625 Stepney v Williams

The Court of Chivalry 1634-1640.

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625 STEPNEY V WILLIAMS

Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, co. Pembroke, bart, high sheriff v William Williams of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, clerk

July 1637 - November 1638

Figure 625:

Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, where the county justices met at the New Inn in January 1637 to assess ship money.

Abstract

Stepney, the high sheriff of Pembrokeshire, complained that at a meeting with the county justices, Thomas ap Rice, John Phillips, John Wogan, Owen Edwards and John Laugharne, for rating ship money in the upper room of the New Inn at Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, on 11 January 1637, Williams had given him the lie, called him a 'base rascal', said that he was a better man than Stepney, and 'phlipping his fingers' said 'a turd in your teeth'. On Williams's account he was already in the room talking to Wogan when Stepney came in. Williams offered him a drink which Stepney refused to accept, declaring without provocation 'if you come under my hand you shall knowe it...for I will provide for your safe custody, and you shalbe forthcoming, but not coming forth.' On Stepney's account the quarrel began when Williams complained that he was being unfairly rated for ship money, having been egged on by Wogan. Stepney asked him how much his church living was worth, whereupon Williams retorted, 'I wonder Sir John that you would aske me such a question, for the best meanes you have is in church livinges.' Stepney replied, 'It is true that a good part of my estate is in church livings and I keepe as sufficient men to serve them as yourself', which Williams, an Oxford graduate from a local gentry family, interpreted as an insult and declared to be untrue. At this point Thomas Stepney, esq, Sir John's brother, stepped in and grabbing Williams by the collar said, 'What doe you give my brother the lie?' and 'Do you compare with my brother?', to which Williams replied, 'I do not compare with you or your brother', but 'I have brought my hogges to an ill market if soe bee your brother's hackneys and journeymen must be compared to me.' Thomas ap Rice moved to pacify the quarrel, getting Williams to leave the room; but Williams returned and it was at this point that he appears to have directly insulted Stepney. The following day the sheriff and justices met to determine what to do about his conduct. They decided that because they had no jurisdiction in Haverfordwest, and because Williams was a cleric, they would refer the matter to the Bishop of St David's.

Process was granted on 3 July 1637, but thereafter the case proceeded slowly. Williams was summoned to appear in November, but Stepney's witnesses were only examined on 20-22 February 1638, in the town hall of Haverfordwest before commissioners John Warren, Rees Vaughan, John Milward and Henry Lloyd, gents. Williams's witnesses were examined before Milward and Lloyd 22-27 September 1638, again in the town hall. Witnesses included the J.P.s, Phillips, ap Rice, Edwards and Laugharne, as well as the clerk of the peace and under sheriff, Lodovick Lloyd, and various ministers and gentry.

Initial proceedings

3/157, Petition

'Your petitioner being in the execution of his office and sessinge of the ship money by virtue of his Majestie's writt to him directed, one William Williams of Wallwyn's Castle in the county of Pembroke, clerke, said that your petitioner was a base rascall gave your petitioner the lye; and said he was a better man then your petitioner and bid a turd in your petitioner's teeth, with other severall opprobrious termes, whereby your petitioner is much wounded in his reputation.'

Petitioned that Williams be brought to answer.

Duck desired Dethick to let process go out, 3 July 1637.

Signed by Arthur Duck.

3/158, Plaintiff's bond

3 July 1637

Bound to appear 'in the Court in the painted Chamber within the Pallace of Westminster'.

Signed by Morgan Tanckred of Prendergast, co. Pembroke, gent, on behalf of Stepney.

Sealed, subscribed and delivered in the presence of John Watson.

3/115, Defendant's bond

31 October 1637

Bound to appear 'in the Court in the painted Chamber within the Pallace of Westminster'.

Signed by William Williams.

Sealed, subscribed and delivered in the presence of John Watson.

Cur Mil I, fo. 92, Libel

1. Stepney's family had been gentry for up to 200 years. At a meeting for the ship money in Haverfordwest in January 1637, Williams 'said that some speech which I used was an untruth, and that I and other gentlemen then assembled were base rascals; and being asked whom he meant, answered, the sheriffe too, and that he was a better man than I, the sheriffe, phlipping his fingers'. These words of contempt were provocative of a duel.

