BHO

Affairs of the East India Company: Index to the principal matters detailed in the evidence, K-Z

Pages 1194-1217

Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 62, 1830. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, [n.d.].

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K.
Kaanom, Mortgage Tenure - Mortgage always redeemable, Warden, 186.
Kaanomkars, Mortgagees, Warden, 185.
Kelly's Statement of Cost Price, in English Money, of Samples of Foreign Tea, Kelly, 509 to 511.
Kent, East Indiaman, Capture of, Maxfield, 601.
Kidd, Mr., Half-caste, Mangles, 55. 57.
Kincobs, fine Silk, of Native Manufacture, Chaplin, 286.
Kishenrampore, Ryotwar Settlement of that Estate, Mangles, 62.
Kisnagur, Population of, is Hindoo and Mohamedan, Harris, 456.
- Police of, at a low State, Harris, 456.
- Decoity in, is greatly diminished, Harris, 457.
Mangles, 58.
- State of Education in, Harris, 457.
- Extent of Bega of Land in, Harris, 453.
- Harris's Indigo Manufactory in, and Extent of it, Harris, 453.
Kissas means Retaliation, Baber, 324.
Kists, in Delhi, are periodical Payments of Rents and Revenue, Fortescue, 43.
Baber, 333.
Knowledge equally diffused among Mohamedan, Hindoo, and Bhuddist Population in Ceylon, and more in Peninsula of India than Ceylon, Johnston, 194.
- Literature and English Language, Progress of, has been great since 1811, Rickards, 421.
Koran, the, is the Basis of the Mohamedan Civil Code, Ricketts, 299.
Kotah and Bopaul, Revenue of, equitably settled and flourishing, Elphinstone, 246.
L.
Labour, out of Doors, recommended as a Punishment, instead of Confinement in Gaol, East, 227. 228.
- of Europeans could never be employed in India in Agriculture, Chaplin, 290.
- Price of, in the Brazils, is higher than in England, Carruthers, 483. 484.
- - in India, is cheaper than in America, Craufurd, 522.
- relative Price of, in India and on the Banks of the Mississippi, R. Davidson, 389.
Labourers in India, how employed, Harris, 458.
- their Wages are paid monthly, Briggs, 444.
- lowest Rate of Earnings, Fleming, 94.
Land Assessment in Bombay, as it affects Condition of small and large Proprietors, and their Means of improving their Lands, Elphinstone, 272. 273.
- if lighter, would leave a Surplus as a Landlord's Rent, Briggs, 443. 444.
- does not extend to Land occupied by Cardamums, Baber, 338.
- in the Deccan, Amount of Surplus left to Cultivator beyond, Elphinstone, 272.
- in Malabar, is an Over-assessment, Baber, 320.
- - Rate of, Baber, 319.
- - Proprietors of Land confined for Arrears, Baber, 319.
Land Revenue of India, is a certain Portion of all Land cultivated, according to Custom and Usage, Hodgson, 367.
- as to Improvement in, Rickards, 431. 432.
- as to Equalization of, Rickards, 431. 432.
- would be improved, if the Assessments were fixed, Elphinstone, 271.
- is a Bar to the Progress of Improvement, Rickards, 431.
- its general Proportion to Produce, Elphinstone, 267.
- its Reduction would improve Condition of People, Elphinstone, 267. 268.
Land Revenue of India, how far Reduction of, would tend to increase Consumption of Articles subject to Sea Duty, Elphinstone, 267. 268.
- has increased, by the Cultivation of Wastes, since perpetual Settlement, Mangles, 52.
- in Carnatic, was formerly collected through Agency of Zemindars or Public Contractors, Hodgson, 365. 366.
- Practicability of allowing Villages to assess themselves, if Waste Lands given up to the Inhabitants, Briggs, 442.
Land Aumanie, Management of, Cotton, 155.
(See Bega.)
Land, Bega of, how much, Ramsay, 360.
- no Disputes about Possession of, Fortescue, 46.
- Tax of India, Nature of, Rickards, 417.
- fit for Opium, Robertson, 171.
- at what Rate sold, in Lower Provinces, Mangles, 50.
- Owners of, their Authority weakened by Marquis Cornwallis's System, Robertson, 157. 158.
- Power of holding, is essential to Cultivation of Indigo, Cotton, Silk, and Tobacco, R. Davidson, 389. 390.
- different Opinions as to the Tenure of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 245.
- Amount of Value of, permanently settled, Hodgson, 381.
- sequestered and sold, from Overassessment, under Zemindarry System, Hodgson, 381.
- what Quantity of, a Pair of Bullocks can plough, Harris, 462.
- legal Possession of, would enable Europeans to extend Cultivation of Indigo, Harris, 456.
- Improvement of, to the Advantage of the Lessee 'till the Lease is out, and of the Zemindar in increased Rent upon its Renewal, Harris, 464.
- surplus Average Profit of, in Three Years, in Sattarah-and Government Demand on, per Bega, Briggs, 445.
- Cultivators of, are of Three Classes in Villages, Briggs, 443.
(See Sales of Lands.)
- Sale of, in lower Provinces, for what Reasons, Mangles, 49.
- in the Carnatic, by what Tenure held, R. Davidson, 387.
- leased in Malabar, for what Time, and on what Terms, Baber, 307.
- of Coparceners, Division and Sale of, Mangles, 49.
- Grant of, to Mr. Hughes, for Bourbon Cotton in Tinnivilly, Hodgson, 380.
- Grant of, for Indigo Works in Baramahal, Hodgson, 380.
- Grant of, to Mr. Brown, for Experiments in Malabar, Hodgson, 380.
Land and Sea Customs of Bengal, Swinton, 25.
Landed Property, Nature of, in Upper India, Robertson, 169. 170.
- belongs to Village Community, under the managing Owner of the Village, to whom, and to different Artizans and Village Functionaries, Shares of the Produce are apportioned, Robertson, 169. 170.
- Instance explanatory of Light in which managing Owner is regarded, whether as Proprietor or Trustee, Robertson, 169. 170.
Language of Hindoos is the Tamul, Telogoo, Mayalim, and the Canarese, Johnston, 197.
Rickards, 429.
Lascars, how affected by Cold, Alsager, 718.
Law, of England, held to apply to India as it stood at the Time of the First Charter granted to Calcutta, but not subsequent Acts, except specially so mentioned, East, 100. 111.
Rice, 143.
Smith, 78. 79.
- of Hindoos, Singularity in, that other Asiatics coming to settle in India bring with them their own Law, East, 105.
- of Defendant, prevails incase of contrarient Law, East, 105.
Law Officers of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 234.
Laws, Native, Consolidation of, if made, should be translated into all Languages in use among Natives, Johnston, 198.
- and Usages of Ceylon, as to reducing them into a more clear and compendious Form, Johnston, 196. 197.
Lead imported into Canton in the last Year, Value of, Craufurd, 634.
Leases, Triennial, substituted for Ryotwar System, Hodgson, 382.
- from Zemindars, are for Three or Five Years, Harris, 462.
Legislation, Powers of, in Government, in concurrence with Supreme Court, Elphinstone, 260.
Letter, from a Native of Rank at Bombay, on Jury Trials, Rickards, 422.
- from Lord Wynford to Sir Thomas Strange, with Sir Thomas Strange's Answer, upon the Subject of the Judges of the Native Courts in India, Strange, 415.
- on Indian Silk, by Mr. Atkinson, of Jungapore in 1796, Wilson, 406.
- on Cultivation of Surat Cotton, Craufurd, 513.
- from Sir Alexander Johnstone to Mr. Wynn, on Jury Trials in Ceylon, Johnston, 190 to 193.
Letters from Mr. Græme to Mr. Baber on Trial by Jury in Malabar, Baber, 312.
Letwaid (in the Carnatic), Ryotwarry System conducted on correct Principles at, Hodgson, 369. 370.
Licence to Europeans, by Local Government, to reside at a Distance from Presidency, upon what Principle given, Elphinstone, 269. 270.
- to remove from Place to Place may be required, but is dispensed with in Practice, Robertson, 163.
Licences, as to further Extension of the System of, and its Effects, Chaplin, 291.
Lintin, Opium smuggled to China from, Bates, 558.
- advantageous for illicit Commerce, and how it is carried on, Bates, 558.
List of Instances, in the Madras Territory, where Attempts have been made to cultivate Silk, Cotton, Indigo and Cochineal, Hodgson, 376.
Litigation, Love of, by Natives, East, 107.
Liverpool, great Competition in India Trade at, Bates, 553.
- Trade to the East is confined to Bombay and Calcutta, Simpson, 600.
- Export of Salt to India from, Ramsay, 353.
Long Ells, Demand for, has not increased, Toone, 538.
- are generally used for Furniture in China, and worn by Shopkeepers and Labourers, Toone, 538.
- Quantity of, exported to China has diminished, not producing a remunerating Price, Toone, 529.
- - imported by the Country Trade to China, Value of, Craufurd, 634.
Lot of Salt, Quantity of, Ramsay, 357.
Lower Orphan School is for Children of European Soldiers by Native Mothers, Ricketts, 302.
Lower Provinces, Value of Lands for Sale there, Mangles, 50.
Luconia, Productions of, in 1825, Bates, 555. 556.
Luckipore, East India Company's Factory for Calicoes at, superseded by Manufactures of Manchester, Harris, 461.
- Revenue of, not highly assessed at, Harris, 461.
M.
Machine for reeling Silk, by Gibson, Wilson, 412.
- for blowing Cotton, Bruddock, 479.
- for cleaning Cotton, Failure of, Carruthers, 483. 484.
Craufurd, 519. 520.
- - used in Calcutta, Carruthers, 487.
Machinery not good for reeling Silk, Durant, 466.
- its Effect on Brazil Cotton, Carruthers, 483.
Madras, few European Settlers at, Hodgson, 379.
- subletting Land in Province of, is very common, Briggs, 444.
- Salt from, is inferior to that of Calcutta, and cheaper, Ramsay, 355.
- Territory, Attempts made to cultivate Silk, Cotton, Indigo, Cochineal and other Articles in, but with little Success, Hodgson, 376 to 378.
- Recorder's Court at, established in 1798, Strange, 398.
- - possessed the Confidence of the Natives, far beyond the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, Strange, 402.
Madras Supreme Court, established in 1801 - its Constitution and Jurisdiction - how far a Court of Appeal, Strange, 399.
- Europeans are under the Jurisdiction of, Strange, 402.
- Counsel and Attornies are exclusively European, Strange, 399.
Madras Supreme Court, how Justice administered to Hindoo and Mohamedan in, Strange, 399. 400.
- Litigation increased after its Establishment, from increased Confidence in, Strange, 399.
- Expences of Litigation in, as compared with Bengal, Strange, 399.
- Mohamedans seldom have Suits in, Strange, 401.
- Justice might be administered by a single Judge in, Strange, 402.
- not advisable to extend its Powers to the Interior, Strange, 402.
Madras, Departments for Collection of Revenue and Administration of Justice separate - and Advantages of Separation, Clark, 147.
- as to certain Judicial Powers given to Collector, Clark, 147.
- Appeal from Collector's Decision to Judge, and from him to Provincial Court and Sudder Adawlut, Clark, 147.
- Over-assessment under Zemindarry and Ryotwar Systems in, Hodgson, 381.
- Four Provincial Courts in the Presidency of, Clark, 147.
- College at, Elphinstone, 255.
Strange, 401.
- - for Education of Pleaders, Pundits and Officers, and how Plan might be extended, Hodgson, 379. 380.
- - as to the Establishment of one for Natives of Rank and Property, Strange, 403.
- Means of ensuring to the Civil Servants, before their Employment in the Provinces, a Knowledge of the Laws and Usages they may have to administer, Warden, 178.
- Malabar was attached to Bombay, but in 1800 annexed to, Warden, 178.
Madras and Bengal, comparative State of, Hodgson, 374.
Magistrate, Power of, in Cases of Offences by Europeans against Natives, Smith, 78.
- may punish Natives for small Offences without Jury, Rice, 144.
- has the Superintendence of Police, Clark, 148.
- Jurisdiction of, without Appeal in respect to Degree of Corporal Punishment, Fine and Imprisonment, Hodgson, 368.
- Office of, in 1816, separated from Judge and united with Collector, and Grounds for Alteration, Hodgson, 366.
- and Collector, as to the Union of the Offices of, Hodgson, 368.
(See Brahmins.)
Mahratta Brahmins are corrupt, Baber, 321.
- Gentlemen, Education is much neglected among them, Briggs, 449.
Mahratta Country, how governed before its Conquest, Elphinstone, 246.
- Waste Lands in, under Peishwa, are considered as belonging to Government, Briggs, 449.
- Ditch is the Judicial Limits of Calcutta, East, 100.
Mahratta, Southern. (See Southern Mahratta.)
Malabar, Boundaries of, Baber, 324.
- is not an irrigated Province, Hodgson, 367.
- was under Bombay, but is now annexed to Madras, Warden, 178.
- Waste Lands in, belong to Village Community, Briggs, 449.
- Forests in, declared to be Royalties, Baber, 309.
- is highly cultivated, Baber, 308.
- Produce of, is Rice, Cocoa Nut, Black Pepper, Areca or Betel, Ginger, Turmeric, Arrow Root, Wild Cassia, Teak, Cardamums, Fruit Trees, Coffee, Warden, 183.
- Gold found in, Baber, 325.
- - is the Property of the Owner of the Lands, Baber, 325. 327.
- - Process of collecting it is very simple, Baber, 326.
- - Duty paid on it to Government, Baber, 326. 327.
- Mountains of, produce Cardamums, Baber, 337.
- Salt. (See Salt.)
- Timber of, chiefly Teak and Spoon, Baber, 309.
- Cultivation of Tobacco is prohibited in, Baber, 331. 337.
Malabar, Tobacco is a Necessary of Life in, Baber, 331. 332.
- Cultivation of Sugar in, abandoned, Baber, 343.
- Hill Cotton grown in, to a limited Extent, Warden, 186.
- Population of, Baber, 324.
- Classes of People in, Baber, 306.
- Number of Castes in, Baber, 311.
- Number of Half-castes in, Baber, 322.
- People of, the best informed and most intelligent of any of the Natives of India, Baber, 312.
- Natives of, their Condition, Baber, 319.
- - brave, and attached to their Superiors, Baber, 320.
- - stricter Observers of Truth than other Inhabitants of Hindostan, Baber, 318.
- - have a keen Sense of Honour and Spirit of Independence, and Instances of this, Baber, 318.
- - Instance of high Notions of Independence of the Nair Caste of, Baber, 318. 319.
- - would support Government in suppressing Suttees, and Instances of this, Baber, 325.
- Mohamedans in, are called Mopillas, Anglicè, Sons of their Mothers, Baber, 306.
- Native Christians in, Warden, 183.
- - are chiefly of the Roman Catholic Church, Baber, 306.
- - their Number, and from whom descended - chiefly from Half-castes - are not an increasing Body in, Baber, 306. 322. 323. 324.
- Europeans are not allowed to go into Interior of, Baber, 327.
- Slavery, Character of, in, Baber, 327.
- Slaves in, are bought and sold like Cattle, Baber, 327.
- - are not so well treated in, as in Canara, Baber, 329.
- - are in a most wretched and degraded State, and Dress of, Baber, 328.
- - Experiment of Emancipation of, Baber, 323.
- - none now imported into, Baber, 328.
- Species of Slavery in, Warden, 180 to 183.
- Inhabitants of, may carry on Manufacture of Salt, under Penalty of Fine and Confiscation if Salt sold to any but Government, Baber, 333.
- Compensation made to the Proprietors of Salt on Establishment of Monopoly by East India Company, Baber, 321.
- Salt, Monopoly in, Warden, 179. 180.
- Salt Tax, for what Purpose levied, Warden, 179. 180.
- Salt imported into, from Goa, Bombay, Cutch, Mocha, and the Gulph, Baber, 321.
- Manufactures in, not affected by British Imports, Warden, 186.
- Betel, no Monopoly in, Warden, 180.
- Tobacco Revenue in, Warden, 180.
- - is brought from Coimbatore to, Baber, 337.
- Monopoly of Timber in, puts a stop to Shipbuilding, Baber, 334.
- - abolished by Sir Thomas Munro in 1823, Shipbuilding revived in consequence, Baber, 334.
- Vessels, Size of, Number of, and by whom owned, Baber, 309.
- Vessels of, were numerous, but by Monopoly of Timber by Government are reduced in Number, Baber, 308. 309.
- trades with Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Baber, 308. 309.
- Exports from, to the Red Sea and other Places, Baber, 309. 310.
- Monsoons on Coast of, and their Effect on Vessels, Baber, 310.
- from what Ports Arabs generally come to, Baber, 310.
- Arabs arrive every Year in, Baber, 306.
(See Jelm.)
- Tenure of Land in, Baber, 307.
- Disposition of Property in, Baber, 325.
- Lands leased in, for what Time, and on what Terms, Baber, 307.
- Attachment of Proprietors to their Hereditary Property, Warden, 185.
- Number of Proprietors in, Warden, 187.
- Subdivision of Property in - Consequences of this, Warden, 187.
Malabar, Proprietory Right as existing in, disputed at one Time, but now admitted with respect to Malabar, Canara and Western Coast of Peninsula, Warden, 187.
- Questions respecting Tenure and Rights of Land, by what Tribunal tried, Warden, 179.
- Improvement in Landed and Mercantile Property by Introduction of English Law and Government, Warden, 185.
- Rent of Garden Land in, is altered from Year to Year, Baber, 307.
- Purchasers of Estates in, sold for Arrears of Revenue, were Mopillas and public Servants, Baber, 308.
- Transit Duties in, Baber, 335.
- Frontier Duties of, are farmed out to the highest Bidder, and Evils thereof, Baber, 335. 336.
- Administration of Justice in, the same as in other Places under Madras Government, Baber, 311.
- People of, have a Wish to be admitted to a Share in the Administration of Justice, Baber, 312.
- formerly had no regular Administration of Justice in, Baber, 311.
- Three Commissions to remedy Evils of State of the Law in, in 1807, 1817 and 1819, Baber, 308.
- Trial by Jury, as to its Introduction into, and Mode of it - Statement, Suggestions and Regulations relating thereto, Baber, 317. 318.
- - proposed by the Judges of the centre Division, Newnham and Dacre, and on what Grounds, Baber, 312.
- - Letters from Mr. Græme to Mr. Baber on this Subject, Baber, 312.
- - People of, are anxious to have it, Baber, 312.
- - very desirable to introduce it into, Baber, 311. 312.
- Punchayet is not used in East India Company's Dominions in, Baber, 311.
- Local Law of Succession, Descent and Inheritance is peculiar to Western Coast, and Rule of it, Baber, 311.
- Suttees in, Baber, 325.
- Revenue Settlement in, Warden, 185.
- Revenue of, is assessed as in the Times of Hyder and Tippoo, Baber, 307.
- - Assessment is Thirty per Cent on gross Produce, Baber, 307.
- Proportion of Rent which accrues to Government in, Baber, 320.
- Over-assessment of Lands in, Baber, 320.
- Land Assessment, Rate of, in, Baber, 319.
- - Proprietors of Land confined for Arrears of, Baber, 319.
- Sales of Land for Arrears of Taxes in, Baber, 320.
- Revenue, Mode of, Baber, 307. 308.
- Sales of Land in execution of Judgments of Courts, Baber, 307.
- Taxation in, causes great Distress, Baber, 319.
- Revenue and Judicial Lines, how far separated, Warden, 178.
- Revenue is collected partly from Proprietors, and partly from Tenants, Baber, 307.
- Estates of the Zamorin Rajah are of vast Extent in, Baber, 307.
Malacca, Reductions at, by East India Company, Melvill, 212.
Malacca and Singapore annexed to Prince of Wales Island, and Jurisdiction of Recorder's Court made co-extensive, Rice, 141.
Malay Islands, Export of Opium to, Swinton, 22.
Malays are Mohamedans, Rice, 141.
- most frequent Subjects of Punishment, Rice, 139.
Maligaum, Briggs, 439.
Malik, a Proprietor of Land, Robertson, 158.
Maltese Cotton. (See Cotton.)
Malwa Opium. (See Opium.)
- is superior to Patna, Swinton, 19.
Manchester Calicoes supersede Indian, Harris, 461.
Mangalore, Native Christians in, Warden, 183.
- Cultivation of Sugar abandoned in, Baber, 343.
Manilla, Trade to, is increased, and Articles of Export and Import, Bates, 554. 555.
Manufacture of Silk. (See Silk.)
- of Salt, if free, Natives would make their own, Ramsay, 353.
