Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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ALTFRETON, a small market-town in the hundred of Scarsdale, and in the deanery of Chesterfield, is situated 14 miles from Derby, about 12 from Chesterfield, and 142 from London.
This town has been supposed to have derived its name from King Alfred, and tradition has assigned its building to that monarch. Camden has been quoted as concurring in this opinion, but he merely observes that such a tradition was current. (fn. n1) There is no doubt that some noble Saxon of the name of Alfred (a name not uncommon among the Saxons) was the possessor of Alfreton at a remote period, and that from him it was denomi nated Ælfredingtune, as it is spelt in Ethelred's charter to Burton (fn. n2) abbey. There is nothing to appropriate it to King Alfred. In the Domesday Survey the Norman scribes have corrupted the name to Elstretune.
Somercotes and Riddings, two hamlets or townships in this parish, maintain their own poor, and have separate highway rates. At Riddings there was formerly a chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen.
The market at Alfreton was granted, in 1251, to Robert de Latham and Thomas de Chaworth, to be held on Monday, together with a fair for three days at the festival of St. Margaret. (fn. n3) This charter was renewed to Thomas Babington of Dethick in 1551. (fn. n4) The market was changed from Monday to Friday in 1756, in consequence of the inhabitants of Higham having then revived an ancient market at that place. It is still held on Friday, as formerly, for corn, butchers' meat, &c. &c. The fair is now held on the 31st of July, for horses, horned cattle, &c.
The manor of Alfreton was given by Wulfric, a noble Saxon, and confirmed by Ethelred II., to Burton abbey. (fn. n5) It had again passed into lay hands before the compilation of the Domesday Survey; in which it is described as held by Ingram, under Roger de Busli. This Ingram was the immediate ancestor of Robert Fitz-Ranulph or Fitz-Ralph, Lord of Alfreton, who founded Beauchief abbey in the reign of Henry II. His descendants were denominated de Alfreton. On the death of Thomas de Alfreton, his great grandson, in 1269, this manor descended to Thomas de Chaworth, his nephew, and Robert de Latham, who had married one of his sisters and co-heiresses. Chaworth purchased Latham's moiety. (fn. n6) Dugdale says, that this Thomas de Chaworth was summoned to Parliament as a baron in 1296; but that none of his descendants ever received a like summons. William Chaworth, Esq. the last of this branch of the family, left an only daughter and heir in the reign of Hen. VII. married to John Ormond, Esq. whose heiress brought this manor to Sir Anthony Babington of Dethick, Henry Babington, Esq., the grandson, sold it in or about the year 1565 to John Zouch, Esq. of Codnor. The son of the latter conveyed it, in 1618, to Robert Sutton, Esq. of Aram, in Nottinghamshire, by whom it was sold, in 1629, to Anthony Morewood, and Rowland, his son. The manor of Alfreton continued in the Morewood family, and the manor-house was their residence till the death of George Morewood, Esq. the last heir male, in 1792. His widow, who enjoys this estate under his bequest, married the Rev. Henry Case, who, in 1793, previously to his marriage, took the name of Morewood, by the King's sign manual.
It appears that in the reign of Edward III., Thomas Chaworth claimed a park and right of free-warren at Alfreton, with the privilege of having a gallows, tumbrell, and pillory for the manor. (fn. n7) Dr. Pegge says, that Al freton was in ancient times esteemed a barony or honor. (fn. n8)
The manor or manor-farm of Ryddings, or Rydinge, (now Riddings,) was held, with Alfreton, by the Chaworth family (fn. n9) : it is now the property of Lancelot Rolleston, Esq. of Watnall, in Nottinghamshire.
In the parish church of Alfreton is a brass tablet, in memory of John Ormond, Esq., who died in 1503, and Joan his wife, (the heiress of Chaworth,) who died in 1507. It appears by the inscription, that the daughters and co-heiresses of Joan Ormond, one of whom married Babington, had a right to quarter the arms of Chaworth, Caltoft, Brett, Aylesbury, Engayne, and Bassett of Weldon. There are the monuments also of Anthony Morewood, Esq., the purchaser of the estate, who died in 1636, and of George Morewood, Esq., the last of the family, who died in 1792.
The church of Alfreton was given to Beauchief abbey by Robert Fitzralph, the founder, and became appropriated to that monastery. The rectory of Alfreton, with the advowson of the vicarage, was granted by Henry VIII. to Francis Leake, Esq., whose descendant, Nicholas, Earl of Scarsdale, sold them, in 1673, to John Turner of Swanwick, Gent. The rectorial tithes were sold by auction about the year 1779, chiefly to the several land-owners, by the trustees of the late George Turner, Esq. The advowson of the vicarage was purchased by the late George Morewood, Esq., and now belongs to Mrs. Morewood.
There was a chantry in the church of Alfreton, dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the lands belonging to which, being then valued at 8l. 4s. 8d. per annum, were granted by King Edward VI. to Thomas Babington.
What was formerly a Presbyterian meeting-house at Alfreton, is now oc cupied by the Independents. The particular Baptists have meeting-houses at Swanwick and Riddings. The Wesleyan Methodists have a meeting house at Alfreton.
At Swanwick, is a school for twenty-four poor children, built in 1740, at the expence of Mrs. Elizabeth Turner, widow, who endowed it with the sum of 500l. George Turner, Esq., of London, sold lands to this school, then valued at 700l., for the sum of 400l. The endowment is now worth about 6ol. per annum.