No date.

Signed by Arthur Duck.

Plaintiff's case

Cur Mil I, fo. 93, Letters commissory for the plaintiff

Addressed to commissioners John Warren of Haverfordwest, gent, Rees Vaughan of the same, gent, and also, Henry Lloyd, gent, and John Milward, gent, to meet to examine a cause of scandalous words provocative of a duel from 20 to 22 February 1638 in the town hall of Haverfordwest.

Gilbert Dethick assigned Lawrence Belringer as notary public.

Dated 8 November 1637

Signed by Gilbert Dethick.

Cur Mil I, fos. 94-6, Defence interrogatories

1. Was the witness a relative, household servant, tenant or dependent of Stepney's? Were they a gentleman or plebeian? How much were they worth in goods with their debts paid?

2. If the witness deposed concerning the libel, they were to be asked exactly where and when in Haverfordwest the pretended words were spoken. Did they hear all the words themselves? What specifically were they?

3. Had they been instructed how to depose, and to whom would they give the victory if it were in their power?

4. On the day, but before the speaking of the words, was Williams 'in an upper roome of the house or inne of one Thomas Williams in Haverfordwest', with John Wogan, esq, Rowland Laugharne, and John Lloyd, gentlemen? Had Williams 'business of consequence' with Wogan and Lloyd? Did Stepney 'come out of some other roome of the house, into the roome single and alone, for anie publique businesse, or in complement to salute Mr John Wogan? If any of the words in the libel were spoken by Williams, were they occasioned upon and in that meetinge, yea or noe? And further were you present when [Stepney] came first into the roome and company, and how long staid you there? What wordes did you heare then pass'?

5. Was there any meeting that day of Stepney and other co. Pembroke J.P.s concerning the levying of ship money? If yes, where and when did they sit and who was there? Was Williams present? What were the words spoken by Stepney concerning ship money that Williams said were untrue?

6. When Stepney came into the room mentioned in interrogatory 4, 'in the companie of Williams and the rest of the gentlemen', did Stepney with just cause offered by Williams, shewe and manifest himself to be offended with Williams, and did he presently threaten Williams, that if he came under his hand (being then high sheriff of the county of Pembroke wherein Williams lived) he should know that he was offended with him. And did he also further saie and threaten, that he would keepe him in safe custodie, and provide that he should be forthcoming, but not coming forth, or words to that effect'?

7. 'Did Stepney at the time and place say, that he kept as good men under him as Williams was or is, (meaning thereby, that his curates and servingmen were as good men as Williams)'? When Williams replied that it was not true, was it in answeare to the foresaid comparative words then used by Stepney to Williams of the curates and serving men? Did Thomas Stepney brother of Sir John 'thereupon suddenly come into the roome and lay violent handes upon Williams, sayeing 'What doe you compare with my brother? I may compare with you'? Did Williams then '(in temperate manner) answer Mr Stepney, that he did neither compare with him nor his brother, but said these wordes, vizt. I have brought my hogges to an ill market if soe bee your brother's hackneys and jorneymen must be compared to me. I scorne to be compared with such which serve two churches for three or fower pounds a yeere.'

8. Had Stepney 'impropriations of the church livings of Mouncton in the hundred of Narberth, of the parish church of Newcastle in Keines [Little Newcastle], of the several parish churches of Llanikeven [Llanycefn] and of Clarbeston, all in the countie of Pembroke, of the parish church of St Martins in Haverfordwest, and of the several parish churches of Llanddarog and Egremont in the county of Carmarthen? Declare at large upon your oath, what are the names of the several curates hired to discharge and officiate the several cures under Stepney? How have the said cures been served for seaven yeeres last past, and what are the qualities of the curates? How much monies did Stepney give to every of them yearlie for serving [the] said cures severally? And if Williams did speak any comparative words did he name or meane the curates and servingmen formerly to him by Stepney then compared, and not Stepney'?

9. Did Stepney then inform several J.P.s that Williams 'had abused him and them, and desired them to bind him to his good behaviour'? After they had examined the matter, had the J.P.s reported that there was no cause to so bind Williams?