- of Indigo, has been improved in the last Twenty Years, Ramsay, 359.
Manufactures, European, how far used by Ryots, R. Davidson, 387.
- English. (See English Manufactures.)
- of Tanjore. (See Tanjore.)
Manure, Natives of India do not in general use it, Dunlop, 487.
- is used in Nagpoor in the Cultivation of Sugar, Betel Leaf, and Tobacco, Jenkins, 237. 238.
- used for Cotton is Wood Ashes, Carruthers, 484.
Manuring Land in Canara, Mode of, Baber, 329.
Maranham Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
(See Estimate, Account, Revenue.)
Marine and Civil Reductions in India, Melvill, 211.
Marine Society Boys sent out by East India Company for their Ships in the East, Maxfield, 613.
Maritime Jurisdiction at Central Ports on Coasts of Malabar and Coromandel would be a great Convenience, between Cape Comorin and Bombay on the one Side, and Calcutta on the other, Johnston, 189.
Master in Equity in Supreme Court of Calcutta, East, 97.
Maund of Salt is 80 English lbs. Swinton, 24.
- - Price of, Ramsay, 352. 353.
- Bazar, is 80 lbs. Swinton, 22.
- Factory, is 72 lbs. 11 oz. Swinton, 22.
Maxwell, Mr. (See Landed Property, Nature of, in Upper India.) Robertson, 169. 170.
Mayalim is the Language of some Hindoos, Johnston, 198.
Measurement of Salt when purchased and when sold by Government, Injustice of the Mode of Baber, 334.
Memorial on smuggling of Tobacco, Baber, 331.
Menon, Sir William Jones's Translation of, Strange, 401.
(See Rate of Exchange.)
Mercantile Rate of Exchange, Lloyd, 7.
Melvill.
- Houses in Calcutta possessed by Half-castes, Mangles, 55.
Merchants, Manner in which they keep Accounts of their Profits on Adventures to China, Stewart, 590. 591.
- Private, their Exertions more conducive to Improvement in Trade than a Company's, Milne, 649.
Metals of all Sorts, except Lead, are prohibited being exported from China, Stewart, 587.
- are sent to Bombay and China, Stewart, 590.
- are introduced into China under Country Trade, Stewart, 588.
- Import of, into China, has been profitable, Magniac, 625.
Metayer System, Rickards, 420.
Middle-Men, none in India, Fortescue, 43.
Military Force in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 241.
Military Orphan Society School in Calcutta, Ricketts, 305.
(See Estimate, Revenue.)
Military Reductions which have been ordered at Bengal, Melvill, 208.
- which have been ordered at Madras, Melvill, 209.
- which have been ordered at Bombay, Melvill, 210.
Militia Force (Sibundee) of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 234.
- of Candeish, Briggs, 439.
Minors, Hindoo, attain full Age at Sixteen, East, 120.
Minto, Lord, R. Davidson, 387.
Minute of Lord Hastings on Revenue, Rickards, 420.
Missionaries, by their Opposition, promote Frequency of Suttees, East, 109.
Moamulutdars, Officers of Justice in the Deccan, Chaplin, 280.
(See Potails.)
Mocuddims, or Headmen of Villages, act on the Part of Villagers of Delhi in Payment of Revenue, Fortescue, 34. 35. 44. 45.
Mofussil, Origin and Progress of, East, 126.
Mofussil Courts, East, 104.
- Laws of, proposed Reforms of, East, 126 to 136.
Mofussil Barristers, Solicitors and Attornies, Appointment of, East, 130.
Mofussil Commission for examining into Abuses and Frauds in Revenue Department at Cawnpore, Robertson, 160.
- Appeal from, to Sudder Special Commission, Robertson, 160.
Mohair and Wool, Camlets made of, at Dresden, Shaw, 706.
Mohamedans, Proportions of - Populations of - Towns generally consist of, Mangles, 54.
- are not so wealthy as Hindoos, East, 102.
Mohamedans are more debauched than Hindoos, Mangles, 52.
- the higher Classes of them will eat with Europeans, not the lower, Mangles, 52.
- generally more rapacious and careless than Hindoos, Elphinstone, 262.
- Native Hindoos have less Confidence in, than in Europeans, Chaplin, 284.
- Governors of India formerly took Half the Gross Produce of the Soil as a Land Tax, Rickards, 417.
- Jaghires are more generally granted to Hindoos than, Elphinstone, 262.
- badly educated, and have no Share in public Business in the Deccan, Chaplin, 284.
- Number of, in Nagpoor, is small, Jenkins, 235.
- in Malabar, are called Mopillas, Anglicé, Sons of their Mothers, Baber, 306.
- are tried by their own Code, Ricketts, 299.
- seldom have Suits in the Supreme Court at Madras, Strange, 401.
- Nature of Oath administered to, Smith, 82.
- their Code is barbarous, as applicable to a Christian Population, Ricketts, 295.
- Civil Code of, is based entirely on the Koran, Ricketts, 299.
- Law of, how far Females inherit by it, Robertson, 169.
- - has no Reference to Credibility of Witnesses introduced by European Judges, Fleming, 93.
- - is almost superseded by Modifications, Baber, 313.
- - has been ameliorated by our Feelings and Principles, Strange, 403.
- - Half-castes are subject to it in Criminal Courts - in Civil Courts Defendant's Law is followed, Smith, 84.
Mohamedan Civil Law, how far used in Delhi, Fortescue, 39.
- Law is the Criminal Law of Malabar, Baber, 324.
Mohamedans and Hindoos both equally trustworthy, Fortescue, 39.
- high Sense of Honor among Higher and Military Classes of them and the Rajpoots, Johnston, 218.
- how Justice administered to, at Madras, Strange, 399. 400.
- Population of, their Proportion to each other, R. Davidson, 390.
- their Religion, Effects of it on Conduct and Behaviour of Natives, R. Davidson, 390.
- are employed as Native Law Officers - their Appointment - how revoked, Fortescue, 40.
Mohamedan and Hindoo Law, Knowledge of it, how obtained by Judge, Smith, 79.
Fleming, 94.
East, 100 to 103.
Clark, 149.
- becoming extinct among Natives, Elphinstone, 247, 248.
- in what Cases administered by Supreme Court, in Cases of Inheritance, Adoption and Contract, Clark, 150.
- how far modified by Government Regulations, Smith, 79.
East, 106.
Rice, 145. 146.
Ricketts, 295.
Baber, 324.
- Divisibility of Property after Death by, Smith, 79.
Robertson, 168. 169.
- how Property in Patna distributed under, on Death of Proprietor, Fleming, 89.
- Plan for making Collections of, for Ceylon, and as to extending it to Bengal, Johnston, 190.
Molungees are the only Persons who manufacture Salt under the Direction of East India Company's Agents and by Advances, Swinton, 25.
Ramsay, 352. 354.
- their Condition-are well treated, Ramsay, 352. 354. 357. 358.
- Reward paid to, by Salt Agents, Ramsay, 354.
(See Interest on Money.)
Money, Interest on, in India, East, 119.
Elphinstone, 262.
- in what Manner advanced by Europeans to Chinese, Toone, 540.
Mongapytum, Silk made at, superseded by Silk of British Manufacture, Chaplin, 287.
Monopolies should not be given to Europeans, but to Natives, Baber, 333. 334.
Monopoly of East India Company, if it ceased it would be a great Means of extending Private Trade, Bates, 563.
Monopoly of East India Company, its Effects on Specie, which is not now exported to China, but imported from it for Purposes of Trade, Bates, 563.
- of Opium, Swinton, 23.
- - how likely to be affected by Abandonment of Treaties, Swinton, 19.
- of Salt, Price enhanced by, Baber, 321.
- - the Cause of throwing out of a lucrative Subsistence 6,438 Manufacturers,-Compensation paid for, very inadequate, Baber, 333.
- - on Establishment of it, Compensation paid to Proprietors of Salt Works, Baber, 321.
- - Baber's Paper on, sent to the Court of Directors 1829, Baber, 333.
- - in Bengal, Swinton, 23 to 25.
Baber, 333.
Ramsay, 357.
- - in Malabar, Warden, 179. 180.
- of Timber, by Government, its Effects, Baber, 308.
- - enhanced the Price, Baber, 33.
- - was to supply the Dockyard at Bombay at a cheap Rate, Baber, 336.
- of Tobacco in 1806, by East India Company, and its Effect on Prices-Abuses in the Management of, Baber, 331. 332. 333.
- - is the Cause of Smuggling, Crime, and Fraud among Native Servants of East India Company, Baber, 332.
- of Cardamums, Arrack, and Toddy, Baber, 335.
Monsoons on Coast of Malabar, and their Effect on Vessels, Baber, 310.
Mootahdarry Revenue, Settlement of, Hyde, 172. 173.
Mootahs, Districts divided into, for Revenue Settlement, Clark, 150.
(See Mohamedans.)
Mopillas, Mohamedans of Malabar are so called (Anglicè, Sons of their Mothers), Baber, 306.
-at Quilandy, are the fairest of all the Mohamedans, Baber, 310.
Moplah Merchants, their Trade, Wealth, and Industry - export Pepper to Bengal, Bombay, Red Sea, and Europe, Warden, 186.
Moplahs, Mohamedans and Descendants of Arabs, Warden, 179.
Moulvies, consulted on Mussulman Law, their Salaries, East, 101 to 104.
Mouzawary Settlement in Bombay, Elphinstone, 243. 244.
Muggs (Pirates on the Ganges), returning to their Villages in Arracan, Robertson, 171. 172.
Mulberry, Plantation of, is in Perfection in Two Years, Baber, 341.
- Cultivation of, by British Subjects possessing Capital, might prove a good Speculation, Baber, 341.
- - in Seringapatam, Baber, 342.
- White, Growth of, in Dharwar, Baber, 340.
- - is best for Silk Worms, and is used in Italy, Wilson, 408.
- Trees, Mode of Cultivation of, Ramsay, 349. 350.
- - belong to one Person and Silk Worms to another, Ramsay, 345.
Munro, Sir Thomas, one of the ablest of the East India Company's Servants, Rickards, 432.
- the Patron of the Ryotwar System, Rickards, 418.
- Plan of Ryotwar Settlement by, Hodgson, 371.
- Plan of, was to establish Ryotwar System, and then reduce the Assessment 25 per Cent. Hodgson, 382.
- his Survey of the Ceded Districts, Rickards, 432.
- his calculated Amount of Assessment has never been realized, Rickards, 432. 433.
- recommends Ryotwar Assessment in the Carnatic, Hodgson, 367.
- his Opinion of Juries in India, Johnston, 194. 195. 217.
- - of Revenue Administration, Rickards, 502.
- his Notice on Sale, Purchase, and Measurement of Salt, 4th July 1817, Baber, 334.
Munsiffs, their Jurisdiction, Mangles, 59.
Smith, 77.
- Natives are employed as, Fleming, 87. 88.
- only try Cases of Rent and small Debts, Fleming, 88.
- whether their Conduct satisfactory-how paid, Fleming, 88.
- Village and District, how they perform their Duties - their Salaries, Clark, 148.
- - Appeal from Decision of, to Zillah Court, Clark, 148.
Muslin Manufacture, Mode of, in England and India, Ryder, 476. 477.
Muslin, the finest is made from Dacca Cotton, Craufurd, 514.
- of Dacca, is superior to English, R. Davidson, 397.
(See Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws.)
Mussulman and Hindoo Laws, varied and explained by Regulation and Acts, which are forming a kind of new Code, East, 106.
Mustajir, a Farmer, Robinson, 158.
Myradul, Rajah of, Remuneration paid to him for use of Salt Lands, Ramsay, 356.
Mysore, Potatoes are grown in, and exported to Madras, Hodgson, 377.
- Tobacco is smuggled from, Baber, 337.
- Coorg, Travancore, and Cochin are controlled by British Residents, Baber, 335.
N.
Naayady, the lowest and most degraded Caste of Freemen in Malabar - their Number, Warden, 180. 182.
Nagoa, Export and Import Trade from, to Tanjore, Cotton, 156. 157.
Nagpoor, Native Government of, Nature and Character of, Jenkins, 228.
- - all Offices under, sold, Jenkins, 236.
- - People not satisfied with it, Jenkins, 236.
- general State of Landed Property in, Jenkins, 229.
- Expences of Civil Management of the Territory under British Government, Jenkins, 233.
- Extent of, subject to British Authority, Jenkins, 231.
- Part of, lately restored to the Rajah, Jenkins, 232.
- Revenue Settlement in, Jenkins, 228.
- Village Settlement - Potail, Rent collected through his Agency, Jenkins, 228. 229.
- Rajah of, decides Civil and Criminal Cases in Person, and Payments for it, Jenkins, 235. 236.
- Rent Rolls in - Corruption of them-reduced to their original Purpose, Jenkins, 231. 235.
- Ryots hold their Lands under the Rajah of, Jenkins, 235.
- Ryots in, have not the Right to the Soil, Jenkins, 234. 235.
- Assessment in, low, and Country under it increased in Population and Revenue, Jenkins, 231.
- System of Administration of, as compared with that of Ceded Provinces, Jenkins, 233.
- Improvement in, under British Government, Jenkins, 232. 241.
- Inhabitants of, are satisfied with British Government, Jenkins, 236.
- its Improvement under Mahrattas, Jenkins, 229.
- Population of, Jenkins, 231.
- Mohamedan Population small in, Jenkins, 235.
- Education, State of, in, Jenkins, 234.
- Revenue of, Jenkins, 231. 241.
- - is in an embarrassed State, Jenkins, 240.
- European Officers, their Duties of Superintendence at, Jenkins, 236. 237.
- - their Allowance as Residents at, Jenkins, 233.
- Military Force of, Jenkins, 241.
- Native Troops of, officered by British and Native Officers, Jenkins, 233. 234.
- Troops, very few Natives in, Jenkins, 234.
- Sibundee, or Militia Force of, Jenkins, 234.
- Subahdar at, a Military and Civil Officer Jenkins, 230.
- Potail at, has Power to remove Ryots who do not pay their Rent, Jenkins, 235.
- Administration of Justice in, by Potail - Heads of Pergunnahs - Subahdar - Rajah - Punchayet, Jenkins, 229. 230.
- - is by the Hindoo Code of Laws, in Cases of Inheritance or Partition of Property, Jenkins, 239.
- Law Officers of, Jenkins, 234.
- Gradations of Judicial Authorities through which Justice is administered in, Jenkins, 235.
- Native Functionaries at, Confidence in them, and their Pay, Jenkins, 232. 237.
- regular Records kept both in Civil and Criminal Cases in, under the British Government, Jenkins, 232.
- European Officers substituted for Native, in superintending Collection of Revenue, Administration of Justice and Police, Jenkins, 231.
Nagpoor, Bengal Regulations recommended to the Nagpoor Authorities, and adopted by them for Punishment of principal Crimes, Jenkins, 239.
- Appeal to Rajah at, Jenkins, 230.
- Punchayet at - their Use, Decisions, and Credit, Jenkins, 230.
- - great Corruption in that System, and Appeal against Decisions of, Jenkins, 236.
- - never resorted to in Criminal Cases, Jenkins, 236.
- - used in, in all Cases in which Natives do not object, Jenkins, 236.
- Police System of, and its Efficiency, Jenkins, 230.
- Police of, occupy Lands in right of their Offices, Jenkins, 235.
- Cutwar, an Officer of Police at, Jenkins, 230.
- Village Officers of, generally hereditary, Jenkins, 235.
- Articles of Cultivation in, Jenkins, 240.
- Cultivation of Land in, Improvement of, Jenkins, 237.
- - superior Modes of, by Officers of Government, Jenkins, 238.
- - Introduction of Capital for, with its Advantages, Jenkins, 238.
- Manure is used in, in the Cultivation of Sugar, Betel Leaf, and Tobacco, Jenkins, 237. 238.
- Quantity of Lands brought into Cultivation, by means of Cowls in, Jenkins, 240.
- Plough of-no Improvement of Husbandry Implements in, Jenkins, 237.
- European Implements of Husbandry too dear for Ryots in, Jenkins, 237.
- Indigo is not cultivated in, but the Plant grows wild, Jenkins, 238.
- the Country very poor, Jenkins, 233.
- Religion at, is the Hindoo, Jenkins, 239.
- Pindarrees overrun the Country of The Rajah of, who in turn plunders the Country himself, Jenkins, 231. 236.
- burning of Villages in, Jenkins, 235.
- wild Zemindars in, nearly independent of Government, Jenkins, 232.
- Dung burnt for Fuel in, Jenkins, 238.
- System of Slavery in, Jenkins, 239.
- Famine in, Jenkins, 241.
- State of Roads in, Jenkins, 240.
- East India Company has no Monopoly of Opium in, Jenkins, 240.
Nangasacky, the Dutch are allowed to trade with, Toone, 535.
Nankeens, Export of, has fallen off considerably, Stewart, 589.
Milne, 644.
- a Homeward Investment for Privilege Tonnage, Alsager, 710.
- of England, will soon equal those of China, Bates, 565.
- made in France, are superior to those of China, Bates, 565.
Natives have Confidence in the Government, and approve of the British Character, Christian, 71.
- of Nagpoor, are satisfied with British Government, Jenkins, 236.
- - are not satisfied with Native Government, Jenkins, 236.
- State of, under British Administration, Rickards, 422.
- their Character, Mangles, 54. 55. 59.
Smith, 76.
Fleming, 87.
East, 107. 108.
Clark, 154.
Jenkins, 232. 237.
Elphinstone, 251. 252. 265. 272.
Baber, 312. 318. 319.
R. Davidson, 387.
Strange, 403.
Harris, 455.
Alsager, 717.
- good and ill Effects of our Government on Character and Condition of, Elphinstone, 251. 252.
- their Attachment to Caste, whether affected by Intercourse with Europeans, Elphinstone, 274.
Native Princes, Mode of administering Government under, Briggs, 446.
- Assessments under, as compared with that under British, Elphinstone, 253. 254.
Natives, Religious Prejudices diminishing among educated Classes, Elphinstone, 265.
- - some more tied down by them, than others, Elphinstone, 265.
Native Christians, of India, Condition of, East, 122. 123.
- in Malabar, Mangalore, and Travancore, Warden, 183.
Native Christians, in Malabar and Canara, Number of, and from whom descended, Baber, 323.
- of Cochin and Travancore, Number of, Baber, 323.
Natives of Malabar are not converted to Christianity by Missionaries, and why, Baber, 323.
- Education of, Mangles, 51.
R. Davidson, 387. 390. 391.
- - State of it, in Bengal, Elphinstone, 251.
- - proposed Improvement in it, R. Davidson, 390. 391.
- - for Employments Difficulty of it-Means of it, Elphinstone, 266.
Native Chiefs have little Knowledge of the English Language or Habits, Briggs, 450.
Natives, have no Disposition to learn the English Language, Elphinstone, 266.
- Improvement in Condition of, Fleming, 89.
- Subjects of East India Company, general Means of Improvement of their Condition would be light Assessments - clear Laws - Education for Employment, Elphinstone, 266.
- in what Offices employed, Fleming, 87. 88.
Ricketts, 296.
- as to employing them in more responsible Offices, Rickards, 503.
- - in higher Offices, and its probable Effect in improving their Moral Character. Chaplin, 285. 287. 288.
- as well adapted as Europeans for all Offices in Point of Ability, and better from Knowledge of Language and Customs of India, Chaplin, 284.
- Exclusion of them from higher Offices of Government has a Tendency towards debasing their Moral Character, Chaplin, 290.
- to a certain Extent might be employed in Judicial, Revenue, Commercial and Political Departments, Hodgson, 379.
- Situations they might be appointed to, Chaplin, 292.
- of the Interior (not of the Presidencies), as to their Employment in higher Offices under Controul of Europeans - what Offices - with small Salaries, Chaplin, 287. 288.
Native Officers of Revenue, Number of, of different Grades, Hodgson, 368.
- Abuse of Authority by, Hodgson, 368.
Native Officers, Cases of Fraud and Corruption where Salary small, and Collector has not done his Duty, Chaplin, 288.
- employed at Salaries, whether Proportion of Hindoos and Mohamedans same as Population, Fortescue, 39. 40.
- their Jurisdiction in small Causes, East, 108.
Natives, their Integrity in Office would be secured by Increase of Salary, Smith, 80.
- Public Service of Government is the only Distinction they can attain to, Mangles, 49.
Native Judges. (See Judges, Native.)
Native Functionaries, Munsiffs, Sudder Aumeens, whether their Conduct satisfactory - how paid, Fleming, 88.
- their Integrity, how best secured, Elphinstone, 251.
- how far their Character or Condition has been improved under our Government, Elphinstone, 251. 252.
