Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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The extensive parish of BAKEWELL comprises the township of that name; the townships of Blackwall, Brushfield, Calver, Curbar, Flagg, Froggatt, Over and Nether-Haddon, Harthill, Hassop, Little-Longstone (or Longsdon), Rowland, Great Rowsley, and part of Wardlow (fn. n1); besides the paro chial chapelries of Ashford, Baslow, Beeley, Buxton, Chelmorton, Great-Longstone (or Longsdon), Monyash, Sheldon and Taddington.
BAKEWELL is a small market town situated twenty-six miles from Derby, fifteen from Chesterfield, and one hundred and fifty-two from London. The first mention we find of this town is in the reign of Edward the Elder, who, as we are told in the Saxon Chronicle, marched with his army in the year 924 from Nottingham to Badecanwillan, and then commanded a castle (fn. n2) to be built in its neighbourhood, and garrisoned. This place evidently derives its name from a mineral spring and an ancient bath, which probably, as well as that of Buxton, was known to the Romans (fn. n3) : the name is written Badequelle in the Domesday survey, and was soon after-wards further corrupted to Bauquelle.
It appears by the quo warranto roll, that in the year 1330, John Gernon claimed a market on Monday, at Bakewell; a fair for three days at the festi val of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and another for fifteen days, be ginning on the vigil of St. Philip and St. James. The last-mentioned fair had been granted in 1251, to William Gernon. (fn. n4) A small market for butchers' meat, &c. is now held on Friday; there are now six fairs; Easter Monday, Whit-Monday, August 26th, Monday after October 11th, and Monday after old Martinmas day, for horses, cattle, &c. &c. There are also three fairs or great markets, annually, but not at fixed periods, for the sale of fat cattle only.
The township of Bakewell contained in 1801, 280 inhabited houses, and 1412 inhabitants; in 1811, 286 houses, and 1485 inhabitants, according to the returns made to parliament at those periods.
There is an extensive cotton manufactory at Bakewell, belonging to Mr. Robert Arkwright.
The manor of Bakewell (the Badequelle of Domesday) was parcel of the ancient demesnes of the crown. William the Conqueror gave it to his natu ral son William Peverell, whose son, having forfeited all his possessions in the reign of Henry II. this manor was given by King John to Ralph Gernon (fn. n5). In 1199, the fee of Bakewell was granted by King John to William Briewere (fn. n6), and was one of those assigned by King Edward I. in 1282, to Katherine, mother of Queen Eleanor. (fn. n7) In 1286 William Gernon Lord of Bakewell, granted certain privileges to the burgesses of that town: the co-heiresses of Sir John Gernon, who died seised of the manor of Bakewell, in 1383, married Botetourt and Peyton. Sir Richard Swinburne who married the heiress of Botetourt, died in 1391. Alice, one of the sisters and co-heirs of his son Sir Thomas, brought the manor of Bakewell to John Helion. Isabel, one of the coheiresses of John Helion, the son, brought it to Humphrey Tyrell; whose daughter and heir having married Sir Roger Wentworth, joined in the sale of this manor to Sir Henry Vernon, in the year 1502. It has since passed with the Haddon estate, and is now the property of the Duke of Rutland.
Moor-hall, said to have been an ancient seat of the Gernons, stood about a mile west of Bakewell, on the edge of the moors.
In the parish church, which is an ancient and spacious structure, exhibiting the architecture of various periods (fn. n8), are the monuments of Sir Thomas Wendesley or Wensley, mortally wounded, whilst righting on the side of the House of Lancaster, at the battle of Shrewsbury (fn. n9); Sir John Vernon, Knt. (son and heir of Henry) 1477; Sir George Vernon, of Haddon, who died in 1561, and his two wives, Margaret daughter of Sir Gilbert Talbois, and Maud, daughter of Sir Ralph Longford; Sir John Manners (second son of Thomas Earl of Rutland) who died in 1611, and his wife (Dorothy, daugh ter and co-heir of Sir George Vernon) who died in 1584; John Manners, (third son of. Sir John) who died in 1590, and Sir George Manners, who died in 1623. He married Grace, daughter of Sir Henry Pierrepont. There are memorials also for Basset Copwood, maternally descended from the Bassets of Blore, who died at Bubnell Hall, in 1628, and the Walthalls de scended from the family of that name at Wistaston, in Cheshire, 1744, &c.