10. Where was Stepney when the J.P.s were assembled at the Pembroke quarter sessions in the town hall at Haverfordwest on 11 January 1637? How was Stepney employed at that time and who was with him? Did Stepney or someone acting for him confer with the witness soon after 11 January 1637 concerning what he could testify against Williams? Did the witness sign a note declaring what they could depose?

11. Was Williams 'a grave minister, a beneficed man, given to good hospitalitie, a man that endeavors to settle peace and quietness among his neighbours and parishioners to avoid litigious suites in law, one that hath carried himself respectively and behaved himself regardfully towards his superiors and all other persons? Is he not well beloved and very well esteemed of all generally, and especially of the justices of the peace, esquiers and gentlemen of good qualitie within the countie of Pembroke and other places adjoining and elswheare, as you observe, conceave and verilie believe in your conscience'?

No date.

No signatures.

Cur Mil I, fos. 88-91, Preamble to plaintiff's depositions

Taken before commissioners John Warren, Rees Vaughan, John Milward and Henry Lloyd, gents, in the town hall of Haverfordwest on 20 February 1637/8.

Cur Mil I, fos. 98r-135r, Plaintiff's depositions

fos. 98r-99v (Witness 1), John Philips of the parish of Mua Mota [New Moat?], co. Pembroke, esq, lived there for 8 years, aged about 51

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 6 or 7 years, and was high sheriff in 1636. His father had been a knight and baronet, his eldest brother a baronet and his grandfather an esquire 'of an ancient house' and descended 'out of Stepney house near London *as he hath heard*.' Stepney called a meeting at Haverfordwest for January during quarter sessions' week, desiring the assistance of the J.P.s for setting a rate for ship money. John Philips going from the quarter sessions went to Thomas Williams's New Inn in Haverfordwest. There he found in an upper room of the house Sir John Stepney, William Williams, John Wogan, Thomas Price, Owen Edwards, esqs, and Thomas Stepney, gent with others. He did not know whether they were meeting there about ship money, but he found Williams 'moved with color *or anger, and did then* heare that there was then some falling out between him and Stepney; but what words were by either of them used he cannot tell or depose.'

Signed by John Phillips and by commissioners Warren, Vaughan, Milward, and by the notary public, Belringer.

To Williams's interrogatories:

11. 'He liveth somewhat remote' from Williams, 'but conceiveth and hath heard and observed that he is an honest man and of good carriage *and behaviour towards all men*, and a good preacher.'

20 February 1638

Signed by John Phillips and by commissioners Warren, Vaughan, Milward, and by the notary public, Belringer.

fos. 100r-101r (Witness 2), Thomas Hayward of the parish of Rudbaxton, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there since he was born, aged about 47

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet ever since his elder brother Libbon Stepney died, and was high sheriff in 1636. His father and grandfather were gentlemen 'of an ancient family' and so accounted and reputed. In January 1637 he was in an upper room of Thomas Williams's New Inn at Haverfordwest with William Williams, Sir John Stepney, John Wogan, John Laugharne, Thomas ap Rees, and Owen Edwards, esqs, all J.P.s for co. Pembroke. He did not know for sure, but believed they were meeting there about ship money. Stepney asked Williams how much his church living was worth per year. When Williams replied 'I wonder Sir John that you would aske me such a question for the best meanes you have is in church livings', Stepney replied, 'I confesse I have some church livings and other meanes besides (God be thanked) and doe keepe as good or sufficient men that are my Chapplins as yourselfe'. Williams, standing at the top of the stairs adjoining the room, then replied that this was an untruth. Soon after this, Williams then said 'you are all base rascals', but 'whome he meant hereby this witness kneweth not but knoweth that there was then some difference between Stepney and Williams'.