- in Nagpoor, as to their Ability, Probity, and Pay, Jenkins, 232. 237.
- decided discretionally in Judicial Cases, Hodgson, 366.
- generally Hindoos, Mangles, 55.
- acting as Judges in deciding small Causes, or as Officers attached to European Courts, how far trustworthy, East, 108.
- Natives not Sudder Aumeens at Patna, Fleming, 87. 88.
- in Bombay, Situations held by, Elphinstone, 251.
- Munsiffs, their Jurisdiction, Mangles, 59.
- employed in subordinate, Judicial, and Revenue Offices - their Character for Morality, Elphinstone, 272.
- Administration of Justice by Sudder Aumeens, if well superintended, is satisfactory, Mangles, 59.
- Sudder Aumeen, his Jurisdiction, Smith, 76.
- their Conduct, Christian, 65.
Smith, 80.
- their Characters for Ability and Probity, Mangles, 54. 55. 59.
- their Jurisdiction, and Corruption in small Causes, East, 108.
Natives of India are not entitled to Benefit of Habeas Corpus Act, Ricketts, 302.
Native Laws of Title, Inheritance and Succession, East, 127.
Clark, 150.
- Law of India, Knowledge of, how attained by Courts of Law, Rice, 143.
- Combination of Supreme Court with Sudder Adawlut, and Circuits by Supreme Court, inexpedient for the Purpose of administering Justice, Elphinstone, 265.
Natives employed in Court of Adawlut, how they perform their Duties, Smith, 80.
Native Laws, as to framing a Code for the Assistance of English Judges, Strange, 400. 401.
- Council to revise and amend existing Laws, and Observations thereon, Rickards, 428. 431 to 433.
Natives have a Wish to be admitted to a Share in the Administration of Justice, Baber, 312.
- have no Redress against Europeans if injured, except by Application to Supreme Court, or by Government instituting a Commission to inquire, Elphinstone, 268. 269.
- their Means of Redress against public Functionary more easy than against private European, Elphinstone, 269.
- prosecute Servants of East India Company for Oppression, Elphinstone, 259.
Native Courts have no learned Bar, which helps to make a learned Bench, Strange, 415.
- Lawyers referred to on Points of Native Law, by Zillah, Provincial and Sudder Adawlut Courts, Clark, 149.
Natives, to what Extent they administer Justice, and Salaries of, Mangles, 58. 59.
- in Law Courts are employed as Thannadar, Munsiffs for trying Causes, but not as Sudder Aumeens, Fleming, 87. 88.
- thought it an Advantage to have their Persons and Property subject to the Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 102. 104. 106. 110.
- how far satisfied with Administration of Justice in Bombay, Elphinstone, 250.
- of the Deccan look up to our Law Courts for an impartial Administration of Justice, Chaplin, 289.
- Officers, their Jurisdiction in small Causes-their Character, East, 188.
- many are qualified to be Judges, Rickards, 421.
- of high Rank not disposed to take the Office of Judge, and why, Elphinstone, 264.
- how far increasing Salaries of Judges would remove this Indisposition, Elphinstone, 264.
- whether their Employment as Judges would promote Administration of Justice, Elphinstone, 264.
Native Judge appointed at Seringapatam, Hodgson, 379.
Natives, Credit due to their Evidence, Smith, 76.
Fleming, 87.
- more competent to examine Indian Witnesses than Europeans, Rickards, 422.
- their Love of Litigation, East, 107.
- Habits of Oppression of Native Officers under Native Government not yet sufficiently controlled, Clark, 154.
- when in Power, are disposed to inflict severe Punishments, Clark, 154.
- are better satisfied with Judicial Decisions by Europeans than by Natives, Hodgson, 383.
- of Bengal have no Confidence in the Judicial Integrity of their Brethren, Mangles, 61.
- of Delhi are left to settle their own Disputes upon the System pursued before we went there, Fortescue, 35.
- and Europeans, Differences between, by what Court tried in the Provinces, Elphinstone, 253.
- - Two distinct Systems of Law necessary for, Elphinstone, 265.
- - Intercourse between, is confined to Visits of Ceremony, Chaplin, 289.
- - Admixture of lower Orders would diminish the Respect and Reverence Natives have for the English, Chaplin, 290.
- of Rank at Bombay, Letter from, on Jury Trials, Rickards, 422.
- whether fit to serve on Juries, Rice, 144.
Rickards, 422.
- Juries of, as to employing them under European Judges, Hodgson, 383.
Natives, Juries of, as to their Introduction in Criminal Cases, Clark, 149.
- permitted to serve on Petty Juries by Sir Edward West, Rickards, 424.
- less fitted for Jurors than Englishmen, Clark, 154.
- at Madras not anxious to serve on Juries, Clark, 154.
- at Malabar are anxious to have Trial by Jury, Baber, 312.
- some of great Wealth, chiefly Hindoos, Mangles, 51.
- of India, Incomes of, have risen since the perpetual Settlement, Mangles, 51.
Native Inhabitants of India, if they enjoyed increased Advantages, it would promote their Interests, and secure their Attachment, Chaplin, 291.
Natives, how far they live in the European Style, Mangles, 51.
- of India, higher Classes of, generally purchase British Manufactures, Mangles, 51.
- are in general indolent, and against all Improvement, Dunlop, 488.
- have a general Propensity to exercise Severity towards each other, Clark, 148. 149.
- of Malabar are the best informed and most intelligent of any in India, Baber, 312.
- - have a keen Sense of Honor and Spirit of Independence - Instance of this, Baber, 318. 319.
- - most strict Observers of Truth, Baber, 318.
- Moral Improvement of, how far to be promoted by free Settlement of Europeans, Rickards, 427.
- Advantage of Intercourse between them and Planters of Indigo, Robertson, 164.
- of India are better calculated to engage in the Manufacture of Sugar and Cotton than Indigo, Dunlop, 489.
- their Situation improved, Christian, 71. 72.
Native Population of India within the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Calcutta, State and Condition of, East, 117.
Natives emigrate into well-managed from worse-managed Districts, Elphinstone, 262.
- Benefits resulting from Intercourse between, and respectable Europeans, Robertson, 164.
- their gradual Approximation to European Habits and Fashions, Christian, 72.
- generally have no Objection to European Settlers, Hodgson, 379.
Native Peons are Police Officers, Clark, 148.
Native Treasurer, Revenue placed in Hands of, by Collector, Mangles, 48. 49.
Natives, how they employ their Savings in Calcutta, Christian, 72.
- prefer Payments in Kind to Money Payments, Hodgson, 375.
Native Seamen are less liable to Drunkenness than English, Maxfield, 614.
- their Character, as compared with British, Alsager, 717.
- Proportion of, should be small as compared to English, Maxfield, 614.
- the best are Gogorees, from the Gulph of Cambay, Maxfield, 613.
Naval Reductions in India, (See Marine, &c.)
Nayres, Warden, 179.
Neelgherry, Climate of, the finest in the World, Baber, 326.
Negapatam, Export and Import Trade from, to Tanjore, Cotton, 156. 157.
Nestorian Christians. (See Syrian Christians.) (See Cotton.)
New Orleans Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
New South Wales Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
New System introduced of Village Leases, Chaplin, 278.
- supposed Advantages of, Chaplin, 278.
- Duration of Village Leases, Chaplin, 278.
- Village Renter answerable to Government for the Revenue, and guilty of Exaction towards Ryots-have Power of Distraint over Ryots, Chaplin, 278. 279.
Nizam's, Scindia's, and The Rajah of Berar's Territories, Mode of their Governments, Elphinstone, 246.
Nizamut Adawlut, the chief Civil Court, Mangles, 48.
Northern Circars, some Districts of, permanently settled, Clark, 150.
- Indigo Manufacturers in, Hyde, 175.
Northern Circars, Revenue Settlement in, Hyde, 172. 173.
- the oldest Territory of The East India Company, ceded in 1765, Hodgson, 365.
- their Condition improved, and Hopes of future Improvement with respect to Three great Western Zemindarries, Hodgson, 374. 375.
O.
Oath, Nature of, administered to Hindoos and Mohamedans, Smith, 81. 82.
- how administered to Hindoos, Smith, 83.
(See Territorial Revenue, Revenue System, &c.)
Observations on Revenue System of India, Rickards, 500 to 504.
(See Privilege Trade.)
Officers of East India Company's Ships, Trade of, whether profitable, Toone, 533.
- Articles they trade in, how sold, Toone, 532. 533.
- Duty they pay to East India Company on Tea, in addition to Government Duty, Toone, 533.
- in what Manner they conduct their Trade, Toone, 527.
- their Agreement on Private Trade, Mills, 692.
Officers under the Presidencies, by what Rule appointed - whether by Seniority or Selection, Elphinstone, 254. 255.
Officers, Military, employed in Civil or Political Situations, Elphinstone, 255.
Offices were all sold under Nagpoor Native Government, Jenkins, 236.
Ogilvie, Mr. Master of the Mint, and Judge of the Sudder Adawlut, and Third Member of Council, Baber, 314. 318.
Old Canal, Renovation of, on the Line of the Jumna to Delhi, and its Effects in fertilizing the Soil, Fortescue, 38.
Opium, Land fit for, Robertson, 171.
- cultivated by Queries, Fleming, 92.
- Care, not Skill, required in the Cultivation of, Larkins, 29.
- Regulations under which cultivated, Swinton, 17. 20. 21. 22.
- Cultivation of, and Trade in, how regulated, Swinton, 16.
- Cultivation of, subject to Monopoly of East India Company, Fleming, 92.
- Profit at which Ryots can grow it, Swinton, 16.
- could not be grown by Ryots if Money were not advanced by East India Company, Swinton, 16.
Fleming, 92.
- Adulteration of, Swinton, 22.
Fleming, 85.
- - in 1824 and 1825 - pure in 1827, Fleming, 92.
- - Process of, Fleming, 93.
- - in Bahar Division, Fleming, 93.
- Period at which it is adulterated, Fleming, 93.
- not adulterated by Cultivator, Fleming, 92.
- Inquiry into its Deterioration and Depreciation in China Market in 1824 and 1825 - Causes thereof, Fleming, 85.
- how Advances made to the Growers of, Larkins, 28.
- not grown by East India Company, Swinton, 20.
- Price of, Swinton, 16.
- Price of, fallen Fifty per Cent., Magniac, 621.
- - raised, to encourage its Cultivation, Swinton, 16.
- - per Sier, Larkins, 28.
- - before and after the Treaty with the Malwa Princes, Swinton, 18.
- - at Canton and Calcutta, Magniac, 621.
- Price paid for it by East India Company is a Temptation to smuggle it, Robertson, 171.
- Price paid for, by East India Company to Cultivator, low as compared with Market Price, Fleming, 93.
- the whole Price of, is generally advanced by Government on its Delivery, Swinton, 17.
- Contents of a Chest of, Swinton, 19. 22.
Magniac, 620.
- Agent, Fleming, 93.
- Consumption of, in Six Months, Magniac, 620.
- smokable Properties of different sorts, Magniac, 620.
- peculiar Taste of Chinese in respect to, Fleming, 85.
- Difference in Quality of Bengal, Malwa and Turkey, Larkins, 28.
- is exported to China and the Eastern Islands, Larkins, 28.
Opium, Course of Trade in, to China, Magniac, 618.
- large Exportation of, by Americans to China, Bates, 546.
- Demand for, in China, has increased of late Years, Swinton, 16.
Magniac, 621.
- Native Merchants of Canton trade in, Bates, 552.
- is sold by the Hammer in Calcutta, Larkins, 28.
- Export of, to the Malay Islands Swinton, 22.
- consigned by Chinese for Sale, W.S.Davidson, 674.
- Trade in, to Souchon, Craufurd, 631. 632.
- Attempt to trade in, on the Coast of China, unsuccessful, Magniac, 624.
- Trade in, is not now carried on at Macao, Magniac, 621.
- Quantity imported into China and Macao in 1817-18, 1820-21, 1823-24, 1825-26, 1827-28, 1828-29, Magniac, 620.
- - into China in 1829-30. Magniac, 620.
- East India Company has no Monopoly of, in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 240.
- from Darnaum, a Portuguese Settlement, Quantity sent to China, Magniac, 620.
- Trade of Darnaum is principally in the Hands of the Parsees, Magniac, 620.
- none but the Officers of East India Company are permitted to purchase it, Swinton, 16.
- Treaties with the Princes of Malwa to enable them to participate in the Profits on, and to enable East India Company to procure it at a cheaper Rate, now given up, Swinton, 17. 18.
- Trade how likely to be affected by Abandonment of Treaties, Swinton, 19. 20.
- Treaties relative to, with what Princes formed, Swinton, 19.
- Inability of Chinese to prevent smuggling of, Magniac, 622. 625.
- is smuggled into China from Lintin, Bates, 558.
- smuggling of, owing to high Price of, Larkins, 29.
- - is now seldom resorted to, W.S.Davidson, 678.
- - to China, Failure of the Attempt, Toone, 534.
- is smuggled to a great Extent through those Countries with which The East India Company have not formed Treaties, Swinton, 18. 20.
Opium of Malwa is entirely used for smoking by Chinese, Magniac, 619. 620.
- total Price of, to East India Company, under Treaties, Swinton, 21.
- is generally 200 or 300 Dollars per Chest higher in Price than that from Bahar, Swinton, 17.
- Number of Siers in a Chest, Swinton, 22.
- is superior to Patna, Swinton, 19.
- is superior to that of Bahar and Benares, Fleming, 85.
- Patna, and Turkey, Prices of, Magniac, 619. 620.
- as to breaking up of Monopoly of, Melvill, 177.
- and Bahar, Difference in Price of, Larkins, 27. 28.
Opium, Turkish Trade in, is increasing, Magniac, 619.
- - principally in the Hands of Americans, Magniac, 621.
Opium, Turkish, Amount of, exported to China is increased, Bates, 563.
- Fluctuations in Price of, Magniac, 622.
- is inferior to Indian, Swinton, 22.
- and that of Bengal, compared, Swinton, 22.
Magniac, 619.
- Chinese have a Taste for, Fleming, 86.
Opium of Bahar is of good Quality, Robertson, 170. 171.
- Price per Chest. Swinton, 16.
Larkins, 28.
- and Benares of late Years has not maintained its Reputation, Swinton, 16. 17.
Fleming, 85.
- and Benares, Inferiority of, to that of Malwa, Fleming, 85.
Opium of Bengal, very pure, Larkins, 27.
- lowering Price of, must affect Price of Turkish Opium, Magniac, 621.
Opium of Patna, Price of, Magniac, 621.
Opium. Indian, increased Supply of, in the Eastern Islands, bought by Chinese trading thither, Craufurd, 632.
(See Interest, Revenue, Territorial Charge.)
Option of Holders of Company's Paper to receive Interest in England or India, how far acted upon, Lloyd, 7. 8. 31.
Melvill,
Ottley, Sir Richard, his Opinion of Juries in Ceylon, Rice, 144. 145.
Oude, Gangs of Decoits from, in District of Cawnpore, Robertson, 161. 162.
Outside Merchants, their Contracts for Tea are delivered through Hong Merchants, Toone, 526.
Outside Merchants at Canton, their Character and Conduct, Bates, 561.
- carry on Bullion Exportation, contrary to the Laws of China, Stewart, 583.
- borrow the Names of Hong Merchants in their Transactions with Foreigners, Stewart, 583.
- Americans trade through them, in China, Urmston, 662.
- sell Privileged Tea, Alsager, 716.
Over-Assessment of Lands in Malabar, Baber, 320.
- prevails, whether under Ryotwar, Village or Zemindarry Settlement, Hodgson, 372. 373.
- in Madras Presidency, under Zemindarry and Ryotwar Systems, Hodgson, 381.
Overlookers of Camlets to East India Company have Power of Deductions or Rejection, Shaw, 702.
P.
Palmer and Co. (of Calcutta), Failure of, Ramsay, 363.
R. Davidson, 395.
Paper, by Baber, on Salt Monopoly, sent to Court of Directors, August 1829, Baber, 333.
- on Native Foreign Trade of China, Craufurd, 629. 630.
- relative to Surveys, and Impracticability of their being carried into Effect with Accuracy, Rickards, 418.
- as to Improvement of Administration of Justice in India, East, 111 to 136.
Parental Academic Institution, Government refuse Assistance to, Ricketts, 302. 305.
Parsees, in Bombay, by what Law regulated, Rice, 143.
- more fit than other Natives to act as Jurors, and why, Rice, 144.
- the most opulent, enterprising and intelligent Inhabitants of India, Rice, 144.
- with regard to their Morality, Rice, 144.
Patna, District of, Improvement of Country in Wealth and Population, Fleming, 89.
- how Property distributed, upon Death of Proprietor, by Mohamedan and Hindoo Laws, Fleming, 89. 91.
- Opium. (See Opium.)
- District of, Use of British Cottons in, its Effects in supplanting Native Manufactures, Fleming, 90.
Paupers, their Petitions to the Supreme Court, and Proceedings thereon, East, 121.
Peaches introduced into India in 1805, Hodgson, 378.
Peishwa in the Deccan, Administration of Justice by, Chaplin, 280.
- in the Deccan, System of Farming under, Chaplin, 280.
Pekoe, a scented Black Tea, Alsager, 712.
Penang. (See Prince of Wales Island.)
Peons, Native. (See Native Peons.)
Pergunnah - a Revenue Division, Mangles, 58.
- Rate - what, - Fortescue, 42.
- is a Division of many Villages, Hodgson, 366.
- Collector, Differences between Ryot and Potail settled by, Jenkins, 229.
Perkins and Co., at Canton, have a perfect Knowledge of the Canton Trade, and have shipped most of the Teas to European Markets for Americans, Bates, 552.
- are about to close their Concern at Canton, Everett, 582.
Permanent Settlement extended to Bengal and Bahar, Mangles, 59.
- not so appropriate to State of Country as a Twenty Years Lease, Christian, 70.
- chief Defects of, Christian, 71.
- Proprietary Rights are not sufficiently ascertained under, Christian, 71.
(See Cotton.)
Pernambuco Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Persian Language, as to its Introduction in Administration of the Law, Rice, 145. 146.
- - in Courts of Presidencies, Rice, 145.
- - in Mofussil Courts, Rice, 145.
- few Hindoos understand it, Rice, 146.
Johnston, 198.
Personal, not Real Property, divided among Children, Robertson, 168. 169.
(See Jury, &c.)
Petty Jury, as to its Introduction into India, Elphinstone, 265.
Phillippine and Japan Islands, Trade of, Craufurd, 630.
Piece Goods of England have nearly supplanted those of India, Larkins, 30.
Piece Goods are made in East India Company's Factories, Ramsay, 345.
- in India, are made from Bengal Wound Silk, Ramsay, 345.
Pilgrim Taxes at Juggernaut and Gyah, Mangles, 52.
Pindarrees overrun the Country of the Rajah of Nagpoor, who in turn plunders the Country himself, Jenkins, 231. 236.
Pirates, as to Danger from, in Indian Archipelago, trading to China, Alsager, 719.
- St. Helena Schooner attacked by, and her Crew murdered, Alsager, 719.
Plough of India, Description of, Harris, 462.
- of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 237.
(See Judicial Secretary, Horse Police.)
Police, how appointed, Mangles, 58. 60.
Smith, 77.
Fleming, 86. 87.
Clark, 148.
- how organized, governed, paid - Number and Powers, Mangles, 59. 60.
Smith, 77.
Fleming, 86. 87.
Clark, 148.
Elphinstone, 246. 247.
- under Superintendence of Magistrate, Mangles, 48. 57. 59.
Fleming, 86. 87.
- taken from under Magistrates, and placed under Collector and Native Officers, Hodgson, 366.
- Regulations and Extension of Powers, East, 115.
- under Darogahs, Smith, 77.
- consist of Village Watchers - Head of Village, Tehsildar - Magistrate - Aumeens - Cutwals - Native Peons, Clark, 148.
- Conduct of, Mangles, 59.
Smith, 77.
Fleming, 86. 87.
Ramsay, 347.
- of India, is not inferior to any in the World, Mangles, 59.
- greatly improved and efficient, Mangles, 58.
- as to bringing it more under the Controul of Judicial Department, Clark, 149.
- Union of Character of Revenue Officer and Police, Inconvenience from it, Clark, 148. 149.
- how it might be improved by protecting Village Watchmen, Fleming, 88.
- Crimes diminished in Magnitude and Number by means of, Fleming, 87.
- not good for Prevention of Crimes, but for Apprehension of Offenders, Smith, 77.
- hold Lands by virtue of Office, Fleming, 87.