In the south isle is an ancient monument for Sir Godfrey Foljambe, who died in 1376, and Avena his wife, who died in 1383. The inscription on the tablet was written by Mr. Blore, and put up in the year 1803.
In Bassano's volume of church notes are recorded the memorials of Latham Woodroffe, Esq. 1648, William Saville, Esq. 1658, both stewards to John Earl of Rutland; and Bernard Wells, Gentleman, of Holme-hall, 1653.
The parish of Bakewell is stated in the Domesday Survey to have had two priests. King John, in the first year of his reign, granted the church of Bakewell, then collegiate, with its prebends and other appurtenances, to the canons of Lichfield, to whom it was afterwards appropriated. At the time of King John's grant, there were three officiating priests in this church, for whom a competent maintenance was stipulated, and one of the prebendaries of Lichfield was, in consequence of the above-mentioned grant, to say mass for the souls of the King and his ancestors, in Lichfield cathedral (fn. n10). The prebends of Bakewell were three in number; Matthew, a canon of Lichfield, being the incumbent of one of these, was allowed by the dean and chapter to retain it during his life. (fn. n11)
In consequence of a complaint, which came before John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, at his visitation of the diocese of Lichfield, that the deacon and sub-deacon of the rich church of Bakewell were so ill provided for, that they were obliged to beg their bread; it was ordained by the Archbishop in 1280, that they should eat at the vicar's table, and that for the extraordinary expence, ten marks per annum should be allowed him out of the rectory, in addition to twenty marks which he before re ceived; and it is observed, that he had already two priests and the clerk to maintain. A mark was allowed to the deacon, and ten shillings to the sub-deacon, for clothes (fn. n12). The dean and chapter of Lichfield are still patrons of the vicarage of Bakewell, which is in their peculiar jurisdiction.
Before the reformation there were two chantries in Bakewell church, one at the altar of the Holy Cross, founded in 1365, by Sir Godfrey Foljambe, and Avena, his wife, valued at 6l. 6s. 2d., 1 Edward VI.; the other at the altar of the Virgin Mary, valued at 4l.
The hospital of St. John at Bakewell was founded by Sir John Manners and his brother Roger Manners, Esq. of Uffington in Lincolnshire, for six poor men who were made a body corporate, and endowed in 1602, at the expence of 600l. with annuities or rent-charges to the amount of 40l. per annum. The poor men have pensions of 61. per annum each, the remain ing four pounds are appropriated to a laundress: Sir John Manners left by will (1611) the sum of 30l. to purchase pewter, brass, and linen, for the use of the hospital.
Grace Lady Manners (widow of Sir George Manners, who died in 1623,) in the year 1636, founded a free-school for instructing the poor children of Bakewell and Great-Rowsley in reading, writing, &c. and endowed it with a rent-charge of 15l. per annum, issuing out of lands at Elton.
Over-Haddon is within the King's manor of the High-Peak, but there is within it a subordinate manor, which with Over-Haddon-hall, in the reign of Henry VI., became the property and seat of a younger branch of the Suttons, of Sutton in Cheshire, who continued there for five gene, rations. The Suttons were succeeded in this estate by the Cokes of Trusley, and it passed with the heiress of the Melbourne branch of that family, to the father of Lord Melbourne, who is the present proprietor. Allotments were made to Lord Melbourne, in lieu of manerial rights at the time of the inclosure in 1806.
Over-Haddon was the birth place and residence of Martha Taylor, the celebrated fasting damsel, relating to whom there are as many as four pamphlets extant (fn. n13). It is said that she began to abstain from food on the 22d of December 1667, being then in her eighteenth year, in consequence of the effects of a blow received some years before, but her illness is said not to have commenced till the end of August, or the beginning of Sep. tember preceding. The last pamphlet was published March 30, 1669, when it appears that she was living and continuing to fast; her face is described as plump and ruddy; her pulse as even and lively; it is said that after she had left off eating, she once swallowed part of a fig, which had nearly proved fatal to her; that she had none of the usual secretions after the beginning of 1668; nor was there any moisture in her mouth or nose; that the vertebras of her back might be felt through the abdomen; that she had very little sleep, and was once wholly without sleep for five weeks. It appears that she underwent two watches, having been attended by from forty to sixty women, who watched her strictly night and day. One of these watches was appointed by the neighbouring townships; the other by the Earl of Devonshire. If the entry copied in the note (fn. n14), records the burial of this young woman, she survived the publication of the last pamphlet fifteen years. We have no account of the sequel, whether she was detected as an impostor, or whether she was a real sufferer, and, having recovered, returned to her usual habits.