APPLEBY, partly in Leicestershire, and partly in Derbyshire, although detached from the main body of the last-mentioned county, lies six miles from Ashby-de-la-Zouch, about nine from Atherstone, nine from Tarnworth, and ten from Burton-on-Trent. The boundaries of the two counties are not exactly ascertained, although it is known in which county the several houses are situated.
The manor of Appleby was given to Burton abbey (fn. n10) by Wulfric Spott, and was held under that monastery by the ancient family of Appleby, as early as the year 1166. Sir Edmund Appleby distinguished himself at the battle of Cressy. In Nicholas's Leicestershire is an inventory of the goods at his manor-house at Appleby. The last of the Appleby family died in 1636. Sir Wolstan Dixie purchased this manor of his co-heirs; and his son gave it to the grammar-school at Market-Bosworth, founded by his great uncle.
The remains of the ancient seat of the Appleby family, at a place called the Moat, have been fitted up as a farm-house. The site is in the county of Leicester. The manor of Little-Appleby belonged to the family of Moore early in the 17th century; and is now the property of their descendant, George Moore, Esq.
The church of Appleby is in Leicestershire. The advowson was many years in the family of Mould, whose heiress brought it to Edward Dawson, Esq.: it is now vested in — — Dawson, a minor.
Sir John Moore, some time lord mayor of London, who died in 1702, founded the public school at Appleby in 1697. Sir Christopher Wren was architect of the building. The endowment in 1786 was 144l. 10s. od.; of which 6ol. per annum was allowed to the head master, 40l. to the second master, and 30l. to a writing-master: houses are appropriated for the two former. The school-room is 100 feet in length, 50 in breadth, and 30 in height. It was originally intended for children of Appleby, Measham, Stretton-in-the-Fields, Chilcote in Derbyshire, and certain Leicestershire parishes; but by the statutes of 1706 it was made free for all England.
ASHBORNE, a considerable market-town in the wapentake of Wirksworth, and in the deanery to which it gives name, is situated 13 miles from Derby, and 139 from London, on the road to Manchester, from which it is 47 miles distant. The name of this town is spelt in ancient records Esseburne, Ashburne, and Ashbourn. Ashborne has long been the prevailing mode of spelling.
We have not met with any charter for the market on record; it certainly existed before the year 1296 (fn. n11); and was then held, as it still is, on Saturday; there were then two fairs, each held for three days, at the festivals of St. Oswald and St. John the Baptist. Five fairs are enumerated in a charter of Charles I. These are now held on May 21st, July 5th, Aug. 16th, Oct. 20th, and Nov. 29th. There are also three fairs of more modern date, the first Tuesday after the 1st of January, Feb. 13th, and April 3d. The fairs are all for horses, horned cattle, and sheep. The fairs on Feb. 13th and Oct. 20th are particularly noted for the sale of horses and colts. The February fair begins for their sale two days before the date above-mentioned, and the October fair three days preceding. The fairs on April 3d and May 21st are noted for the sale of milch cows; the August and November fairs are chiefly for the sale of fat cattle; wool is sold at the July fair, but it is esteemed the smallest fair in the year.
In the reign of Edward VI. the parish of Ashborne contained 1000 houselyng people. (fn. n12) The population of the town did not much vary in 1801 and 1811, the number of inhabitants being about 2000 in 1801, and about 2100 in 1811. The number of inhabitants in the whole parish was returned at 4513 in 1801, and 4975 in 1811.
In the month of February 1644, there was a battle near the town of Ashborne between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians, in which the Royalists were defeated with considerable loss; 170 were taken (fn. n13) prisoners. King Charles was at Ashborne in the month of August 1645. (fn. n14)
The manor of Ashborne is described in the Domesday Survey as parcel of the ancient demesnes of the Crown, to which it continued to belong till King John granted it in or about the year 1203 to William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby. (fn. n15) Having been forfeited by Robert, Earl of Derby, in the reign of Henry III., it was granted by King Edward I. in 1278, to his brother Ed mund, Earl of Lancaster. From this time it continued to be annexed to the earldom and duchy of Lancaster till the year 1633, when King Charles granted it to William Scriven and Philip Eden, who conveyed it to Sir John Coke, one of His Majesty's secretaries of state, and his son, John Coke, Esq.: from the latter it passed by sale to Sir William Boothby, Bart., then of Broadlow-Ash, in the parish of Ashborne. This manor was settled upon Brooke Boothby, Esq., a younger son, whose descendants inherited the title upon the extinction of the elder branch. It is now the property of Sir Brooke Boothby, Bart. Ashborne Hall, the seat of Sir Brooke Boothby, is situated at the end of John-street (fn. n16); it is at present occupied by Richard Arkwright, Esq. junior. This mansion (or rather the site of it) had been, from a remote period (fn. n17), for several generations, the property and residence of the ancient family of Cokaine, who had considerable estates in the county, much increased by a match with the heiress of Herthill, and were many years lessees of the rectory of Ashborne, under the Dean of Lincoln. Several of this ancient family had been representatives of the county. John Cokaine, Esq. knight of the shire, who died in 1372, lies buried in Ash borne church. Sir John Cokaine, one of his sons, was founder of the family of Cokaine, of Cokaine-Hatley in Bedfordshire (fn. n18), now passed by a female heir to the Custs. Sir Thomas Cokaine, who died in 1592, was author of " A short Treatise of Huntyng, compyled for the Delight of Noblemen and Gentlemen," now extremely rare. His great grandson, Sir Aston Cokaine, was author of several dramatic and other poems in the reign of Charles I. He was born at Elvaston, and resided chiefly at Pooley in Warwickshire. In the year 1671 he joined with his son, Thomas Cokaine, Esq. (the last heir male of this branch of the family), in the sale of Ashborne Hall and other estates to Sir William Boothby, Bart.
