Time, without Payment of Duty, to our Disadvantage, Urmston, 662.
- Americans preferable Customers for, to Company, Shaw, 704.
- Weavers of, many now out of Employ, Shaw, 704.
- their Wages the same now as formerly, Shaw, 704. 705.
- their Average Earnings, Shaw, 704.
- had full Employment in 1822, Shaw, 704.
- few People strong enough for weaving, Shaw, 705.
Canada Tea Trade, Loss of, by Americans, its Effects on their Trade, Brown, 642.
Canal of Dewab, Fortescue, 38.
- of Feroz Shah, Fortescue, 38.
- Old, Renovation of, on the Line of the Jumna to Delhi, and its Effects in fertilizing the Soil, Fortescue, 38.
- between Madras and Pulicut formed by Mr. Cochrane in 1801, Hodgson, 378.
Cananore, Queen of, is a great Ship Owner, Baber, 309.
Canara, Number of Christians in, Baber, 306. 322. 324.
- Native Christians of, from whom descended, Baber, 323.
- some Native Christians there have Wealth, Warden, 187.
- Disposition of Property in, Baber, 325.
- Mode of manuring Land in, Baber, 329.
- Slaves are better treated in, than in Malabar, Baber, 328. 329.
- Number of Half-castes in, Baber, 322.
- ceded in 1799, after the Fall of Seringapatam, Hodgson, 370.
Canara, Land of, fertile, notwithstanding Want of Irrigation, Hodgson, 370.
- most moderately assessed of any Province under the Madras Presidency, Hodgson, 370.
- as to Revenue, and Reduction of it, Hodgson, 370.
- Population of, is Agricultural, Hodgson, 370.
- Waste Lands in, belong to the Village Communities, Briggs, 449.
Canara and Malabar are not irrigated Provinces, Hodgson, 367.
Canarese Language, used by some Hindoos, Johnston, 198.
Candeish, Population of, Briggs, 435.
- unsettled State of, for 30 Years, Briggs, 435.
- Attack on, by Bheels, and Measures taken to reduce them, Briggs, 435. 436. 439.
- Criminal Justice, how administered in, Briggs, 437.
- Jury Trial used in, Briggs, 437.
- Juries, how chosen in, Briggs, 437.
- Administration of Justice in - by Punchayet - Arbitration - Appeal - People appeared satisfied with it, Briggs, 436. 437.
- Judge not satisfied with it, and Reasons for this, Briggs, 438.
- Police of - their Number - called Sebundies - Briggs, 438. 439.
- Military Force of, Briggs, 439.
- Revenue, Assessment of, Briggs, 439.
- Ryotwarry System in, Briggs, 439.
- Village Assessment or Settlement paid in Money, and Appeal against it, Briggs, 439.
- Price of Grain in, Briggs, 439.
- Revenue, Amount of, in, Briggs, 440.
- as to Payment of it in Money or in Kind, Briggs, 440.
- Revenue of, sold by Contract under Native Government, as Tolls are in England, Briggs, 442.
- Proportion taken by the ancient Native Government was in Kind, Briggs, 442.
- Assessments are so high in, as to impede the progressive Prosperity of the Country, Briggs, 442.
- many Individuals in, possess Lands where the Rights of the ancient Freeholders have been usurped, Briggs, 444.
- Village Assessment preferred by Native Cultivator in, Briggs, 445.
- Schools are established in, Briggs, 448.
- no Persons appointed as Jurors who could not read or write, Briggs, 448.
- Ryotwar System in, Briggs, 439.
Canongoes, Office of Registry, Christian, 69.
(See East India Company, Influence and Power of.)
Canton, Factory of East India Company at, Expences of it, Toone, 524.
- as to Reduction of this Establishment, Toone, 524.
- give Bills on England for Funds supplied to them in Canton, which is a Disadvantage to private Trader, Bates, 563.
- Agents, Commission paid to, by private Traders, Toone, 524.
- Commerce of, is carried on in broken English, Toone, 536.
- Cumshaw or Present payable in the Port of, is 1,900 Tales on every Ship, Stewart, 592.
- Port Charges at, are much the same on small as large Vessels, and how taken, Stewart, 592.
- Security given by Hong Merchant for Conduct of Crew of Ships arriving at, Urmston, 662.
- comparative Facility of finding their Security by Company's, American and Country Ships, Urmston, 662. 663.
- Regulations of Port of, are very strict, Bates, 564.
- Trade of Dutch with, carried on by a Company, Urmston, 663.
- Camlets their chief Export, Urmston, 663.
- Trade of Swedes and Danes with, Urmston, 664.
- of Spaniards, rare of late, Urmston, 664.
- of Portuguese confined to Macao in Opium, Urmston, 664.
- of French - they brought Wines and Money, and took Silk and Chinaware, Urmston, 664.
- Market overstocked by Import of Articles from America, in competition with ours, Urmston, 662.
- Ports to the North of, visited by Country Ships, with Opium, Alsager, 719.
Canvass, manufactured in Bengal, Alsager, 718.
Capital, Total Commercial, of the East India Company, Abroad and at Home, on the 1st of May 1827 and 1st of May 1828, Lloyd, 9.32.
- Advantage of facilitating Residence in India of Europeans possessing, Elphinstone, 268.
- Agricultural, Increase of, Fleming, 89.
- Accumulation of, by Hindoos, Elphinstone, 262.
- greater Application of, might be the Means of producing a larger Quantity of Sugar, Silk and Cotton, Elphinstone, 268.
- Introduction of, advantageous in Cultivation of Land in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 238.
- and Skill, Employment of, in Cultivation of Indigo and Sugar, would improve the Resources of the Country, Chaplin, 290.
- increased Employment of, in Improvement of Land, would be a great Advantage, Elphinstone, 273.
Chaplin, 291.
- in some Instances, is accumulated by Ryots, R. Davidson, 388.
- Want of, is a Difficulty to Extension of Cultivation, R. Davidson, 389.
- used in Manufacture of Indigo is mostly borrowed of Agency Houses in Calcutta, and Rate of Interest paid for, R.Davidson, 386. 391. 392.
Harris, 458. 460. 461.
Dunlop, 485. 486. 487.
- large, in Tea Trade, is advantageous, Brown, 639.
- European, and Skill, is necessary to produce Cotton, Craufurd, 515. 517.
- advanced to Hong Merchants by British and American Merchants, Toone, 540.
- Double, required for American China Trade, to conduct it with Success, Bates, 552. 553.
- of Houses engaged in China Trade not sufficient to carry it on in all its Branches, Everett, 573.
Capital Punishments, not inflicted previous to 1802, Hodgson, 366.
Captains, American, Care taken in the Selection of, Milne, 645.
Cardamums, Monopoly of, Baber, 335.
- few used by Natives, Baber, 337.
- are produced in the Mountains of Malabar and Coorg only, Baber, 337.
- any Person may cultivate them, Baber, 337.
-are grown on private Property, Baber, 338.
- Land Assessment does not extend to, Baber, 338.
- Price of, Baber, 338.
- Rate at which Grower of, is paid, Baber, 338.
- where exported to, Baber, 340.
- if Trade in, free, Cultivation of them would be extended, Baber, 340.
Carnatic, Administration of different Parts of the Country at different Periods between 1765 and 1816, Hodgson, 365 to 367.
- Indigo cultivated in, Baber, 342.
- Land Revenue of, was formerly collected through Agency of Zemindars, or Public Contractors, Hodgson, 365.
- Gang Robberies in the, Hodgson, 366.
- European Superintendants appointed to see Justice done to the Ryots in the, Hodgson, 366.
- Ryotwar Assessment in, recommended by Sir T. Munro, Hodgson, 367.
- Lands in, by what Tenure held, R. Davidson, 387.
- Natives of, are an amiable Race of Men, and would be capable of Employments of a higher Description, if better educated, R. Davidson, 387.
- Debt, Lloyd, 32.
Cart and Hackery Drivers, Pay of, Rickards, 423.
(See Cotton.)
Carthagena Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Casee Chitty, Frauds of, in Coimbatore, Chaplin, 288.
- overgrown Influence of, Baber, 332.
Cashmere Shawls, Baber, 309.
Cassia, imported by Americans to fill up Tonnage, Milne, 646.
Caste, Loss of, Repurchase of, and Sum paid for it, East, 120.
- originally a Political Distinction, how united with Religion, Johnston, 221.
Castes, Number of, in Malabar, Baber, 311.
Cawnpore, Settlement in, State of it, Robertson, 158.
- Abuses in the Revenue Department-Decision of Civil Judge reversed by Court of Bareilly, on what Grounds-Appeals to Sudder, Result of those Appeals, on what Ground some rejected, Robertson, 158. 159. 160. 161.
- Expences of Legal Proceedings and Appeals, and Proportion they bore to the Property litigated, Robertson, 161.
Cawnpore, Commission for investigating and correcting Abuses in Collection of Revenue, Robertson, 160.
- Decoity in District of, by Gangs from Oude-Diminution of this Crime, Robertson, 161. 162.
- Thuggee (Murders peculiar to Upper India), prevalent in District of, Robertson, 161. 162.
- District of, is under Zemindarry Settlement, Robertson, 162.
- Zemindar had indirect Influence over Police, Robertson, 162.
- Number of Police Officers in, Robertson, 162.
- Village Watchman, his Duties - his Conduct - often in league with Thieves-might be made useful, Robertson, 162.
- Police of, is best in those Districts where old Possessors of Soil remained, Robertson, 162.
- Tehsildar, his Pay, Robertson, 162. 163.
- Number of Villages, and Amount of Population, Robertson, 162. 163.
- Resort thither of Europeans under Licences, not increasing, Robertson, 163.
-Licences to remove from Place to Place may be required, but dispensed with in Practice, Robertson, 163.
- Sugar grown to great Extent in, Robertson, 165.
Cazees, Rice, 139.
Ceded Districts, Revenue Settlement in, on the Ryotwar System, Chaplin, 277.
- Survey of, by Sir T. Munro, Rickards, 432.
Ceylon, Juries in, Sir Richard Ottley's Opinion of them, Rice, 144. 145.
- introduced in 1811, Johnston, 188.
- Proceedings for forming a Code of Laws applicable to the different Classes of Persons in, in 1809, 1816, 1817, 1818, Johnston, 189.
- as to extending Ceylon System of Jury Trial to Natives of India, Johnston, 189.
- Advocate Fiscal, Nature of his Duties, Johnston, 187. 219.
- State of the Administration of the Law, and Nature of Jurisdiction, Johnston, 188.
- Supreme Court - Provincial Court - High Court of Appeal - Admiralty Court - their respective Jurisdictions, Local and Personal, Civil and Criminal, since 1811, Johnston, 188. 220.
- Population, as consisting of different Classes of Persons, determining the Nature of the Law to be administered to them respectively, Johnston, 188.
- Means by which Knowledge of the Law applicable to the different Classes of Persons is acquired, Johnston, 188 to 190.
- voluntary Emancipation of Children born of Slaves, after a certain Time, by Proprietors, Johnston, 193.
- Proceedings of Courts carried on in Language of Jury, Johnston, 197.
- Tenures of Land in Ceylon may be classed under Three Heads: 1st, Lands belonging to the Sovereign, and cultivated for His Benefit; 2d, Lands held under Sovereign upon Condition of Payment of fixed Portion of Produce; 3d, Lands granted for Performance of specific Service attached to Office, Johnston, 213. 214.
- large Tracts of uncultivated Land in, Johnston, 213. 215.
- Law of Succession, with respect to Landed Property regulated by Hindoo Law or Dutch Roman Law, Johnston, 214.
- Jury Trial, Mode in which introduced and administered in, and beneficial Consequences of, Johnston, 190 to 194.
- Sir Alexander Johnston's Letter to Mr. Wynn on, Johnston, 190 to 193.
- Effect of its Introduction in raising the Character of the Natives in point of Morality and Intelligence - would be attended with the like Effects in other Parts of India, Johnston, 193 to 195.
- Means taken to prepare Natives for it, by explaining it at Meetings, and translating "Sheriff and Juryman," Johnston, 196.
- Jurymen, Challenge allowed to, Johnston, 221.
Ceylon, Jury Trial in, since its Introduction one uniform System of Justice for Europeans and Natives administered in Supreme Court and High Court of Appeal from Provincial Courts, Johnston, 216.
- Jury Trial in, Verdict final - no Appeal in Criminal Cases - in Capital Convictions Reference to Governor before Execution, and to Secretary of Colonies in Cases of Recommendations to Mercy, Johnston, 217.
- Jurors are in Number Thirteen, and decide by Majority, not unanimously, Johnston, 218. 219.
- Jurors, their Verdict satisfactory, Johnston, 219.
- Jury, Mode of conducting Trials before - Jurymen take Part in the Examination of Witnesses, Johnston, 219. 220.
- composed of Natives to try Natives, Johnston, 221.
- Laws and Usages of, as to reducing them into a more clear and compendious Form, Johnston, 196. 197.
- Knowledge more equally diffused among Mohamedan, Hindoo, and Bhuddist Population in Peninsula of India than in, Johnston, 194.
- Natives of India as well qualified for Jurymen as Natives of, Johnston, 194.
- Portuguese Population of, their Character, as depending on their Priests, Johnston, 214. 215.
- Population, mixed Nature of, no Inconvenience, Johnston, 215.
- uncultivated Lands in, Measures for bringing them again into Cultivation, Johnston, 215.
- Restrictions on Europeans holding Lands in, taken off since 1809, with what Object, Johnston, 215.
- Half-castes in, considered as Natives, Johnston, 217.
- Arbitration, System of, in, Johnston, 218.
- High Court of Appeal in, how constituted, Johnston, 188. 220.
- Supreme Court of, its Jurisdiction extends through ancient British Possessions, not to Candian Territory, Johnston, 220.