20 February 1638

Signed by Thomas Hayward and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 101v-106v (Witness 3), Maurice Beatman of the parish of Wiston, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there since he was born, aged about 28

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 4 or 5 years and was high sheriff in 1636. His father was a gentleman and so accounted and reputed. In January 1637 he was in the dining room of Thomas Williams's New Inn in Haverfordwest. It was almost nightfall when he met his master, John Wogan, with Sir John Stepney. Shortly afterwards, Williams arrived and had 'some crosse or unpleaseing discourse' with Stepney, who demanded how much his church livings were worth per year. Williams replied: 'I wonder why you are so much against church men in regard the best part of your estate is in church livings'. Stepney replied: 'It is true that a good part of my estate is in church livings and I keepe as sufficient men to serve those livings as yourself, or said that one that I keepe to serve those livings is as sufficient as yourself.' Williams then replied, 'It is an untruth.' Then 'by the persuasion of some of the gentlemen of the companie', Williams departed. He returned soon after but was prevented access 'and did either saie you are all rascals, or you are all base rascals, or words to that effect, and whom he meanes thereby he knoweth not.'

20 February 1638

Signed by Maurice Beatman and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1. He was a gentleman and worth £40 or £50 his debts paid.

2. Referred himself to his answer to the libel.

3. He had conferred with Thomas Hayward, William Lauharne and Henry Williams about what had happened and what words were used, but this was not until after they had been sworn. He also saw a note showed to him by Dermot Collin, one of Stepney's servants, which contained 'the heads and briefs of such passages and words as were delivered' by Williams to Stepney. He still claimed that he was not persuaded or directed in giving his evidence, which he did as 'his conscience should helpe and direct him.'

4. He believed Williams entered the room because he had business with John Wogan, esq, and or John Lloyd.

5. He believed Stepney called the meeting in the New Inn for making a rate for ship money, and that he was in town because of the quarter sessions. The J.P.s present were John Wogan, esq, John Lauharne, Thomas ap Rice, John Phillips and Owen Edwards esqs. He did not hear Williams say that what Stepney had said was untrue 'touching anie business concerning the leavie of ship monie, but by the occasions by him sworn in his deposicon taken upon the libel in the commission annexed whereunto he referreth himself.'

6. Williams asked Stepney whether he was offended with him, and Stepney replied 'if you come under my power you shall know that I am offended with you,' and 'that if he had him in his custodie he would keepe him safe enough'. Stepney had said this because Williams had said something about the sheriff's gaol.

7. Thomas Stepney came near to Williams and said something to him, 'but what such words were he now remembereth not.' He heard Williams say that 'he scorned to be compared with any of his, meaning Stepney's journiemen priests or such as serveth two or three churches for fower pounds a yeare.'

9. Shortly after, Williams did say 'you are all rascals, or you are all base rascals. Stepney said then and there, Praie gentlemen, *take witness that I am abused, and I desire* some order *may be taken with him,* meaning Mr Williams, for he hath abused us all.'

10. In January 1637 there was a quarter sessions held for co. Pembroke in Haverfordwest. He was at the New Inn for a meeting about ship money with the deputy sheriff Lewis Davids, gent, and that evening with his master John Wogan, esq, and others.

11. Williams 'is a grave minister, a beneficed man and that he knoweth not anie thing to the contrarie, but that [Williams] is a peace maker and hath carried himself (for ought he knoweth) unto his betters and superiors very faire and respectfulie and so likewise to other persons, *excepting his adversaries,* well beloved. And is very well esteemed by some of the justices of peace, esqs, and gentlemen of good qualitie of his countie of Pembroke, and doth likewise believe that he is verie well beloved by gentlemen of other adjacent counties.'

21 February 1638

Signed by Maurice Bateman and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 107r-111r (Witness 4), Thomas ap Rice of the parish of Brawdy, co. Pembroke, gent, born there, aged about 62