- their Salaries not adequate, and Consequences thereof, Mangles, 58. 59.
Smith, 77.
- Zemindars under Marquis Cornwallis's System reluctant to cooperate with, Robertson, 158.
- Diminution of Decoities of late Years by means of, Mangles, 58.
- Tannah, a Police Division, Mangles, 58. 60.
Fleming, 86.
- Tannahdar, Head Constable, Fleming, 86.
- Officer, is also a Revenue Officer, Clark, 148.
- - exercise considerable Oppression at times, Mangles, 59.
Smith, 77.
Ramsay, 347.
- System objectionable and oppressive to Natives, Rickards, 424 to 426.
- of Bombay Presidency, under what Officers, and how regulated- its Efficiency, Elphinstone, 246. 247.
- River, near Calcutta and Dacca, Mangles, 58.
- at Candeish, Sebundies what - their Number, Briggs, 438.
- Zemindar of Cawnpore had indirect Influence over, Robertson, 162.
- Officers, Number of, in Cawnpore, Robertson, 162.
- best in those Districts of Cawnpore where old Possessors of Soil remained, Robertson, 162.
- Village and Government in District of Chinglepoot-Talliary's, Hyde, 174. 175.
- under Jaghiredars, very efficient, Chaplin, 284.
- at Kisnagur, in a low State, Harris, 456.
- in the Lower Provinces, improved since 1812, Robertson, 157. 158. 161.
- in the Upper Provinces, State of, is good, Christian, 72.
- of Nagpoor, occupy Lands in right of their Offices, Jenkins, 235.
Polygars, Political Offenders transported to Prince of Wales Island, afterwards sent back, Rice, 140.
Poonah, College at, Elphinstone, 247.
Poorniah, a Native Minister of the Mysore, how Revenue collected under his Administration, Chaplin, 279.
- greater Authority given to Potails, or Heads of Villages, under, than under British Government, Chaplin, 279.
Poorniah, his System in a great measure the Ryotwar, Chaplin, 279. 280.
- his Assessment moderate, and as to comparative Improvement of the Country in his Management and ours, Chaplin, 280.
Popham Cotton. (See Cotton, Popham.)
Population, British and Native, State and Condition of, within Jurisdiction of Supreme Court in Calcutta - Paper on, by Sir E.H. East, Bart., M.P., East, 111.
- of Malabar, Baber, 324.
- under Bombay, principally Agricultural, Elphinstone, 246.
- of Agra, how composed, Christian, 68.
- of Allahabad, how composed, Christian, 68.
- of South Arcot, Hyde, 176.
- of Candeish, Briggs, 435.
- of Ceylon, mixed Nature of-no Inconvenience from it, Johnston, 215.
- - Portuguese, their Character, as depending on their Priests, Johnston, 214. 215.
- Hindoo, of Ceylon, similar in Habits and Customs to those of Southern India-have a Taste for English Manufactures, Johnston, 216.
- of Delhi, Fortescue, 34.
- - has increased greatly, Fortescue, 34. 36. 39. 43.
- of Tanjore, Cotton, 157.
- of Canara, is Agricultural, Hodgson, 370.
- of Guicowar Territory, Nature of, Rice, 146.
- of Half-castes, Number of, in Bengal, Ricketts, 298. 300.
- Hindoo and Mohamedan, their Proportion to each other, R. Davidson, 390.
- of Kisnagur, is Hindoo and Mohamedan, Harris, 456.
- of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 231.
- of Patna, Improvement in, Fleming, 89.
- of Prince of Wales Island, Rice, 137. 138. 140.
- of Upper Provinces, how composed, Christian, 68.
Port Charges at Canton, how taken, Stewart, 592.
Portuguese and Dutch, took more Pains to spread their Tastes among Natives than English have, Johnston, 216.
Portuguese Population of Ceylon, their Character, as depending on their Priests, Johnston, 214. 215.
(See Mocuddim.)
Potail was originally an elective Magistrate, Briggs, 450.
- an Hereditary Chief or Head of Village, Briggs, 439.
- by Law, has Authority over Village, Briggs, 450.
- pays Village Assessment to Government, Briggs, 446.
- as to his Means of obtaining Payment from Ryots, Check upon any Abuses by him of the Ryots, Jenkins, 229.
Potails, are Middle-men between Government and Chief Farmer of Village, Jenkins, 228.
- in case of Difference between Ryot and Potail, it is settled by Pergunnah Collector, Jenkins, 229.
- had greater Authority under Native than British Government, Chaplin, 279.
- in Nagpoor, have the Power to remove Ryots who do not pay their Rent, Jenkins, 235.
Potatoes are grown in Mysore and exported to Madras, Hodgson, 377.
Pottar, a Lease for Three Years, Robertson, 158.
R. Davidson, 386. 387.
- Tenure, Difficulty of defining, R. Davidson, 387.
Primogeniture, Right of, does not prevail in India, Fortescue, 45.
Prince of Wales Island, Recorder's Court in - its Jurisdiction - Constitution - Practitioners in, Europeans and Half-castes, Rice, 137. 138. 140.
- Charter for Recorder's Court granted in 1807, Rice, 140.
- Government of, established as a Presidency in 1805, Rice, 140.
- Court of Requests in, Rice, 142.
- Reductions in the Expences of, by East India Company, Melvill, 212.
- Population of, consists of Europeans, Chinese, Hindoos, Mohamedans, Malays, Arabs, and Chulies, Rice, 137. 138.
- - what Part European, Rice, 137. 138. 140.
- - Chinese most valuable but fluctuating, Rice, 137. 140.
- - Native, Amount of, previous to 1805, Rice, 140.
Prince of Wales Island, Place of Transportation from Bengal, Madras and Bombay - Number of Transports - how employed, Rice, 140.
Private Trade from Great Britain to India, Alsager, 710.
- from India to China is chiefly Cotton, Alsager, 710.
- Homeward is Tea, Raw Silk and Nankeen, Alsager, 710.
Private Traders could import Tea cheaper than East India Company, Mills, 692.
- their Payments more convenient to Seller than those of The East India Company, Brown, 640.
Privilege Tea, rejected, a bad Article bought from the Outside Merchant, Alsager, 711. 716.
Privilege Trade - Tonnage allowed the Commanders of East Indiamen, Alsager, 709 to 711.
- - as to Sale of, Privilege by Commander or inferior Officers, Alsager, 709. 710.
- as to taking back Bills on England, or Investment of Goods, Alsager, 712.
- Inconvenience of dealing with Outside Merchant, Alsager, 711.
- Investment taken and Business transacted without Trouble, by Howqua, Alsager, 711.
- Nankeen as Homeward Investment for, Alsager, 710.
- Silk as Homeward Investment - how far profitable, Alsager, 710.
- Tea as Homeward Investment - in what Proportion - how far profitable, Alsager, 710. 712.
- Profit on whole Voyage, how calculated, Alsager, 711.
Privileges to Persons who receive Advances for Silk Cultivation from Government, Ramsay, 347.
Produce of East Indies, Fluctuations in, Hodgson, 371.
- of Malabar. (See Malabar.)
Promotion in East India Company's freighted Service, Rules of, Alsager, 709.
Property in India, Personal, not Real, divided among Children, Robertson, 168. 169.
- as to Power of making Wills to dispose of, Robertson, 169.
- in India, divisible among Children by Hindoo Law - Effects of this System upon Condition of Population, Elphinstone, 272.
- comparative State of, in India, under Zemindars and East India Company, Rickards, 433. 434.
- in India, Manner in which it descends from one Generation to another, Fortescue, 45.
- Disposition of, in Malabar and Canara. Baber, 325.
Proprietary Rights, as existing in Malabar at one Time, and now admitted with respect to Malabar, Canara and West Coast of Peninsula, Warden, 187.
Provinces, in what Cases the Hindoo or Mohamedan Civil Law respectively followed in the, Smith, 84.
Provincial Courts, Law, as administered in, is modified by Regulations formed by The Governor General for Bengal, and The Governor and Council of Madras, Strange, 403.
- their Utility, Smith, 77.
- as to Judges of, being appointed by The King, Strange, 415. 416.
- to what Extent Europeans subject to, Smith, 78.
- defective Experience of Judges of, East, 106. 107.
- Registrar first Step in Judicial Line, East, 107.
- refer Points of Native Law to Native Lawyers, Clark, 149.
- and Zillah Courts, whether Judges qualified by Knowledge of Hindoo and Mohamedan Law, Clark, 149.
Provincial Court at Ceylon, Johnston, 188.
Prussian Blue, formerly exported from England, now is made by Chinese, Magniac, 617.
Public Service of Government is the only Distinction Natives of India can attain to, Mangles, 49.
Punchayet, Court of, at Delhi - what - how constituted, and Powers, Fortescue, 35. 42.
Punchayet, never resorted to in Criminal Cases, Jenkins, 236.
- little used in Bengal, Mangles, 59.
- how far used in Provinces under Bombay, Elphinstone, 248.
- whether referred to in Division of Patna, Fleming, 91.
- used to a great Extent in Southern Mahratta Country, Elphinstone, 248.
- - and with great Success, Chaplin, 289.
- how far Natives prepared for Jury Trials by the Use of, Johnston, 190. 218. 220.
- whether that System prevailed in Ceylon, Johnston, 218.
- consists of Five Persons, Johnston, 220.
- Jury, an improved Description of, Johnston, 220.
- in the Deccan, no set Form of proceeding in, Chaplin, 280.
- in Nagpoor, how constituted, Jenkins, 229. 230.
- used in Nagpoor in all Cases in which Natives do not object, Jenkins, 236.
- in Nagpoor, great Corruption in, and Appeal against Decision of, Jenkins, 236.
- better adapted for the Country than large Towns, Chaplin, 289.
- as to converting it into a Jury, Intermixture of Castes is an Obstacle to it, Chaplin, 289.
Baber, 322.
- is not used in East India Company's Dominions in Malabar, Baber, 311.
- Integrity of, secured by Presidency of Europeans in, Baber, 321. 322.
- Sir G. Walker's Opinion on, Baber, 321.
- used in a greater Degree from 1813 than formerly, Hodgson, 383.
- in Candeish, Mode of proceeding in, and Appeal from, Briggs, 436.
- the only Mode of administering Justice in Candeish. Briggs, 447.
Pundits, consulted on Hindoo Law, their Salaries, East, 100 to 104.
- obtain a Knowledge of Hindoo Law by diligent Inquiry, Strange, 401.
Punishments, Capital, not inflicted previous to 1802, Hodgson, 366.
- Labour out of Doors recommended instead of Confinement in Gaol, East, 227. 228.
Putney Wound Silk is used for Piece Goods, Ramsay, 345.
Putwardens, Family of, Military Chiefs under the Peishwa, Elphinstone, 253. 262.
- do not farm their Lands - always employ same Servants, Elphinstone, 262.
- Emigration of Cultivators from worse-managed Districts into the Lands of the, Elphinstone, 262.
- Family of, exempt from Jurisdiction of Provincial Courts, Chaplin, 281. 282.
- Condition of their Jaghires, Chaplin, 282.
- are all educated, Briggs, 449.
- their Lands in high State of Prosperity - Causes thereof, Elphinstone, 252. 253. 262.
Q.
Quedah, Territory attached to Prince of Wales Island, Rice, 140.
Queen of Cananoke is a great Ship Owner, Baber, 309.
Queries, a wealthy Class, Fleming, 92.
- Opium cultivated by, Fleming, 92.
- Advances of East India Company to, Fleming, 92.
Quilandy is a good Port, Baber, 310.
- Mopillas at, are the fairest of all the Mohamedans, Baber, 310.
Quinquennial Settlement with Zemindars, Christian, 67.
R.
Rajah of Berar, his Mode of Government, Elphinstone, 246.
- of Nagpoor. (See Nagpoor.)
- - Part of his Territories lately restored, Jenkins, 232.
- - decides Civil and Criminal Cases in person, and Payments for it, Jenkins, 235. 236.
- of Sattarah, has no Knowledge of the English Language, Briggs, 450.
- the Zamorine, Warden, 182. 186.
Rajahs of Myradul and Tumlook, Remuneration paid to, for Use of Salt Lands, Ramsay, 356.
- of Travancore and Cochin, Subjects of, are industrious and loyal, Baber, 323.
Ramgur, Fleming, 96.
- in South Bahar, Agricultural Slaves sold with Land, Robertson, 168.
Ramnad, Zemindarry of, Appeal to The King in Council in the Case of, Clark, 151 to 153.
Rate of Exchange. (See Exchange.)
Rates charged by East India Company for Sale of Goods imported by private Merchants, Mills, 688 to 691.
Rattan Punishment in Cases of Petty Theft, not recorded or appealed against, Hodgson, 368.
Raw Silk. (See Silk.)
Razors, Price of, at Canton, Magniac, 628.
Read, Colonel, Hodgson, 366. 367.
Real Property is not divided among Children, but Personal is, Robertson, 168. 169.
Recorder of Prince of Wales Island. (See Prince of Wales Island.)
Recorder's Court at Bombay, Establishment of Supreme Court in lieu of it has occasioned an Increase in Judicial Charges, Rice, 146.
- at Madras. (See Madras.)
- in Prince of Wales Island, bound to administer Justice to the People according to their respective Laws and Customs in Civil Cases; but in Criminal Cases to respect their Laws, but not to be governed by them, Rice. 138.
- Means of acquiring Knowledge of various Systems of Law to be administered, Rice, 138. 139. 141.
- its Decisions satisfactory to Parties, Rice, 139.
- Causes of small Amount, and Expences of, Rice, 139.
- Criminal Part most important-Number of Executions large, and why, Rice, 139.
Records regularly kept at Nagpoor, both in Civil and Criminal Cases, in the Courts under the British Government, Jenkins, 232.
Red Sea, cursory Survey of, in 1813, Maxfield, 615.
- abounds with Shoals-no good Charts of, Maxfield, 614.
- Vessels are very rarely lost in, and Time of navigating, Baber, 310.
- no Difficulty in navigating Steam Vessels on, Maxfield, 614.
- Imports from, Baber, 310.
- Articles exported to, from Malabar, Baber, 309.
Reeling Silk. (See Silk Reeling.)
Registrar, first Step in Judicial Line in Provincial Court, East, 107.
- of the Supreme Court at Calcutta, East, 97.
- of the Court of Adawlut, his Duties, Smith, 75. 76.
- of Zillah Court, his Jurisdiction, Fleming, 90.
Registry, none kept of the Records of Government of Trials or Appeals prior to 1794, Hodgson, 365.
Regulation 3d, 1793, Ricketts, 299.
- 3d of 1818, is for Confinement of State Prisoners, Ricketts, 302.
- No.1. of 1821, is for the Protection of Ryots, Rickards, 420.
- as to Suttees-prescribing Notice to, and Interposition of Magistrate-Propriety of that Regulation, East, 109.
Regulations of Government required to be registered by Supreme Court, Elphinstone, 260.
- in Bombay and Bengal respecting Offences and Punishment generally the same, with slight Difference, Robertson, 172.
- of 1802, for the Carnatic, framed upon the Principle of those of Bengal, and extended generally in 1806 Hodgson, 365.
- of East India Company have modified Severity of Mohamedan Code, Ricketts, 295.
- Code of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 248.
- except in Criminal Branch, little more than a Collection of Rules of Procedure, Elphinstone, 248.
- - in what respect they differ from those of Bengal, Elphinstone, 248.
- - Natives more employed in, and Native Prejudices more consulted, Elphinstone, 248.
(See Opium.)
- under which Opium is cultivated, Swinton, 17. 20. 21. 22.
- modifying the Mussulman and Hindoo Codes-Government are forming a kind of new Code, East, 106.
Regulations, how far they have modified the Mohamedan Criminal Law, Smith, 79.
- to guard against Corruptions of Vakeels, East, 108.
- Sudder Judge guided by, Smith, 79.
- of Port of Canton, are very strict, Bates, 564.
Religion of Half-castes, East, 105.
- at Nagpoor is the Hindoo, Jenkins, 239.
Remittance from India, Trade of, Melvill, 225.
- to England, as to increasing the Facility of, R. Davidson, 389.
- to England from China generally consists of Raw Silk, Piece Goods, Drugs and Nankeens, Magniac, 623.
- from India through China in Bills upon India, Amount of, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- from China, Want of-Tea, if permitted to be exported, likely to be a Means of, Magniac, 628.
- Mode of, from China to America, Milne, 649.
Remittances, Advantage of making Returns from India in Goods rather than Bills greater in respect to China than Indian Trade, Lloyd, 9. 11.
Melvill,
- made to India in Bullion, Bars, Dollars, Goods, and Bills of Exchange, Magniac, 623.
Rent and Tax, Words used indiscriminately, Elphinstone, 245.
- of Garden Lands are altered from Year to Year, but not Paddy or Rice Fields, Baber, 307.
- of Land in Malabar, what Proportion of, accrues to Government, Baber, 320.
- Rolls of Villages in Nagpoor corrupted, now brought back to their original Purpose, Jenkins, 231. 235.
Reservoirs or Tanks, Size of-how supplied, Hodgson, 367.
Residents at Nagpoor, Allowance to, Jenkins, 233.
Respondentia, Mode of borrowing Money on, Brown, 639.
Milne, 644.
Returns of British Merchants, Difficulty in making, from China to England, Magniac, 618.
- consist of Raw Silk, Piece Goods, Nankeens, Dollars and Bullion, Magniac, 618.
Revenue of India, realized, Melvill, 226.
(See Quinquennial Settlement.)
- how settled, for what Period, Christian, 67.
- the Gross and Net Produce of the Revenues of Bengal, Madras and Bombay combined, and the Gross and Net Charges defrayed out of those Revenues, from the Year 1823-4 to 1827-8, and as estimated for 1828-9, Melvill, 177. 199.
- in general is highly assessed, Harris, 461.
- as compared with Expenditure, between 1816 and 1822, Sherer, 15.
- its Amount, how affected by Variety of Seasons, Elphinstone, 263.
- how settled with Zemindar or Landowner, Fortescue, 37. 38.
Christian, 66. 69.
- how settled in Upper Provinces, upon conjectural Estimates of Native Revenue Officers, Christian, 66. 67.
- as to Payment of, in Money or in Kind, Briggs, 440 to 442.
- Increase of, and Causes thereof, in 1821-2, 1822-3, 1826-7 and 1827-8, Lloyd, 10. 11.
Melvill,
- settled with old Proprietors chiefly, Christian, 67.
- of Upper Provinces, in a progressive State of Improvement, Christian, 67.
(See Territorial Revenue.)
- Territorial, during what Period has Deficiency principally arisen - Heads of increased Charge - from what Causes, and whether of a permanent or temporary Character, Lloyd, 6.
Melvill,
- Proportion taken by the ancient Native Government was in Kind, Briggs, 442.
- how collected under Administration of Poorniah, a Native Minister of the Mysore, Chaplin, 279.
- in Candeish, under Native Government, were sold by Contract, as Tolls are in England, Briggs, 442.
- some Increase of, from Cultivation of Wastes, since permanent Settlement, Mangles, 52.
- Difficulty of getting any from Land brought into Cultivation since permanent Settlement, Mangles, 53.
- of Delhi, increased from Increased of Duties and improved Collection, Fortescue, 36. 40.
- of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 231. 241.
Revenue Assessments are so high as to impede the progressive Prosperity of the Country. Briggs, 442.
Revenue Assessment, Equalization of, Rickards, 502.
- in Malabar, is 30 per Cent. on Gross Produce, Baber, 307.
- in Canara, is 25 per Cent. on Gross Produce, Baber, 307.
- in Candeish, and Amount of, Briggs, 439. 440.
- calculated by Sir Thomas Munro, has never been realized, Rickards, 432. 433.
Revenue at Luckipore, not highly assessed, Harris, 461.
- Charge of collecting - Increase of it, from 1816 to 1822, from what Causes, Sherer, 15.
- placed in Hands of Native Treasurer by Collector, how collected, Mangles, 49.
- Collection of it, how far expensive-Disposition of late in East India Company to moderate it, Elphinstone, 271.
- Power of Distraints abused, Christian, 67.
- what Power old Proprietors had to obtain Payment from those under them, Christian, 67.
- Question as to preferable Mode of collecting it, by Native Officers or otherwise, Hodgson, 368.
- whether it could be raised by means of indirect Taxation, Christian, 69.
- and Judicial Branches of Service, as to their Union or Separation, Clark, 149.
Jenkins, 238.
Rickards, 430. 431.
- - in the Deccan, are now separated-as to the Expediency of their Union, Chaplin, 280. 281.
- and Administration of Justice at Madras - Departments for, separate, and Advantages of this, Clark, 147.