The parish church of Ashborne, a large and handsome structure, appears to have been rebuilt in 1241, but many parts of it exhibit the architecture of a later period. (fn. n19) In the north aisle are some ancient monuments of the Cokaine family (fn. n20), and several of the family of Boothby (fn. n21), of modern date. In the chancel are some monuments of the Errington family (fn. n22), and in the north transept the tomb of the Rev. —— (fn. n23) Langton, Dean of Clogher in Ireland, who lost his life on the 28th of July 1761, by falling with his horse down a precipice at Dovedale. Miss Laroche, the lady who was riding be hind him, on the same horse, was providentially preserved, being caught by a bush in her descent.
The rectory of Ashborne was granted by King William Rufus to the church of. St. Mary in Lincoln, and to the Bishop of that see and his successors. In consequence of some arrangement made at a remote period, the rectory became appropriated to the Deans of Lincoln, under whom it was held on lease for many years by the Cokaine family, and of late by the Erringtons. The present lessee is George Henry Errington, Esq.
A chantry in Ashborne church at the altar of St. Mary, was founded and endowed by Henry de Kniveton, Parson of Norbury, in the reign of Richard II. (fn. n24) Another chantry at Ashborne in honour of St. Oswald, was founded in or about the year 1483, by John Bradburne and Anne his wife. (fn. n25)
There was formerly a Presbyterian meeting-house at Ashborne. There is now a small meeting-house for the Wesleyan Methodists in the town; and at Compton, in the suburbs, one belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists, called Sion chapel, built at the expence of Mr. John Cooper in 1800.
The grammar-school at Ashborne was founded, in the year 1585, by Sir Thomas Cokaine, William Bradburn, Thomas Carter, and others. By the Queen's charter of that year, the governors, three in number, and twelve assistants, were made a body corporate; the assistants to be parishioners of Ashborne, and the governors to be chosen out of the assistants; the tutor or master, being of the degree of M.A., to be appointed by the governors, with the advice and consent of the heirs male (as long as there should be any) of the founders; there was also to be an under master or usher. The school was denominated " The Free Grammar School of Elizabeth Queen of England." By the statutes made in 1796, and confirmed by the Bishop, the master has two-thirds and the usher the remainder of the revenue of the school lands and rents (fn. n26); the total amount of which is at present about 240l. per annum.
Mr. Nicholas Spalden, by his will, bearing date 1710, provided for the building and endowing two schools, one for 30 boys, and the other for the same number of girls, with salaries of 10l. each for a master and mistress; the boys to be instructed till fit to go into the grammar-school, the girls to be taught sewing, knitting, and reading, till twelve years of age.
In the year 1610, Roger Owfield, or Oldfield, gave the sum of 100l. to wards building eight alms-houses. Thomas Owfield, in 1630, gave the sum of 70l. to complete them, and 100l. to be laid out in land for their endow ment. The land was purchased at Mapleton, and now lets at 42l. per annum. John and William Owfield, in 1652, gave 16l. per annum to the alms-people. Mr. Spalden before-mentioned, gave lands at Parwich, now let at 52l. per annum, to the alms-people. Rent charges, amounting to 61. 8s. per annum, were given by Richard Peters, Jane James, and John Taylor. The whole income of these alms-houses is now about 116l. per annum. The pensioners receive 4s. 3d. weekly each.
In the year 1669 Mr. Christopher Pegge founded an alms-house for six poor widows, and endowed it with an estate at Ashover, since exchanged for lands at Brailsford, now producing to this charity 189l. 12s. per (fn. n27) annum. Mr. German Pole gave some lands at Mercaston to this alms-house, let in 1812 for 14 years, at 58l. per annum.
Mr. Spalden before-mentioned, provided by his will for the building four houses for clergymen's widows, and endowing them with 1ol. per annum each; in addition to which the trustees of Mr. Hawkins Browne's charities have given the dividends of 400l. stock, 4 per cents, to be divided among the widows.
Mr. Spalden also founded an alms-house for ten paupers, to each of whom he appropriated a weekly payment of 2s.6d., and 20s. at Christmas for clothes. Thomas Chatterton, Esq., who died at Bridlington, in Yorkshire, in 1812, gave by will (1811) 20l. per annum to this alms-house. The fund for sup porting Mr. Spalden's charities (exclusively of the Parwich estate, appro priated to the old alms-house) consists of the rent of certain houses in Dublin, let under a perpetual lease of 210l. per annum. The surplus, after paying 8l. per annum each to the vicar and lecturer for reading prayers on certain week-days, and keeping the alms-house in repair, is directed to be distributed on Easter Tuesday among poor housekeepers.
Adjoining to the Methodists chapel at Compton, is an alms-house for six poor aged women, founded and endowed by Mr. John Cooper beforementioned. The pensioners have a weekly payment of 4s. each.
The extensive parish of Ashborne has belonging to it the townships of Clifton and Compton, in a detached part of the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch; the townships of Hulland, Sturston, and Yeldersley, in the hundred of Appletree; and those of Newton-Grange, Offcote, and Underwood, in the wapentake of Wirksworth; besides the parochial chapelries of Alsop in the Dale, Hognaston, and Parwich.
Clifton and Compton form a joint constablery. Compton adjoins the south-east side of the town of Ashborne, from which it is separated by a small brook, called the Schoo. Thomas Bedford, a nonjuring divine, the learned editor of Simon Dunelmensis, and author of the Historical Cate chism, resided at Compton, died there in 1773, and was buried at Ashborne.