- Hindoos of, more disposed to adopt European Habits and Fashions than other People of India, Johnston, 220.
- this Disposition how affected by Caste, Johnston, 221.
- Slaves and Slavery in, Domestic - also Slave Castes like Slaves of the Glebe in Russia - Regulation for making Children of Domestic Slaves born after 12th August 1816 free - adopted voluntarily by Masters who were upon List of Jurymen, Johnston, 197. 213. 220. 221.
Charges on East India Company in England, no Prospect of a Reduction of, Lloyd, 8.
Chest of Opium, Contents of, Swinton, 19. 22.
- Tea, Weight of, Bates, 549.
Children of Soldiers brought up and educated as Christians, how disposed of, Ricketts, 302.
China, large Establishment and long Experience of their Servants necessary for the Conduct of East India Company's Trade with, Urmston, 654.
- Advantage of East India Company's Factory in, over private Agents, Urmston, 654.
- Advantage derived to other Nations trading with China, from the Influence and Power of the East India Company, Urmston, 654.
- Tea is generally consumed in, Toone, 542.
- Import of Tin into, by Country Ships, has fallen off since 1817-18, Stewart, 588.
- Metals are introduced into, under Country Trade, Stewart, 588.
- Duties in, on Exports and Imports, managed by the Chinese Lander and Shipper without being known to the Agent, W.S.Davidson, 669.
- Duties levied on Articles of Export and Import the same in respect to all Nations, Urmston, 658.
- has Manufactures of Silk and Cotton, which answer its Purpose, Urmston, 660 to 662.
(See Silk and Silk Worm.)
- Silk Worm, its Superiority over the Decey, Wilson, 407.
China, Imports from, are Tea, Silks, Nankeens and Cassia, Milne, 644.
- returns Tea for Opium and Cotton, Craufurd, 635.
- higher Ranks in, wear Camlets, Urmston, 662.
- in a more impoverished State now than Twenty Years ago, Urmston, 660.
- and Indian Trade, comparative Profit on, Milne, 643.
- Shipments to, Amount of, from 1821 to 1829, Craufurd, 640. 641.
(See Country Trade.)
China Trade, Profit on, Stewart, 585.
- Loss of Freight and Time in a circuitous Voyage in the, Stewart, 591.
- Advantages of a direct over a circuitous Trade, Stewart, 587.
- if opened, would ruin American Trade, Maxfield, 604.
- Imports of, increased, and Returns for, Magniac, 623.
- on Coast of China, it is impossible to carry it on legally, or to any Extent, Magniac, 626. 627.
- is capable of great Extension, if more Capital employed in it, Everett, 574.
- requires considerable Management to introduce different Articles, Bates, 551.
- Attempts made with Success to export new Articles, Everett, 581.
- not carried on with so much Advantage by a Company as by private Merchants, Brown, 640.
- in Tea, not obstructed by Government Regulations, or otherwise, Milne, 648.
- Duties on Goods imported and exported in, how evaded, Craufurd, 631.
- Native Merchants trade to Canton in Opium, Bates, 552.
- with Japan, is more restricted than the Dutch, Toone, 535.
China Trade of Americans, is a perfectly free Trade, Stewart, 589.
- Chinese Goods imported into America are intended for the United States, or Continent of Europe, Stewart, 594.
- in case of Grievances, how Representations are made to Chinese, Urmston, 658. 661.
- many have acquired Fortunes in, Bates, 553.
- requires Double Capital to conduct it with Success, Bates, 551 to 553.
China Trade, Opening of, and its probable Effects, Stewart, 584 to 586.
- there would be an Increase in the Sale of British Manufactures, Bates, 551.
Stewart, 595.
- would be to deprive American Merchant of the Supply of Europe with Chinese Goods, Bates, 557.
Maxfield, 604.
- would be more favourable to Remittances, Stewart, 585.
- Produce of China might be exported to England or Europe, Stewart, 588. 589.
- early Stoppage of Trade probable, from their Obstinacy, Pride, and Arrogance, especially in respect to Homicide Cases, in Case of an open Trade, W.S.Davidson, 677.
- this Mischief to be met, not by complimentary Embassies, but by vigorous Negociations, W.S.Davidson, 677. 678.
- attempted Innovations between 1811 and 1822, W.S.Davidson, 669.
- their Attempts more vexatious than onerous, but must be resisted at first, W.S.Davidson, 669.
- resisted by us in stopping the Trade in 1814 and 1821, W.S.Davidson, 669.
Chinese, Character of, Rice, 139. 142.
- not acquainted with Navigation, Craufurd, 631.
- Population would receive European Manufactures, Bates, 558.
- in Prince of Wales Island, Rice, 140.
- nothing in Habits, Dispositions, or Regulations of, that prevent their purchasing Goods suited to their Wants. Bates, 559.
- have a peculiar Taste for Opium, Fleming, 85.
- have a Taste for Turkish Opium, Fleming, 86.
- Cottons are excellent, Toone, 530.
- Cottons, stronger, but not cheaper than British, Magniac, 623.
- are chiefly clothed in Cotton, Toone, 530.
- Law does not allow them to borrow Money of Europeans, Toone, 540.
- but Money advanced by Europeans to, Toone, 540.
- Junks, are the Property of Merchants at Canton, who let them out to Traders, Bates, 559.
Chinese Junks, Mode of freighting of, Bates, 559.
China Trade with Native Foreign Countries, Account of, Craufurd, 629 to 632.
- with Foreigners, Laws to prevent, evaded, Magniac, 626.
Chinese Trade, Native and Foreign, Amount of Tonnage, and Number of Ships employed in, Account of, Craufurd, 629. 630.
- with Siam, mostly carried on in Siamese Junks, Craufurd, 630.
Chinese Trade with England, Chinese Government, Hong Merchants, and Population of Canton, are interested in the Continuance of, W.S.Davidson, 676.
Chinese Trade is carried on at Fokien and Kiangan, and from thence to Cochin China, Singapore, and the Sooloo Islands, Magniac, 627.
- Colonial Shipping employed in, Craufurd, 630.
- with Swedes and Danes, Urmston, 664.
Chinese Merchants, whether they have sent Orders for British Manufactures to this Country, Shaw, 705.
- are distinguished as Merchants, Maxfield, 614.
Rice, 142.
- are exact Judges of the Quality of the Goods they purchase, Bates, 565.
Chinese are excellent Imitators of Fancy Silks Milne, 649.
- are superior as Artificers, Maxfield, 614.
- Labour of, cheap, Magniac, 623.
Chingapoot, Revenue Settlement in, Hyde, 172. 173.
Chittagong, Salt made at, Mangles, 62.
Chetteesgur, Jenkins, 233.
Chokies, Places where Custom House Officers are stationed for the Collection of Duties, Swinton, 25.
Chowakkara, or Kunly Pachey, Heir of Moossa, a Ship Owner in Malabar, Baber, 309.
Christian, Mr. Hugh, Member of the Commission for investigating and correcting Abuses in the Collection of the Revenue, Robertson, 160.
Christians, Syrian. (See Syrian Christians.)
- Native, Condition of, East, 122. 123.
- Number of, in Bengal, Ricketts, 298.
- in Canara and Malabar, Baber, 306. 322. 324.
- in Malabar, not an increasing Body, Baber, 323.
- Mangalore, and Travancore, Warden, 183.
- chiefly descended from Half-castes, Baber, 306.
- Number of, chiefly of Roman Catholic Church, Baber, 306.
- in India, no Code there which applies to them, Ricketts, 299.
Circuit, Judges of, their Jurisdiction, Fleming, 90.
(See Estimate, Revenue.)
Civil and Marine Reductions in India, Melvill, 211.
Civil Charges at Bengal, Increase of, from 1823 to 1827, Wood, 13.
- Increase of, how checked, Sherer, 14.
- Establishments, as to Revisal of, with a View to Reduction, about 1822, Sherer, 15.
- SUIT, Expences of, before Circuit Judge, Robinson, 161.
- Courts, Half-castes in, are subject to Civil Law - in the Criminal Courts, Mohamedan Law is followed, Smith, 84.
- SERVANTS at Bombay, their Education - Suggestions for improving of, Elphinstone, 255. 256.
Claret is an Article of East Indian Trade, Maxfield, 607.
Clashee, a Native Sailor, Alsager, 717.
Classification of Survey and Assessment made by Sir T. Munro, Chaplin, 277.
Coal is found in India, R. Davidson, 389.
Cochin is controlled by a British Resident, Baber, 335.
- Inhabitants of, are loyal and industrious, Baber, 323.
Cochin China, Mode of cultivating Cotton in, Craufurd, 516.
Cochrane, Mr. formed a Canal between Madras and Pulicut in 1801, Hodgson, 378.
Cocoones. (See Silk Cocoones.)
Code of Laws, for Natives generally, One common System could not be applied to the whole of India, Elphinstone, 265.
- must consist of different Systems - better not attempt Uniformity at present, Elphinstone, 265.
- Two distinct Systems necessary for Europeans and Natives, Elphinstone, 265.
(See Jones-Colebrook-Sutherland.)
- as to forming One, and Materials for, Elphinstone, 249.
Strange, 400. 401.
Codes, Hindoo and Mohamedan, as to their Union, Smith, 83.
Coffee, Cultivation of, in Bengal, has failed, Craufurd, 518.
- has been raised in Java by European Capital, Craufurd, 518.
- cultivated in some Parts of the Mysore, good, but not equal to Mocha, Chaplin, 286. 293.
- increased Consumption - Prices - Duty on, Mills, 693. 694.
- is much drank by Americans, Bates, 550.
Milne, 648.
Coimbatore, Frauds of Casee Chitty in, Chaplin, 288.
- Indigo cultivated at, Baber, 342.
- Tobacco is sent to, from Malabar, Baber, 337.
Colebrook's Translation of the Treatises on Inheritance, Strange, 401.
Collector in Lower Provinces, his Functions, Fiscal and Judicial, Mangles, 48. 49.
- if he had Judicial Powers, would accelerate Administration of Justice, Fortescue, 41.
- is more vigilant under short than long Leases in the Improvement of Land and Revenue, Christian, 71.
- and Judge, as to Union of Powers of, Jenkins, 238.
Hodgson, 368.
- his Method of forming Estimates, Christian, 71.
- of Revenue in Bombay, what Judicial Functions executed by, Elphinstone, 250.
- his Character represented to Natives as terrifying and repulsive, Robertson, 159.
College, at Madras, as to establishing one, for Natives of Rank and Property, Strange, 403.
- for Education of Pleaders, Pundits, and Officers, and Course of, Hodgson, 379. 380.
- more for Languages than Law, Strange, 401.
- at Poonah, Elphinstone, 247.
- Disadvantage of confining Education of Civil Servants to separate Colleges, Elphinstone, 255.
Colleges at Haylebury, Calcutta, and Madras, none at Bombay, Elphinstone, 255.
Colopore, Rajah of, Exemption from Jurisdiction of Provincial Courts is a Condition of his Jaghire, Chaplin, 282.
Commerce of British India with Great Britain, Amount of, in 1826-7, Melvill, 225.
- exists only to a very small Degree between East India Company and India, Melvill, 225.
Commercial Agents, at Canton, Urmston, 659.
- Capital, Total of the East India Company on 1st of May 1828 in England, and 1st of May 1827 in India, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill, 32.
- Receipts of East India Company, Amount of, since Charter renewed, Lloyd, 8.
Commission on Sale of Goods at Canton, Everett, 578.
- paid by Private Trader to Agents at Canton, Toone, 524.
- paid by Americans to Agents at Canton, Bates, 548.
- paid for Purchases for American Houses in England, Everett, 578.
- on Goods, and how estimated, Brown, 638.
- on Tea Sales, Mills, 693.
- appointed in 1821 to restore Lands illegally sold - to correct certain Errors of Collectors in respect to proprietary Right - and inquire into the Tenure and Interests of the Agricultural Community, Robertson, 160.
Christian, 65.
- of 1821, Redress under it, Christian, 65.
- to inquire into Abuses respecting Sales of Land, Mangles, 50.
- Sudder Special, Appeals from Mofussil Commission may be presented to, Robertson, 160.
Commissioner of Delhi, Allowance to, Fortescue, 46.
Commissioners of Ceded Provinces, their Opinion as to Effects of the permanent Settlement, Rickards, 501.
Commissions to remedy Sales of Lands in Malabar, in 1807, 1817, and 1819, and what Measures adopted, Baber, 308.
Comocolly Silk is the best in Bombay, Durant, 465.
Company's Ships. (See East India Company's Ships.)
Consul, American, has little or no Authority over Trade of his Country, Magniac, 629.
- or other Officer, as to Appointment of, in case China Trade thrown open, Stewart, 596.
- British, at Canton, could such an Officer regulate private British Trade, Toone, 534.
Consul, whether British Interests, and the Influence of the East India Company, could be as well managed by one as through the Factory, Urmston, 658 to 660.
- Dutch, Magniac, 629.
Contract, Inheritance and Adoption, Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws administered by Supreme Court in Cases of, Clarke, 150.
Converts, Hindoo, East, 124.
Coolies, Manner of pressing them, and Pay of, Baber, 338. 339.
- pressing of, is a Grievance, Baber, 338. 339.
- Inhabitants, as soon as it is known that Troops or Europeans are on the Road, run away to avoid being pressed as, Baber, 339.
Coorg, is controlled by a British Resident, Baber, 335.
- Mountains of, produce Cardamums, Baber, 337.
Coparceners, Division and Sales of their Lands, Mangles, 49.
Cornwallis, Lord, introduced Judicial System into India in 1793, Rickards, 420.
- introduced Zemindarry Settlement in 1793, Briggs, 443.
- Effect of his System in weakening the Authority of the Land Owners, Robertson, 157. 158.