Hodgson, 368.
- Charges of Collection, in Lower Provinces, Christian, 69.
- - in Delhi, Fortescue, 43.
- actual Collection of, at Utramalur, in Arcot, in 1742, Briggs, 441.
- in Malabar, is collected partly from Proprietors and partly from Tenants, Baber, 307.
- - is assessed as in the Times of Hyder and Tippoo, Baber, 307.
- - Sale of Lands for Arrears of, Baber, 307. 308.
- Surplus of, in India and England, in the last Year of Lord Hastings's Administration, and in the Year before and since, Lloyd, 10.
Melvill,
- - chiefly from increased Produce of old Duties, Lloyd, 11.
Melvill,
- Duties of India, are those on Salt, Opium, Transit Duties, Sea Customs and Land, Mangles, 52.
- on Land. (See Land Revenue.)
- - Instance of Settlement made with Ryots, Mangles, 53.
- on Indigo, how levied in the Western Provinces, R. Davidson, 398.
- from Salt, could not be increased by increasing the Supply, Swinton, 23.
- Administration of India, Evils of, and proposed Remedies for, Rickards, 502.
- - Sir Thomas Munro's Opinion of, Rickards, 502.
Revenue Settlements, in different Districts, Hyde, 172.
- in South Arcot, Ryotwarry - Chingleput, Mootahdarry - Vizagapatam, and the Northern Circars Zemindarry, Hyde, 172. 173.
- Aumanie System, what - Proportion taken by Government - as distinguished from Ryotwar, Hyde, 172. 173.
- respecting Advantages of these different Modes of Settlement - Ryotwar preferable, Hyde, 173. 174.
- how Zemindars enforce Payment from the Ryots, Hyde, 173.
- Ryots, many wealthy - how far they employ Capital on Land, Hyde, 173.
- Ryotwar System, State and Conduct of Ryots under it, Hyde, 172 to 174.
- - Time taken to make it, Hyde, 174.
- Mootahdar, what, Hyde, 174.
- Mode of recovering Rent, in case Ryot failed to pay his Share, Distraint and Restraint of his Person, Chaplin, 279.
- in case of Failure of one Ryot, the Body of Ryots subject to extra Assessment for the Deficiency, Chaplin, 279.
- made in Malabar - a Ryotwar Settlement, Warden, 185.
- in Ceded Districts, on the Ryotwar System - suspended afterwards by new System of Village Leases, Chaplin, 277. 278.
- in Deccan, Chaplin, 280.
Revenue Settlements, Presidency of Madras, Cotton, 155.
- are Village, Ryotwar and Zemindarry, Cotton, 155.
- in Ceded Districts, Village Leases were given up in Five or Six Years, and Ryotwar System reverted to, with Reductions proposed by Sir Thomas Munro, Chaplin, 285.
- - Reduction of Maximum Assessment recommended by Sir Thomas Munro - since made, to what Amount, Chaplin, 285. 287.
- - Difference between Maximum Assessment, according to Survey, and Amount realized, Chaplin, 285.
- - on Ryotwar System-Proportion of Gross Produce taken by Government-if Gross Produce 100, Government Share 45, and 55 left to Cultivator, Chaplin, 279.
- - at Tanjore. (See Tanjore.)
Revenue System of India, Observations respecting its Principles and Effects, Rickards, 500 to 502.
- - produces Poverty and Ignorance in the great Mass of the People, Rickards, 419.
- - must be altered before any useful Improvement can be made, Rickards, 420.
- - Minute on, by Lord Hastings, Rickards, 420.
- System in Bombay, Imperfections of, Elphinstone, 246.
-Board of, its Duties, Christian, 68.
- Officers are also Policemen, Clark, 148.
- Officers and Police, Union of Character - Inconvenience of, Clark, 148. 149.
- Offices, passing through them a Qualification for Judicial, Smith, 83.
Rewards paid to Molungees by East India Company's Salt Agents, Ramsay, 354.
Rice, Export Trade of, to Arabia, Hodgson, 370.
Rickards, Mr., his Work shewing that the Hindoo Creed or Character are no Obstacle to Change of Habits, Johnston, 221.
- Survey under the Direction of, Rickards, 432.
(See Territorial Revenue, Revenue System, &c.)
- his Observations on the Revenue System of India, Rickards, 500 to 504.
- Letter to Lord President, Rickards, 504.
- Papers A. and B. of Analysis of Account, No.2. of the Revenue and Charges of India from 1809-10 to 1827-28, Rickards, 504.
River Police, near Calcutta and Dacca, Mangles, 58.
Roads, State of, in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 241.
Ropes, English and Indian, comparative Qualities of, Alsager, 718.
(See Sicca, Current, Halee, Sonaut.)
Rupee, Out-turn of, from India, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- Out-turn of, from India, through China, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- Average Out-turn of, remitted in Bills at the Mercantile Rate of Exchange, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- of Halee, Value of, Swinton, 18.
- Assimilation of its Value, in the Upper and Lower Provinces, to the Value of the Sonaut Rupee, would create Dissatisfaction, Christian, 69.
Russia, Woollens exported from, to China, Toone, 538. 539.
- buys Tea of the best Quality, Toone, 537.
- Tea sent to, whether from same Tea Country as supplies us, Urmston, 666.
- Teas used in. (See Tea.)
- Regulations of, diminish American Fur Trade, Bates, 548.
Russians, their Attempts to trade to China, Magniac, 622.
Urmston, 656. 657.
Russooms are Hereditary Imposts claimed by particular Families, Baber, 335.
Ryots, in what Case Proprietors, Warden, 187.
-Rights of, are difficult to be ascertained, R. Davidson, 394.
- rent Land according to the Number of Bullocks they own, Harris, 462.
-generally hold more Land than their Leases or Pottahs express, Harris, 463.
-Condition of, greatly improved lately, Harris, 461.
- from their Poverty are unable to accumulate Capital, Rickards, 419.
- State of, and Efforts made by East India Company to improve their Condition, and Impediments to it, Rickards, 420.
Ryots, their Situation, how likely to be affected by European Residents, as compared with what it is under Zemindars, R. Davidson, 393. 394.
- Judicial System is insufficient to protect, Hodgson, 381.
Rickards, 420.
- Regulation No. 1. of 1821, is for the Protection of, Rickards, 420.
- better off under Europeans than under Talookdars, Harris, 454.
- are improved in Circumstances, but not equally with Zemindar, Mangles, 51.
- not in general possessed of much Capital, Elphinstone, 272.
- in some Instances accumulate Capital, R. Davidson, 388.
- have, by Law, a Right to cultivate their Lands as they please, R. Davidson, 397.
- make Agreements with more than One Person for the Produce of the same Field, which leads to Violence and Litigation, Ramsay, 359.
- are inclined to improve in Agriculture, Harris, 455. 456.
- Instances in which they have embarked in Agricultural Speculations, R. Davidson, 388.
- do not take any Part in the Manufacture of Indigo, Harris, 454.
- holding Leases, have Advances for Cultivation of Indigo, R. Davidson, 386. 397.
Harris, 459.
- Amount of Advances to, for 36,000 Begas of Indigo, and Proportion they bear to Expences of Manufacture, Harris, 460.
- Profit to, is the Inducement to cultivate Indigo, R. Davidson, 398.
- Oppression of, by Indigo Planter, is contrary to Planter's Interest, Harris, 463.
-Condition of those who act under Indigo Planters bad, as compared with others, Ramsay, 360.
- who cultivate Indigo are better off than those engaged in other Articles of Produce, R. Davidson, 394.
- Profit at which they can grow Opium, Swinton, 16.
- could not grow Opium, if Money were not advanced by East India Company, Swinton, 16.
- as to comparative Ease and Advantage of dealing with them or Zemindars, Elphinstone, 263.
- Instance of Settlement with, in respect of Land brought into Cultivation since the permanent Settlement, Mangles, 53.
- how far they use European Manufactures, R.Davidson, 387.
- seldom purchase British Manufactures, Mangles, 51.
- will submit to extra Assessments rather than seek Redress from the Courts, Rickards, 502.
- in Nagpoor, have not the Right to the Soil, Jenkins, 234. 235.
- - Tenure of, is under Village Rent Roll, Jenkins, 235.
- - Potail has Power to remove them if they do not pay their Rent, Jenkins, 235.
Ryotwar Settlement, Hyde, 172. 173.
- in what Cases substituted for Zemindarry, Mangles, 61.
- in the Carnatic, recommended by Sir T. Munro, Hodgson, 367.
- few Instances of, and why, Mangles, 61. 63.
- Instance of, in Estate of Kishenrampore, Mangles, 61.
- Condition of Ryots improved thereby, Mangles, 61.
- whether Rent collected more easily and regularly under, Mangles, 61. 62.
- some Lands leased for Ten Years under, Clark, 150.
- Mode of, in Madras, Cotton, 155.
- its greatest Defect is the Assessment, Hodgson, 382.
- Mode of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 243. 244.
- State of Ryots under, Hyde, 172. 174.
- Proportion of Rent accruing to Government under it, Warden, 187.
- Sir T. Munro's Plan of, Hodgson, 371.
Ryotwar System reverted to in Ceded Districts, with Reduction proposed by Sir T. Munro, Chaplin, 285.
- Sir T. Munro, the Patron of, Rickards, 418.
- what, and Revenue Payments formerly, Hodgson, 366. 367.
- its Effects on Condition of Natives, and Improvement of Soil- is open to further Improvement, Hodgson, 369.
- is conducted on different Principles in almost every Province, Hodgson, 369.
Ryotwar System, no Appeal from Acts of Collectors, but to Board of Revenue, or to the Governor in Council, Hodgson, 369. 370.
- Difference of Opinion how far all the Districts under Fort St. George are suited for Ryotwar System, varying as they do in Fertility and Mode of Cultivation, Hodgson, 370. 372.
- Evil of, has arisen from unequal and oppressive Estimates of the Value of Land, Hodgson, 371.
- its Interference with Village Concerns, and individual Cultivation, Hodgson, 371.
- is calculated to discover the Resources of a Country, Hodgson, 382.
- in some Instances abandoned, and Village Leases substituted, Hodgson, 371.
- beneficial to Provinces above the Ghauts, but not to those below, Hodgson, 371. 372.
- not introduced before 1799, Hodgson, 372.
- has been abandoned in Tanjore, and Village Leases, Triennial and Quinquennial, substituted, Hodgson, 372.
- in Candeish, Briggs, 439.
- whether it has a Tendency to keep People in a degraded State, Elphinstone, 272.
- Rates not reduced till Sale of Property, Hodgson, 373.
- and Zemindarry Systems, Results of, compared, Hodgson, 380. 381.
S.
Sailors, Native, the best are Gogorees, from the Gulph of Cambay, Maxfield, 613.
- Arab, Character of, Maxfield, 613. 614.
Sails, English and Indian, compared, Alsager, 718.
Sales Of Land, for Deficiencies under Zemindarry Settlement, Regulations of-whether bought in by Government, Christian, 74.
- avoided in Upper Provinces, but in Lower the System of Sale continues, Christian, 73. 74.
- in Lower Provinces, for what Reasons, Mangles, 49. 50.
- frequent, at an early Period of the Settlement, and why, Mangles, 60.
- Proportion of, since permanent Settlement, Mangles, 59. 60.
- whether Demands of Government continue the same after Sale, with certain Exceptions, Christian, 74.
- illegally made for Payment of Balances of Revenue when accruing, Christian, 65.
- to what Causes these Abuses owing in, Christian, 65.
- Commission to inquire into Abuses of, Mangles, 50.
Christian, 65.
- Records kept of them, Mangles, 59.
- at how many Years Purchase, Mangles, 50.
- by Government, gives the best Title, Mangles, 49.
- held in Coparcenry, Mangles, 49.
- in execution of Judgments of Courts in Malabar, Baber, 307.
- in Malabar, for Arrears of Revenue, Baber, 307. 320.
Sales of Hindoo Infants Property, for necessary Subsistence, &c. East, 120.
Sales of Tea, at Canton, are in November and December, Bates, 549.
Salis, an Arbitrator, Smith, 77.
Salt of India, is superior to European, Ramsay, 355.
- is made in unhealthy Situations, Swinton, 25.
- the best made on the Coast of Coromandel, Warden, 184.
- a bad Sort manufactured in Malabar-purer in Bombay, Warden, 183. 184.
- made at Sunderbuns, Cuttack, Hidgelee, and Chittagong, Mangles, 62.
- Manufacture of, in Malabar, before Monopoly, Baber, 321.
- from Madras, is inferior to and cheaper than Calcutta Salt; Ramsay, 355.
- from Bulumber, Upper Provinces supplied with, Robertson, 163.
- imported from Madras to Bengal, Mangles, 62.
- imported to Malabar from Goa, Bombay, Cutch, Mocha, and the Gulph, Baber, 321.
- Manufactures of East India Company are on the Mouths of the Ganges and the Rivers adjoining, Ramsay, 354.
- imported from Liverpool to India, Ramsay, 353.
- Condition of Manufacturers of, Mangles, 54.
- Cost of Manufacture, Swinton, 24.
- manufactured on Advances by East India Company to Molungees, Warden, 184.
Ramsay, 354.
Salt manufactured by Molungees under an Agent of The East India Company, Swinton, 24. 25.
Ramsay, 352.
- East India Company pay Rewards to Molungees, Ramsay, 354.
- of India, is only once boiled, Ramsay, 355.
- Manufacture, as to the Unhealthiness of it, Ramsay, 358.
- - if free, Natives would make their own, Ramsay, 353.
- - may be carried on by Inhabitants of Malabar, under Penalty of a Fine and Confiscation if sold to any but Government, Baber, 333.
- Monopoly, how regulated, Warden, 179. 180.
- East India Company have the Monopoly of Manufacture and Sale of, Swinton, 24.
- second Monopoly of, is by the Persons who purchase from the East India Company, Ramsay, 357.
- Monopoly of, is a good System of indirect Taxation, Warden, 184.
- - except with a View to Revenue, advantageous to put an End to it, Warden, 184.
- - enhances the Price, Baber, 321.
- - the Cause of throwing out of a lucrative Subsistence 6,438 Manufacturers of Malabar, and Compensation paid for this very inadequate, Baber, 333.
- Manner in which it is purchased from the Manufacturers by East India Company, Baber, 333.
- Manner of measuring when purchased by Government - Sir T. Munro's Notice of its Injustice, Baber, 334.
- Monopoly of, in Bengal, Swinton, 23 to 25.
- - in what Manner conducted by East India Company's Agent, Swinton, 23. 25.
- Price of, to Consumer, Swinton, 24.
Warden, 184.
- Price of, previous to Monopoly, Warden, 184.
- - in the Interior, above Calcutta, Ramsay, 355.
- - paid for by East India Company, Ramsay, 354.
- - at East India Company's Sales is from 600 to 800 per Cent. on the Cost Price, Ramsay, 354.
- high Price paid by East India Company for that imported from Madras, is that Natives should be supplied, Ramsay, 355.
- Prejudices of Hindoos against Salt imported by Europeans, Ramsay, 356.
- Lands, Remuneration paid to the Rajahs of Tumlook and Myradul, for Use of, Ramsay, 356.
- brought to Malabar for Consumption of Malabar and Interior of Country, Warden, 184.
- purchased by Government, Warden, 184.
- imported to Malabar - Returns from Malabar for Mocha and Bombay, Warden, 185.
- is sold by East India Company at Sales every Two Months, and in what sized Lots, Ramsay, 352.
- Sales of - how regulated - by Public Competition, and Consequences of this, Mangles, 62.
Ramsay, 352.
- Loss on Sales of, from increased Price, from 1814 to 1817, Ramsay, 352.
- Sale of, increases with Population, Swinton, 25.
Mangles, 54.
- Adulteration of, would be increased by East India Company's Monopoly ceasing, Ramsay, 356.
- smuggling of - Penalty on it, Ramsay, 356.
- Demand for, has increased, Swinton, 24.
- adequate Supply of, Mangles, 53. 54.
- Supply of, increased of late Years, Swinton, 24.
- Proportion of, consumed above what manufactured by Government, Swinton, 25.
- more would be consumed by Natives if cheaper, and Revenue increased, Fleming, 86.
- to what Purposes applied by Natives, Mangles, 53.
- from the Lake of Sambre is prohibited beyond certain Limits, Ramsay, 353.
- - is subject to a Duty if imported into the Company's Provinces, Ramsay, 353.
- Payments for Salt made by East India Company on Territories of Zemindars, Ramsay, 354.
- imported into India, Duty on, Ramsay, 353.
General Heads. Names of Witnesses, and Page of Evidence in Printed Report.
Salt, Profit on the Sale of, to People, by The East India Company, and Price at which sold, Swinton, 23.24.
- Revenue from, could not be increased by increasing the Supply, Swinton, 23.
- Tax on, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 246.
- in Malabar, introduced to cover Expences of Judicial Establishment, Warden, 179.180.
- Difficulty of putting it under an Excise Duty, instead of continuing the Monopoly, Ramsay, 356.
- Agencies, Number of, Ramsay, 356.
- Quantity in a Lot of, Ramsay, 357.
- Baber's Paper on, sent to Court of Directors, August 1829, Baber, 333.
Salted Fish much used in Interior of the Country - Fisherman had Liberty of taking Sweepings of Salt Pans Tax-free, Warden, 184.
Sambre, Salt from Lake of, is prohibited being used beyond certain Limits, Ramsay, 353.
Sangor, Sea Island Cotton grown in, Craufurd, 519.
Santu Cotton. (See Cotton.)
Sayer Duties, what, Mangles, 52.
Satala, Rajah of, exempt from Jurisdiction of Provincial Courts, Chaplin, 281. 282.
Sattarah, Surplus Average Profit of Land in, for Three Years, and Government Demand on that Land, per Bega, Briggs, 445.
- as now managed, may be deemed a good Specimen of a Native Government, both in Judicial and Revenue Administration, Briggs, 416.
- Mode in which annual Assessment is fixed in, Briggs, 446.
- Schoolmasters sent from the College at Bombay to The Rajah of, Briggs, 448.
- Waste Lands in, are claimed by Government, Briggs, 449.
- Rajah of, has no Knowledge of English, Briggs, 450.
- Punchayet, the only Mode of administering Justice in, Briggs, 447.
- Revenue in, always paid in Money, Briggs, 447.
Scavage Dues of City of London are payable by Americans on Export of British Manufactures, not direct to United States, Bates, 551. 553.
Schoolmasters sent to The Rajah of Sattarah, from the College at Bombay, Briggs, 448.
Schools at Calcutta, for Education of Half-castes, and Number educated in, Ricketts, 301. 302.
- established at Cotym in Travancore, Baber, 323.
- are established in Candeish and the Deccan, Briggs, 448.
Scindia, his Mode of Government, Elphinstone, 246.
Scotch Plaid, made at Norwich, Demand for, on account of American Trade, Shaw, 707.
Sea Customs, upon what System regulated, Elphinstone, 267.
- Proportion they bear to Transit Duties at Bombay, Elphinstone, 267.
- Transit Duties, Stamps, Tax on Spirits, and Town Duties in Bombay, either farmed or collected, Elphinstone, 245.
Sea and Land Customs of Bengal, Swinton, 25.
Sea Island Cotton and Seed. (See Cotton, Sea Island.)
- Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Seamen, British and Chinese, Quarrels between, Toone, 533. 534.
- American and Chinese, Quarrels between, Toone, 535.
Sebundies are Police Officers in Candeish, Briggs, 439.
Secretary. (See Territorial, Judicial.)
Security given by Hong Merchant for Conduct of Crews of Ships arriving at Canton, Urmston, 662.
- Modes and comparative Facility of finding their Security by East India Company's, American and Country Ships, Urmston, 662. 663.
Seniority Service as distinguished from Freighted Service, Rules of Promotion in, Alsager, 709.
Seringapatam is a dry Grain Country, Hodgson, 366.
- Cultivation of Silk and Mulberry in, Baber, 342.
(See East India Company's Servants.)
Servants in India, lowest Rate of Wages of, Fleming, 94.
Servants of East India Company, prosecuted for Oppression of Natives, Elphinstone, 259.
- - Conduct of, to Native Gentry is extremely courteous and civil, Chaplin, 289.
Settlement, Permanent, extended to Bengal and Bahar, Mangles, 59.
- at Tanjore. (See Tanjore.)
Settlements of Lands in Government of Madras, new System adopted in 1814, Clark, 150.
- some Districts permanently settled called the Northern Circars, Clark, 150.
- some leased for Ten Years, and some on the Ryotwar System, Clark, 150.
- Mootah Districts, of which Revenues were sold to Nativeshow far controlled by Board of Revenue, Clark, 150.