It is probable that some of these pamphlets might have fallen into the hands of the late notorious impostor Ann Moor, and suggested the lead ing circumstances of her impositions. This woman, who is a native of Derbyshire (fn. n15), resided at Tutbury, where, during a pretended fasting or more than four years, she contrived that her case should in almost every particular resemble that of Martha Taylor. Having successfully eluded one watch of seventeen days and nights, she continued her imposture with the greater confidence; till at length, having reluctantly submitted to a second ordeal, it was conducted with so much care and skill, that she found it impossible to elude the vigilance of the watchers: and at length, wlren nature was almost exhausted with real fasting, she confessed herself an impostor.
The manor of Nether-Haddon belonged at an early period to the family of Avenell, whose co-heiresses married Vernon and Basset. The heiress of Vernon, in the reign of Henry the Third, married Gilbert Le Francis, whose son Richard took the name of Vernon and died at the age of 29 in 1296. This Richard was common ancestor of the Vernons of Haddon, Stokesay, Hodnet, Sudbury, &c. The Bassets continued to possess a moiety of Nether-Haddon in the reign of Edward III., but in or before the reign of Henry VI. the whole became vested in the Vernons, who had purchased Basset's moiety. Sir Richard Vernon of Haddon was speaker of the Parliament held at Leicester in 1425; his son of the same name was the last person who held for life the high office of Constable of England. Sir Henry Vernon, grandson of the latter, was Governor to Prince Arthur, son of Henry VIII. who is said to have resided with him at Haddon. The Haddon branch of the Vernons became extinct in 1565, by the death of Sir George Vernon, who, by the magnificence of his retinue and his great hospitality, is said to have acquired the name of "King of the Peak." Dorothy, the younger of his co-heiresses, brought Haddon to Sir John Manners, second son of Thomas, the first Earl of Rutland, of that family, and immediate ancestor of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, who is the present proprietor.
The ancient castellated mansion of Haddon-hall, exhibits the architecture of various periods (fn. n16), having been built at several times by the families of Vernon and Manners. The general appearance of this ancient mansion, with its turrets, surrounded by woody scenery, is very picturesque. The gallery in the south front, about 110 feet in length, and only 17 in width (fn. n17), was built in the reign of Elizabeth. The great hall was the ancient dining-room. Most of the other apartments, which are numerous, are of small dimensions. About the year 1760, the house was entirely stripped of its furniture, which was removed to Belvoir Castle (fn. n18), but the building is still kept in good repair. The Rutland family have not resided at Haddon since the reign of Queen Anne, when the first Duke lived there occasionally in great state, and is said to have kept his Christmas with open house, in the true style of old English hospitality (fn. n19). A ball was given in the gallery by the Duke of Rutland on occasion of his coming of age, and another by the inhabitants of Bakewell, on occasion of the peace of 1802.
The manor of Great-Rowsley belonged to the Vernons, as an appen dage of Haddon, and is now the property of the Duke of Rutland.
The manor of Harthill or Herthill commonly called and spelt Hartle, belonged at an early period to the family of de Herthill, whose heiress brought it, with several other estates, to the Cokaines in the reign of Edward III. Edward Cokaine, Esq. sold Herthill, in the year 1599, to John Manners, Esq. from whom it has descended to his Grace the Duke of Rutland. There was formerly a chapel at Herthill, in which a chantry was founded in the year 1259, by Richard de Herthill (fn. n20). The minister of the chapel was appointed and supported by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield (fn. n21). There are no remains of the chapel at Harthili.
The manor of Hassop was formerly in the Foljambes. The heiress of Sir Godfrey Foljambe brought it, in the fourteenth century, to Sir Robert Plumpton, of Yorkshire. Sir Robert his grandson sold Hassop in 1498, to Catherine, widow of Stephen Eyre of this place, a younger son of Eyre of Padley. Francis Eyre, Esq., the immediate descendant of Stephen, on the death of the late Earl of Newburgh, in 1814, assumed that title (fn. n22), and is the present proprietor.
Hassop Hall was garrisoned for the King, by Colonel Eyre, in the month of December 1643 (fn. n23). There is a portrait at Hassop, (now the seat of his descendant the Earl of Newburgh,) of this gallant royalist, who distin guished himself at the siege of Newark; besides others of the Eyre family, and that of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham.