Cotton Plant, Climate best adapted to Cultivation of, Robertson, 166.
Hodgson, 375.
Chaplin, 283.
Carruthers, 481. 482.
Craufurd, 513. 514. 517. 518. 519.
R. Davidson, 389.
- Sea Island, American, and Indian, is an Annual, R. Davidson, 390.
Bruddock, 480.
Dunlop, 487.
- bears for Three Years, Bruddock, 480.
- degenerates after first Year's Growth, Ryder, 473.
Cotton Plantation, Time it takes to come to Maturity, Craufurd, 517.
Cotton, Manure used for, is Wood Ashes, Carruthers, 484.
- Qualities of, vary according to Seasons, Ryder, 474.
- does not thrive far from the Sea, Craufurd, 513.
Cotton Plant, Improvement in Cultivation of, would be best attained by free Admission of European Capital, Craufurd, 514. 515.
- Mode of Cultivation of, in Java, Cochin China, Siam, Ava, and some Provinces in Bengal, Craufurd, 516. 517.
- Improvement in, has been attempted for Thirty Years without Effect, Craufurd, 513.
- it is possible to improve the Growth of, in India, Ryder, 476.
Dunlop, 488.
- will keep with all its Qualities for Years, Ryder, 476.
- Cultivation of, in India, has not been fairly tried for Want of Power to hold Lands, R. Davidson, 390.
- might be extended by Advances to Ryots, if Lands could be held on Lease, R. Davidson, 390.
Cotton Seeds, the best are Surinam, Pernambucco, and Cayenne, Bruddock, 480.
- African, are the worst, Bruddock, 481.
- are given to Cattle, Craufurd, 517.
Cotton, Long-Stapled, Bruddock, 479.
Craufurd, 512. 513. 515.
- has never been cultivated in British India or Asia, and Reasons for this, Craufurd, 512. 513.
- it requires Skill and Capital to cultivate, Craufurd, 515.
Cotton, Short-Stapled, Ryder, 474.
Craufurd, 512. 513. 515.
- is invariably cultivated in India, Craufurd, 512. 513.
Cotton, cleaning, by Hand-picking, Bruddock, 479. 480.
- by Bowstrings, Dunlop, 487. 488.
- Loss per Cent. by, Ryder, 475.
- done in a superior Manner formerly, Magniac, 622.
- by Blowing Machine, Bruddock, 479.
- Machine for-Failure of, Carruthers, 483.
- used in Calcutta, Dunlop, 487.
- Machinery for, has not been used with any Degree of Success, Craufurd, 519. 520.
- clean and dirty, relative Value of, Ryder, 475.
- Price of, Ryder, 474. 475.
Carruthers, 484.
Craufurd, 518. 519.
Magniac, 622.
Cotton, Quality of, Chaplin, 283.
R. Davidson, 397.
Ryder, 473. 474.
Bruddock, 478. 479.
Carruthers, 481.
Magniac, 622.
Craufurd, 519.
Toone, 535.
Cotton, African, Ryder, 476.
- from Carthagenian Seed, is the worst for Manufactures, Bruddock, 481.
- American, is confined to Two Qualities, Sea Island and Santu, Ryder, 474.
- is improved, Ryder, 473.
- is a Perennial, R. Davidson, 390.
- and Indian, relative Price of, Ryder, 474.
- short-stapled, is inferior to Brazil Cotton, Ryder, 474.
- Brazil and Indian, Qualities of, Bruddock, 478.
- and Brazil, comparative Price of, at Liverpool, Carruthers, 484.
- Export of, is largely increased, Bates, 546.
Everett, 576.
Magniac, 623.
- is produced almost without Labour, R. Davidson, 389.
- is produced on the alluvial Lands of the Mississippi, R. Davidson, 389.
- Import of, into China- Quality of, Toone, 535.
- sent to Canton and Manilla, are superseded by Cottons from England, Bates, 551.
Cotton of Bahia, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- of Barbadoes, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- of Bengal, is a profitable Cultivation to Natives, Dunlop, 487.
- Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- Prices of, at various Places, Craufurd, 518.
- of Bombay, more useful than that of Bengal or Madras, Bruddock, 479.
- Madras, and Bengal, Difference between, Bruddock, 479.
- is the longest Staple of any in the East Indies, but not so long as the American, Bruddock, 479.
- might be produced equal to Sea Island, Bruddock, 480.
- Bourbon, Quality of, Bruddock, 479.
- cultivated with Success in Tinnivilly, Hodgson, 375.
- is nearly gone out of use in this Country, Craufurd, 512.
- of Brazil, Quality of, and Soil fit for, Carruthers, 481.
- pays an exorbitant Duty, Carruthers, 483.
- is Triennial, Bruddock, 480.
- is produced by Slave Labour, Carruthers, 483.
- Mode of cleaning, Carruthers, 482. 483.
- Effect of Machinery on, Carruthers, 483.
- and America, comparative Price of, at Liverpool, Carruthers, 484.
- Carthagenian, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- of China, is grown near the Sea, Craufurd, 514.
- of Dacca, is grown near the Sea, Craufurd, 514.
- is an Article unknown in Agricultural Production, or of Commerce, Craufurd, 516.
- is cultivated for local Purposes, Craufurd, 516.
- Situations in which it will grow, Craufurd, 517. 518.
- is remarkably fine, Craufurd, 514.
- the finest Muslins is made from, Craufurd, 514.
- does not come to the British Market, Craufurd, 514.
Cotton, Egyptian, the best is superior to every other except Santu and Sea Island, Ryder, 476.
- is much improved, Ryder, 473.
- Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- is superior to Malta Cotton, Ryder, 477.
- Indian, imported into China, Quality of, Toone, 535.
- Price of, Ryder, 475.
- none long-stapled, Ryder, 474.
- is principally used for low Goods, Ryder, 476.
- is not deteriorated in the last Fifty Years, Bruddock, 479.
- Defects of, Craufurd, 519.
- is all spun by Hand, Craufurd, 514.
- is worked into low Cloth, Checks for Sailors, low Calicoes or Velvets, Velveteens, Cords, and other low Goods, Bruddock, 478.
- of Java, is cultivated by European Capital and Skill, Craufurd, 518.
Cotton, of Mahratta Country, is of inferior Quality, and small in Quantity, Chaplin, 283.
- Soil of South Mahratta Country is adapted for the Growth of, Chaplin, 283.
- Malta, is inferior to Egyptian, Ryder, 477.
- Maranham, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- New Orleans, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- New South Wales, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- Pernambucco, how cultivated, and Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- Popham, Bruddock, 479.
-Sea Island, is of a valuable Description, Ryder, 474.
- has nearly superseded Bourbon Cotton, Ryder, 476.
- is used unmixed for the finest Articles, Bruddock, 479.
- is an Annual, Bruddock, 480.
- is from Persian Seed, Bruddock, 480.
- Export of, from America, is increasing, Craufurd, 512.
- Export of, from America, Amount of, in 1791 and 1827, Craufurd, 518.
- first introduced into America in 1786 Craufurd, 518.
- of Sangor, and Price, Craufurd, 519.
- of Surat, is superior to Bengal Cotton, R. Davidson, 397.
- is nearly as good as Georgia Bowed or Georgia Upland, and comparative Value and Quality of, Craufurd, 519.
- Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- Extract of a Letter on Cultivation of, Craufurd, 513.
- Tennasse, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
- Upland or Bowed Georgia, is improved by continually changing the Seed, Ryder, 473.
Cotton Goods, of British Manufacture, used by higher Classes to the Prejudice of Natives employed in the Manufacture of the finer Cloths, Chaplin, 286.
- exported by East India Company, are chiefly Long Cloths, calculated for the lower Classes, Toone, 536.
- have of late Years been unprofitable, Urmston, 660. 661.
- of British Manufactures, sent to China, Value of, Craufurd, 634.
- to China less profitable than Woollens, Toone, 530.
Cotton, imported into China, the Quality and Mode of cleaning, formerly superior, Magniac, 622.
- Quantity of, from 1825-6 to 1829-30, and Value of, in Dollars, Magniac, 622.
- imported into China, Stewart, 590.
- produces a considerable Profit for Investments, Toone, 528.
Alsager, 710.
- how sold to Hong Merchants, Toone, 527.
- People of China are chiefly clothed in, Toone, 530.
Magniac, 623.
- manufactured by Chinese are excellent, Toone, 530.
Cotton Blowing Machine, Bruddock, 479.
Cotton Gin frequently cuts the Fibres of the Cotton, Bruddock, 481.
Cotton, Manufacture of, in Dharwar, Baber, 340.
- Natives are improving in the Manufacture of, Dunlop, 488.
- the finest is used for Muslins, Veils, and all superior Kinds of Goods and Thread, Bruddock, 479.
- Country Trade competes with East India Company at Canton only in Import of, W.S.Davidson, 675.
- Raw, Decline in Price of, Magniac, 622.
- from Surinam, Nickerie, Cayenne, Martinique and Guadaloupe formerly allowed to be imported in British Vessels for Home Consumption, Ryder, 476.
- Attempts to trade in, on the Coast of China, unsuccessful, Magniac, 624.
Cotton, Sugar, and Silk, Produce of, might be increased by a greater Application of Capital, Elphinstone, 268.
Cotton and Opium, consigned for Sale in China, W.S. Davidson, 674.
- Returns for, in Bills, Sycee Silver, Tutenag, &c. W.S. Davidson, 674.
Cotton, Transit Duty on, Effects of taking it off, Swinton, 26.
Cotton Twist, English, employed in making Cloth by Natives, Mangles, 51.
- as to Export of, by East India Company, Toone, 336.
Cottons and Woollens, why East India Company have lost on their Trade in, Everett, 574.
Cottons and Woollens, Restrictions on their Importation into China from India, removed of late, W.S.Davidson, 674.
- how far imported since, W.S.Davidson, 674.
- Demand for, in China, Stewart, 587.
- have fallen 50 per Cent. in Ten Years, Magniac, 618.
Cotton Yarns, are sent to China, Brown, 640.
-considerable Consignments of, sent to India, Magniac, 617. 628.
Cotym, in Travancore, Schools established at, Baber, 323.
Council, Native. (See Justice, Administration of.) Country Ships, whether they sail at cheaper Rate than British, Alsager, 718.
Country Trade, of East India Company to China, is a direct Trade, Toone, 531.
- Freight and Size of Ships in, and by whom navigated, Stewart, 592.
- Owners of Ships engaged in, give Bond to conform to Orders of Company's Agents, W.S.Davidson, 673.
- to China, chiefly in the Hands of British Mercantile Houses of Bombay and Calcutta, Toone, 531.
- to China and Madras, is carried on by One private Ship only, Toone, 531.
Country Traders, to China, are not allowed to land Woollens, Toone, 531.
- take British Cotton Goods, but Sale not brisk, Toone, 531.
- go with a Freight and return without any, Bates, 564
- compete with East India Company at Canton only in Import of Cotton and Opium, W.S.Davidson, 675.
- East India Company are interested in the Maintenance of, and why, W.S.Davidson, 674. 675.
- between India and China, is a Trade by Sufferance, W.S. Davidson, 673.
- how Security is given for their Ships, in Canton, by Hong Merchants, Urmston, 662. 663.
Country Trade of India, in whose Hands, Craufurd, 634.
- competes largely with the Native Trade of India, Craufurd, 633.
- is managed either by resident Agents or particular Agent belonging to each Ship, Urmston, 659. 660.
- Ships engaged in, now built stronger than English, Number of Men and Officers in, Alsager, 717.
(See Appeals, and Justice, Administration of.)
Court Of Appeal, how constituted, Johnston, 220.
- Advantages of one, in Upper Provinces, Robertson, 163. 164.
Court Of Requests in Bombay, Rice, 144.
(See Registrar.)
Court of Sudder Adawlut, its Office, Duties, and Jurisdiction, Smith, 74. 75.
- Judges of, as to their Judicial Education, Smith, 75.
- Judges of, appointed at Discretion of Government, Smith, 75.
- whether Judges of, qualified in Law and Judicial Practice for their Situations, Clark, 149.
- as to Union of Judicial and Revenue Authority, objectionable, and why, Smith, 75.
- Regulations on Judicial Matters generally first submitted to Judges of, Smith, 75. 76.
- Mode of Proceeding in, Registrar examines Witnesses in, and not Native Officers, Smith, 76.
- Court of Appeal from inferior Courts, Smith, 79.
- how far resorted to and confided in as such by Natives, Smith, 79. 80.
- its Expence, Smith, 80.
- Arrears of Appeals, Smith, 80.
- Native Officers of, how far employed in, and their Conduct, Smith, 80.
- refer Points of Native Law to Native Lawyers, Clark, 149.
- Appeal from, to King in Council inconvenient - Instances of Inconvenience - might be advantageous, Clark, 150 to 154.
- has the Power of increasing Punishment awarded by Mofussil Court, Ricketts, 296.
Cowls, what, Jenkins, 229.
-Quantity of Land brought into Cultivation by, in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 240.
Crapes, Norwich, are Woollens one Way and Silk another, Shaw, 707.
Craufurd's Paper on China Native Foreign Trade, Craufurd, 629.
Crimes, Diminution of, owing to Vigilance of Police, Mangles, 58.
Criminal Courts, Half-castes are subject to Mohamedan Law in - in Civil Courts Defendant's Law is followed, Smith, 84.
Criminal Justice, how administered in Bombay by Collector as Magistrate, Judge of District, Judge of Sudder Adawlut, whole Court of Sudder Adawlut, Elphinstone, 250.
- in Candeish, how administered, Briggs, 437.
Cultivation at Bombay, whether subject to heavy Exactions of Officers - Abuses would be remedied if Revenue fixed-more Checks upon such Abuses in Bombay than in other Parts, Elphinstone, 272.