Clifton, about two miles south of Ashborne, had formerly a chapel of ease, which having become ruinous, was taken down about the year 1750, and the stones were employed in repairing the chancel at Ashborne. The manors of Great and Little-Clifton belonged to the Cokaine family in the reigns of Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Queen Elizabeth, being held under the Fitzherberts of Norbury. For several years past Clifton has had the same owners as Offcote and Underwood. (fn. n28)
The small township of Hulland, (the Holland of Domesday,) four miles east of Ashborne, had formerly a chapel of ease, which was standing and used for divine service, but said to have been little frequented, in 1712. (fn. n29) The manor, which had before belonged to Tochi, a Saxon, was at the time of the Domesday Survey the property of Godfrey Azelin. Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, died seised of this manor in 1296. The families of Bingham, Bakepuze, and Bradburne then held freehold estates in Hulland under the Earl. The last-mentioned family had a mansion at Hough in this township, which continued to be their residence till it was sold, in or about the year 1594, to Sir Humphrey Ferrers. John Bradburne, Esq. and Anne his wife, in the year 1485, founded a chantry chapel at Hough, and endowed it with lands, then valued at 5l. os. 10d. per annum (fn. n30). Perhaps this was the chapel above mentioned. Hough is now the property of John Borrow, Esq. and Richard Bateman, Esq. An old mansion within a moated site, formerly the residence of the Bradburnes, and now the property of Mr. Borrow, was pur chased by the father of Mr. Isaac Borrow, who possessed it in 1712.
Upper and Nether Sturston are two small adjoining hamlets about a mile east of Ashborne. The manors of Sturston and Fenton (Faitune) which had belonged to Roger and Wodi, were, at the time of the Domesday Survey, the property of Henry de Ferrars, under whom it was held by Roger. We find no mention of the manor of Fenton after the year 1306, when John de Fenton conveyed it to William Le Mercer. Even the site is not known; but it is supposed to have been at a place called Penter's-Lane, on the road from Ashborne to Derby.
The manor of Sturston appears to have been inherited at an early period by the Knivetons from the Grendons, who had a grant of free warren in the reign of Henry III. In the year 1655 Sir Andrew Kniveton sold this manor to Francis Meynell, Alderman of London, from whom it descended to Godfrey Meynell, Esq. of Bradley, the present proprietor. John Walker, Esq. of Styd, claims also a manor in Sturston.
The township of Yeldersley lies about two miles and a half south-east of Ashborne. The manor of Yeldersley (Geldeslei), which had been the joint property of Ulchetil and Godwin, was, when the Survey of Domesday was taken, held under Henry de Ferrars by Cole, whose son Robert con veyed it to Sewal de Mungei or Monjoy. This family possessed it for several generations, and from them it passed by inheritance, about the be ginning of the reign of Edward III., to the Irelands. (fn. n31) The last men tioned family continued to possess it in the reign of Henry VII. It was soon afterwards in the Montgomerys, from whom it passed by marriage to the Vernons. This manor has belonged for more than a century to the Meynells of Bradley. The Shirleys from a very early period held this as a mesne manor under the Ferrars family, and afterwards under the Dukes of Lancaster, and it was held under them by the Monjoys and their successors. The families of Whitehall, Pegge, and Lee of Ladyhole, all extinct, held considerable freehold estates in this township. The Whitehalls were settled here for several descents.
The township of Broadlow or Bradley-Ash, which is partly within the parish of Thorpe, lies about three miles north of Ashborne. The manor was parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster till about the year 1608, when it was granted, with other estates, to Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, in exchange for the manor of Theobalds, in Hertfordshire. Five years after wards the Earl sold it to Dame Judith Corbet (fn. n32), widow of William Boothby, citizen of London, by whose bequest it passed to her grandson, Sir William Boothby (fn. n33), who was created a baronet in 1660. On the death of his son, Sir Henry, the second baronet, without male issue, this estate passed to the Boothbys of Tooley-Park, in Leicestershire. (fn. n34) Broadlow-Ash is now the property of the Rev. Thomas Francis Twigge of Derby, whose grandfather, Mr. Nicholas Twigge, in conjunction with two other persons, purchased it of the Boothby family in 1754, and soon afterwards became sole proprietor. The old mansion on this estate was pulled down about the year 1795, and the out-buildings converted into two farm-houses.
Cold-Eaton, which lies about five miles north of Ashborne, was, at the time of the Domesday Survey, an, appendage to the manor of Parwich. It was granted by King John to William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby. After the attainder of his great-grandson, it was given to Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. This manor was held under the Earldom and Duchy of Lancaster, from the beginning of Edward III.'s reign till the latter end of the reign of Edward IV., by the Wensley family. About the year 1518 it appears to have belonged to the Vernons of Haddon, from whom the greater part descended to the present Duke of Rutland. A fourth part was many years in the Boothby family, and is now the property of Mr. Anthony Beresford of Castern.
Newton-Grange, which is situated about four miles north of Ashborne, was one of the manors of Henry de Ferrars, at the time of the taking the Domesday Survey. His descendant Robert, Earl Ferrars, gave it to the abbey of Combermere, in Cheshire. King Henry VIII. granted it, with other possessions of that abbey, to George Cotton, Esq., from whose family it passed to that of Bentley, of Hungry Bentley in this county. A moiety of it was forfeited, by the attainder of Edward Bentley, Esq., in 1586. The other moiety had previously been sold to the Beresfords, who eventually became possessed of the whole, having purchased the forfeited moiety of Sir William Withipole, son-in-law of Sir Michael Stanhope, to whom it had been granted by Queen Elizabeth, after Bentley's attainder. This manor continued in the Beresford family till the death of the late Richard Beresford, Esq. of Ashborne, in 1790, when it was sold in severalties; Thomas Evans, Esq. of Derby, being the principal purchaser.