The village of Ashford, the Aisseford of the Domesday Survey, is situ ated on the banks of the Wye, about two miles from Bakewell. The manor, which was parcel of the ancient demesnes of the crown, was granted by King John in the first year of his reign, to Wenunwen, Lord of Powisland (fn. n24), whose son Griffin, had a grant of free-warren in this manor in the year 1250 (fn. n25). King Edward the Second granted it in 1319, to his brother Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent (fn. n26). This manor having descended to the posterity of Joan his daughter, (and eventually heiress,) by her second husband Sir Thomas Hol land, passed, on the death of Edmund Holland Earl of Kent, in 1408, to Elizabeth his sister and co-heiress married to John Lord Neville. Henry Neville Earl of Westmorland sold it in 1549 or 1550, to Sir William Caven dish, ancestor of the Duke of Devonshire, who is the present proprietor.
Near Ashford is a good house, the property and residence of the late Thomas Barker, Esq., and now in the occupation of his widow; it was built by Mr. Barker's father.
The manor of Brushfield, a township of this chapelry, anciently written Bnghtrithfield, appears to have been at an early period in moieties, one of which was given by Robert, son of Waltheof, to the Abbey of Rufford; the other moiety was successively in the families of Monjoye and Blount (fn. n27). The moiety which had belonged to Rufford Abbey, was granted by King Henry VIII. to George, Earl of Shrewsbury. In 1628, it was conveyed by the co-heiresses of Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, to Sir William Armine and his lady. In 1658, Lady Armine sold it to the Bradshaws, of whom it was purchased in 1662, by the Earl of Devonshire. It is now the property of his descendant, the Duke of Devonshire.
In the chapel at Ashford is a tablet in memory of Mr. Henry Watson of Bakewell, who died in 1786, aged 72. It appears by his epitaph, that he established the marble works (fn. n28) near this place, and was the first who formed into ornaments the fluors and other fossils of this county (fn. n29). There are memorials also for William Fynney of Little Longston, Gent. 1748; William Bullock of Ashford, M.D. 1784, and the Rev. John Bullock 1789.
The vicar of Bakewell nominates the minister of this chapel. A chantry was founded at Ashford, by Griffin, son of Wenunwyn, in the year 1257. (fn. n30)
William Bagshaw the non-conformist divine, who was called the Apostle of the Peak, established a meeting-house at this place, which was supplied by a minister from Hucklow. It is still in existence, and has of late been occupied by various sects.
Near the village is a meeting-house, of the General Baptists. In the year 1631, Mr. William Harris gave 50l. towards the building of a school, and endowed it with 61. 13s. 4d. per annum. Sir John Coke, Secretary of State to King Charles I. gave the close in which it stands, and Thomas Goodwi1l. in 1758, 1l. per annum.
The village of Baslow lies about five miles from Bakewell. The manor was given by Henry de Curzon before the year 1330 (fn. n31), to Richard Vernon, from whom it has descended to his Grace the Duke of Rutland. Some records describe a moiety of the manor of Baslow, as held under the Abbot of Derley in the reign of Henry VI. together with the manor of Bubnell, by John Earl of Shrewsbury (fn. n32). Bubnell is now considered as part of the manor of Baslow, belonging to the Duke of Rutland. Bubnell-hall, formerly a seat of the Bassets of Blore, and afterwards, by marriage, of Copwood, is now a farm-house.
The patronage of the parochial chapel of Baslow, which had belonged to the vicar of Bakewell, was by an act of parliament, passed in 1811, vested in the Duke of Devonshire and his heirs. (fn. n33)
There is a charity school at Baslow, with an endowment of about 18l. per annum, arising from sundry small benefactions. The manor of Calver, which belonged in the reign of Henry VI. to Thomas Lynford, was granted by King Henry VIII. to Rowland Shakerley, and having passed to the Tracys, was conveyed to the Stratfords, and afterwards purchased, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by the Eyres of Hassop, in which family it still remains.
The townships of Curbar, Froggatt, and Rowland, lie within this chapelry; the two former are in the manor of Baslow; Rowland is a manor belonging to the Earl of Newburgh.