- of Land by Officers of Government, superior Mode of, in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 238.
Cumshaw Duty, or Presents, on Ships entering the Port of Canton, is 1,900 Tales, without reference to Size, Stewart, 592.
Alsager, 714.
(See Rupee.)
Current Rupee and Sicca Rupee, Value of, Lloyd, 5.
Customs, Land and Sea, paid at Bengal, Swinton, 25.
Customs and Usages, different in different Parts, making it difficult to form any general System, Warden, 178.
Cuttack, Salt made at, Mangles, 62.
Cutwalls are High Constables or Policemen, Clark, 148.
Dacca Cotton. (See Cotton.)
Dacca Muslin is not equalled in England, R. Davidson, 397.
Danes and Swedes trade with China, Urmston, 664.
Darnaum, a Portuguese Settlement, Quantity of Opium sent from, to China, Magniac, 620.
Davidson, Robert, Extent of his Indigo Plantation at Bhangulpore, R. Davidson, 386.
Deccan, Settlement of Revenue in the, Chaplin, 280.
- System of farming Revenue under the Peishwa superseded by the Ryotwar System under us, with less Regularity than inceded Districts, Chaplin, 280.
- Survey then in progress, Elphinstone, 244.
Chaplin, 280.
- Administration of Justice in the, by Native Governments - by Peishwa - his Moamulutdars and Sir Subahdars - Sirdars - Punchayets - no set Form of proceeding - Amildars, Chaplin, 280.
- Administration of Justice under British Government by Amildars - Punchayet - Munsiffs- Aumeens, Chaplin, 280.
- Administration of Criminal Justice- Jurisdiction of Collector, Chaplin, 280.
- Collector had full Judicial and Revenue Authority, which is now separated, Chaplin, 280. 281.
- as to the Expediency of their Union, Chaplin, 281.
- Increase of Expence from our Government of the Country, Chaplin, 281.
- Military Officers employed as Collectors, Chaplin, 281.
- certain Classes of Natives exempt from Jurisdiction of Provincial Courts - Putwarden Family - Rajah of Satala - Rajah of Colopore, Chaplin, 281. 282.
- Jaghiredars- Putwarden Family-Rajah of Satala-of Colopore - Condition of their Jaghires, Chaplin, 282.
- Sirdars, wealthy, who have not independent Authority, Chaplin, 282.
- Sirdars afraid of coming within Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of Bombay, and why, Chaplin, 282. 284.
- Jaghiredars-how Jaghires go in case of Failure of Heirs, Chaplin, 282.
- advisable to grant Jaghires as Rewards for Public Service, so as to from a Native Aristocracy, Chaplin, 282.
- use British Manufactures, how far they have supplanted Native Manufactures, Chaplin, 282. 283.
- Sugar cultivated in the, Chaplin, 283. 284.
- Means of Irrigation in the, Chaplin, 283. 284.
- Means of improving Condition of People-of lower Order, by lightening Assessment, Chaplin, 283.
Deccan, Means of improving Condition of higher Orders, by placing them in high Offices-might be done without Danger to British Government - and its Effect, as far as it has been done, Chaplin, 283. 284.
- Natives as well adapted as Europeans for all Offices in point of Ability, and better from Knowledge of Customs and Language of India, Chaplin, 284.
- Brahmins in, best educated, and fit for all Offices, Chaplin, 284.
- Mohamedans more educated, and have less Share in Public Business - few in the Deccan, Chaplin, 284.
- Native Hindoos have less Confidence in Mohamedan than in Hindoo and European Officers, Chaplin, 284.
- Independent Jaghires of the, administer Justice through the Agency of Punchayet, Chaplin, 288.
- Administration of Justice in the, satisfactory to the People, Chaplin, 288.
- Natives of, look up to our Courts for an impartial Administration of Justice, Chaplin, 289.
- Amount of Surplus left to Cultivator beyond the Land Assessment, Elphinstone, 272.
- Silk not grown in, Chaplin, 292.
Decey Silk Worm. (See Silk Worm.)
Decey Cocoone. (See Silk Cocoone.)
Decoity, or Gang Robbery, Origin of, Briggs, 449.
- Nature and Extent of the Offence, Mangles, 60.
- how got rid of, Mangles, 60.
- Mr. Elliott and Mr. Blaquiere active in putting down, Mangles, 60.
- Diminution of, in late Years, Mangles, 58.
- in the Carnatic, Hodgson, 366.
- in Kisnagur, is now greatly diminished, Harris, 457.
- in District of Cawnpore, by Gangs from Oude, Diminution of, Robertson, 161. 162.
- not common in the Patna Division, Fleming, 87.
Defendant, Law of, prevails in Case of contrarient Laws, East, 105.
Delalls, Hindoo Merchants, or Brokers, Warden, 186.
Deposit, on Appeals in Bengal, Madras, and Bombay-how invested - Interest on, Clark, 151 to 153.
Delhi, Population of, has greatly increased, Fortescue, 34. 36. 39. 43.
- deserted Villages of, Fortescue, 36. 39. 43.
- Punchayet at, Fortescue, 35. 42.
- Famine in, Fortescue, 39.
- Mohamedan Population in Villages of, displaced Hindoos formerly, but not now, Fortescue, 39.
- Religious Sects in Villages of, Fortescue, 38.
- Revenue of, has increased, Fortescue, 36.
- Expence and Manner of collecting, Fortescue, 34. 35.
- Rate at which Revenue collected in, Fortescue, 43.
- Revenue of, increased from increased Duties and improved Collection, Fortescue, 40.
- increased Cultivation of Land has kept pace with Increase of Revenue in, Fortescue, 44.
- Kists in, are periodical Payments of Rent and Revenue, Fortescue, 43.
- Natives of, left pretty much to settle their own Disputes upon the System pursued before we went there, Fortescue, 35.
- how far Mohamedan Civil Law used in, Fortescue, 39.
- Examination of Witnesses in Zillah Court of, Fortescue, 41.
- Allowance to Commissioner of, Fortescue, 46.
- Village Accountant of, Fortescue, 35.
- Number of Europeans and Natives who act as Civil Servants of the East India Company, Fortescue, 34.
Dewab Canal, Fortescue, 38.
Dharwar, in Southern Mahratta, Silk is succeeding well at, Baber, 340.
- Growth of White Mulberry in, Baber, 340.
- Manufactories of Silk, Indigo, Bourbon Cotton, Woollen, and Hemp in, Baber, 340. 341.
Diet of Natives is principally vegetable, Mangles, 53.
Digest of Hindoo Laws and Customs in Presidency of Bombay, Progress made in forming one, and Difficulty attending it, Elphinstone, 248. 249.
Dindigul, Ryotwar Rate so high in, that Cultivation of good Ground is abandoned, Hodgson, 369.
Disputes of Seamen. (See Seamen.)
Distraints, Power of, abused, Christian, 67.
District and Village Munsiffs, how they perform their Duties - their Salaries, Clark, 148.
- Appeal from Decision of, is to Zillah Court, Clark, 148.
Dividends, Annual, to Proprietors of East India Stock, less than Three per Cent. on their Capital, Lloyd, 9.
Dollars and Tale, proportional Value of, Toone, 528. 529.
- received by Weight in China, Toone, 528.
- broken in China, Magniac, 624.
- Spanish, generally shipped to China by Americans, Milne, 643.
- in China, clipped and broken taken by Weight - how Value of, understood, W. S. Davidson, 674.
- comparative Value of Charles's and Ferdinand's, W. S. Davidson, 674.
Dresden, Camlets manufactured at, Shaw, 706.
Dung is burnt for Fuel in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 238.
Durizzadar, is an Under Farmer, Ramsay, 359.
Dutch and Americans, Competition between, affected Price of Tea on Continent, Bates, 550.
Dutch and Portuguese took more Pains to spread their Tastes among Natives than English have done, Johnston, 216.
Dutch in Java permitted Europeans to acquire permanent Property, Craufurd, 518.
- Consul, Magniac, 629.
- supply much of the Tea now consumed in Europe, Brown, 642.
- Trade to China is chiefly in Camlets, Urmston, 663.
Duties, on Chinese Goods imported and exported, evaded, and how, Craufurd, 631.
- Inland and Export, Removal of, would encourage the Growth of Foreign Articles, Hodgson, 378.
Duty, Abcarry, what, Mangles, 52.
- of Accountant General of Bengal, Sherer, 14.
(See Cumshaw.)
- paid on Ships of different Tonnage at Canton, with and without Reference to Size and Measurement, Alsager, 714.
(See Transit Duty.)
- Transit, on Cotton, Effect of taking off, Swinton, 26.
- Frontier. (See Frontier Duty.)
- on Salt imported into India, Ramsay, 353.
- on Silk, Change in Mode of taking, Ramsay, 350.
- on Tea, in America, how paid, Milne, 644. 645. 647. 648. 649.
- if taken off, Quantity of, could be increased, Toone, 535. 536.
- paid by Officers of East India Company in addition to Government Duty, Toone, 533.
- in America is Seventy-five per Cent. Bates, 565.
- on Woollens in China is heavy, Toone, 537.
East, Sir Edward Hyde, his Papers on British and Native Population, Reform of the Mofussil Laws, &c., East, 111 to 136.
East India Company, liberal Manner in which the Government of India is conducted by, W. S. Davidson, 678. 679.
- Total of their Commercial Capital on 1st May 1828 in England, and on 1st May 1827 in India, Lloyd, 9 and 32.
- their Original Capital is fixed in Buildings and Dead Stock, Richards, 498.
(See Financial Expences.)
- Financial Expences of, in England - Deficiency, how provided for, Lloyd, 5.
- Charges on, paid in England, no Prospect of a Reduction of them, Lloyd, 8.
- Factory give Bills on England for Funds supplied to them at Canton, which is a Disadvantage to Private Trader, Bates, 563.
- Expence of their numerous large Establishments throughout India exhausts Commercial Profits and Territorial Revenue, W. S. Davidson, 679.
- Establishments and Trade in China not much more than Commission to private Agents in the Conduct of such extensive Business, W. S. Davidson, 679.
- do not grow Opium, Swinton, 20.
- Agreement they make with their Officers respecting Private Trade, Mills, 692.
East India Company, Servants of, in India, their Behaviour to Native Gentry is extremely courteous and civil, Chaplin, 289.
- Servants of, in China, are remunerated by a Commission on the Sale of all Goods exported to China except Bullion, Toone, 523. 524. 532. 533.
- Sales, Rate they charge for the Management and Sale of Goods imported by Private Merchants, (See Canton and Factory.) Mills, 688 to 691.
- Influence and Power of, at Canton, Urmston, 654 to 659.
Davidson, 667 to 672.
Magniac, 629.
- beneficial to other Nations trading to China, Urmston, 654 to 656.
W. S. Davidson, 667 to 679.
- - instanced in the Case of Two Russian Ships, Urmston, 656. 657.
- Instances of their successful Exertion in resisting Encroachments in 1814 and in 1821, W.S. Davidson, 668 to 670.
- how far depending on their Monopoly or the Extent of their Dealings, Urmston, 654. 655. 657.
- whether it could be managed as well by Consul appointed by King as by Factory, Urmston, 658 to 660.
- are able to resist the Extortions of the Chinese Government, (See Monopoly.) Magniac, 625.
- Influence and Power of, whether it would remain if their Monopoly removed, Urmston, 659.
- would conduct Trade at Canton with advantage as a Chartered Company, even without Monopoly, Urmston, 660.
- have decided Advantages over other Nations at Canton, Urmston, 660.
- are superior to a Consul at Canton in controlling the Conduct of Individuals, Magniac, 629.
- cannot compete with individual Merchants, W. S. Davidson, 679.
- their Trade, a complete Failure, W. S. Davidson, 678. 679.
- Advantage they have in, in dealing with Hong Merchants, from their Power over Country Ships and of stopping the Trade, Urmston, 654. 655. 657.
- why they deal with insolvent Hong Merchants, Urmston, 653. 654.
- their Trade, carried on at less Expence than that of Individuals, Toone, 524.
- in Woollens and Cottons, Loss on, and why, Everett, 574.
- Goods purchased for China, being subject to Inspection, is inconvenient to Seller, Brown, 641.
- private Agreement they make with their Officers respecting, Mills, 692.
- to the East, its Effects on Trade to Eastern Islands and Country Trade of India, Bates, 563.
- Silk Trade of. (See Silk, &c.) (See Tea.)
- Tea Trade of, Mode in which Teas are contracted for, by, Toone, 525.
- are obliged to keep a Three Years Stock on hand, Toone, 537.
- obtain better Teas than Americans, Urmston, 660.
- Export Trade of, to China, Milne, 649.
- sustain a Loss by their Exports, (See Import.) Toone, 538.
- Imports of, to China are Tin, Iron and Lead, Magniac, 626.
(See Canton - East India Company, Influence and Power of, at Canton.)
- Factory of, at Canton, is of no Use to Tea Trade of Americans, Milne, 648.
- Agents of, at Canton, are not allowed to transact Business for any but East India Company, Magniac, 618.
- its Existence as a Trading Company affords Facility of Remittance to India and Europe, W. S. Davidson, 673.
- its Monopoly of the Tea Trade occasions a Difficulty in any other Means of Remittance, which would be removed if Trade thrown open, W. S. Davidson, 673.
East India Company's Ships, Mode of chartering disadvantageous, and why, Maxfield, 602. 603.
- Mode of taking up, Maxfield, 611.
- are generally taken up for Six Voyages, Maxfield, 609. 610.
- building, fitting out and Appointments are a valuable Part of their Patronage, Maxfield, 611.
East India Company's Ships, Expence of fitting up, not compensated by any Advantage attending it, Maxfield, 603.