Offcote (the Ophidecotes of the Domesday Survey) and Underwood, which is not mentioned in that survey, were anciently separate manors and townships, but have long been considered as one manor and liberty, which surrounds the town of Ashborne, and extends thence to Kniveton. Both manors belonged to the Earls of Derby, and afterward to Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. In the reign of Charles I. the manors of Offcote and Underwood were granted away from the crown. This estate was afterwards in the Newtons of Ashborne-Green, one of whose coheiresses brought them to the family of Hayne. It now belongs to the daughter of the late Mr. John Hayne.
The parochial chapelry of Alsop (the Elleshope of the Domesday Survey) lies five miles and a half from Ashborne. The manor, which, as a hamlet of Ashborne, had been parcel of the ancient demesnes of the crown, was granted to William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, who soon afterwards gave it to Gweno, son of Gamel de Alsop, ancestor of Anthony Alsop, Esq., who married a daughter of the first Sir John Gell, Bart., and died without male issue. The manor of Alsop had previously passed into the Beresford family, a co-heiress of which brought it to the Milwards. It passed by successive sales in 1711, 1753, &c. to Smith of Hopton, Pole of Nottingham, and Beresford of Basford; and is now, by purchase from the late Francis Beresford, Esq. of Ashborne, the property of Mr. John Brownson of Alsop, A branch of the Mellor family resided here for several generations, on an estate now the property of the Rev. Charles Stead Hope of Derby, who married one of the coheiresses of the late Robert Mellor, Esq.
The minister of Alsop chapel is appointed by the freeholders.
The parochial chapelry of Hognaston lies about six miles north-east of Ash borne. Hognaston was parcel of the ancient demesnes of the crown as a hamlet of Ashborne, and was included in the grants to William Earl of Derby, and Edmund Earl of Lancaster, already mentioned. The manor of Wirksworth, or Holands, belonging to Philip Gell, Esq., M. P., extends into this town ship. Mr. Gell possesses also a freehold estate here, which, in the reign of Edward I., was conveyed by Richard Spernicotes to Henry de Hopton, given by his son Roger to the abbey of Rocester, in Staffordshire, and granted by Henry VIII., in 1546, to Ralph Gell. Several copyhold estates at Hognaston are held under the duchy manor of Wirksworth.
The parochial chapel at Hognaston is an ancient structure (fn. n35). The minister is appointed by the Dean of Lincoln as rector of Ashborne, and receives out of the rectory an annual pension of 20 nobles.
The parochial chapelry of Parwich (the Pevrewic of Domesday) lies about five miles north of Ashborne. The manor, which was parcel of the ancient demesnes of the crown, passed, with Ashborne, to the Earls of Derby, and to Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. At an early period, the Fitzherberts of Norbury held a manor here under the Earls of Lancaster. In the reign of Edward III. it was conveyed to the Cokaines, whose descendant, Sir Edward Cokaine, sold it, in the early part of the seventeenth century, to Baptist Trott. The latter soon afterwards conveyed it to Thomas Levinge, Gent., great-grandfather of Sir Richard Levinge, Knt. and Bart, Speaker of the House of Commons, and Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland, and ancestor of Sir Richard Levinge, Bart., of High-Park, in the county of West-Meath, by whom this manor was sold, in 1814, to William Evans, Esq. of Derby, the present proprietor. The mansion, formerly inhabited by the Levinge family, is now a farm-house.
The paramount manor belonging to the duchy of Lancaster, having been granted by King Charles I. to Ditchfield and others, was purchased by the Levinge family, and sold with the other in 1814, to Mr. Evans; but the inhabitants of Parwich still continue to do suit and service to the duchy courts of Wirksworth; at which the constables and headboroughs are sworn into their offices.
In the chapel at Parwich is a tablet, in memory of William Beresford, who died in 1699. This gentleman charged certain lands with the payment of 10l. per annum to the minister of Parwich chapel; 10l. per annum for the poor; and 3l. per annum for the education of poor children. The Dean of Lincoln, or his lessee, pays a stipend of 20 nobles per annum to the minister of the chapel, who has of late years been appointed by the lord of the manor.
ASHOVER, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, lies about four miles from Matlock, and six south-west of Chesterfield, which is the post-office town. It has a small market on Thursday, frequented, in the winter only, occasionally by a few butchers; and two fairs, April 25 and October 15, for horned cattle and sheep. We have not found any charter for either.
The parish, which is large, contains the township of Ashover, including the several villages of Alton, Butterley, High Oredish, Kelstedge, Mill-town, Northedge, Littlemoor, Overton, and Slack, all in the hundred of Scarsdale, and also the hamlets of Dethick, Lea (fn. n36), and part of the villages of Upper and Nether Holloway, in the wapentake of Wirksworth.