The village of Beeley (the Begelie of Domesday) lies about four miles from Bakewell. The manor was in the Crown at the time of the Domesday survey. In the reign of Richard I. it belonged to Warner de Beelegh, who was succeeded by his son Serlo. At a later period, it was in the family of Cheney of Northamptonshire, whose heiress married Thomas Lord Vaux of Harrowden, in the reign of Henry VIII. Nicholas Vaux Esq., his younger son, having succeeded to his mother's estate, sold it in 1560, to —— Dean and John Greaves. The ancestors of the latter had resided at a place called the Greaves in this chapelry, as early as the reign of Henry III. William Saville Esq., purchased it of the Greaves family in 1687. It appears to have been afterwards divided into twelve shares, which were in the families of Norman, Brown, and Wright. The whole is now the property of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire; having been purchased in 1747, of Brown and Wright, by William, third Duke of Devon shire. The Duke of Rutland has a court—leet over Beeley, &c. which was purchased by his ancestor of the Greaves family, in the reign of James I.
In the chapel at Beeley, are monuments of the Saville family, a younger branch of the Savilles of Howley in Yorkshire, which became extinct by the death of George Saville, Esq., in 1734. They resided at the Greaves, afterwards called the Hill-top, which latter name it still retains. George Saville's monument was put up by his nephew and heir, John Gilbert Cooper, Esq.
Bassano's volume of Church notes (fn. n34) mentions a memorial for John Greaves, Esq. 1694, and Anne his wife, 1700.
It appears by Archbishop Peckham's ordinance of that date, that there was a chapel at Beeley in 1280, and that the minister there had five marks per annum, payable partly by the dean and chapter of Lichfield, and partly by the inhabitants. (fn. n35) It seems that the chapel had gone to decay, and a new one had been built, to which no endowment was attached before the year 1473, the date of the following curious instrument, the original of which is in the collection of Adam Wolley, Esq. of Matlock. This instrument states, " That there is a devoute chapell in Beley in Derwent-dale, which is a new begonne thing of our sweet lady St. Mary, and hafe nothing but through the grace of God and the almes of goode men and wymmen, but that won Sir John Eyre, chapeleyn, movid with grace and vertue, hath laboured and done great cost there, as well of his owne proper costs as of his pore neighbours, and hath gotten thereto boke, bell, vestment, and chales, and hath a preest there sayinge masse dayly before our sayde Jadye for all brethren and sisters, and all good doers thereto, and purposeth through the grace of God and our sayde ladye and succoure of goode men and wymmen, to founde a preest there for ever, to pray for all the ben—efactors and goode doers thereto, which he may not utterly perform without refreshyng and almesdede of goode men and wymmen, wherefore if hit please you to shew your blessed almes thereto, hit is your owne, and our said blessed lady will reward you: and also we have sent amongst you won Thomas Willymot, which is a very trewe proctour, and a special benefactor and good doer there. To which present writing," &c. &c.
The patronage of the parochial ehapelry of Beeley is vested in the Duke of Devonshire.
An act of parliament for inclosing lands in Beeley passed in 1811, by which allotments in lieu of tithes of corn were given to the Duke of Devonshire as impropriator, and for tithes of wool and lambs, to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield.
Harewood Grange, in the ehapelry of Beeley, was given to Beauchief abbey in the latter part of the 12th century, by Warner de Beelegh, King Henry VIII. granted it to Francis Leake, Esq. It is now the property of the Marchioness of Ormond having passed in the same manner as Sutton.
The parochial chapelry of Buxton, (anciently written Bawkestanes (fn. n36),) well known for its celebrated baths, is situated about 34 miles from Derby, 12 from Bakewell, about 22 from Manchester, and about 160 from London. The manor of Buxton is parcel of the King's manor of the High—Peak, on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. The baths at Buxton are supposed to have been known to the Romans. It appears by Dr. Jones's treatise on the Buxton waters, published in 1572, that the waters were then in high repute, and that Buxton was a place of considerable resort. The great hall (fn. n37) for the accommodation of visitors had been erected not long before by the Earl of Shrewsbury. By Queen Elizabeth's permission, reluctantly obtained, the Earl appears to have visited Buxton four times with his illustrious prisoner, Mary Queen of Scots. (fn. n38) We find the Queen's favorite ministers, Leicester and Burleigh among the noble visitors at Buxton. (fn. n39) About the year 1670, the old hall was taken down, and a more commodious edifice built on its site by William, third Earl of Devonshire. The baths, five in number, (two of which are private) are enclosed within this building. The water is drank at a spring called St. Anne's well, where is a small pump-room. The crescent, in which are three hotels, with the ball-room, &c. &c. was built at the expence of the late Duke of Devonshire, in the years 1785 and 1786. Near it are extensive stables, enclosing a circular area of 60 yards diameter, and coach-houses capable of containing about threescore carriages.