- Names, Number and Tonnage of all Ships charted by East India Company-Owners Names, and Number of Voyages they are engaged for, Maxfield, 605. 606.
- their Equipment and Force, in Number of Men, Number and Calibre of Guns, and Efficiency against Privateers, and hostile Force, Maxfield, 601. 602.
Alsager, 713 to 715. 720.
- go to China without a Freight, Bates, 564.
- Security given for, by Hong Merchants at Canton, Urmston, 662. 663.
- Freight of, Conditions of, Number of Seamen in, and Quantity of Tea they carry, Bates, 561. 562.
- how much per Ton, it might be engaged for, Maxfield, 606.
- not adapted for War, Maxfield, 609.
- frequently sail in Time of War without Convoy, Maxfield, 609.
- remain longer at Canton than those of Private Traders, Stewart, 593.
- their warlike Equipment, how far necessary in Peace, Alsager, 718 to 720.
- whether their Equipments could be reduced, Alsager, 719. 720.
- and King's, comparative Expence of, Maxfield, 612.
- Number of Officers in, Alsager, 719.
- might be navigated by fewer Officers, not fewer Men, Alsager, 719.
- Mode of manning them with Europeans and Natives, Maxfield, 612. 613.
- Crews must be Three Fifths European Subjects, Alsager, 718.
- State of Discipline in, Maxfield, 613.
- Privilege Trade of Commanding Officer is Fifty-six Tons, Alsager, 709.
- whether any Advantage in large Ships, W.S. Davidson, 679. 680.
- Advantage of their having a Marine at their Disposal, Maxfield, 612.
- Marine at Bombay, Extent of, Maxfield, 613.
East India Company's and Merchants Ships, comparative Sailing of, Maxfield, 609.
East Indiamen, the Kent and Triton, Capture of, Maxfield, 601.
- the Ganges and True Briton, Loss of, Maxfield, 603.
East Indies, Produce of, Fluctuations in, Hodgson, 371.
Eastern Islands, Part of the Produce of, not safe for Europeans to trade in, for Want of Knowledge Craufurd, 632.
- Sincapore is the Depôduce for Produce of, Toone, 531.
Education, Extent of, in India, Briggs, 448.
- State of, among the Landed Proprietors of India, Mangles, 52.
Briggs, 449. 450.
- defective in higher Branches - how it might be improved, Elphinstone, 251.
- of Civil Servants of East India Company, Disadvantage of confining it to separate Colleges, Elphinstone, 255.
- whether that acquired at Schools and Colleges here is a sufficient Preparation for Office in India, and whether further Instruction desirable, Elphinstone, 266.
- of Half-castes in Calcutta, is the same as in Europe, Ricketts, 303.
- of Natives of India, proposed Improvement in, R. Davidson, 390. 391.
- Progress of, with Natives, and as to their Employment in Offices, Rickards, 426.
- how it may be improved by Village Schools - Colleges - by Education of Natives for Office, Elphinstone, 265. 266.
- in what higher Situations Natives qualified by improved Education might be employed-Result would be to make over all Civil Business to Natives, Elphinstone, 251.
- its Effects, in gradually removing Native Prejudices, Elphinstone, 265.
- Brahmins how disposed towards its Extension, Elphinstone, 265.
- State of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 251.
- at Kisnagur, Harris, 457.
- among the Mahrattas is much neglected, Briggs, 449. 450.
- State of, at Nagpoor, Jenkins, 234.
(See Cotton.)
Egyptian Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Ellenborough, Lord, his Act has been extended to India, East, 227.
Elliott, Mr. (See Decoity.)
Ellis, Mr. Principal of the College at Madras, Strange, 401.
Elphinstone, Mr. his firm Conduct in resisting Innovations attempted by Chinese, W.S. Davidson, 669.
Emigration of Natives into well managed from worse managed Districts, Elphinstone, 262.
Enaum, a Quit Rent paid on Jaghires, Elphinstone, 244. 245.
English Language, as to making it the vernacular Language of Hindostan, Rice, 146.
- Native Chiefs have little Knowledge of, Briggs, 450.
- Gentlemen of India have no Disposition to learn, Briggs, 450.
- no great Disposition among Native Subjects of East India Company to learn it, Elphinstone, 266.
- Administration of Law in, how far conducive to Interests of the Country, Rice, 145.
- Advantage of substituting it for the Persian in Native Courts, East, 228.
English Law, Statute and Common, how far it applies to India, Smith, 78. 79.
East, 100. 111.
Rice, 143.
- Advantage of the well-tried and well-practised general Principles of, over other imperfect Systems, East, 127.
- Rules of, with respect to Evidence introduced, in regard to which Mohamedan Law is contrary to natural Justice, Warden, 179.
- Courts of, the Extension of them throughout India would increase Expence - in other Respects desirable, East, 103.
English Manufactures, Hindoo Population of Ceylon have a Taste for, Johnston, 216.
- increased Means of Natives would create greater Use of, Harris, 457.
Equity Master in Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 97.
Esterhazy coloured Camlets made as Presents for Hong Merchants, Shaw, 707.
(See Revenue.)
Estimates of the Amount in which the Charges of India are expected to be diminished in future Years, as compared with 1828-9, by the various Reductions of Establishments, Civil and Military, which either have been actually effected or are now in progress, Melvill, 207 to 212.
- of the Effect of the Military Reductions which have been ordered at Bengal, Melvill, 208.
Europeans, Character of, is looked up to with Awe and Respect by Natives, Chaplin, 284.
- extended Residence of in India, as affecting Condition of Natives, Baber, 341. 342.
Elphinstone, 252. 253.
Chaplin, 291.
- their Knowledge of the actual State of India is imperfect, Christian, 71.
- Intercourse between, and Natives is confined to Visits of Ceremony, Chaplin, 289.
- in India, are under the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts, Strange, 402.
- should be subject to Native Courts, Rickards, 428.
- Crimes committed by them against Natives, how cognizable, and Redress, Smith, 78.
Elphinstone, 268. 269.
- at Madras, are exclusively Counsel and Attornies in the Courts, Strange, 399.
- their Knowledge of the Language, Habits and Usages of People of India is not sufficient in Examinations in Courts of Justice, Johnston, 220.
Chaplin, 289.
- Superintendents from, appointed to see Justice done to the Ryots in the Carnatic, Hodgson, 366.
- at Nagpoor, substituted for Native Officers, in superintending Collection of Revenue, Administration of Justice and Police, Jenkins, 231. 236. 237.
Europeans and Natives, Differences between, in what Court tried in the Provinces, Elphinstone, 253.
- Two distinct Codes of Law necessary for, Elphinstone, 265.
- Judges, as to their sitting together with Native Judges, Rickards, 422. 425. 429.
Europeans, with Capital, increased Settlement of, if placed under adequate Control, would be a Means of extending Growth of Produce, Hodgson, 378. 379.
Europeans, settling with Capital, and taking Lands, its Effects, Baber, 341. 342.
- Residence of, in India, if with Capital and Skill, advantageous, Elphinstone, 252. 253.
- Capital of, what would be the Effect of its more general Influx into India, Elphinstone, 273.
- possessing Capital, Advantage of facilitating their Residence in India, Elphinstone, 268.
- Capital and Skill of, are necessary to produce Cotton, Craufurd, 515.
- Residence, Restriction of, in India, prevents Investment of British Capital in Indigo Speculation, R. Davidson, 391. 393. 394.
- Permission to them to reside from Court of Directors and Board of Controul - without such Permission, Residence in Presidencies, though not in Interior, is allowed, Elphinstone, 268.
- residing, at a Distance from the Presidency of Bombay, and not in the Service of East India Company, Objections to subjecting them to the Jurisdiction of the local Tribunals, Elphinstone, 269.
- Licences to, by local Governments, to reside at a Distance from Presidency, upon what Principle given, Elphinstone, 269. 270.
- residing without Permission of Court of Directors, Elphinstone, 270.
- are not allowed to go into Interior of Malabar, Baber, 327.
- Effect of more general Residence of them in India, Elphinstone, 252. 253.
- if allowed unrestrictedly to settle in the Interior of India, would lead to stripping Natives of their Land, and deprive them of every Office, and reduce them to the State of a conquered People, Chaplin, 291.
- if admitted into India in great Numbers, Native Prejudices would be outraged, and Disaffection and Hostility to our Government engendered, Chaplin, 290 to 292.
- a more extended Settlement of, would not lead to Disputes with Natives, R.Davidson, 388.
- under what Restrictions admissible to reside in India, Elphinstone, 252. 253.
- Residence of, in India, unrestricted, would be productive of more Harm than Good, Elphinstone, 252. 253.
- Benefit resulting from Intercourse between Natives and respectable Europeans, Robertson, 164.
- their Residence in India, how far agreeable to the Natives, and considered by them advantageous, Rickards, 502. 503.
- a more general Residence of, in Interior of India, might be permitted, if Natives adequately protected, Rickards, 428.
- generally have no Capital, but borrow Money from the Agency Houses of the Presidencies, Chaplin, 291.
- of Education and Liberality, great Advantage of their mixing with Natives, if Natives are properly protected, Rickards, 427.
Eupopean Settlers, Number of, in Calcutta, Ricketts, 298.
- in Bengal, Hodgson, 379.
- Effects of their Numbers being increased, Harris, 455.
- few in Madras, Hodgson, 379.
- Number of, in Tirhoot, Robertson, 165.
- free Settlement of, how far it would promote Moral Improvement of Natives, Rickards, 427. 428.
- in India, Want of, is an Obstacle to Cultivation of Indigo, Silk, Cotton and Sugar, R. Davidson, 398.
Europeans, Admixture of lower Orders of, with Natives, would diminish the Respect and Reverence they have for English, Chaplin, 290.
- Intercourse of, whether it affects their Attachment to Caste, Elphinstone, 274.
Europeans, as to granting Leases of Land to, Briggs, 443.
- are permitted to hold Lands of Government to the Amount of Twenty Acres, or Fifty Begas, in perpetuity, R. Davidson. 394.
- if they had the Power of holding Lands, would have a greater Security for their Capital, Harris, 454.
Europeans holding Leases, their Profits consist in bringing Waste Lands into Use, and establishing fresh Ryots on them, Harris, 462. 463.
- Mode in which they hold Lands on Lease, and Power over Ryots, Harris, 458. 459.
- might have Leases of Waste Lands, if they were given up by Government, Briggs, 443.
- generally take Lands to prevent Encroachers from coming into the District, Harris, 454.
- in the Name of their Servants, Harris, 454.
- in want of Land, might rent it of the Village as a Community, Briggs, 444.
- refused Lease of Lands to carry on Silk and Cotton Works, Baber, 341.
- Benefits they derive from holding Leases in respect to Indigo Cultivation, Harris, 459.
- if they had legal Possession of Land, it would enable them to extend Cultivation of Indigo, Harris, 456.
- if allowed to hold Leases, it would not much increase Cultivation of Indigo, Harris, 459.
- Zemindarries granted to, for Cultivation of Indigo, Hodgson, 379.
- Restrictions on their holding Lands in Ceylon taken off since 1809, with what Object, Johnston, 215.
- in Java, permitted by the Dutch to acquire permanent Property, Craufurd, 518.
- are the Cause of Extension of Indigo Plantations, Ramsay, 360.
- cultivate Indigo at Arnee, in the Madras Territory, in the Carnatic, Coimbatore, and Vellore, Baber, 342.
- Natives and Half-castes Assistants to, in Indigo Works - their Pay, Harris, 455.
Dunlop, 488.
- Number of, employed in Cultivation of Indigo, R. Davidson, 395.
- Silk Manufactories belonging to, Ramsay, 345.
- conversant with Silk Manufactures, many living among Natives in Beauleah, and its Effects on Silk Cultivation, Ramsay, 350.
- might be employed in Superintendence of Land; but European Labour could never be employed in India in Agriculture, Chaplin, 290.
- as Labourers, could not stand the Climate, only as Assistants, Rickards, 427.
Harris, 455.
- of lower Orders, how prejudiced by Residence in India, Robertson, 164. 165.
- Monopolies should not be given to, in East Indies, Baber, 333. 334.
- Brahmins are not jealous of, in a religious Point of View, Harris, 456.
- married to Native Women, Instances of, Ricketts, 304.
European Women, if married to Half-castes, their Children lose the Name of Half-caste, Mangles, 56.
European Soldiers, generally marry Native Christian Women, Ricketts, 304.
European Implements of Husbandry, too dear for Ryots of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 237.
- Luxuries, Zemindars have a Taste for, Christian, 67.
- Fruits, introduced into India in 1805, Hodgson, 378.
- Articles, if cheaper than their own, would be purchased by Natives - but their Wants are small, Christian, 71. 72.
Everett's Statement of British Manufactured Goods purchased on American Account from 1818 to 1829, and Supplement by Bates to 1830, Everett, 567 to 571.
- Manufactured British Goods purchased for the China Trade from 1818 to 1828, Everett, 575.
Exchange, Rate of, between England and India, Lloyd, 32.
- Commercial, at the Renewal of Charter, in 1814-15, Lloyd, 11
- since Commencement of present Charter, exceeds the established Rate, Rickards, 496.
- Amount of Benefit received by Territory from, Lloyd, 5.
- Commercial and Board Rate, Difference between, Lloyd, 7. 11.
- Effect of using Board Rate instead of Mercantile, in Accounts between Territorial and Commercial Funds, Lloyd, 5. 6. 7. 10.
Exchange, at what Rate Interest on several optional Loans are respectively paid, Lloyd, 32.
Excise Duty on Salt, instead of continuing the Monopoly - Difficulties of, Ramsay, 356.
Export and Import Trade, from Tanjore to Atcheen, Bengal, Nagoa and Negapatam, Cotton, 156. 157.
Export of British Manufactures from India to China would be unprofitable, Stewart, 586.