- in Government of Bombay, Elphinstone, 243. 244.
Seyawul, a Revenue Officer, Mangles, 62.
Shawls, Imitation, some Natives wear them, Christian, 71. 72 & 74.
- some sent to China lately made at Glasgow and Norwich, Shaw, 707.
"Sheriff and Juryman," Translation of, Johnston, 196.
Sheriffs, as to Appointment of, the same as in England, East, 133.
Shiccapore, Baber, 309.
Shipments of British Manufactured Goods purchased by C. Everett for the China Trade on American Account from 1818 to 1829, and Supplement by Bates to 1830, Everett, 567 to 571.
- Increase of Profit on, Brown, 641.
Ships, large and small, comparative Advantage of, in Tea Trade, Toone, 533. 537. 538.
Bates 553.
W.S.Davidson, 679. 680.
- - in China Trade, Maxfield, 602.
- small, trade between Macao and Manilla, by whom owned, and with what laden, Toone, 534.
- of 450 Tons, great Improvement in Construction of, Bates, 554.
- Insurance on, Out and Home, Bates, 554.
- British, not navigated so cheap as Americans, Bates, 554.
- large and small, Duties upon, at Canton, Alsager, 714.
- - Amount and Difference of Freight, Alsager, 715.
- - comparative Advantages for China Trade, Alsager, 715. 716.
- - comparative Advantages of, in the Shipment of Tea, Alsager, 715. 716.
- British, bad Construction of, for Tonnage, in respect to Bulk, Bates, 557.
- English, are dearer than American, Bates, 558.
- - can carry on Trade between South America and China, Magniac, 625.
- - and American, their Qualities compared, and best Form for Sailing - Measurement of, Bates, 562.
- Expence of building, in Bombay, is the same as in Europe, Stewart, 592.
- Size of, best adapted for Country Trade, Stewart, 592.
- - built for Canton Trade, Stewart, 592. 593.
- - in respect to the Conveyance of Teas, Stewart, 593.
- of 600 or 700 Tons would be built if Free Trade established, (See East India Company.) Stewart, 594.
- of East India Company, remain longer at Canton than those of Private Traders, Stewart, 593.
- - in China Trade, Number of Men, Guns, Tonnage, and Efficiency of, Maxfield, 601. 602.
- in the East, measured as in England, Stewart, 594.
Shotton and Co. Europeans of Bombay, held Contracts of Tobacco, Goa Salt, and Rice, Baber, 334.
Shrofs or Money Lenders of Canton, expert in their Business, W.S.Davidson, 675.
Siam, Mode of cultivating Cotton in, Craufurd, 516.
Sibundee, a Militia Force of Nagpoor, Jenkins, 234.
(See Rupee.)
Sicca Rupee and Current Rupee, Value of, Lloyd, 5. 7.
Melvill,
Sier of Opium is 2lbs. Swinton, 23.
Silk originally came from China, Wilson, 410.
- is grown in nearly the whole of Bengal Proper, Ramsay, 347.
- is succeeding well at Dharwar, in Southern Mahratta, Baber, 340.
- large Quantities made at Bauleah with Advances, Ramsay, 347.
Silk not grown in the Deccan, Chaplin, 292.
- of Jungypore is the best in the East Indies, Ramsay, 350.
- its constituent Principles are all the same, from whatever Worm produced, Wilson, 411.
- Difference of Quality is owing to Mode of Culture and Difference of Manufacture, Wilson, 411.
- Quantity of, depends upon the Food, and not the Worm, Durant, 470.
- and Mulberry, Cultivation of, in Seringapatam, Baber, 342.
- moderately warm Climate is most favourable to Production of, Durant, 468.
- Growth of, is voluntary, and has increased, Ramsay, 349.
- Cultivation of, does not require much Capital, Baber, 340.
- Produce of, might be increased by a greater Application of Capital, Elphinstone, 268.
- of Native Manufacture, called Kincobs, Chaplin, 286.
- Private Adventurers in, Ramsay, 351.
- Manufactures of, by Natives, impossible, for Want of Capital, Ramsay, 346.
- Manufactures belonging to Europeans, Ramsay, 345.
- Cultivation of, by Advances from Government-and without such Advances, Ramsay, 347.
- Bengal and Putney Wound, is used for Piece Goods, Ramsay, 345.
- Staple of, what, Wilson, 412.
- Change in Mode of taking the Duty on, Ramsay, 350.
- reeled by Natives, in Italian Mode, Ramsay, 351.
- Factories use Italian Silk Worm, Ramsay, 346.
- Reeling of, if more Attention paid to, it would fetch a higher Price, Durant, 468.
- - Machinery not good for, Durant, 466.
- - Mode of, in Italy, Wilson, 412.
- - Improvement in, by Gibson's Machinery, which is used in Italy and France, Wilson, 412. 413.
- Reelers, Native, do not adopt the Advantages of the European System of reeling, Durant, 467.
- Manufactures, many Europeans conversant with, living among the Natives of Bauleah, and Effects of this on Silk Cultivation, Ramsay, 350.
- manufactured in England is used in India, which displaces Native Silk manufactured at Boorhanpoor and Mongapytun, Chaplin, 287.
- Goods exported from China by Americans for European Consumption, Stewart, 589.
- Manufactures imported into America from China and from and thence to England, Amount of, and how far profitable, Bates, 545.
- Crossing Machine, Mr. Touchet's Opinion of, Wilson, 412.
- Price of, has been rising since 1804, Ramsay, 350.
- - is not a Proof of Quality, Wilson, 410.
- - at which East India Company have purchased and sold, Ramsay, 348.
- - at East India Company's Factories, regulates the Prices of the Day, Ramsay, 347.
- - Quality of, cannot be improved without enhancing the Price, Wilson, 411. 412.
- - reeled, is fixed while it is reeling, Ramsay, 349.
Silk Trade is likely to be a good Speculation, Baber, 342.
- many Natives employed in, have large Capitals, Ramsay, 351.
Silk, Charges of bringing it to London, Ramsay, 348.
- Ramsay's losing Speculation by, Ramsay, 348.
- Quantity imported, and what Proportion of the best Quality and Prices, Durant, 465.
- large Importation of, at an inferior Price, is of great Importance to England, with the Continental Competition, Durant, 470.
- as Homeward Investment for Privilege Tonnage, how far profitable, Alsager, 710.
- of Foreign Manufacture is confined to Silk the Produce of France and Italy, Durant, 471.
Silk Manufactures, Number of, under East India Company, Ramsay, 345.
Silk, wound by East India Company, is all sent to Europe in a Raw State, Ramsay, 345.
- Price at which East India Company have purchased and sold, Ramsay, 348.
- brought to this Country by East India Company is superior to Silk brought by private Individuals, Durant, 466.
- exported by East India Company is of superior Quality to that sold by Individuals, Ramsay, 348. 349.
- of East India Company is much improved in Quality, Larkins, 30.
Ramsay, 350.
- Quantity of, imported annually by East India Company, Durant, 467. 468.
- State in which it is received by East India Company, Ramsay, 349.
- Per-centage on, at East India Company's Sales, Alsager, 716.
- Indian, has not improved of late Years, and why, Durant, 466.
- of Bengal, Average Price of, at East India Company's Sales, Durant, 466.
- of Bengal, will not make Velvet, Durant, 469.
- - the best nearly equal in Price to the best Italian, Durant, 469.
- - is more used with other Articles than the Silk of other Countries, Durant, 471.
Silk, China, Quality of, as compared with Indian and Italian, and Prices of, Wilson, 413.
- more equal than Bengal, Durant, 469.
- Italian and Indian are generally used together, Durant, 469.
- Quantity imported in 1829, and by whom, and Prices of, Durant, 470.
- East India Company have given up the Importation of, some Years, Durant, 470.
Silk Cocoones, Weight of, as compared with Weight of Silk, Ramsay, 349.
- Annual, Wilson, 406.
- Decey, Wilson, 406.
- of China and Madras are inferior to the Decey Cocoone, Wilson, 407.
- are too bulky to be brought to England to be reeled, Durant, 470.
Silk Filatures, in India, established by Europeans, have mostly been given up, not being able to compete with East India Company, Durant, 467.
Silk of France, Italy, Spain, Bengal, or China, if accurately reeled, will all obtain high Prices, Durant, 470.
- of Gonateer, Wilson, 410.
Durant, 465.
- of Gonateer and Comocolly are the best in Bombay, Durant, 465.
Silk, Indian, Quality of, is much deteriorated in last Forty Years, Wilson, 405. 410.
- has not improved of late Years, Wilson, 405.
- Mode in which it is produced, Wilson, 406.
- Manufacture of, more defective than its Quality, Wilson, 406. 412.
- Articles manufactured with, bear a lower Price than if made of Italian, Wilson, 406.
- good and bad, from every District of India Wilson, 406.
- and Italian, are used in most Articles except Ribbands, Wilson, 406.
- Letter on, by Mr. Atkinson of Jungapoor in 1796, Wilson, 406.
- and China, will enable England to compete with other Countries, Wilson, 412.
- inferior, is displaced by Silk from Brusa, Wilson, 412.
- if Attention paid to Breed of Silk Worms, Food and Reeling, would be equal to Italian, Ramsay, 346.
Wilson, 411. 413.
- defective in Staple and Cleanness - best Properties of Silk are Cleanness, Evenness, Staple and Quality, Ramsay, 351.
Wilson, 406. 411.
Silk, Italian, Durant, 466.
Silk, Italian and Bengal, compared, and Price each bears in the Market, Durant, 465.
Silk, Italian and Indian, are used in most Articles, except Ribbands, Wilson, 406.
Silk, Italian, is sealed in the Filature, and not opened 'till it gets to the Mill, Wilson, 412.
- is improving, Wilson, 414.
Silk, Raw, is not reeled in this Country, Wilson, 413.
- imported into America from China, and from thence to England, Amount of, how far profitable, Bates, 545.
- is not an Article of much Importance, Stewart, 589.
Silk Worm Owners never wind Silk, Ramsay, 346. 347.
- of India, Number of Harvests from, Ramsay, 346.
- Annual, originally brought from the Borders of China, Wilson, 406.
- - degenerated, and Causes of, Wilson, 406. 407.
Silk Worms belong to one Person, and Mulberry Trees to another, Ramsay, 345.
- Upper Provinces of Bengal too hot for, Ramsay, 347.
- Italian and Indian, their Qualities compared, Ramsay, 346.
- Silk from Italian, deteriorated, Ramsay, 346.
- Number of Harvests from Italian, Ramsay, 346.
- degenerate, owing to Carelessness and improper Management, Wilson, 407.
- of China, their Superiority over the Decey, Wilson, 407.
- of Decey, crossed by China and Madrassie Worm, Wilson, 407.
- should be kept only in whole some Situations, and be well fed, Wilson, 408.
- Eggs, called Lunch, as to Breeding-houses for, Wilson, 409.
- the best are produced from the Southern Provinces of China, Wilson, 409.
- are all kept within Doors in India, Wilson, 410.
- if removed from one Country to another, the Silk will partake of the Climate, Durant, 470.
Silver, Annual Export of, from China to Bombay and Calcutta, for Goods, Toone, 531.
- Export of, from China, is prohibited, Magniac, 626.
- Coin, how far received by Weight or Tale in China, W.S.Davidson, 674. 675.
- Sycee. (See Sycee Silver.)
Sind, Returns from, are Cotton Pieces and Specie, Baber, 310.
Singapore and Malacca annexed to Prince of Wales Island, and Jurisdiction of Recorder's Court made co-extensive, Rice, 141.
Singapore, Americans are not allowed to trade with, Bates, 558.
- Reductions at, by East India Company, Melvill, 212.
- Trade to, how carried on, Bates, 559.
- British Manufactures might be advantageously sent to, for China Market, Stewart, 587.
- Charge of transhipping Goods at, not great, Craufurd, 634.
- Trade of, in Camlets; is increasing, Shaw, 705.
- is a Depôt for Produce of Eastern Islands, Toone, 531.
Sirdars, Officers of Justice in the Deccan, Chaplin, 280.
Sir-Subahdars, Officers of Justice in the Deccan, Chaplin, 280.
Skinner, Colonel, a Half-caste, Mangles, 55. 56.
Ricketts, 297.
Slavery in Cawnpore, Domestic, mildest Species of Servitude, Robertson, 166 to 168.
- Species of, in South Bahar, in Arracan, and Ava, where a Man mortgages his Labour for a Sum of Money, Robertson, 166 to 168.
- in Ceylon, Domestic, also Slavecastes, like Slaves of the Glebe in Russia - Regulation for making Children of Domestic Slaves born after 12th August 1816 free adopted voluntarily by Masters who were on List of Jurymen, Johnston, 197.213. 220. 221.
- Species of, in Malabar and Canara, Warden, 180.
- Character of, in Malabar Baber, 327. 328.
- in Canara, Coong, Wynand, Cochin and Travancore, and Number of Slaves - fabulous History of its Origin, Baber, 328. 329.
- modified Species of, in District of Patna, Fleming, 94. 95. 96.
- System of, in Nagpoor, Jenkins, 239.
- in the Deccan, exists in a modified Degree, Chaplin, 293.
- in Brazil, Carruthers, 484.
Slaves, in India, do not work so hard as Slaves do in America, Dunlop, 488.
- in District of Cawnpore, as to their Sale - Possession of Property - and Condition, Robertson, 166 to 169.
- are Personal Property, Robertson, 168.
- Emancipation of, Robertson, 166. 167.
- Children of, are Slaves, Robertson, 168.
- it is reckoned disreputable to sell them, Robertson, 168.
- Punishment of, by Masters, Robertson, 167.
Slaves, Domestic, their State on Death of Master without Heirs, Robertson, 168.
- Regulations respecting -Import and Export of, Robertson, 167. 169.
- Evidence of, by Mohamedan Law, Fleming, 96.
- State and Condition of, in South Arcot - not sold except with the Lands - Number of Slaves - well treated by Masters - their Children Slaves - cannot possess Property, Hyde, 175. 176.
- of the Soil, not Domestic, in Malabar and Canara, Warden, 180.
- pass with the Soil, and if Soil overstocked, sold, mortgaged, or let out on Rent, Warden, 180. 181.
- protected by Law, but before British Government Rajahs had Power of Life and Death over, Warden, 180.
- how far their Evidence received, and of Credit in Court of Justice, Warden, 180. 181.
- in Malabar, their Attachment to their Masters, Warden, 181.
- as to Obligation of Master to support them, and how enforced, Warden, 181.
- comparative Value of Male and Female Slaves according to the Prevalence, or not, of Marriage in the Sect to which the Slave belongs, Warden, 181.
- in case of Infirmity supported by Children - strong Attachment between Parent and Offspring amongst, Warden, 181.
- how far capable of possessing Property, and Instances of their so doing, Warden, 182.
- how far punishable by their Master, Warden, 182.
- the Proportion they bear to the whole Population of Malabar, Warden, 182.
- principally employed in Rice Lands, Warden, 183.
- a Class of them supposed to be versed in Sorcery, Warden, 183.
- on Coast of Malabar are not permitted to hold Lands, Baber, 318.
- in Malabar, are bought and sold like Cattle, Baber, 328.
- - are in a most wretched and degraded State, and Dress of, Baber, 328.
- - Experiment of emancipating, Baber, 323.
- - none now imported to Malabar, Baber, 328.
- Instance of some kidnapped from Travancore and Cochin by a Native-born Subject, Baber, 328.
- are better treated in Canara than in Malabar, Baber, 329.
- in Brazil, Carruthers, 484.
Smuggling of Opium is carried on to a great Extent through those Countries with which The East India Company have not formed Treaties, Swinton, 18. 20,
- of Opium, is owing to high Price, Larkins, 29.
- - to China, Attempt failed, Toone, 534.
- of Salt, Penalty on, Ramsay, 356.
- of Tobacco, Baber, 331.
- - Memorial on, Baber, 331.
- is carried on to a great Extent in China, Toone, 537.
Society, State of, in India, how it might be improved by employing Natives in Administration of Government, Rickards, 419.
Sonaut Rupee, Christian, 69.
South Arcot, Population of, Hyde, 176.
- State of Slavery in, Hyde, 175. 176.
Southern Carnatic, Waste Lands in, belonging to Village Communities, Briggs, 449.
- Mahratta Countries, State of - Part in Hands of Government - Part in Hands of Jaghiredars, Elphinstone, 253.
- - as to Separation of Revenue and Judicial Functions in, Elphinstone, 253.
- - Jaghiredars, the Relation they stand in to Government - State of - their Lands, Elphinstone, 253.
Spanish striped Cloth, Demand for, in China, decreasing-Market for, overstocked, Urmston, 664. 665.
- Dollars, generally shipped to China by Americans, Milne, 643.
(See Juries.)
Special Juries only in the King's Courts at the Presidencies, Rickards, 425.
Specie, Monopoly of East India Company, its Effects on Export and Import of, Bates, 563.
Speeches of Dwarkanauth Tagore and Rammohun Roy at Calcutta, on the unrestrained Application of British Capital, Skill and Industry in India, Rickards, 503.
*****St. Helena, Expences of, Lloyd, 5.
Melvill,
- Reductions at, Melvill, 212.
Stamps in Bombay, Elphinstone, 245.
Statement, shewing the Value of Long Cloths, Camlets and Broad Cloths, and Prices of, from 1820 to 1830, Everett, 571. 572.
- of the Quantity and Value of each Description of British Manufactured Goods purchased by C. Everett, for the China Trade, from 1818 to 1828, Everett, 575.
- of the Names, Number and Tonnage of all Ships chartered by East India Company, Owners Names, and Number of Voyages engaged for, Maxfield, 605. 606.
- of Merchandize shipped by Brown and Co. of Liverpool to China, from 1821 to 1829, Brown, 637.
- of Cost Price of Samples of Foreign Tea, Kelly, 509.
- of British Manufactured Goods purchased by C. Everett, for the China Trade, on American Account, from 1818 to 1829, and Supplement by Bates to 1830, Everett, 567 to 571.
- of T. H. Baber, Esq. in respect to Jury Trials, Baber, 317. 318.
Statute Law of England, how far it applies to India, Smith, 78. 79.
East, 100. 111.
Rice, 143.
Statutes relative to India, East, 112.
Stealing from the Person, and other Offences, by Act 9 G. IV. which has assimilated the Criminal Statute Law of India to Criminal Law of England, East, 227.
Steel or Cutlery not imported lately into China, Craufurd, 634.
Stoppage of Trade, by Factory, in 1814 and 1821, W.S.Davidson, 669. 670.
- in 1821, in Affair of Topaz Frigate, W.S.Davidson, 669.
Strange, Sir Thomas, Letter from, to Lord Wynford, on Judges of Native Courts, Strange, 415.
Strawberries first introduced into Bangalore in 1805, Hodgson, 378.
Subahdar at Nagpoor, Jenkins, 230.
Subsidies collected from Native Princes, -high Charges on, accounted for, Lloyd, 11.
Melvill,
Sudder Adawlut. (See Court of Sudder Adawlut.)
Sudder Aumeens, their Jurisdiction and Salaries, Mangles, 58. 59.
Smith, 76.
- their Characters, East, 108.
- whether their Conduct satisfactory-how paid, Fleming, 88.
- Administration of Justice by, satisfactory if well superintended, Mangles, 59.
- Causes referred to them for Trial, Fleming, 88.
- try Cases in which Real Property is concerned, such as Land and Houses, Fleming, 88.
- many Appeals from, and why, Fleming, 88.
Sudder Courts, Forms of proceeding in, simple, and chief Object of Regulations, Smith, 83.
Sudder Dewanny, the chief Criminal Court, Mangles, 48.
Sugar, Cultivation of, is free, Chaplin, 293.
- Cane Plantation, Assessment on, is higher than on other Land, Chaplin, 293.
- cannot be cultivated without Irrigation, Chaplin, 293.
- grown in Gardens, not Production of Country, Warden, 185.
- Cultivation of, in Malabar and Mangalore, abandoned, Baber, 343.
- - has not been fairly tried, for Want of Power to hold Lands, R.Davidson, 390.
- grown to great Extent in Cawnpore, Robertson, 165.
- West Indian Machinery not so efficient as Native Machinery in Manufacture of, Robertson, 165.
- cultivated in the Deccan, Chaplin, 283. 284.
- Cultivation of, might be improved without the Aid of Machinery, Dunlop, 489.
- Indian, cultivated at less Expence than West Indian - and why not exported to the open Markets of Europe, Chaplin, 286.
Sugar, Quality of, improved, and Revenue increased by Employment of Machinery, Chaplin, 292.