A privilege which Dr. Jones suggested more than two centuries ago (fn. n40) as a great advantage to the place, was obtained in the year 1813, by the grant of a weekly market on Saturday, at Buxton, and four fairs, February 3, April i, May 2, and September 8. (fn. n41) The market is for corn and provisions, the fairs for cattle, &c.
There is a fund at Buxton, raised chiefly by a small subscription from the company, for the support of poor persons resorting thither for the benefit of the waters, such persons having brought with them certificates from their parish ministers and medical attendants, of their being proper objects of the charity. It is supported by the contribution of one shilling each, paid by all visitors on their arrival, the collections at two sermons, and casual dona tions. The funds of course vary, but 340l. have been collected from these sources, and above 430 pauper patients have received the benefit of the waters during the season: it appears from Dr. Jones's " Buxtones Bathes Benefyte" already quoted, that in 1572, there was a fixed rate to be paid by all persons resorting to the waters towards a fund, one half of which was for the physician, the other for the benefit of poor bathers. " Alway provyded the day of your coming thither bee noted before you enter into the bathes and the day of your departure, with the country of your habitation, condition, or calling, with the infirmityes or cause you came for, in the regyster booke kept of the warden of the bath or the physition, that there shall be appointed, and the benefite you receyved, pay ing foure-pence for the recording, and every yeoman besides 12 pence, every gentleman 3 shillinges, every esquior 3s. 4d.; every knight 6s. 8d., every lord and baron 1osh., every vicount 13s. 4d., every erle 2osh., every marques 3osh., every duke 3l. 1os., every archbishop 5l., every bishop 40s., every judge 2os., every doctour and sergeant of lawe 10s. every chauncellor and utter-barrister 6s. 8d., every archdeacon, prebendary, and canon 5s., every minister 12d., every ducches 4os., every marquesses 20s. every countes, 13s. 4d., every barones 1os., every lady 6s. 8d. every gentlewoman 2s. and al for the treasure of the bath, to the use of the poore that only for help do come thither, the one halfe: the other to the physicion, for his residence."
In the old chapel at Buxton are a few monuments of modern date, among which, is that of the Honourable Robert Hamilton Lindsey, 1801. In 1728, John Needham gave 200l. in aid of Queen Anne's bounty to augment the income of the minister. It was customary for several years to have divine service performed in the long-room at the hotel, for the accommodation of the company resorting to Buxton, by the minister or some person appointed by him. A new chapel has been lately erected, not far from the stables, in the parish of Hope: it was opened for divine service on the 9th of August, 1812. By the act of 51 George III., the patronage of this chapel and that of Baslow is given to the Duke of Devonshire; and in lieu of this patronage, lands of the value of 95l. per annum, and the patronage of the vicarage of Tutbury in Staffordshire, are given to the vicar of Bakewell. There are meeting-houses at Buxton for the Independents, and for the Wesleyan Methodists.
The charity-school was founded in 1674 by subscription, and is endowed with the greater part of the rent of lands now let at 59l. 9s. 6d. per annum. (fn. n42)
The township of Chelmorton, is esteemed parcel of the King's manor of the High-Peak (fn. n43), on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. The Talbot family had a subordinate manor in Chelmorton, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth in which they were succeeded by the Eyres of Hassop; it is now the pro perty of the Earl of Newburgh. In the chapel are memorials of Edward Brereton, Gent. 1680, George Dale of Flagg, 1683, &c. There was a chapel at Chelmorton as early as the year 1282, at which time, the prior of Lenton in Nottinghamshire had two-thirds, and the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield the remainder of the tithes. The prior and the dean and chapter were bound to provide, jointly, books and ornaments for the chapel; and the dean and chapter a priest, with a stipend of five marks. (fn. n44) The Duke of Devonshire was impropriator in 1805;an act of parliament passed that year for inclosing lands in the townships of Chelmorton and Flagg, by which allotments were assigned in lieu of tithes. The minister is appointed by the vicar of Bakewell.
There is a Presbyterian meeting-house at Chelmorton. The Wesleyan Methodists have congregations at Chelmorton and Flagg, a township in this chapelry, which is esteemed to be within the King's manor of the High-Peak.
There is a charity school at Chelmorton, to which Mr. Brocklehurst, who died in 1792, gave the sum of 200l., vested in the commissioners for the Leak and Buxton road; but it has produced no interest for many years; and the master has no other benefit than the use of the house in which he resides.