- of Cocoa Nut Tree Produce from Western Coast of Malabar, and Value of, Baber, 309. 310.
Exports from Malabar to the Red Sea, Baber, 309.
- Amount of, from Bengal to Great Britain, Melvill, 225.
- of East India Company are generally at a Loss, Toone, 538.
- Invoice Price of, converted from English into China Currency, Toone, 528.
- none sent on British Account in American Ships, Everett, 572.
- American, of what Articles, and Amount of, from 1826 to 1830, Bates, 546.
Export Trade of Americans, no Want of Capital in, Milne, 650.
- carried on to a very limited Extent, Milne, 650.
Fabulous History of Slaves in Malabar, Baber, 329.
Factory of East India Company at Canton. (See Canton.)
Factory Maund is Seventy-two Pounds Eleven Ounces, Swinton, 22.
Famine in Delhi, Fortescue, 39.
- in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 241.
Fees of the Officers of different Courts, how far under the Controul of those Courts, East, 228.
Fees and Emoluments of Officers of Supreme Courts, where altered, have been diminished, East, 226.
- of many of the Offices are better than the Situation of the Judges themselves, East, 227.
Female Asylum, Calcutta, Ricketts, 305.
Females do not inherit by Hindoo Law, Fleming, 89.
- how far they inherit by Mohamedan Law, Robertson, 169.
Feroz Shah Canal, Fortescue, 38.
Filatures possessed by Mr. Fruchard and Mr. Watson, Ramsay, 351.
(See Territorial Revenue - Revenue.)
Financial Administration of India, of the Territorial Branch of Revenue - Aggregate Result for the last Fourteen Years, Lloyd, 5. 6.
- Charge incurred in India and England respectively, Lloyd, 5.
- Total Amount of Charges on each Account which are defrayed in England, Lloyd, 5.
- Deficiency of Territorial Revenue supplied by Loan, and by surplus Profits of Commercial Trade, Lloyd, 5. 6.
Financial Expenses of East India Company in England, Deficiency how provided for, Lloyd, 5.
Finances of Nagpoor in an embarrassed State, Jenkins, 240.
Foreign Settlements on the Hoogly Branch of the Ganges, East, 116.
Foreigners, not being British Subjects, are amenable to the Local Courts, Hodgson, 379.
Forests belonging to Government, where situated, Baber, 336.
- private Individuals, Baber, 336.
- of Malabar are declared to be Royalties, Baber, 309.
Forgery of Money rare in China, W.S.Davidson, 675.
Fraud by Officers of Court purchasing Lands improperly, Mangles, 50.
Fraudulent Sales of Land in Cawnpore for Payment of alleged Arrears, Robertson, 158.
Free Trade, if opened, British Manufactures would be used to a greater Extent, Stewart, 587.
- Export of Iron and Copper to China would be increased, Stewart, 587.
- Ships of Six or Seven hundred Tons would be built, Stewart, 594.
- between England and China, Merchants of England would have a more profitable Mode of Remittance than Americans, Stewart, 591.
- would ruin American Trade, Maxfield, 604.
Free Trade with China, would give Advantage to English Merchant over American, Milne, 650.
- with India, in consequence of East India Company's and private Competition frequently led to Bankruptcies, Maxfield, 607.
- to East Indies, how it has affected the American Trade, Maxfield, 604. 607.
Free Traders make the Voyage to China in less Time than East India Company, and its Effects on East India Trade, Maxfield, 608.
- stay in Port at Canton as long as suits them - East India Company's Ships for a short Time, Alsager, 712.
Freight, Amount of, from England to Canton and back, Bates, 553. 554.
- Rate of, to China by India, Stewart, 591.
- Rate of, during the last War, Milne, 642.
- proportionate Loss on, from a circuitous Voyage through India to China, and a direct Voyage, if permitted, from England to China, Stewart, 591.
- on Ships, large and small, Difference of, Alsager, 715.
- of East India Company's Ships, Conditions of, Number of Seamen in, and Quantity of Tea they carry, Bates, 561. 562.
- of Ships in Country Trade from Bombay to China and back, Stewart, 592.
- of English and American Ships compared, Bates, 553.
Everett, 581.
- of Chinese Junks, Mode of, Bates, 559.
- of American Vessels in India and China Trade, from 1799 to 1811, Milne, 642.
Freight Ships, Mode of conducting American Trade to China and India in, from 1799 to 1811 - Consignments by Ten or Twenty Shippers in One Vessel, Milne, 643. 645.
Freighted Service of East India Company, Promotion in, and Rules of, Alsager, 709.
French Nankeens are superior to those of China, Bates, 565.
Fruchard, Mr. Inspector of Silk Worms for East India Company - his Silk Filatures, Wilson, 407. 410.
Ramsay, 351.
Frontier Duties of Malabar are farmed out to the highest Bidder, and Evils of this System, Baber, 335.
Fruits, European, Introduction of, into India, in 1805, Hodgson, 378.
Funerals of Hindoos are very expensive, R. Davidson, 388.
Fur Trade of Americans. (See American Fur Trade.)
Gang Robberies. (See Decoity.)
Ganges China Ship, Loss of, Maxfield, 603.
Gardner, Colonel, a Half-caste, Mangles, 56.
Garse, a Madras Measure of 4,800 Siers, Warden, 184.
Gentoos, what meant by the Term, East, 100. 105.
Ghauts, Difference in Production of Land above and below the, Hodgson, 371.
Gibson's Machine for Improvement in reeling Silk, Wilson, 412. 413.
Gifford, Sir Harding, Chief Justice of Ceylon, Extract from Charge delivered by him on taking Possession of his Office, insisting on the Advantages of Trial by Jury, Johnston, 195. 196.
Gin for Cotton frequently cuts the Fibres of the Cotton, Bruddock, 481.
Gogorees are the best Native Sailors, Maxfield, 613.
Gold found in Malabar, Baber, 325.
- is the Property of the Owner of the Lands, Baber, 326. 327.
- Process of collecting very simple, Baber, 326.
- Duty paid to Government on, Baber, 326.
Gold Dust imported from Arabia and the Gulf into Malabar, Baber, 326.
Gomnastahs are Assistants in Indigo Works, Harris, 461.
(See Silk.)
Gonotea Silk, Wilson, 410.
Durant, 465.
Government of India by the English has the Confidence of Natives, who approve of the British Character, Christian, 71.
- are Proprietors of the Land, and receive the Rent, Fortescue, 43.
- Assessments in Bhangulpore are too heavy, R. Davidson, 387.
Goyendas, Informers, and System of, Mangles, 60.
Grain, Price of, at Candeish, Briggs, 439.
Grand Juries, as to their Introduction into India, Elphinstone, 265.
Grants of Villages made to Native Officers as Rewards for meritorious Services, Hodgson, 372. 373.
Guicowar Territory, Nature of Population of, Rice, 146.
Elphinstone, 254.
Guzzerat, Survey of, Elphinstone, 244.
- State of small States in, with respect to the Relation they bear to the Guicowar, Elphinstone, 254.
- Leases ordered there for Seven Years, Elphinstone, 263.
- most flourishing Country in India, and why, Elphinstone, 263.
Hackery and Cart Drivers, Pay of, Rickards, 423.
Halee Rupee, Value of, Swinton, 18.
Half-Castes, are few in Number, Elphinstone, 270. 271.
- Majority of, reside in Calcutta, Mangles, 55. 56.
- Number of, not increased, Mangles, 56. 57.
- Number of, is increasing, Ricketts, 298. 303.
- few in Interior of India, Chaplin, 290. 292.
- Number of, in Bengal, Ricketts, 298. 300.
- Number of, in Canara and Malabar, Baber, 322.
- Portuguese in Bombay - their Number - of what they consist - how esteemed - Mercantile Houses carried on by, Elphinstone, 271.
- their general Character, partakes partly of the Native, partly of European, Elphinstone, 271.
- Character of, and how employed, Baber, 322. 323.
- Want of Morality in, is from Want of Education, Baber, 322.
- in what Estimation held in Society by the Natives, Mangles, 57.
- almost universally Christians, Mangles, 56.
- improve their Estates more than Natives, Mangles, 56.
- of what Religion - greatest Part Christians, some Roman Catholics, some Protestant, East, 105.
- are generally Roman Catholics, Baber, 322.
- how esteemed by Hindoos, as compared with Europeans - with Hindoos, Elphinstone, 271.
Chaplin, 290. 292.
- poor, have a stronger Desire to improve their Condition than Hindoos and Mohamedans, Ricketts, 302.
- some brought up as Mohamedans, Ricketts, 302.
- are descended from European Fathers and Native Mothers, and also of Intermarriages, Ricketts, 295.
- lowest Class of them are Descendants of Portuguese, Mangles, 56.
- are upon the same Footing as Natives, Smith, 77. 81.
- in Ceylon, considered as Natives, Johnston, 217.
- by Hindoo Mother is considered as Mohamedan, Ricketts, 299.
- Ladies are extensively married to Europeans, Ricketts, 304.
- if they marry European Women, Offspring not British Subjects, Ricketts, 304.
- Offspring of English Father and Native Mothers, born in Wedlock, are British Subjects, Ricketts, 304.
- some acquire Property, Baber, 322.
- are sometimes recognized as Europeans, and sometimes as Natives, Ricketts, 298.
- if they marry European Women their Children lose the Name of Half-caste, Mangles, 56.
- whether considered as Native Subjects or British Subjects in Acts of Parliament, and Regulations, East, 105.
- are subject to Native Courts, East, 104.
- all subject to Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 100.
- subject to Mohamedan Law in Criminal Courts, in Civil Courts Defendant's Law is followed, Smith, 84.
- Difficulty with respect to the Law which applies to them when living beyond the Limits of the Supreme Court, East, 104. 105.
- their Evidence taken as readily as that of Europeans, Mangles, 57.
Smith, 81.
- subject to Mohamedan Law, Mangles, 57.
- can hold Lands, East, 104.
- in regard to the Purchase of Land, are Natives in the Eye of the Law, Mangles, 56.
Half-Castes, by what Law they are regulated as they inhabit within or beyond the Limits of the Supreme Court, East, 105. 106.
Clark, 150.
- in Bombay, are Natives in the Eye of the Law, Europeans in the Eyes of Society, Elphinstone, 270.
- are in Criminal Cases subject to the Mohamedan Laws, Ricketts, 295.
- are not recognized as British Subjects by the Supreme Court of Calcutta if residing in the Mofussil, Ricketts, 295.
- are liable to Imprisonment at Discretion of local Magistrate, Ricketts, 302.
- in the Interior, are not entitled to the Benefit of the Habeas Corpus Act, Ricketts, 302.
- may claim that their Suit be tried by Hindoo Law, Ricketts, 304.
- can purchase Land in any Part of India, and are not liable to be sent out of the Country as Europeans are, Ricketts, 301.
- as Christians, do not avail themselves of the Mohamedan Civil Law, Ricketts, 299.
- as to their Education, Establishment for it at Bombay, carried on by Subscription, assisted by Government, Elphinstone, 271.
- Education in Calcutta is the same as in Europe, Ricketts, 303.
- Schools for Education of, at Calcutta, and Number educated in, Ricketts, 301.
- Persian and Native Languages are taught in, Ricketts, 303.
- Number of, educated and employed in Government and other Offices, Ricketts, 302.
- educated in England, Scotland, and Ireland, on their Return to India, found they could not procure a Livelihood there, and returned to Europe, Ricketts, 305. 306.
- Seminary for, established at Tellichery, Baber, 323.
- public and private Schools for Education of, in Calcutta, and Expences of, by whom paid, Ricketts, 298.
- in what Capacity employed, Mangles, 55. 56.
Chaplin 292.
- Regulations excluding them from Military and Civil Service, Mangles, 55.
- are allowed to enter Service of Native Princes, Mangles, 56.
- practise as Attornies in Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 100.
- are employed as Clerks in Public Offices, Elphinstone, 270. 271.
- may be Privates, not Officers, in Army or Navy, Elphinstone, 270.
- bad Policy of admitting them to high Offices, Chaplin, 290.
- descended from Native Mothers, are excluded from all the superior and covenanted Offices - this Rule has been modified by Regulation, Ricketts, 296.
- not immediately descended from Native Mothers, have been appointed to Situations under East India Company, Ricketts, 296.
- if the Restrictions on, were removed, it would increase their Influence, Ricketts, 303.
- employed as Missionaries and Teachers in Schools, Ricketts, 303.
- are qualified to hold high Situations, and Number of, so qualified and employed, Ricketts, 300.
- if employed in high Offices, it would raise them in the Estimation of Natives, Ricketts, 304.
- are employed in subordinate Offices of Government -what Offices, and their Pay, Ricketts, 299. 300. 302.
- extensively engaged in Trade, Ricketts, 300. 301.
- Merchants in Calcutta, Names of, Ricketts, 301.
- cannot be Pleaders in Courts of Justice, Ricketts, 296.
- can hold no Commission in the King's or Company's Service, Ricketts, 296. 297.
- are employed in the Army, as Drummers and Fifers, Ricketts, 296.
- cannot be employed by Native Powers but by Permission of Government, Ricketts, 297.
- Penalty Bond given by, not to enter Service of Native States, Ricketts, 298.
- some now in Employ of independent Native Powers, Ricketts, 297.
Half-Castes, in Service of Native Powers, are always recalled in case of War or Disturbance, Ricketts, 297.
- murdered by Native Princes, on being recalled by East India Company, in 1801 and 1802, Ricketts, 297.
- Officers in the Service of Holkar and Scindiah threatened by East India Company to be dealt with as Traitors if they did not return to their Territories, Ricketts, 298.
- Mr. Achmuty, is in the Civil Service of East India Company, Ricketts, 297.
- Baretto, Kid, and Brightman, Merchants at Calcutta, Mangles, 55.