It appears from Domesday-Book, that previously to taking that survey, the manor of Ashover (Essoure) had been held by Leuric and Levenot, (supposed to have been two younger sons of Earl Godwin,) and that at the time of making the survey it belonged to Ralph Fitzhubert, under whom it was held by Serlo. The posterity of this Serlo were called de Plesley, from Plesley, the place of their residence. Serlo de Plesley, his descendant, who died about the year 1203, left two daughters, co-heirs, married to Willoughby of Lincolnshire and Deincourt, who possessed this manor in moieties. The coheiresses of Deincourt married Reresby of Lincolnshire, and Musters of Nottinghamshire. Sir Robert Willoughby, son of the coheiress of Plesley, exchanged his share of Ashover with the Reresby family for their interest in the Plesley estate. The share of Ashover manor, which belonged to the Musters' family, was subdivided between two sons, from one of whom, Geffrey, a portion of the manor passed to Robert Perpoynt. In the reign of Edward I., Adam de Reresby, Ralph de Reresby, Robert Perpoynt and Henry Musters, are stated in the Nomina Villarum to have been lords of Ashover.
From this time Ashover appears to have been considered as divided into four distinct manors, known by the names of the New-hall manor, the Oldhall manor, Musters' manor, and Perpoynt's manor, afterwards called Babington's, or Gorse-hall manor.
The New-hall manor, with the advowson of the church, which had been given in 1302, by Margaret de Reresby, widow, to Adam de Reresby, her youngest son, and Dethgye, or Deugye, his wife, continued to belong to their descendants, who occasionally served the office of sheriff for the county, and resided at the manor-house, called the New-hall, and afterwards Eastwoodhall, till the reign of James I., when Sir Thomas Reresby, by deed, made it over to trustees, to be sold for the purpose of paying his debts, and raising portions for his two daughters, and it was accordingly sold, with the advow son, in 1623, to the Rev. Jmmanuel Bourne, then rector of Ashover. The Rev. Lawrence Bourne, rector of Ashover, who died in 1797, bequeathed the manor of New-hall, or Reresby's manor, and the advowson of the rectory, to trustees for the benefit of his niece Jemima, the wife of Mr. John Nodder, since deceased, and her children, in whom it is now vested.
Eastwood-hall, formerly the residence of the Reresby family, and the site of this manor, was sold in 1762 to the governors of Queen Anne's bounty, for the purpose of augmenting the chapel of Brimington, near Chesterfield. Part of the old mansion is standing and inhabited as a farmhouse.
The Old-hall manor was conveyed by Ralph de Reresby, in 1337, to Roger, son of Robert de Wynfield, of Edelstow-hall, who purchased also the the fourth share which had belonged to Henry Musters, since which period the Old Hall manor, and Musters's manor, have been united. The heiress of Ralph, son of Roger de Wynfield, brought these manors to Robert Plumley, who, dying without issue, they passed to James Rolleston, Esq. of Lea, in the parish of Ashover, whose great grandfather had married a daughter of Roger de Wynfield above-mentioned. These manors continued in the Rolleston family, till the Lea branch became extinct, about the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, when they passed by marriage, or settlement, to the Peshalls, or Pershalls of Horsley in Staffordshire. In the year 1648, Sir John Pershall Bart, sold his manors of Ashover and Lea, to Richard Hodgkinson, and Giles Cowley of the former place, who soon afterwards sold Ashover in four shares: the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks is proprietor of one of these shares by inheritance from the Hodgkinsons: two others have been for a considerable time in the family of Bourne; one of these is now vested in the Rev. Nicholas Bourne, the other in the representa tives of the late Rev. John Bourne of Spital: the remaining fourth belongs to the Marchioness of Ormond as representative of the Clarkes. Edelstow Hall seems to have been considered as the hall of this manor, to which it was attached, till after the sale by Sir John Pershall. After this, it became the seat of a branch of the Gladwin family, one of whose co-heiresses brought it to Dr. Henry Bourne of the Spital, near Chesterfield. It was sold in 1808, by the widow of the Rev. John Bourne, and her daughters, to Mr. John Milnes of Ashover, the present proprietor. This hall is now occupied as a farm-house.
Perpoynt's manor belonged, at a subsequent period, to the Babingtons of Dethick, of whom it was purchased by Sir Thomas Reresby, and sold with his other estates in Ashover: it is now generally called Babington's manor. Sir Joseph Banks has three-sevenths of this manor; the Duke of Devonshire one-seventh; Sir Henry Hunloke, Bart, oneseventh; the representatives of the late John Woodyer, Esq. of Crookhill near Doncaster, one-seventh: the remaining seventh is in severalties (fn. n37). Gorse-hall, which is supposed to have been the hall of this manor, became, some years ago, the property of Mr. Thomas Bower, who resided in it; his grandson, the late Mr. Samuel Bower of Chesterfield, devised it to trustees for his daughter, Mrs. Dutton. This hall is now occupied as a farm-house.
The family of Hunt, or Le Hunt, were possessed of considerable property in Overton, in the early part of the thirteenth century. In the year 1556, Thomas Hunt (son of Christopher, who had removed to Aston upon Trent) sold his estate at Overton to Richard Hodgkinson, then of Northedge-hall. After intermediate alienations to Calton and Wolley, it was re-purchased of the latter family, in 1641, by George Hodgkinson, great-great-grandson of Richard above-mentioned. The daughter and heiress of William Hodgkinson, Esq., (son of George) married Joseph Banks Esq., of Revesby Abbey, in the county of Lincoln. His son Robert, who took the name of Hodgkinson, died in 1792. On his death, this estate devolved to the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., and Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, the much respected President of the Royal Society, who has generally since he became possessed of the estate, spent a few weeks in the autumn at Overton-hall. The garden at this place affords a singular curiosity in the growth of two gooseberry-trees, which, as the climate is unfavourable for the ripening of more valuable fruit, have been trained against the walls. One of these trees, the date of the planting of which is not known, measured in 1808, fifty-one feet two inches in length, (the eastern branch, twenty-eight feet seven inches; the western, twenty-two feet seven inches): the other tree, planted in 1794, measured, the same year, forty-one feet five inches in length: (the southern branch, twenty-one feet one inch; the northern, twenty feet four inches.) The extreme length of the larger tree in 1816, was fifty-four feet seven inches. The trees are of the smooth red, or Warrington sort, and are remarkably good bearers.