Great-Longesdon or Longstone, called in old ecclesiastical records Langedon, and in the survey of Domesday, Longesdune, lies about four miles from Bakewell. Great-Longstone is parcel of the manor of Ashford. The family of Wright have been possessed of the principal part of the landed property of this township, ever since the reign of Edward III. This estate, with Longstone-hall is still the property of their descendant, John Thomas Wright, Esq. of Exeter. The hall is occupied by Major Carleil. The family of Rouland or Roland had a house and lands at Great-Longesdon in the fourteenth century, which passed by marriage to the Staffords of Eyam. In the Rolls of Parliament, we find Godfrey Rouland, who styles himself " un pauvre & simple Esquyer" praying " convenable et hasty remedy" against Sir Thomas Wendesley, John Dean vicar of Hope, and others, who are stated to have come to the petitioner's house at Longesdon with force and arms, to have carried off goods and stock to the value of 200 marks, to have taken the petitioner prisoner, and carried him to the castle of the High-Peak, where he was kept in custody six days, without victuals or drink; after which, they are stated to have cut off his right hand, and then to have released him. (fn. n45) In 1282, the minister of Longstone-chapel was supported jointly by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield and the inhabitants. (fn. n46) Rowland Eyre, Esq., in 1628, gave a rent charge of il. per annum, to this chapel. The vicar of Bakewell appoints the minister. The sum of 5l. per annum for the education of 10 poor children in this chapelry, given by William Wright, Esq. in 1656, is payable out of the Longstone-hall estate. A school house was built by subscription. Under the inclosure act, common land of the value of 10l. per annum was allotted to this school.
Holme-hall in the chapelry of Great-Longstone was the property and residence of Mr. Bernard Wells who died in 1653. One of his coheiresses brought it to the Eyres of High-low. After the death of John Archer, Esq. (whose father was by birth an Eyre) it was sold under an order of chancery in 1802, and purchased by Robert Birch, Esq. the present proprietor and occupier.
The townships of Great and Little-Longstone and Wardlow (fn. n47), have been inclosed pursuant to an act of Parliament passed in 1810, by which allotments were given in lieu of tithes to the vicars of Bakewell and Hope.
The manor of Little-Longstone was held at the time of taking the Domesday survey by Colne under Henry de Ferrars. Robert Fitz-waltheof next occurs on record as Lord of Little-Longsdon, but the exact date of his possessing it is not known. In the reign of Edward I., it was in the family of Monjoy, from whom it passed by inheritance to the Blounts. Sir Walter Blount, Lord Monjoye, died seised of it in 1474. (fn. n48) The family of Edensor had a mesne manor held under the Monjoys, which manor appears to have devolved in 1403, to Thurston Boure, as heir to Isabel wife of Robert Staunton, and Agnes the wife of Nicholas Clerke. (fn. n49) The manor of Little-Longstone appears to have been afterwards in the Shakerleys, of whom it was purchased in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by the Countess of Shrewsbury. It is now by inheritance from the Countess, the property of the Duke of Devonshire. The Countess of Shrewsbury's alms-house at Derby is endowed with a rent-charge of 100l. per annum, issuing out of this manor.
Robert Fitz-waltheof at a very early period, gave lands in Little-Longstone to Matthew, Parson of Bauquell, ancestor of James Longsdon, Esq. now of Little-Longsdon.
Moniash or Monyash, (the Manies of the Domesday survey) lies about four miles from Bakewell. Robert de Salocia and Matthew de Eston appear to have been Lords of Moniash about the year 12oo. (fn. n50) William de Lynford, described as the King's valet, both in Scotland and in parts beyond the sea, obtained in 1340, a grant of a market on Tuesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Holy Trinity, in his manor of Moniash. (fn. n51) The manor belonged, at a later period, to the Earls of Shrewsbury. John Earl of Shrewsbury died seised of it in 1460. (fn. n52) On the death of Earl Gilbert in 1616, his great estates in Derbyshire descended to his three daughters and coheiresses, Mary, wife of William Earl of Pembroke, Elizabeth, wife of Henry Earl of Kent, and Alathea, wife of Thomas Earl of Arundel. In the year 1640, Philip Earl of Pembroke being possessed of two of these shares, sold them to John Shallcross, Esq., who, in 1646, resold them to Thomas Gladwin of Tupton-hall. The grand-daughters and coheiresses of Gladwin, brought this estate in moieties to Sir Talbot Clerke and Dr. Henry Bourne. In 1721, the Clerkes sold one third of this manor, and Dr. Bourne in 1736 another third to Edward Cheney, Esq. In 1735, Mr. Cheney had purchased the remaining third of John Gilbert, Esq. of Locko. Mr. Gilbert possessed it by devise from the Savilles, who had purchased it in 1638 of Henry Earl of Kent. The. manor of Monyash is now the property of Robert Cheney, Esq. a Major-General in His Majesty's service. In the chapel at Monyash, are memorials of Thomas Cheney, Esq., of Ashford, 1723, (father of Edward Cheney, Esq. before-mentioned) and the families of Sheldon and Palfreyman.