- Mr. Francis, Registrar in Territorial Department, Mangles, 55.
- Col. Skinner holds a Commission in East India Company's Service - he is descended from a Native Mother, Ricketts, 297.
Halifax, Camlets are manufactured at, Shaw, 704.
Handkerchiefs of British Manufacture, not exported since 1821-22, Craufurd, 634.
Hardware, Chinese, cheaper than English, but inferior, Magniac, 628.
Harris, Mr., his Indigo Manufactory at Kisnagur, and Extent of it, Harris, 453.
Hastings, Marquis of, Minute by him on the Revenue System of 1815, Rickards, 420.
- his Opinion of the perpetual Settlement, Rickards, 501.
- Warren, Governor General of Bengal, his Statement of a Surplus Revenue from our Territories in India, Rickards, 491.
Hayleybury College, Elphinstone, 255.
Head of the VILLAGE, Village Police are under Controul of, Clark, 148.
Helena, Saint, Expences of, Lloyd, 5.
- Schooner attacked by Pirates, and Crew murdered, Alsager, 719.
Hemp, Manufacture of, in Dharwar, Baber, 340.
Hidgelee, Salt made at, Mangles, 62.
Hill Cotton grown in Malabar to a limited Extent, Warden, 186.
Hindoo Converts, East, 124.
- Infants Property, Sale of, for necessary Subsistence, East, 120.
- Minors attain full Age at Sixteen, East, 120.
- Funerals are very expensive, R. Davidson, 388.
- Law and Customs, Knowledge of, acquired by European Judges by previous Service in Revenue Line, Elphinstone, 249. 250.
- Law, Singularity in, that other Asiatics coming to settle in India bring with them their own Law, East, 105.
- Property divisible among Children by - Effects of this System upon Condition of Population, Elphinstone, 272.
- Officer, did Duty in Courts under European Judge, Fortescue, 41.42.
- Population of Ceylon, similar in Habits and Customs to those of Southern India, Johnston, 216.
- some of them formerly Men of Property, Johnston, 216.
- have a Taste for English Manufactures, Johnston, 216.
- more disposed to adopt European Habits and Fashions than other People of India - their Disposition, how affected by Caste, Johnston, 221.
Hindoo and Mohamedan Population, their Proportion to each other, R. Davidson, 390.
- Effects of their Religion on their Conduct and Behaviour, R. Davidson, 390.
Hindoo and Mohamedan, Justice how administered to, in Supreme Court at Madras, Strange, 399. 400.
Hindoo and Mohamedan Codes, as to their Union, Smith, 83.
Hindoo and Mohamedan Law, Knowledge of, how obtained by Judge, Smith, 79.
East, 100 to 103.
- a Knowledge of, how attained by Zillah and Provincial Courts, and the Court of Sudder Adawlut, in deciding Cases depending upon those Laws, Clark, 149.
- is becoming extinct among Natives, Elphinstone, 247. 248.
- in what Cases administered by Supreme Court, in Cases of Inheritance, Adoption, and Contract, Clark, 150.
- as it respects Divisibility of Property among Children, Robertson, 168. 169.
Hindoo and Mohamedan Law, Property in Patna, how distributed on Death of Proprietor, by, Fleming, 89.
- Plan for making Collections of, for Ceylon, and as to extending it to Bengal, Johnston, 190.
- Officers, Employment of - Appointment of, how made and revoked, Fortescue, 40.
Hindoos, what meant by the Term, East, 100. 105.
- of the Peninsula of India, their common Language, the Tamul, Telogoo, Mayalim, and the Canarese, Johnston, 198.
- of more saving Habits than Mohamedans, Mangles, 52.
Elphinstone, 262.
- less debauched than Mohamedans, Mangles, 52.
- are in a great Degree wedded to Custom, Christian, 71.
- wealthy Persons amongst, Mangles, 52.
- will not eat with Europeans, Mangles, 52.
- of high Caste would starve sooner than eat imported Salt, Ramsay, 353.
- Prejudices against Salt imported by Europeans, Ramsay, 353.
- adopted Mohamedan Customs in point of Dress, Fleming, 89.
- Creed of, most genuine in Southern India, Johnston, 221.
- Creed and Character of, as compared with Mohamedan, Johnston, 221.
- from no particular Obstacle to Change of Habit, Johnston, 221.
- generally less rapacious and careless than Mohamedans, Elphinstone, 262.
- Jaghires are more generally granted to, than to Mohamedans, Elphinstone, 262.
- their Wealth and Landed Property is greater than Mohamedans, East, 102.
- better Classes of, are the only Persons who are likely to become Consumers of British Manufactures, Harris, 461.
- thought it an Advantage to have their Persons and Property subject to the Supreme Court of Calcutta, East, 102. 104.
- Disposition of, to accumulate Capital, and how they apply their Funds - lent at high Interest, for Commercial Speculations, to Native Merchants, Elphinstone, 262.
- as compared with Mohamedans, are of superior Character, Harris, 456.
- have less Confidence in Mohamedan than in European Officers, Chaplin, 284.
- are tried by their own Code, Ricketts, 299.
- how Oath administered to, Smith, 83.
- how far under the Influence of an Oath, Smith, 81. 82.
- Nature of Oath administered to them and to Mohamedans, Smith, 82. 83.
- and Mohamedans, both equally trustworthy, Fortescue, 39. 40.
Hong Merchants are established in every Port in China, Craufurd, 631.
- purchase Teas on their own Account, Bates, 549.
- are considered as Tea Brokers, Toone, 526.
- Cause of their Distress, Toone, 541.
- whether Agents or Principals in Sale of Tea, W. S. Davidson, 668.
- how far they would be affected by open Trade, W. S. Davidson, 677.
- and Country Dealers, their Profits on Tea, Toone, 526.
- Price paid for Tea by, to Country Dealers, Toone, 526.
- how Cotton is sold to, Toone, 527.
- Woollens are divided among, according to Shares of Tea East India Company receive from them, Toone, 527.
- dealing with, more advantageous than with Outside Merchants, for large Quantities, Stewart, 584.
- lend their Names to Outside Dealers, in their Transactions with Foreigners, Stewart, 583.
- Diminution of their Number acts as a Tax upon Imports and Exports, W. S. Davidson, 668.
- all have a Share in the Business, W. S. Davidson, 670.
- Advantage East India Company have in dealing with, from their Power over Country Ships and the Power of stopping the Trade, Urmston, 654. 665.
- Capital advanced by British Merchants to, Toone, 540.
- by American Merchants, Toone, 540.
Hong Merchants, Order from One, for Camlets to be sent from this Country, Shaw, 705.
- Junior, trade on Capital furnished by Houses of Agency at Canton, Toone, 540.
- supported by East India Company to prevent the Company being placed under the Control of Senior Hong Merchants, Toone, 539.
- Insolvent, how far East India Company deal with, and why, Urmston, 653. 654.
- Practice and Advantage of dealing with, W.S.Davidson, 670.
- - as affecting Interests of East India Company, W.S.Davidson, 672.
- why East India Company do not deal more with, W.S.Davidson, 671.
- East India Company made Advances to, W.S.Davidson, 671.
- as to Americans dealing with, W.S.Davidson, 671.
Horse Police is officered by Natives, Mangles, 58.
Howqua is a Hong Merchant of large Property, Alsager, 711.
- is a large Purchaser of British Manufactures, Toone, 529.
Hughes, Mr., Grant of Land to, in Tinnivilly, for Bourbon Cotton, Hodgson, 380.
Ijarahdar Potails held their Offices at Will of Government, Jenkins, 229.
Imitation Shawls, some Natives wear them, Christian, 71. 72. 74.
Implements of Husbandry in Nagpoor, no Improvement in, Jenkins, 237.
Imports, into Bengal from Great Britain, Amount of, in 1826-27, Melville, 225.
- from the Red Sea, Baber, 310.
- and Exports from Tanjore to Atcheen, Bengal, and Negapatam, Cotton, 157.
Increase of Civil Charges in Bengal from 1823 to 1827, Wood, 13.
(See East Indies, East India Company, Calcutta, &c.)
India, different Description of Inhabitants of, in Calcutta, East, 118.
- Financial Administration of. (See Financial Administration, Interest on Indian Debt.) - Statutes relative to, East, 112. 113.
- Population of, better fitted for Jurors than that of Ceylon, because better educated, Johnston, 217.
- and China Trade, comparative Profit on, Milne, 643.
Indian Agriculture is miserably defective from Subdivision of Land and Want of Capital, R. Davidson, 396.
Indian Archipelago, Articles of Trade with, Toone, 534.
(See Debt, Interest.)
Indian Debt, Amount of Principal and Interest, and Increase, since 1814, Lloyd,
- Variations in Rate of Interest on, since 1814, Lloyd, 10.
Indian Silk. (See Silk, Indian).
- Worm. (See Silk Worm.) Ramsay, 346.
- Plough, Description of, Harris, 462.
Indigo Plant in India is an Annual, Harris, 463.
- is generally an Annual, but in the Upper Provinces it is a Triennial Plant, Ramsay, 361.
- Growth of, very uncertain, Ramsay, 359.
- Cultivation of, is liable to great Fluctuations from Difference of Seasons, R. Davidson, 396.
Indigo is generally sown on Lands subject to Inundation, Ramsay, 361.
- Quality of, depends more on the Goodness of the Plant than the Soil, Harris, 457.
- Lands, how held for Cultivation of, Ramsay, 359.
- Expence of Cultivation of, is increased, Ramsay, 361.
- per Acre, Harris, 457.
- is a profitable Speculation, Dunlop, 487.
- Difference between Bullion Price of, in London and in India, R. Davidson, 392.
- Revenue on, how levied in the Western Provinces, R. Davidson, 398.
- Planters of, borrow Capital from Agents in Calcutta, Ramsay, 363.
R. Davidson, 386.
Harris, 457.
Dunlop, 487.
- few with Capital Ramsay, 364.
R. Davidson, 391.
- does not require much Capital in Cultivation of, Baber, 340.
Indigo Planters in most Cases make Advances to the Cultivators, Ramsay, 359.
- Cultivation of, is by Advances to Ryots, R. Davidson, 386. 398.
Dunlop, 485.
- Plantation of Davidson at Bhangulpore, Extent of, R. Davidson, 386.
- is cultivated by Europeans in Madras Territory, at Arnee in the Carnatic, Coimbatore, and Vellore, Baber, 342.
- more generally in Bengal than formerly, Ramsay, 361.
- at Kisnagur, Jessore, Rajuhaye, Purneah, Malda, and Moorshedabad, Ramsay, 360.
- in Bahar, Robertson, 164.
- by the Northern Circars, Hyde, 175.
- Cultivation of, would be extended by Permission to Europeans to hold Lands, R. Davidson, 386. 387.
Indigo Cultivation, Europeans hold Leases for, in the Names of their Servants, R. Davidson, 395.
- in India, is improved in Quantity and Quality by European Cultivation and Manufacture, R. Davidson, 395.
- compulsory, is an Abuse-Appeal against it to the Zillah Court, Ramsay, 359. 360.
- is extended by Europeans, Ramsay, 359.
- is not carried on to the best Advantage, R. Davidson, 390.
- is a great Benefit to the Natives and Country, Rickards, 500. 503.
- in what Respect it has been useful, Christian, 73.
- is unrestricted, Christian, 74.
- carried to a great Extent in Bahar, Robertson, 164.
- Soil and Climate of Tirhoot favourable to, Robertson, 164.
- has promoted Wealth of District, Robertson, 164.
- Collection of Revenue facilitated by, Instance to prove it, Robertson, 164.
- Advantage of Intercourse between Natives and Planters of, Robertson, 164.
- expensive Establishments necessary for, Robertson, 165. 166.
- in Northern Circars, Hyde, 175.
Indigo is not cultivated in Nagpoor, but the Plant grows wild, Jenkins, 238.
- and Sugar, increased Growth of, would improve Resources of the Country, Chaplin, 290.
- one of the most important and successful Speculations in India, R. Davidson, 388.
- is a losing Speculation by Competition of Mercantile People in India, and the Oppressions of the Natives, Ramsay, 361.
Indigo Manufacture, has been improved in the last Twenty Years, Ramsay, 359.
- requires Skill, R. Davidson, 386.
- Natives are improving in, Dunlop, 488.
- Number of Europeans engaged in, R. Davidson, 395.
- is performed by Labourers, distinct from Ryots, Harris, 454. 455.
- is carried on at a Loss, occasioned by Foreigners settling in Bengal, Dunlop, 486.
- by Native Zemindars, Dunlop, 486.
- at Kisnagur, Harris, 453.
- at Dharwar, Baber, 340.
- Natives employed in, use very little European Manufactures, Ramsay, 362.
Indigo Factories, are generally built on Lands held in Perpetuity, Harris, 464.
- many considerable, possessed by Natives, Ramsay 362.
- no Difficulty in disposing of, Harris, 460.
Indirect Taxation, whether a Means of raising Revenue in India, Christian, 69.
Indus, Returns from the Banks of the, are principally Cotton Pieces and Specie, Baber, 310.
- Pirates formerly on the, none now, Baber, 310.
Inhabitants of India have a Taste for European Manufactures, Christian, 67.
- of Calcutta, different Descriptions of, East, 118.
Inheritance, Law of, Fleming, 91. 92.
- Females do not inherit by the Hindoo Law, Fleming, 89.
- how Property distributed upon the Death of Proprietor, by Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws, Fleming, 89.
- Adoption and Contract, Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws administered in Cases of, Clark, 150.
- Mr. Colebrook's Translation of the Treatises on, Strange, 401.
Insolvent Hong Merchants. (See Hong Merchants.)
Insurance on Ships to China and back, Bates, 554.
- from Calcutta and back, Simpson, 600.