- cultivated in Deccan, and might be so wherever there are Means of Irrigation, Chaplin, 283.
- as to the Probability of an Improvement in the Cultivation and Quality of, either through Europeans or Natives, in case of an increased Demand, Chaplin, 284. 285.
- Silk and Cotton, Produce of, might be increased by a greater Application of Capital, Elphinstone, 268.
- Growth of, in India, would improve Resources of Country, Chaplin, 290.
Sunderbun Forest, as to probable Improvement of Land in the Neighbourhood of, Mangles, 52. 53.
- Quality of Land in, Mangles, 62.
- Salt made at, Mangles, 62.
Supercargoes, their Powers in China over British Ships and Subjects, Stewart, 596.
- Two, on board American Ships in India and China Trade, and Pay of, Milne, 643.
Supreme Court, Relation between, and the Government, should be defined in some Particulars, Elphinstone, 259.
- how far Governor subject to Jurisdiction of, and whether he should not be exempted from that Jurisdiction to a greater Extent than he is at present, Elphinstone, 259.
- considers itself as representing The King, and that the Governor does not, Elphinstone, 259.
- takes Cognizance of Case of a Native resisting Demand of Collector, Elphinstone, 260.
- the only Court in which Natives can seek Redress against Europeans, Elphinstone, 268. 269.
Supreme Courts in India, as to uniting the Judges of, with those of Sudder Adawlut, Johnston, 189.
Supreme Court at Bombay. (See Bombay Supreme Court.)
Supreme Court at Calcutta, Constitution of, East, 97.
- Registrar of, East, 97.
- Master in Equity of, East, 97.
- Number of Advocates practising in, East, 97 to 99.
- Number of Attornies - some Half-castes, East, 99. 100.
- Increase of Business in, from 1813 to 1822, East, 99.
- Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction of, East, 100.
- Jurisdiction of, within Mahratta Ditch, or Limits of Calcutta, East, 100.
- Laws of England, Common and Statute Law, when and how far extended to India, East, 100.
- Succession, Inheritance and Contract, Native Laws relating to, applied to Native Population, and they did not wish them changed, but would prefer Administration of them by our Courts, East, 100. 104.
- Jurisdiction of, beyond Calcutta, East, 103.
- within the Presidency of Bengal, extended to all British-born Subjects and Natives in Service of Company, East, 101.
- how far it has Appellate Jurisdiction from Provincial Courts, East, 101.
- Appeal to, from Magistrates, in Cases where British Subjects Parties, East, 101.
- how far Natives were satisfied with Administration of Justice by, East, 101. 102.
- Equity Jurisdiction exercised by, over Native Property locally situated beyond the Limits of Calcutta belonging to Natives resident within Calcutta as incident to the Jurisdiction over their Persons, East, 101 to 104. 108.
- Hindoos thought it an Advantage to have their Persons and Property subject to, East, 102. 104.
- no Arrears in, East, 103.
- Expences of Proceedings in, East, 103.
- how they might be diminished, East, 103.
- had regular Terms and Sessions, East, 107.
- great Expence of Suits in - Causes thereof, East, 107.
- Fees and Charges high in great Causes-reasonable in common Causes, East, 107.
Supreme Court at Calcutta, voluntary Submission to its Jurisdiction of Parties not subject to it personally - rarely resorted to under the Act for that Purpose, Smith, 81. 82.
- Sir E. H. East's Paper on the Laws and Usages of, with Hints for ameliorating them, East, 111 to 126.
Supreme Court at Ceylon, Johnston, 188.
- its Jurisdiction, extended through ancient British Possessions, not to Candian Territory, Johnston, 220.
Supreme Court at Madras. (See Madras Supreme Court.)
Supreme Government and Inferior Presidencies, whether Relation between them could be advantageously altered, Elphinstone, 259.
(See Cotton.)
Surat Cotton is superior to Bengal, R. Davidson, 397.
- Letter on Cultivation of, Craufurd, 513.
- Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Surplus Profits of East India Company, applied to Territorial Purposes, Lloyd, 6.
Melvill,
Surplus Revenue in India and England, in the last Year of Lord Hasting's Administration and the Year before, Lloyd, 10.
Melvill,
Survey of India is going on, Christian, 71.
Survey, with a View to a new System of Leases, Elphinstone, 263.
- Classification, and Assessment, made by Sir T. Munro, of Ceded Districts, Chaplin, 277.
Rickards, 432.
- by whom and how made, Chaplin, 277.
- in Guzzerat and in the Deccan, in what Manner made, Elphinstone, 244.
- under Sir T. Munro, embraced waste Lands as well as cultivated, Chaplin, 278.
Surveys, made with a View to equalizing the Land Tax of India, are a complete Failure, Rickards, 417.
- are made by Native Officers - these are followed by the Assessors, who fix the Rate, Rickards, 417.
- exact, Difficulty of attempting, Rickards, 417.
- Object of, is to ascertain the Gross Produce, Rickards, 418.
- Paper relative to, shewing the Impracticability of their being carried into Effect, Rickards, 418.
- under Direction of Mr. Rickards, Rickards, 432.
Sutherland, Mr. his Translation of original Treatises of Adoption, Strange, 401.
Suttees, comparative Prevalence of Practice at different Places, Fleming, 95.
East, 109.
- more frequent in Neighbourhood of Presidencies than in the Interior of the Country, and why, East, 109.
- their Frequency promoted by Opposition of Missionaries, East, 109.
- Regulation prescribing Notice to, and Interposition of Magistrates as to Propriety of that Regulation, East, 109.
- whether Practice of, might be got rid of, and how, East, 109.
- Opinion of enlightened Natives respecting, East, 109.
- the Practice of it not common in District of Tirhoot, Fleming, 94.
- more frequent in South of Ganges than North, Fleming, 94. 95.
- little Danger in prohibiting the Practice, Fleming, 95.
- how it might be put down, Fleming, 95.
- Interference of Brahmin with, Fleming, 95.
- Interference of Officers of Government in, Fleming, 96.
- in Malabar, Baber, 324. 325.
- Natives of Malabar support Government in suppressing, and Instances of, Baber, 325.
- in Southern Mahratta States, is by burning and burying alive, Baber, 325.
Swedes and Danes trade to China, Urmston, 664.
Sycee Silver, W.S.Davidson, 674.
- how obtained, W.S.Davidson, 675.
- Purity of, as compared with Dollars, W.S.Davidson, 675.
Syrian Christians are an orderly and well-regulated Race, Baber, 323.
- Number of, and Reform of their Church, Baber, 323.
T.
Tale, real and nominal Value of, Toone, 538.
Tale and Dollars, their proportionate Value, Toone, 508. 509.
Talliard, what, Hyde, 175.
Tamul is the Language of Hindoos in the Peninsula and Ceylon, Johnston, 198.
Tanjore, Property there of the same Nature as in Malabar, Cotton, 156.
- Revenue Settlement in, and Increase of Revenue under, Cotton, 155. 166.
- - Proportion of Charges on, to Gross Collection, Cotton, 156.
- Ryotwar System has been abandoned in, and Village Leases, Triennial or Quinquennial, substituted, Hodgson, 372.
- Inhabitants of, on being consulted, gave the Preference to Village Leases instead of Ryotwar Settlement, Hodgson, 375.
- Manufactures of Silk and Cotton there, Cotton, 156.
- Trade in Cloth fallen off, from Supply of British Goods, Cotton, 157.
- Population of, Cotton, 157.
- Export and Import Trade to Atcheen and Bengal, and from Nagoa and Negapatam, Cotton, 156. 157.
(See Irrigation.)
Tanks or Reservoirs, Size of, and how supplied, Hodgson, 367.
Tannah, a Police Division, Mangles, 58.
Fleming, 86. 87.
Tannahdar, a Head Constable, not hereditary, Fleming, 86. 87. 88.
Tax on Spirits in Bombay, Elphinstone, 245.
(See Toddy.)
- on Toddy, Rickards, 423.
- on Wheels, Rickards, 423.
Tax and Rent, Words used indiscriminately, Elphinstone, 245.
Taxation, indirect, whether a Means of raising Revenue of India, Christian, 69.
- in Malabar, causes great Distress, Baber, 319.
Tea, Black and Green, is produced from the same Plant, Toone, 542.
Tea Plant, where grown in China, and Demand for, Toone, 532.
- requires Three Years Culture, Urmston, 666.
- thrives from Ten to Fifteen Years, Urmston, 667.
Tea, Soil and Culture are believed to determine the Quality of, Toone, 542.
- Pekoe, is used to mix with other Tea, Toone, 532.
- young Hyson, Falling-off in Quality of, Milne, 648.
- Bohea, is much improved in Quality, Toone, 536.
- Black, not the worse for keeping Three Years, Toone, 536.
- Green, deteriorated by keeping, W.S.Davidson, 676.
Brown, 646.
Toone, 536. 539.
Alsager, 716. 717.
- - Export of, from Canton is increased, Bates, 549.
- not so strong as it used to be, Mills, 694.
- old and new, its comparative Price and Quality, W.S.Davidson, 676.
Brown, 646.
- Sales at Canton are in November and December, Bates, 549.
- Hong Merchants are considered as Brokers of, Toone, 527.
- Contracts for, by Outside Dealers are through Hong Merchants, Toone, 526. 527.
- is generally consumed in China, Toone, 542.
- not adulterated between Place of Growth and Canton, Urmston, 666.
- of inferior Quality, great Demand for, in this Country, Magniac, 627.
(See Duty on Tea.)
- as to increasing the Quantity, if Duty taken off, Toone, 535. 536.
Teamen supply Tea by Contract with Hong Merchants, or in open Market, on their own Account or as Brokers, Urmston, 652. 653.
- sell either to Hong or Outside Merchants, Urmston, 653.
Tea Trade, Necessity of, to the Chinese, Magniac, 625.
- to Canton, if stopped, whether Tea could be supplied through Sincapore, W.S.Davidson, 678.
Tea, Chinese would supply any Quantity required, W.S. Davidson, 675.
- old made to look like new by Operation of firing, W.S.Davidson, 676.
- Profit on, to Country Dealer and Hong Merchant, Toone, 526.
- purchased by Hong Merchants on their own Account, Bates, 549.
Tea Trade of East India Company,
Tea, Mode in which contracted for by East India Company, Toone, 524 to 526.
- East India Company reject all which do not come up to their Standard, Toone, 525.
Tea, East India Company are obliged to keep a Three Years Stock on hand, Toone, 537.
Mills, 681.
- remains One Year in East India Company's Warehouses, Toone, 537.
- Quantity put up for Sale is optional with The East India Company - how regulated, Mills, 681. 682.
- Green, East India Company cannot procure sufficient Quantity for annual Demand, Toone, 541.
- Trade of Officers of East India Company supplies great Variety of, Mills, 681.
- of what Description and Quality - Rates charged by Company for Sale of, Mills, 681. 691.
- Quantity of, exported direct by East India Company to British America, Brown, 639.
- Import of, into Canada, by Americans, falling off, owing to East India Company supplying it direct, Bates, 561.
- Trade of East India Company is as advantageous as that of any private Individual, Toone, 535.
- - as to comparative Advantage of large or small Ships in, Toone, 533. 537. 538.
Tea, Sales of,
Tea, Regulations adopted by East India Company in the Sale of their Teas, fixing their Quality by a certain Character, Mills, 682 to 685.
- Comparison of the Characters and Prices of different Breaks of Teas sold at June Sale 1830, shewing that the Upset Price did not correspond with East India Company's Characters, Mills, 685. 686.
- Quantity for Sale optional with the Company - how regulated, Mills, 681. 682.
- Price of, as compared with Upset Price, in different kinds of Tea, Mills, 681. 685 to 687.
- Advance of Selling Price in 1830, above Cost Price at Canton in 1828-29, on different Sorts of Tea, Mills, 686. 687.
- Calculation of the Advance on Teas sold at The East India Company's Sale in June 1830, above the putting-up Price, Mills, 687. 688. 694.
- Price of, lower than it used to be, Mills, 688.
- particular Circumstances affecting Sale of, in June 1830, Mills, 688.
- sold at an advanced Price, at last Sales, Mills, 680.
- - Causes of the Advance, Mills, 680.
- Rate charged high, from Fear of Competition, Mills, 691. 692.
- Sale of, Points of Difficulty and Inconvenience to Purchasers in respect of, Mills, 692.
- - Prices paid at, Mills, 693. 694.
- bought through a Broker, his mission, Mills, 693.
- greater Quantity of fresh new Tea than there used to be - frequently rejected, Mills, 694.
- East India Company make up Quantity over and above that sold by Officers, Mills, 694.
- by what Classes respective Qualities of Tea consumed, Mills, 681.
- Varieties of, in regular Demand in England, Mills, 681.
- Opinion of Inspectors at variance with that of the Factory at Canton - which more correct, Mills, 686.
- why Teas rejected at one Sale have fetched at a subsequent Sale Prices at which before rejected, Mills, 686. 694.
- Three or Four hundred Wholesale Dealers in London, Mills, 693.
- a considerable Quantity purchased for Ireland, Mills, 692.
- Break of, is from 200 to 1,000 Chests, Mills, 682.
- Weight of a Chest of, Bates, 549.
- in England is often mixed with Sloe and Ash Leaves, Toone, 539.
Alsager, 716. 717.
- Consumption of Tea, principally of finest and lowest Quality, might be increased, as Coffee has, Mills, 686.
- Cause of Reduction of Price of late is increased Consumption of Coffee, Mills, 693. 694.
Teas for East India Company's Investment, how purchased, Toone, 527.
- for Investment Home, how far profitable, Alsager, 710. 712.
Teas, privileged, rejected, being a bad Article bought of Outside Merchant, Alsager, 716.
- necessary as a Remittance from China, Craufurd, 634.
- would be a principal Means of Remittance, if Trade in, thrown open, Magniac, 627.
Tea, Calculations shewing the Cost Price per Pound of Samples of Tea received by the Commissioners for the Affairs of India, from His Majesty's Consuls Abroad, and the Value affixed to the Samples by London Tea Brokers, Kelly, 509.
Tea, Prices of, at Boston, Kelly, 509.
- at Frankfort, Kelly, 511.
- at Hamburgh, Kelly, 509.
- at New York, Kelly, 511.
- at Petersburgh, Kelly, 511.
- at Rotterdam, Kelly, 510.
- diminished in 1825, Toone, 525.
- vary to suit Demand and Competition of the Americans, Toone, 525.
- on Continent of Europe, as affected by Competition between Dutch and Americans, Bates, 550. 551.
Tea, Price of Green, has advanced lately, Bates, 549.
- Price of, would be lowered by opening Trade in, Magniac, 627.
- first Effect of opening the Trade would be to raise the Price - but that would not continue, W.S.Davidson, 675.
- Probability of Profit on, to Private Merchant, on opening Trade in, Browne, 641. 642.
- Trade, if open, Consumption would be increased, Mills, 692.
- Trade, how far the Interest of Tea Dealers that it should be thrown open, Mills, 692.
- if allowed to be imported by British Merchant into England, it would induce him to extend the Consumption of British Manufactures, Bates, 560.
- is likely to be deteriorated if Trade to China thrown open, Magniac, 627.
- opening Trade in, would lower the Price of, Magniac, 627.
- and Raw Silk, are likely to be obtained through Siam, in case of free Trade, Craufurd, 630.
- Returns in, direct from China would be advantageous to Indian Trade, Magniac, 624.
- great Importation of, by Dutch Company, into Holland, at a Loss - Prices now improving, Bates, 550.
- Pekoe, in Holland and Germany, finer than here, Mills, 681.
- bought by the Russians is of the best Quality, Toone, 537.
- Pekoe, is that principally used in Russia, Toone, 532.
- Transit of, from China to St. Petersburgh, Toone, 537.
- sent to Russia, whether from the same Country as supplies us, Urmston, 666.
- Price at St. Petersburgh, Kelly, 511.
- comparative Quality of, imported by East India Company and Americans, Toone, 541.
- Americans obtain it, at as low a Price as East India Company, but not of as good Quality, W.S.Davidson, 676.
- Returns in, formerly safe in American China Trade, but of late Years ruinous, Milne, 644. 646.
- high-priced Greens are purchased by Americans, Bates, 549.
- Green, Americans give higher Prices for, than East India Company, Toone, 525.
- Description, Sorts, Qualities, and Prices of Teas purchased by Americans, Toone, 541.
Bates, 549.
Urmston, 652.
- imported into United States in 1825-26, Bates, 550.
- - in 1826-7, Bates, 550.
- - in 1828-9, Bates, 549.
- Exports of, from America, depend on the State of the Dutch and Hamburgh Markets, Bates, 550.
- Export of, to Europe, has yielded very little Profit to American Merchant, Bates, 560.
- Import of, into Canada, by Americans, falling off, owing to East India Company supplying it direct - Effects of this on American Trade, Bates, 561.
Brown, 642.
Tea, as to purchasing it by Contract - and in open Market, Urmston, 651. 652.
W.S. Davidson, 675.
- how far an increased Demand for, has been or could be supplied without Deterioration of Quality, Urmston, 664.
- Supply of the superior Quality of, is below the Demand, Urmston, 664. 665. 666.
- Supply in 1819-20 and in 1826-27 procured with Difficulty, Urmston, 665.
- - all brought from usual Tea Country, Urmston, 666.
- the lightest and best Cargo that can be put on board Ship, Maxfield, 603.
- Trade, American, less Competition in, Brown, 639.
- - could be carried on by British Subjects as advantageously as by Americans, Brown, 639.
- - peculiar Advantage of large Capital in, Brown, 639.
- might be imported cheaper by private Merchants, Mills, 692.
- Americans generally purchase, in the Market, Urmston, 651.
Teas, Americans have taken Teas of inferior Quality, rejected by The East India Company, Urmston, 652. 657. 660.
Tea, Silk and Nankeens, comparative Profit on, Milne, 644.
Tehsildars, highest Native Revenue Officers in Upper Provinces, their Salaries, Mangles, 54.
- are Heads of Police under the Magistrate, Clark, 148.
- Native Collectors, Frauds committed by, Robertson, 158. 159.
- employed in forming conjectural Estimate of the Produce of Land, with a View to form Revenue Settlement, Christian, 71.
Tellicherry, Seminary established at, for Half-castes, Baber, 323.
Telogoo Language is used by some Hindoos, Johnston, 198.
Tenants, different Descriptions of, and as distinguished from Proprietors, Warden, 187.
(See Cotton.)
Tennesse Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Tenure of Lands, different Opinions of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 245.
Tenures and Rights of Land in Malabar, Questions respecting, by what Tribunal tried, Warden, 179.
- of Land in Ceylon, Nature of, Johnston, 213. 214.
Territorial Branch of Revenue, aggregate Amount of, for Fourteen Years, Lloyd, 5.
Melvill,
Territorial and Commercial Accounts, Benefit received by Territory from Rate of Exchange, Lloyd, 5.
Melvill,
- Surplus of Exports from India over Imports credited to Territorial Account as so much repaid of Advances made in England to that Account, Melvill, 225.
- comparative Effect of calculating Payments between Territorial and Commercial Branches according to Board or Mercantile Rate of Exchange, Lloyd, 6.
Melvill,
- Advantage of remitting in Goods, rather than in Mercantile Bills, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- Out-turn of Rupee, as remitted from India direct or through China, Lloyd, 9. 10.
Melvill,
Territorial & Commercial Branches, Plan for their Separation under 53 G. 3, C. 155, Lloyd, 32.
Melvill,
Territorial Charge paid in this Country, how far likely to increase or diminish, Lloyd, 7.
Melvill,
- as to probable Increase or Diminution of, paid in this Country, Lloyd, 7. 8.
Melvill,
Territorial Revenue Charges of a temporary and a permanent Nature, Lloyd, 33.
Melvill,
Territorial Revenue Branch, from what Funds Advances have been made in this Country to, Lloyd, 8.
Melvill,
- annual Deficiency of, how made up, Melvill, 226.
Territorial Revenue, Amount of Debt now due to Commercial Branch from, Lloyd, 8.
Melvill,
- Modes of remitting Funds from India in Repayment of Advances from Commerce, Lloyd, 8. 9. 31.
Melvill,
- Advances to, in England, repaid by Investments through China and India respectively, from 1814-15 to 1826-7, Lloyd, 31.
Melvill,
Territorial Revenue, Sums remitted under several Heads, Lloyd, 9.
Melvill,
- Reduction proposed under several Heads to meet Excess of Charge, Lloyd, 33.
Melvill,
- Deficiency of, as estimated by Mercantile Exchange, Lloyd, 7.
Melvill,
- Causes of Deficiency in the last Four Years, Lloyd, 6. 7.