A younger branch of the Hunts resided also at Overton, from about the year 1322, till the year 1596; when William Hunt sold his mansion and estate to Robert Dakin of Chelmorton by whom it was conveyed in 1600, to the ancestor and namesake of Mr. John Gregory the present proprietor and occupier. The ancient family of Crich, which had been for many generations resident in Ashover, had considerable estates at Butterley, Nether-Stubbing, Stubbing-edge, and Haughfield in this parish, most of which were purchased in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by William Crich, Gent., and sold in parcels by his great grandson, Adam, father of Cor nelius Crich, the last of the family, who died in very reduced circumstances at the great age of 101, in the year 1789, and lies buried in Ashover church. Till within a few months of his death he frequently attended Chesterfield market.
Over-Stubbing or Stubbing-edge, which had belonged to the family of Crich, passed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth to Richard Dakeyne, who married the widow of William Crich. He had no issue by this marriage, but by a former wife, Catherine Strange, daughter of the Earl of Rothes, and one of the favourite attendants of Mary Queen of Scots (fn. n38), he had two sons. Henry Dakeyne his grandson sold Stubbing-edge-hall and estate, in 1661, to William Michell, Esq., of Wingerworth. The heiress of Michell brought it to Sir John Phelippes, Bart., of whom the mansion and a part of the estate, were re-purchased by Arthur Dakeyne, Esq., son of Henry. This estate passed with his heiress in marriage to Captain William Hopkinson, of Bonsall; and after having passed through several hands, is now the property and residence of Mr. George Allen.
Northedge-hall was formerly the property of a family, who took their name from the place of their residence. It was sold by Godfrey Northedge, in the year 1591; and having undergone some intermediate alien ations, was purchased, in 1603, by Mr. Robert Newton of Higham, in the parish of Shirland, ancestor of John Newton, Esq., of King's Bromley, near Lichfield, who died without issue in 1783. It is now the property of Mr. John Nutiall of Matlock, who purchased it in 1804, of the widow of the Rev. John Arden, devisee of Mr. Newton. The hall is occupied as a farm-house.
An estate, called Buntingfield, in this parish, furnishes a remarkable instance of well ascertained long continuance in a family of yeomanry, it being known to have belonged to an ancestor and name-sake of its pre sent proprietor, Mr. John Bunting, in the reign of Edward III.
The parish church is a Gothic structure, with a handsome spire, seven yards of which were blown down and re-built in 1715. The font has been already spoken of There are memorials for the families of Babington (fn. n39), Dakeyne (fn. n40), and Hodgkinson. (fn. n41)
In a volume of church notes, which appear to have been taken about the year 1710, by Francis Bassano, a herald painter, is recorded a monu ment in the Rolleston aisle, of Francis Rolleston, Esq., who died in 1587, and Mary, his wife, daughter of Sir John Vernon; a memorial of Philip Eyre, rector, no date; Jemima, daughter of Sir Thomas Bekingham, of Essex, and relict of Immanuel Bourne, 1679, and Anne, wife of Joshua Wigley, 1674.
At the beginning of the parish register, is a copy of the covenant of 1641, with numerous signatures. The following remarkable entry occurs in the year 1660. " Dorothy Matly, supposed wife to John Flint, of this parish, forswore herself, whereupon the ground opened, and she sunk over head, March 23d, and being found dead, she was buried March 25th."
The church of Ashover was given by Robert, Earl Ferrars, in the reign of King Stephen, to the abbot and convent of Derley. (fn. n42) It was in lay hands again before 1302; the subsequent history of the advowson has been already given. (fn. n43)
A chantry chapel in Ashover church, called Babington's chapel, was founded by Thomas Babington, Esq., in 1511. The lands belonging to this chantry were valued at 5l. 0s. 4d. per annum, in 1547. (fn. n44)
There was a charity-school at Ashover, as early as the year 1605, when the sum of five shillings per annum was given to it by Anthony Storer. The school-house was built by Mr. Wm. Hodgkinson in 1703; its present endowment, consisting chiefly of rent-charges (fn. n45), is about 7l. 5s. per annum. In a description of the school-house and garden by Titus Wheatcroft, parish clerk, in 1722, it is observed (fn. n46), that " at every corner of the garden is placed a birch-tree, that the master may not want for the moderate correction of his unruly scholars; and between every birch-tree there is placed a handsome spreading sycamore for them to sit and shade themselves from the violent heat of the sun."