- on Liverpool Ships, in their Voyage from London to Calcutta, Simpson, 600.
- to China and back, on Private and East India Company's Ships, Simpson, 599. 600.
- would be less, if China Trade thrown open, Simpson, 600.
- seldom effected by Americans on their Ships in England, on their Voyage to China, Simpson, 599. 600.
- Rate of, in America, Milne, 646.
- Rate of, to China, in last War, Milne, 645.
Interest of Indian Debt, Lloyd, 5. 10.
- before Burmese War, Lloyd, 10.
- April 1828, Lloyd, 10.
- reduced in 1823, Lloyd, 10.
Interest, Amount of, payable in 1829, Lloyd, 10.
- on Government Funds in India, Dunlop, 486.
East, 119.
(See Agency.)
Interest on Money paid to Agency Houses in Calcutta, and Security for, Harris, 458.
Dunlop, 485. 486.
- in China, Toone, 526. 540.
- in America, Bates, 558.
Investments, Cotton, produces a considerable Profit, Toone, 528.
- from Great Britain to India, Alsager, 710.
- from India to China, chiefly Cotton, Alsager, 710.
- Homeward, Tea, Raw Silks, Nankeen, Alsager, 710.
Ireland, a considerable Quantity of Tea is purchased for, Mills, 692.
Iron Cables, Alsager, 718.
Iron, Export of, by East India Company, Stewart, 588.
- Value of, imported into China last Year, Craufurd, 633.
Irrigated Lands are considered as belonging to the Community, who draw Lots for Portions, Briggs, 448.
Irrigation, Difference of, in South-west and South-east Monsoon, Hodgson, 367.
- Species of Grain most benefited by, Jenkins, 240.
- as conducive to Cultivation, either natural or by large Rivers or Tanks - the Supply precarious, Hodgson, 367.
Italian Silk. (See Silk, Italian, and Silk Worm.) Izardaar, a Farmer, Ramsay, 358.
Jaghiredars, Police under them very efficient, as much so as ours, Chaplin, 284.
- Natives willingly submit to their Powers, except where they are tyrannical, Elphinstone, 263.
- Punishment awarded by them in Administration of Justice generally light, Chaplin, 284.
- Natives attached to them, but not with a clannish Attachment, Elphinstone, 263.
- their Fear of coming within the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, to what Causes owing, Chaplin, 284.
Jaghires, Nature of their Tenure, Elphinstone, 244. 245.
- are held on paying a Quit Rent called Enaum, Elphinstone, 244. 245.
- lapsed, Mangles, 52.
- Village Leases of Land in, Hodgson, 371.
- Lands held in, not superior in Condition to other Lands, Elphinstone, 267.
- more generally granted to Hindoos than Mohamedans, Elphinstone, 262.
- of the Southern Mahrattas - the Relation they stand in to Government, Elphinstone, 253.
- in Bombay. (See Bombay Jaghires.)
Japan, Trade of, is confined to the Port of Ningpo, Craufurd, 630.
- Chinese Trade to, is much restricted, Toone, 535.
- and Phillippine Islands, Trade of, is confined to Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia and Siam, and Tonnage of Ships engaged in it, Craufurd, 630.
Java, Mode of cultivating Cotton in, Craufurd, 516.
- Cotton cultivated in, by European Capital and Skill, Craufurd, 518.
- Coffee has been raised in, by European Skill and Capital, Craufurd, 518.
(See Lands, Malabar, &c.)
Jelm, or Birthright, is a Tenure of Lands in Malabar, by which the Property in the Soil is as strong as in this Country - it is properly allodial, Baber, 307.
Jelmkars, their Rights allodial, Warden, 187.
Jessore, Inhabitants of, are improving in Conduct, Dunlop, 488.
Johnston, Sir Alexander, Memorandum by, on Administration of Justice in India, Johnston, 221 to 223.
- his Letter to Mr. Wynn on Jury Trials in Ceylon, Johnston, 190 to 193.
Jones, Sir William, his Translation of Menon, Strange, 401.
Judge, Native, appointed in Seringapatam, Hodgson, 379.
- and Collector, as to Union or Separation of Powers of, Jenkins, 238.
- at Candeish not satisfied with Administration of Justice without Jury, Briggs, 438.
Judges, as to their Qualification by Judicial Education, Smith, 82.
- Knowledge of Mohamedan and Hindoo Law, how obtained by, Smith, 79.
- of Circuit, their Jurisdiction, Fleming, 90.
- of the Provincial Courts, as to their being appointed by the King, Strange, 415. 416.
- of Zillah Courts, Education of, should not be exclusively professional - Advantage of passing through a Gradation of Revenue Offices, Smith, 83.
- Natives of high Rank not employed as, from Indisposition to the Office, Elphinstone, 264.
- Native, from what Class generally taken - from Persons employed in middle Ranks of Officers, Elphinstone, 264.
- as to Employment of, with European Judge, in what Relation they would stand in point of Authority, Rickards, 425.
- of Sudder Adawlut appointed at Discretion of Government, Smith, 75.
- as to their Judicial Education, Smith, 75. 82.
- as to Union of their Judicial and Revenue Authority - objectionable, and why, Smith, 75.
- Regulations on Judicial Matters generally first submitted to, Smith, 75. 76.
Judicial and Revenue Branches of Service, as to their Union or Separation, Clark, 149.
Rickards, 430. 431.
Judicial System, introduced into India by Lord Cornwallis in 1793, Rickards, 420.
- how far open to Improvement, Rickards, 420.
- insufficient to protect Ryots, Rickards, 420.
- of British India, as to Improvement of, by European Judges acquiring a Knowledge of Native Laws and Languages, Rickards, 429. 430.
Judicial Gradations through which Justice is administered in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 235.
Judicial Secretary, his Duties, Mangles, 48.
Jungapore Silk, the best in the East Indies, Ramsay, 350.
Junks, Chinese, Mode of building, and Amount of Tonnage of, Craufurd, 630.
- comparative Cost of building of, at Chang-hin, Siam, and Amoy, Craufurd, 631.
- Number of Crew, and Mode of Payment of Crew and Officers, Craufurd, 631.
- Number of, employed in Foreign Trade, Craufurd, 630. 632.
Juries, in India, would tend to the Improvement of People, Elphinstone, 250.
- whether Natives fit to serve on, Rice, 144.
- how far they could be used with Advantage in Civil and Criminal Justice, Elphinstone, 250.
- Native, as to their Introduction in Criminal Cases, Clark, 149.
Elphinstone, 250.
- as to Extension of, to Civil Causes in Provinces, Rickards, 425.
- Discrimination and Judgment evinced by, Briggs, 438.
- System of, not quite new in India - introduced into Candeish - afterwards abolished to Dissatisfaction of Judge, Briggs, 437.
- Petty, Natives permitted to serve on, by Sir Edward West, Ricketts, 424.
- how chosen at Candeish, Briggs, 437.
- Special, only in the King's Courts at the Presidencies, Rickards, 425.
Juries, or Assessors, Power given by Bombay Regulations for appointing, Elphinstone, 250.
- in Ceylon, Sir Richard Ottley's Opinion of, Rice, 144. 145.
Jurisdiction, of Magistrate, without Appeal in respect to Degree of Corporal Punishment, Fine, and Imprisonment, Hodgson, 368. 369.
- of Native Officers in small Causes - their Character, East, 108.
- of the Court of the Recorder of Prince of Wales's Island - its Nature and Extent, Rice, 137. 138.
Jurors, why Natives less fitted for, than Englishmen, Clark, 154.
- if taken by Lot, would not be satisfactory to People, Briggs, 448.
- in India, Persons who have Immunities in Land from Government, or other Privileges, should be compelled to serve as, Briggs, 448.
- Natives of Madras not anxious to be, Clark, 154.
- in Ceylon, are Natives if they are to try Natives, Johnston, 221.
- allowed to be challenged, Johnston, 221.
- in Candeish, none appointed who could not read or write, Briggs, 448.
Jury System, Proposal to extend it to India, Johnston, 189.
- as to its Introduction into India, whether Objections apply to Grand as well as Petty Jury, Elphinstone, 265.
- Object of, in India, is to obtain Assistance of Natives to sift Evidence, Elphinstone, 265.
- introduced into Ceylon in 1811, Johnston, 188.
Jury Trial, how far Minds of Natives prepared for, by Practice of Punchayets, Johnston, 190. 218. 220.
- Statement, Suggestions, and Regulations relating to, Baber, 317. 318.
- in Criminal Cases at Bombay, Rice, 144.
- Letter from a Native upon the Subject of, at Bombay, Rickards, 422.
- Mode in which introduced into and administered in Ceylon, and beneficial Consequences of, Johnston, 190 to 194.
- Letter to Mr. Wynn from Sir Alexander Johnston on, Johnston, 190 to 193.
- in Ceylon, Effect of its Introduction in raising the Character of the Natives in point of Morality and Intelligence - would be attended with the like Effects in other Parts of India, Johnston, 193 to 195.
- in Ceylon, Means taken to prepare Natives for it, by explaining it at Meetings, and translating "Sheriff and Juryman," Johnston, 196.
- Charge of Sir Harding Gifford, Chief Justice of Ceylon, on the Subject of, Johnston, 195. 196.
- not at first applied to Civil Cases, and why, Johnston, 218.
- in Ceylon, since its Introduction, one uniform System of Justice for Europeans and Natives in Supreme Court, and High Court of Appeal, from Provincial Courts, Johnston, 216.
- in Ceylon, Verdict final - no Appeal in Criminal Cases - in Capital Convictions Reference to Governor before Execution - and to Secretary of Colonies in case of Recommendation for Mercy, Johnston, 217.
- as to its Introduction into Malabar, Baber, 311. 312.
- proposed by the Judges of the centre Division, Newnham and Dacre, Baber, 312.
- Letters from Mr. Græme to Mr. Baber, on the Subject of, Baber, 312.
- Natives of Malabar are anxious to have, Baber, 312.
"Juryman and Sheriff," Translation of, for the Use of Natives of Ceylon, Johnston, 196.
Jurymen, as to Natives of India serving as, Rickards, 422.
- as well qualified as those of Ceylon, Johnston, 194.
- Opinion of Sir Thomas Munro upon that Subject, Johnston, 194. 195. 217.
Jurymen, Determination of Sir T. Munro, to extend the System of Juries to a Portion of the Madras Territories - Regulation for that Purpose - which was afterwards altered, Johnston, 195.
- Mode of conducting Trials before, in Ceylon - they take Part in Examination of Witnesses, Johnston, 219. 220.
- in Ceylon, are Thirteen in Number, and decide by Majority, not unanimously - their Verdict satisfactory, Johnston, 218. 219.
- Population of India better fitted for, than that of Ceylon, because better educated, Johnston, 217.
- as to Majority and Number of, Johnston, 217.
- Hindoo and Mussulman equally fitted for, Johnston, 217. 218.
Justice, Administration of, and of Revenue, by Native Authorities, Hodgson, 365.
- in the English Language, how far conducive to the Interests of the Country. Rice, 145.
- Improvement of - at first no Judicial Administration under Presidency of Madras, Hodgson, 365.
- is insufficient for Protection of Ryots, Hodgson, 381. 382.
- in the Provinces, ought to be according to the Law of the Natives, Strange, 402.
- Paper on Improvement of, East, 111.
- in Villages of Delhi, People satisfied with, Fortescue, 35 to 37.
- in the Provinces of Bombay, Elphinstone, 247.
- in Candeish, People appeared satisfied with, Briggs, 437.
- Judge not satisfied with Abolition of Jury Trial, Briggs, 437. 438.
- how far affected by Distance of Upper Provinces from Seat of Government, and Advantage of a General Court of Appeal there, Robertson, 163. 164.
- in Presidency of Bombay, in Criminal Cases - by what Judges - according to what Law - formerly by Hindoo Law, now by Regulations - how far satisfactory to Natives - Complaints of its Inadequacy to punish Guilt, Elphinstone, 250.
- to Natives, no Advantage in Combination of Supreme Court with Sudder Adawlut, and Circuits by Supreme Court for the Purpose, Elphinstone, 265.
- in Presidency of Bombay, whether satisfactory to Natives - they approve its Impartiality - object to its Delays, Elphinstone, 249.
- Improvements which might be made in it, Elphinstone, 249.
- Formation of a Code would remedy many Evils in - and Materials for forming one, Elphinstone, 249.
- in India, Memorandum of Sir A. Johnston, with respect to Improvements which might be introduced into the System, Johnston, 221 to 223.
- in Nagpoor, is by the Hindoo Code of Laws, in Cases of Inheritance or Partition of Property, Jenkins, 239.
- in independent Jaghires of the Deccan, by Jaghiredars, through Agency of Punchayets, Jenkins, 288.
- is satisfactory to People of Jaghires in the Deccan, Chaplin, 288.
- in the Deccan, by Native Governments, is by Peishwa, his Moamulutdars and Sir-Subahdars - Sirdars - Punchayet, Chaplin, 280.
- would be accelerated by Collector having Judicial Powers, Fortescue, 41.
- and Collection of Revenue at Madras, separate Departments, and Advantages of Separation, Clark, 147.
- in Malabar, is the same as in other Places under the Madras Government, Baber, 311.
- formerly no regular Administration of, Baber, 311.
- Criminal, how administered in Candeish, Briggs, 437.
- in the Presidencies - in the Mofussil Courts, Rice, 145. 146.
Justice, Administration of, Modes of Improvement of, and Advantage of employing Natives in,
1st. Code of Laws wanted, suited to Habits of People,
2d. Courts of Justice to be established,
3d. Such a Course of Practice as may give Justice without Delay,
4th. Permanent Native Council, or Committee to revise and amend existing Laws, and Observations thereon,
Rickards, 421. 428. 431. 432. 433.