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 4 years and his grandfather had been a J.P. for co. Pembroke and a deputy lieutenant. His father and brother had been baronets, he was from an 'ancient family descended and so reputed', and served as high sheriff in 1636. At the quarter sessions in January 1637 at Haverfordwest the witness attended at the shirehall as a J.P. all afternoon until late evening 'after candle lighting'. Then he went to the New Inn to dine in an upper room with other J.P.s and found on arrival that 'some difference or falling out had happened between Stepney and John Wogan, esq., and William Williams, clerk'. The witness asked Wogan what had caused the argument between Wogan and Stepney as the two had 'alwaies been good friends.' Wogan answered that Stepney had told Williams that his curates were as good men as Williams, 'who was, as Mr Wogan then said to this witness, a gentleman'. Williams then uttered 'words manifesting much colour and impatiency thereby unto Stepney and did tell Stepney that he was as good a man as himself.' Then the witness 'did endeavour to passifie the contention by taking of Williams out of the roome and bringing of him to the top of a paire of stares unto the roome adjoining desiring him to depart to his lodging, and having so done he returned back into the same room again with an intent to pacifie the difference between Stepney and Mr John Wogan, esq., and to that purpose did begin to speak to John Wogan, esq., by which time Williams was suddenly returned again into the roome, whereupon he did the second time persuade William Williams to goe forth or out of the room with him who then at this witness's request departed and went from the house or inn'. As Williams departed downstairs, 'he did utter some lewd words which [this] witness took no notice of'. At his first entering the dining room he found with Baronet Stepney, John Wogan and John Lawharne, esqs, and [the] J.P.s; 'but whether they had been conferring together about a ship rate or otherwise he knoweth not. But Stepney did then affirm to him that he was interrupted by Mr Williams being then upon the king's service.'

21 February 1638

Signed by Thomas ap Rice and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1-4. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

5. He did not remember any such meeting by Stepney or other co. Pembroke J.P.s, and if such a one had occurred, then he was absent.

7. He had tried to pacify the differences and had asked Wogan what the quarrel was over, and Wogan replied that Stepney had compared his curates with Williams. 'And then and there he heard William Williams saie that John Stepney baronet did compare his curates, or hackney priest, with him, being as good a man as himselfe.'

8. He had heard that Stepney held the impropriation of the rectory of St Martin's 'by a lease for life, or lives; and soe much he hath heard from Mr John Grobam who receiveth from John Stepney the rent for the same.'

9. The next day at the New Inn the J.P.s discussed what to do about the quarrel, and some of them thought Williams should be sent for and questioned; and if he had spoken the words Stepney claimed then they should punish him. However they decided not to send for him and he should 'in respect of his coate and calling be putt over to his diocesan the then lord Bishop of St David's'.

10. He could not remember whether Stepney attended personally at the quarter sessions in the shirehall, 'and if he did come at all he made little stay there, but had his deputie sheriff there attending as it is usually accustomed'. He did not know whether Stepney was employed at the time levying ship money.

11. Williams was rector of Walwyn's Castle, and the witness had heard him preach several times in Brawdy parish church. He believed that Williams 'doth desire peace amongst his neighbours', and that he was 'welbeloved and respected by some justices of the peace of the countie of Pembroke, and so likewise of divers of the gentrie'.

21 February 1638

Signed by Thomas ap Rice and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 111v-114r (Witness 5), Henry Williams of the parish of Brawdy, co. Pembroke, yeoman, born in the parish of Nevern, co. Pembroke, aged about 18

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney was a baronet and high sheriff in January 1637 when he was at Thomas Williams's house in Haverfordwest with John Wogan and John Lawharne esqs and J.P.s, 'but upon what occasion of business he cannot depose. The witness was there waiting on his master Thomas ap Rice at about 5pm in the dining room when he heard Stepney say to Williams that 'he kept as able men to serve his cures or churches as Mr Williams was'. Williams replied that was false, but was persuaded by Thomas ap Rice to go down the stairs, at which point the witness heard him say 'rascals, but what or whom he meant he knoweth not.'

21 February 1638

Signed by Henry Williams and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1-2. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

3. The day he swore his deposition he was with Maurice Beatman in the parlour of the New Inn when one Dermot Colline a servant of Stepney showed them 'a note of pay wherein was contained the words in the libel menconed. But he by virtue of the oath he hath taken did collect nothing thereby for his deposicon in this behalfe taken; nor was he thereby drawne in his deposicon otherwise then his conscience should assist him.'

4-8. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

9. He heard Stepney say to the J.P.s, 'Gentlemen shall I be thus abused, being I am come here to attend you in the king's service'? Then his master Thomas ap Rice esq. and J.P. for co. Pembroke said that we and other justices of peace, then and there likewise present, are in a forraine countie, and noe justices of the peace in the town and county of Haverfordwest, and can take noe order with him'.