Melvill,
Territorial Receipts and Proceeds of Sale of Goods exported to India confounded and placed in the same Treasury, Lloyd, 31.
Melvill,
Territorial and Commercial Accounts, Surplus of Territorial Revenue over Territorial Charge since 1793 asserted and explained, Rickards, 491. 492. 504 to 507.
- Indian Debt in fact contracted on Commercial and not on Political Account, and the Interest should be charged on the former, Rickards, 492. 493. 494. 496. 506.
- as to Remittances by Bills or Goods at different Periods with Reference to Rates of Exchange, Rickards, 496.
- as to Separation of, since 1813; from that Time Commercial Accounts unsatisfactory, Rickards, 493.
- Territorial Advances in India have exceeded Territorial Payments in England, Rickards, 493. 494.
- Increase of Debt between 1793 and 1827-28 beyond what can be accounted for by Excess of Political Charges, Rickards, 495.
- how far Remittance of Goods from India purchased by Territorial Revenues is to be considered in the Light of a Repayment of Advances made on the Territorial Accounts of this Country, Rickards, 497. 498.
- how far made out so as to exhibit clear and intelligible Results, Rickards, 498. 500.
- No.2, defective in not containing certain Adjustments, which ought to have been included, Rickards, 498. 499.
- - in respect of Loan of £2,500,000 from Government in 1812, Rickards, 499. 505.
- - in respect to a Portion of the Purchase Money of the Tribute to The Nizam, Rickards, 499. 500. 505.
- - in respect of the Loan of £1,109,975 from The Nabob of Oude, Rickards, 499. 504.
- different Amounts of Surplus exhibited by it according as those Adjustments are admitted or excluded, Rickards, 500. 505.
Territorial Secretary, his Duties, Mangles, 47.
Territory, Valuation of Company's Claims on, and Items thereof, Lloyd, 10.
Melvill,
Thuggee, Murders peculiar to India, prevalent in Cawnpore, Diminution of - the Crime committed for Gain alone, Robertson, 161. 162. 166.
Timber of Malabar is chiefly Teak and Poon, Baber, 309.
- Monopoly of, by Government, Baber, 308.
- - enhanced the Price, Baber, 336.
- - was to supply the Dockyard at Bombay at a cheap Rate, Baber, 336.
- - puts a Stop to private Ship building, Baber, 334.
- - put an End to by Sir T. Munro in 1823 - Shipbuilding revived in Consequence, Baber, 334.
Tin of Banca is the best, Stewart, 588.
- Articles of, introduced into India in 1793-now manufactured in most large Towns, Hodgson, 378.
- Import of, into China by Country Ships,hasfallen off since 1817-18, Stewart, 588.
- considerable Supply of, may be had at Eastern Islands, Stewart, 588.
Tinivelly, Revenue Settlement in, Cotton, 155.
- Bourbon Cotton cultivated with Success in, Hodgson, 375.
- Grant of Land in, for Bourbon Cotton, Hodgson, 380.
Tippoo Sultan, Cession of Territory from, in 1792, Hodgson, 366.
Tirhoot, District of, its Extent, Fleming, 90.
- Soil and Climate of, favourable for Growth of Indigo, Robertson, 164.
- Number of European Settlers in, Robertson, 165.
Tobacco, Monopoly of, in 1806, by East India Company, and its Effects on Prices - Abuses in the Management, Baber, 331.
Tobacco, Cultivation of, is prohibited in Malabar, Baber, 331. 337.
- Smuggling of-Causes of - and Crimes caused by, Baber, 331. 332. 333.
- - Memorial on, Baber, 331. 332.
- Orders from Collector to sell a certain specified Quantity in 1827, and Consequences thereof, Baber, 332.
- Compulsion used to oblige People to buy, Baber, 333.
- cannot be cultivated but by Permission of East India Company, Baber, 336.
- Soil of Wynaâd is fit for Cultivation of, Baber, 336.
- is brought from Coimbatore to Malabar, Baber, 337.
- smuggled from Mysore and Bengal, Baber, 337.
- is exclusively purchased by East India Company, Baber, 337.
- in what Districts grown, and Quality of, Baber, 339.
- is in general Use in India, Baber, 339.
- on the Western Coast of India is a Necessary of Life, Baber, 331. 339. 340.
- Revenue on, in Malabar, Warden, 180.
- of India is inferior to American, from Want of Skill on the Part of the Grower and Preparer, Craufurd, 421.
- is better cultivated by Burmese than by Hindoos, Craufurd, 521.
TODDY, what, Baber, 335.
- Tax on, Rickards, 423.
Tonnage of East India Company, how computed, Bates, 554.
- of Americans employed beyond the Cape of Good Hope in 1816, 1817 and 1818, and in 1826, 1827 and 1828, Amount of, Bates, 556.
- - in China Trade, Milne, 643.
- Amount of, in China Foreign Trade, Craufurd, 630.
- - in Japan and Phillippine Islands Trade, Craufurd, 630.
Topaz Frigate, Affair of the, W.S.Davidson, 669.
Touchet's Opinion of the Silk-crossing Machine, Wilson, 412.
Town Duties in Bombay not applied to Local Improvements, as in Bengal, Elphinstone, 245. 275.
Towns, some of the Inhabitants of, not taxed, Elphinstone, 246.
- Condition of Population of, Mangles, 54.
Trade of East India Company carried on at a less Expence than that of Individuals, Toone, 524.
- of Remittance from India, Melvill, 225.
(See China Trade.)
- to be successful, must be direct, as between England and China, Craufurd, 635.
- through India not so profitable as a direct Trade from Canton to England, Craufurd, 635.
- to India, if opened, would have the Effect of lightening the Zemindarry Tax, Rickards, 503.
Transit Duty in Bombay, Elphinstone, 245.
- reduced at Bengal, and where paid, Swinton, 25.
- in Malabar, Baber, 335.
- Effect of - as to transferring it to Sea Duty, Swinton, 26.
- either farmed or collected, how far it interferes with Internal Commerce, Elphinstone, 245. 246.
- on Cotton, Effects of taking off, Swinton, 26.
- as affecting Price of Articles - collected both within our own Territories, and upon Passage from them to others, Elphinstone, 267.
- as to Effects on Prices of Articles, of Commutation of it for a Sea Duty, Elphinstone, 267.
- Proportion they bear to Sea Customs in Bombay, Elphinstone, 267.
Transportation, Recommendation that Labour should be substituted for, East, 227.
Travancore, Native Christians in, Warden, 183.
- and Cochin Rajahs, Subjects of, are industrious and loyal, Baber, 323.
- is controlled by a British Resident, Baber, 335.
- Waste Lands in, belong to Village Communities, Briggs, 449.
Treasurer, Native, Revenue deposited with - what Security he gives, Mangles, 49.
Treaties with the Princes of Malwa, to enable them to participate in the Profits on Opium, and to enable East India Company to procure it at a cheaper Rate - now given up, Swinton, 17. 18. 19.
Treaty between England and America in 1815, its Effects on American Trade Maxfield, 607.
Trial by Jury. See Jury Trial - Jurymen - Jury - Jurors - Jury System - Jury, Special.
Tributary States connected with the Government of Bombay, their Condition - in a State of Decline, Elphinstone, 254.
Triennial Leases substituted for Ryotwar System, Hodgson, 382.
Triton and Kent East Indiamen, Capture of, Maxfield, 601.
Tumlook, Remuneration paid to the Rajah of, for Use of Salt Works, Ramsay, 356.
Tunca is an Order of Delivery, Ramsay, 352.
Turkish Opium inferior to British, Swinton, 22.
U.
Uncultivated Lands, granted out in Perpetuity, generally fertile, but unhealthy, Johnston, 215. 216.
- in Ceylon, formerly cultivated - Measures for bringing them into Cultivation by granting them in Perpetuity to Natives and Europeans - subject to Payment of Part of Produce, Johnston, 215.
- in District of Wanny, Johnston, 215.
Underletting Lands of Zemindars, Ramsay, 358.
(See Cotton.)
Upland Cotton, Price of, Craufurd, 519.
Upper Provinces, Advantages of a Court of Appeal in, Robertson, 163. 164.
- Cotton is grown in, Robertson, 166.
- Cultivation has extended there, Christian, 74.
- Improvement in their Condition during a given Period, Christian, 66.
- Towns of, Nature of Population, chiefly Hindoo and Mussulmans, Christian, 68.
- Inhabitants of, their Pursuits, employed in weaving Cloths,&c. Christian, 68.
- highly assessed, Christian, 70.
Upset Price of Tea at Company's Sales, what, (See Tea, Sale of, &c.) Mills, 686.
Usages and Customs, different in different Parts, making it difficult to form any general System, Warden, 178.
- how ascertained by Judge, Warden, 179.
Utramalur in Arcot, actual Collections of Revenue in, in 1742, Briggs, 441.
V.
Vackeels, their Corruption - Regulations to guard against it, East, 108.
Vellore, Indigo cultivated at, Baber, 342.
Verelst, Governor General of Bengal, Rickards, 491.
Vessels of Malabar, Size and Number of - by whom owned, Baber, 309.
- were numerous, but by Monopoly of Timber by Government are reduced in Number, Baber, 308. 309.
Village Accountant of Delhi is the Mocuddim, Fortescue, 35.
- Arbitrators, East, 133.
- Assessments are paid in Money - Appeal against, Briggs, 439.
- - Average, Government Share in, Cotton, 157.
Hodgson, 371.
- - preferred by Native Cultivators in Candeish, Briggs, 445.
- - are paid to Government through Agency of Potails, Briggs, 446.
- Barber and Washerman are hereditary, Fleming, 88.
- Communities and Corporations still exist in India, except where they have been destroyed by Zemindarry Settlement, Briggs, 443.
- Court, Mode of Proceeding in, and Appeal from, Briggs, 447.
- Cultivators are of Three Classes, Briggs, 443.
- Distribution in Delhi, Fortescue, 38.
- and District Munsiffs, how they perform their Duties - their Salaries, Clark, 148.
- - Appeal from Decision of, is to Zillah Court, Clark, 148.
- Institutions, Natives are particularly tenacious of, Chaplin, 292.
- internal Management of, kept secret by Zemindar and Landholder, Christian, 70.
- Leases in Ceded Districts, on Revenue Settlement were given up in Five or Six Years, and Ryotwar System reverted to, with Reduction proposed by Sir T. Munro, Chaplin, 285.
Village Leases in the Jaghire Lands, Hodgson, 371.
- Officers at Nagpoor are generally hereditary, Jenkins, 235.
- - at Sattarah hereditary, Briggs, 450.
(See Rent Roll.)
- Rent Rolls in Nagpoor, Corruption of, but reduced to their original Purpose, Jenkins, 231. 235.
- Schools, how far they are made use of for Education of Natives for Office, Elphinstone, 265. 266.
- Settlement, how made, Cotton, 155. 156.
- - in Presidency of Madras, Cotton, 155.
- - Time for which made, Cotton, 155.
- - at Tanjore. (See Tanjore.)
- Watchman, his Duties - his Conduct - often in league with Thieves - might be made useful, Robertson, 162.
- Watchman are Policemen, Fleming, 88.
Clark, 148.
Hyde, 174. 175.
- - are hereditary, and most useful Officers of Police, Fleming, 88.
Villages, Heads of, are Policemen, Clark, 148.
- burning of, at Nagpoor, Jenkins, 235.
- of Delhi, religious Sects in, Fortescue, 38.
W
Wages of Labour for Cultivation of Cotton or Indigo, Dunlop, 488.
- of Labourers in India are paid monthly, Briggs, 444.
- of Europeans employed in Indigo and Cotton Works, Dunlop, 488.
Walker, Sir George, his Opinion of Punchayets, Baber, 321.
Wally, what. (See Slaves and Slavery.) Warden, 181.
Wanny, uncultivated Lands in District of, Johnston, 215.
Waste Lands, if given up by Government, might be leased to Europeans, Briggs, 443.
- in Sattarah, are claimed by Government, Briggs, 449.
- are included in Village Valuation, Briggs, 449.
- in Malabar, Canara, Travancore, and the Southern Carnatic belong to the Village Communities, Briggs, 449.
- in those Countries which have been subdued by the Mohamedans are claimed by Government, Briggs, 449.
- in the Mahratta Country under the Peishwa were considered as belonging to Government, Briggs, 448.
Water Tanks. (See Tanks.)
Waterloo, China Ship, Equipment, Number of Men - Number and Calibre of Guns - Efficiency in Force and Sailing as compared with a Ship of War, Alsager, 713. 715.
Watson, Mr., Silk Filatures of, Ramsay, 351.
Weavers of Camlets, their Wages, Shaw, 704. 705.
West, Sir Edward, permitted Natives to serve on Petty Juries, Rickards, 424.
Wheel Tax on Chariots, Coaches, and Buggies is leased out to the highest Bidder, Rickards, 423.
White Mulberry. (See Mulberry.)
Wills, as to Power of making, by Mohamedan or Hindoo Law, Fleming, 89.
Robertson, 169.
Witnesses, Examination of, in Zillah Court of Delhi, Fortescue, 41. 42.
Wood Ashes are used as Manure for Cotton, Carruthers, 484.
Wool, cheaper, Cause of reduced Price of Camlets, Shaw, 703.
- has risen lately, Shaw, 703.
- Camlets made from Long Wool, Shaw, 703.
Woollens and Cottons, Demand for, in China, Stewart, 587.
- why East India Company have lost on their Trade in, Everett, 574.
- of English Manufacture are the most valuable Exports to China Everett, 574.
- have fallen Fifty per Cent., in Ten Years, Magniac, 618.
- Restriction on their Importation into China removed of late, W.S.Davidson, 674.
- how far imported since, W.S.Davidson, 674.
Woollen, Manufacture of, at Dharwar, Baber, 340.
- - in America - Quantity they have exported to China, Everett, 579.
Woollens, increased Demand for, in China, Magniac, 628.
- how far used in Pekin, Toone, 532.
- are sent to every Part of China, Toone, 532.
- great Improvement in, in last Ten Years, Everett, 579.
Woollens, great Improvement in, does not increase Demand for, in China, Everett, 579.
- the whole imported into Canton sold in the Year, Toone, 541. 542.
- exported by Russians into China, Toone, 538. 539.
- are subject to a heavy Duty in China, Toone, 537.
- are divided among Hong Merchants according to Shares of Tea East India Company receive from them, Toone, 527.
- East India Company do not export more than they can sell, Toone, 529.
- Country Traders to China are not allowed to land, Toone, 531.
- are sent to China, by way of Bombay, Stewart, 590.
- Value of, imported by the Country Trade into China, Craufurd, 634.
Woollen Cloths, Cotton Goods and Cotton Yarn, increased Importation of, by Americans, from England, Magniac, 623.
Woollens, declared Value of, exported in 1814 and 1828, Stewart, 596.
- Export of, has become unprofitable of late Years, Urmston, 660. 661.
- shipped to China, vary much in Quality, Brown, 640.
- - by Americans, are equal to those shipped by East India Company, Brown, 640.
Wynaad, Soil of, is fit for the Cultivation of Tobacco, Baber, 336.
Wynford, Lord, Extract of Letter from, to Sir T. Strange, with the Answer, Strange, 415.
Wynn, Mr., Letter to, from Sir A. Johnston, on Jury Trials in Ceylon, Johnston, 190 to 193.
Y.
Yarn Cottón. (See Cotton Yarn.)
Yorkshire Manufacturers have Part of East India Company's Order for Camlets, Shaw, 704.
Z.
(See Slaves and Slavery.)
Zamorine, The Rajah, a wealthy Prince, Warden, 182. 186.
Zemindarries, European, granted for Cultivation of Indigo, Hodgson, 379.
- sold for Arrears, and other Zemindars created, Hodgson, 372.
- when sold, must be registered with the Collector, Harris, 464.
Zemindars, Hereditary and by Purchase, Hodgson, 374.
- their Character, Incomes, Habits, Duties and Pursuits, Mangles, 51.
- no richer, but more extravagant than formerly, Fleming, 89.
- lately have shewn more desire to know what is going on in the World, R.Davidson, 388.
- how they expend their Revenues, Mangles, 51.
R. Davidson, 387.
- are fond of Litigation, R. Davidson, 394.
- some Men of Property - their Taste for European Luxuries, Mangles, 51.
Christian, 67.
- under the permanent Settlement, Men unfit for Business, Mangles, 60.
- of Calcutta are usually Hindoos - a few are Mohamedans, Mangles, 52.
- Rights of, vary in different Parts of the Country, Ramsay, 359.
- in old Territory of Madras were Petty Princes, Hodgson, 374.
- wild, in Nagpoor nearly independent of Government, Jenkins, 232.
- of Lower Provinces, partly Hereditary, partly by new Purchase, Mangles, 50.
- Allowance to, on Collection of Revenue, Fortescue, 37. 38. 43. 44.
- Revenue Settlement made with, Christian, 66. 69.
- Native, manufacture Indigo, Dunlop, 486.
- underlet their Lands, Ramsay, 358.
- Let their Lands to Izadaars and Dur-Izadaars, Harris, 463. 464.
- frequently let out Lands to Two or Three different Persons, who have subordinate Authority under them, R. Davidson, 398.
- Leases from, are for Three or Five Years, Harris, 462.
- their improved Circumstances since permanent Settlement, Mangles, 51.
- Profits made by, are equal to the Revenue, R. Davidson, 387.
- how they enforce Payment of Revenue Settlement from Ryots, Hyde, 173.
- make Advances to the Ryots for Cultivation in some Instances, Mangles, 52.
Zemindars do not object to a Survey of their Lands, provided no Alteration is made in Assessment of Ryots, Hodgson, 374.
- Payments to, by East India Company, for Salt manufactured in Territory of, Ramsay, 354.
- of Carnatic, in Council, settle Disputes respecting Succession to Zemindarries, Hodgson, 365.
- few under Bombay, Elphinstone, 272.
- in Bombay Territory, in case of Lands leased to them or to Ryots, as to comparative Ease and Advantage of dealing with them or with Ryots, Elphinstone, 263. 264.
- - People oppressed by them, Elphinstone, 264.
- - not attached to Government, Elphinstone, 264.
- - dependent on the Peishwa Government, Elphinstone, 264.
- - Education of them and Ryots compared, Elphinstone, 264.
- - are Brahmins, and of educated Class, Elphinstone, 264.
- - Maintenance of Aristocracy does not depend on Zemindarry Class, Elphinstone, 264.
- - a different Class from those of Bengal, Elphinstone, 264.
Zemindarry Settlement introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793, Briggs, 443.
- is best calculated of any other for the Introduction of a better System of Cultivation with Capital, Hodgson, 375.
- and Ryotwar compared, Christian, 70.
- its Advantages, as compared with Ryotwar, and as applied to different Districts, Hodgson, 372. 373.
- Native Governments always collected Revenue through Agent, and not from Ryots themselves, Hodgson, 372.
- no Instance of Mohamedan Power having collected Revenue by Ryotwar System, Hodgson, 372.
Zemindarry Settlement, Means of enforcing Payment from Zemindars, Christian, 69.
- - by Zemindars from Ryots, Christian, 70.
- Government's Share of gross Produce, Christian, 70.
- Mode of, in Bombay, Elphinstone, 243. 244.
- in old Provinces, in case of Failure of Zemindar, his Estate sold - an objectionable Practice, and why, Christian, 73.
- Cawnpore is under, Robertson, 162.
- Bengal, Bahar and Benares are lowly assessed, and the Upper Provinces highly assessed, Christian, 70.
- in South Arcot, Chinglepoot, Vizagapatam and the Northern Circars, Hyde, 172. 173.
- in Presidency of Madras, Cotton, 155.
Zemindarry of Ramnad, Appeal to Privy Council in the Case of the, Clark, 151 to 153.
Zillah, as to Appointment of an Officer analogous to Sheriff in each, East, 133.
Zillah or District Courts, Number of, decreased in 1816, Hodgson, 366.
Zillah Courts, Constitution of, and Proceedings in, Fleming, 90.
- subject to Revision of Provincial Courts, Clark, 147.
- whether Judges of, qualified by Knowledge of Hindoo and Mohamedan Law, Clark, 144.
- refer Points of Native Law to Native Lawyers, Clark, 149.
- great Delay in, is an Objection to, Rickards, 425.
- Judge of, his Salary, Fleming, 91.
- - his Education should not be exclusively Professional - Advantage of passing through a Gradation of Revenue Offices, Smith, 83.
- Registrar of - his Jurisdiction, Fleming, 90.
- Assistant of - Judge of, Fleming, 90.
- Sudder Aumeens in, their Character, East, 108.