Dethick, which lies about three miles south from Ashover, belonged, as early as the reign of Henry III. to an ancient family, who took their name from the place. The elder branch became extinct in the reign of Henry VI. by the death of Robert Dethick, whose heiress brought Dethick to Thomas Babington, elder son of Sir John Babington, and brother of Sir William Babington, who was appointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1423. John Babington, son of Thomas, was killed at Bosworth Field. Anthony Babington, the sixth in descent from Thomas, was executed in 1586 with circumstances of unusual severity (fn. n47), for a plot against Queen Elizabeth. When he found that the conspiracy was discovered, he attempted to secure himself by flight, having stained his face with the juice of wal nuts, to disguise his person. He was at length apprehended at the house of Bellamy, one of the conspirators, in the parish of Harrow on the Hill, in the county of Middlesex, Anthony Babington is said to have made over his estate at Dethick, previously to his attainder, to a younger brother. It was sold afterwards to Wendesley Blackwall, Esq., and having been divided into severalties, the whole became eventually the property of Samuel Hallowes, Esq. ancestor of Thomas Hallowes, Esq. of Glapwell, the present proprietor. The old mansion, which has been much altered, is occupied as a farm-house. The chapel at Dethick, dedicated to St. John, was founded in 1279, by Geffrey Dethick, and Thomas, Prior of Felley, in Nottinghamshire. A chantry was founded in this chapel, in the reign of Henry IV., by Roger de Wingerworth (fn. n48) Dethick chapel has been augmented by Queen Anne's bounty. The patronage was given to the late Dame Ann Barker, in consequence of her having been one of the principal benefactors. It is now vested in Thomas Hallowes, Esq.
The hamlet of Lea, which is partly in the parish of Ashover, partly in that of Crich, and partly in South-Winfield, lies about three miles from Ashover. The manor belonged, in the reign of King John, to Robert de Alveley, who left two daughters, co-heiresses. One moiety of the manor which passed with the elder daughter to Ferrers of Lockesley in Stafford shire, was sold by her son to Sir Geffrey Dethick, and having descended to the Babingtons, acquired the name of Babington's Manor. This moiety has been long in severalties. The other moiety was sold by a descendant of De la Lea, who married Alveley's younger daughter to the Frechevilles, of whom it was purchased in the fourteenth century by the Rollestons. From the latter, it acquired the appellation of Rolleston's Manor. Francis Rolleston, Esq. of the Lea, and his son, were convicted in 1571, for conspiring to set at liberty Mary Queen of Scots, then in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury. This manor, having passed by marriage to the Pershalls, it was sold in 1648 by Sir John Pershall, Bart to Hodgkinson and Cowley, who conveyed it to Spateman. In 1707, it was purchased of the last-mentioned family by the ancestor of the late Peter Nightingale, Esq., and is now, under his will, the property of William Edward Nightingale, (late Shore) Esq. Lea-hall is now occupied as a farm-house. There was formerly a chapel at Lea or Leyghe, founded in the reign of King John, as a domestic chapel by Robert Alveley or Aveley, because there was no parish church within a computed mile and a half. (fn. n49) A chantry was founded in this chapel in the reign of Henry IV. by Roger de Wingerworth. (fn. n50) The remains of this chapel, which, by an inscription still visible on the side of a Gothic window, appears to have been rebuilt in the year 1478, have been converted into a barn.
There is a small Unitarian meeting-house at Lea, and near it a cotton-mill, the property of Mr. Nightingale. At Lea-wood is a large hat manufactory, belonging to Messrs. Saxton and Taylor.
Aston on Trent
ASTON ON TRENT in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, lies about six miles south from Derby. The parish contains the township of Aston, and the hamlets of Great-Wilne and Shardlow, which form an united township, and maintain their own poor. A market at Aston on Tuesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of St. Peter ad Vincula, both long ago discontinued, were granted in the year 1256 to the abbot of Chester (fn. n51), who held the manor and church under the Earls of Chester, and after wards under the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster.
After the reformation, the manor of Aston as parcel of Weston, cum membris, was granted to Sir William Paget, and afterwards passed to the Ropers (fn. n52) : it was purchased of the latter in 1649, by Robert Holden, Esq. who had an estate also at Aston, with a capital mansion, purchased of the ancient family of Hunt, formerly of Overton, in Ashover, and afterwards of Aston. Robert Holden, Esq., who died in 1746, left an only daughter and heiress, married to James Shuttleworth, Esq., whose fourth son, the Reve rend Charles Holden, on succeeding by bequest to the manor of Weston, &c. took the name of Shuttleworth, and is the present proprietor. Mr. Holden is possessed also of the manor of Shardlow, purchased of the Hunts, Christqpher Hunt, Esq., the first of the family who settled in this parish, died seised of it in 1540 (fn. n53). Aston Lodge is the property and residence of George Redmond Hulbert, Esq.
The Fosbrookes have been possessed more than a century, of an estate and capital mansion (fn. n54) at Shardlow, which is now the property and residence of Leonard Fosbrooke, Esq. A considerable trade is carried on at Shardlow, where the Grand Trunk Navigation forms a junction with the old canal to Burton-on-Trent. Mr. Fosbrooke has spacious wharfs for corn, salt, the produce of the Staffordshire potteries, &c.
In the parish church at Aston are monuments or other memorials of the families of Hunt, Holden, Shuttleworth, and Fosbrooke. (fn. n55)
The church of Aston was appropriated to the Abbey of St. Werburgh, in Chester, in the year 1393 (fn. n56). It is nevertheless still a rectory, the advowson of which has for more than a century been vested in the Holden family.
There is no endowed charity school in this parish; but there are schools both at Aston and Shardlow, supported by voluntary contributions. The school-house at Shardlow was built by subscription in 1810. The rector has given the temporary accommodation of a house and school-room at Aston, where the school, till lately, was kept in the vestry.
Opposite Cavendish bridge in this parish, at Wilne-ferry, was a fort on the Leicestershire side of the river, constructed during the civil war, for the purpose of securing the line of communication between Leicester and Derby; it was taken and demolished by Lord Grey and Colonel Gell, in April 1643.