10. He was in the town hall at Haverfordwest with Thomas ap Rice, John Philips and Owen Edwards, esq., J.P.s, in co. Pembroke. Stepney was there too but left before the others, leaving behind his deputy. He later went to the New Inn with his master and found there in the dining room Stepney, John Wogan, John Lawharne and William Williams, Stepney's brothers and others 'upon what occasion he cannot depose'.

11. Williams was a 'grave minister', parson or rector of Walwyn's Castle, and 'keepeth good hospitalitie for ought he knoweth and as befiteth a man of his coate and a man for ought he knoweth that hath carried himself respectfully and regardfully towards all persons as well gentlemen as others and well beloved of all in the countie where he liveth and other adjacent counties for ought he knoweth'.

21 February 1638

Signed by Henry Williams and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 114v-115v (Witness 6), William Langharne of the parish of Jordanston, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there for 18 years, born in the parish of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, aged about 55

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 5 years and was high sheriff in January 1637, descended from an ancient family and so reputed and taken. In January 1637 during quarter sessions' week, he was in the dining room at Thomas Williams's house in Haverfordwest, when he heard 'speeches of difference' between William Williams and Sir John Stepney. Williams had said, 'I marvell that you should speak so much against the church for your chiefest meanes is of or by the church. Whereupon Stepney replied, Tis true, I have church livings and other livings or meanes besides, and as for my church livings I keepe as good men as yourself to serve in each of them. What Mr Williams replied he did not well hear'. Soon after he heard Williams 'speake with a loud voice as he was standing or going near unto the doore leading to the dining room that they are scurvie rascals; but whom he meant thereby he cannot saie. He believeth that Mr Williams at the deliverie of the words by him deposed of was stirred or a little impatient.'

22 February 1638

Signed by William Langharne and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1-7. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

8. He had heard that Stepney 'hath sett or lett Newcastle in Keins' [Little Newcastle] in co. Pembroke and had the 'disposing of the tithes thereof'.

11. As witness 5.

22 February 1638

Signed by William Langharne and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 116r-120r (Witness 7), Lodovick David of the parish of Uzmaston, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there for 5 years, born in the parish of Rosemarket, co. Pembroke, aged about 35

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 5 years and was high sheriff in 1636 'and so continued until his place was suspended by his Majestie's letters patents for or in the yeare 1637'. That his father was a gentleman, then a knight, then baronet, and was succeeded by his eldest son Alban Stepney as baronet. Alban was succeeded as baronet by his younger brother John. The witness had been clerk of the peace in the lifetime of Sir John Stepney's father who had also been custos rotolorum and deputy lieutenant for co. Pembroke until his death. A writ came from the king and privy council to Sir John Stepney directing co. Pembroke to raise money to provide a ship of war for the king. In 1636 the witness was sworn as under sheriff, and so had the keeping of this writ, letters and instructions. He spoke with Stepney in January 1636/7 about setting a rate, who resolved to do so at the Haverfordwest quarter sessions where most of the J.P.s and gentry would be present, 'whose furtherance Sir John desired'. Stepney arrived in Haverfordwest on 10 January, where he stayed for all the sessions and determined the rates for ship money in each parish in the presence of four J.P.s 'and therein taking their advice and assistance'. The witness wrote out the assessments at the New Inn 'in an upper roome there called the baronet Stepney chamber in which house or inne the justices of peace doe usuallie meet touching the countrie service.'

22 February 1638

Signed by Lodovick David and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1. Stepney's grandmother and his grandmother were sisters, and both daughters and coheirs of William Phillips of Picton, co. Pembroke, esq. The witness 'hath an estate sufficient to live by and maintaine his charge and is worth 100 every man paid'.

5. The quarrel between Stepney and Williams occurred before the adjournment of the quarter sessions; and 'that part of the assessment of the ship rate *which the sheriff had imposed upon* the hundred of Dougleddy [Daugleddau] was settled and determined upon the several parishes within the hundred within the time of the general sessions before by him deposed of,' by Stepney in the presence of John Phillips, esq., J.P. who lived in that hundred. He could not remember if Williams was present.

6-7. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

8. Stepney received profits out of some or all the tithes mentioned in the interrogatory, but he did not know by what right he held them; 'and for the church of St Martins he saieth that one Maurice Mugleston, clerk, Master of Arts and preacher of Gods word did officiate and serve, and at this present as he believeth doth officiate and serve the cure there, and soe hath done for more than seven yeares.'