Monyash chapel was originally founded as a chantry-chapel, about the year 1200, by Robert de Salocia and Matthew de Eston, who endowed it with lands for the celebration of divine service on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. (fn. n53)
In the year 1280, Archbishop Peckham ordained, that in addition to the lands given by the inhabitants at the foundation of the chapel, they should add one mark, and that the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield should pay the remainder. (fn. n54) The chantry Roll of 1 Edw. VI., mentions a chantry founded at Monyash by Nicholas Congson and John his brother, then valued at 3l. 6s. 8d. per annum. The minister of Monyash is appointed by the vicar of Bakewell. There is a Quakers meeting at Monyash.
In the year 1779, at the time of the inclosure, twelve acres of common, now let at about 17l. per annum, were given by Messrs. Melland, Goodwin, Newton, and Holmes, freeholders of Monyash, for the purpose of educating 12 poor children. A house and garden were given also by the freeholders for the master.
The manor of Oneash (the Aneise of Domesday) was given to Roche Abbey in Yorkshire, by William Avenell, Lord of Haddon. (fn. n55) After the Reformation, it seems to have been granted to the Shrewsbury family; Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury sold it in the reign of Queen Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Gargrave. It now belongs to his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
The hamlet or township of Sheldon was, from a very early period, parcel of the Manor of Ashford. Griffin, son of Wenonwyn, alienated it in the reign of Henry III. to Geoffrey de Pickeford (fn. n56) ": it was afterwards re-united to Ashford. The minister of the chapel is appointed by the vicar of Bakewell, to which church it is a chapel of ease.
Mary Frost, who died in or about the year 1754, gave the interest of 1ool. four per cents, for apprenticing a poor child of this hamlet.
The chapel of Taddington lies about six miles from Bakewell. William de Hamelton died seised of a third part of the manor of Taddington in the year 1286. (fn. n57) It is now considered as parcel of the King's manor of the High-Peak on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. The minister of the chapel is appointed by the vicar of Bakewell.
The Reverend Roger Wilkson of Priestcliffe in this chapelry, in the year 1714, gave the sum of 400l. for a charity school, which having been laid out in land, is now let for about 8ol. per annum. It was given for the education of all founders-kin in the chapelry of Taddington, or in the parishes of Bakewell or Tideswell; and for ten other children of the townships or hamlets of Priestcliffe, Taddington, Blackwall, and Brushfield. Inconsequence of the trust not having been renewed, the affairs of the charity are in chancery; and the master being a descendant of the founders, to whose kin a preference was given, enjoys the profits of the estate as a sinecure. Martha and Alice White, in 1804, gave 15l. per annum for teaching 12 poor children of this chapelry.
The manor of Blackwall, a township in this chapelry, was given to the Priory of Lenton in Nottinghamshire by William Peverell (fn. n58), in the reign of Henry I. It appears by Pope Nicholas's Valor, that this manor consisted of four oxgangs of land, then valued at 1l. 5s. per annum. This manor was granted in 1552 (fn. n59) to Sir William Cavendish, and seems to have descended to the Newcastle branch of the family. It is included in the rental of the Earl of Newcastle's estates in 1641, being then valued at 306l. 0s. 4d. per annum. There was another manor in Blackwall, which was the property and residence, for several generations, of the ancient family of Blackwall; the last of whom having become greatly involved in debt, an extent was issued at the suit of the crown, in the reign of Charles II. for the enormous sum of 130,632l. 7s. 10d. This manor having been then seized, appears to have been granted to the family of Hope: Lady Margaret Hope, widow, (daughter of the Earl of Haddington) was possessed of it in 1702. Both these manors and the whole of the landed property in Blackwall, are now vested in his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.