10. There were some J.P.s at the Haverfordwest quarter sessions on 11 January, but for who they were he would refer to the records taken at that court for the day. He did not remember if Stepney attended that day, but believed he was at the New Inn that afternoon 'about the ship rate'.

22 February 1638

Signed by Lodovick David and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 120v-123r (Witness 8), Rowland Laugharne of the parish of St Brides, co. Pembroke, esq, lived there for 16 years, born there, aged about 31

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for 3 years and was High Sheriff. Stepney and his father were reputed and taken for gentlemen. He was in Thomas Williams's house in Haverfordwest at the time of the quarter sessions, when he conferred with William Williams about 'how they were rated towards the ship rate'. Langharne said to Williams 'that he was rated high'. Then Stepney entered the room and Williams asked him 'why should you rate us church men so high, for most of your estates is in church livings'. Stepney replied 'I have other livings besides church livings and doe keepe as good men to serve them as yourselfe'. Williams answered that was 'an untruth'. Williams was asked whom he meant, and he answered 'the sheriff', 'but who did so demand of him he knoweth not; neither did he heare him then use the words base rascalls'. At the time, Williams was 'something moved with colour or seeming to be impatient'.

22 February 1638

Signed by Rowland Laugharne and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1-3. Not examined by Stepney's consent.

4. John Wogan was present. The witness left the room shortly after Williams did, but met him returning to the room again.

5. There was to be a meeting about the ship rate the day of the falling out, but he did not know if Stepney sat at it that day because he was late arriving in town.

7. Thomas Stepney 'went close unto Mr Williams, but as he believeth offered him no violence' but said 'what do you compare with my brother'? Thomas Stepney also told Williams 'you give my brother the lie.'

8. He believed that when Stepney said 'I doe keepe as good men as yourself to serve them (*meaning Mr Williams,* as he hath deposed already to the libel), he did mean such of his as were and did officiate his cures of his church livings and not otherwise.'

11. Williams had been for many years a 'grave minister, a beneficed man, a preacher of God's word and given to good hospitalitie and a man well respected and beloved of all men for ought he knoweth to the contrary'.

23 February 1638

Signed by Rowland Laugharne and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 123r-128r (Witness 9), Owen Edwards of the parish of St Legwell's [St Dogmael's or St Dogwell's or St Twynnells], co. Pembroke, esq, born there, aged about 51

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been a baronet for seven years and was the son of John Stepney of Prendergast, co. Pembroke, knight and baronet, deceased, and Jane Maunsell, daughter of Francis Maunsell of Muddlescwm, co. Carmarthen, baronet, by the daughter and heir of Henry Morgan of Muddlescwm, esq. The baronet Maunsell was the son of Edward Maunsell of Morganstown, co. Glamorgan, knight who was son or grandson of a daughter of one of the earls of 'Woaster' [Worcester]. Sir John's father was the son of Alban Stepney of Prendergast, esq, and Mary Phillips, daughter and coheir of William Phillips of Picton castle, co. Pembroke, esq, by a sister of Sir John Parrott of Harrauldstey [Haroldston West] knight 'who was descended of the Poynes, Barckleies, and the Lord Ryvers'. Alban Stepney was descended from Ralph Stepney of Aldenham, co. Hertford, esq, 'and the reason of his belief thereof is because he hath seen in the parochial church of Aldenham aforesaid a faire monument with the same coats and crests that Alban Stepney, esq, deceased, in his life time gave, and after his decease Sir John Stepney, knight and baronet, and now the plaintiff John Stepney, baronet, doth give, laid upon that monument in brass. Alban Stepney, esq., is the brother's son whose name as he remembreth was Paul Stepney, sold the manner and manner house of Aldenham.' The plaintiff was high sheriff, and his father had been High Sheriff and deputy lieutenant. Alban Stepney was 'according to a logue *taken and made in his this deponent's custodie* of the high sheriffs of the county of Pembroke twice or thrice high sheriff and once a parliament man elected for the countie.' The witness was a J.P. for co. Pembroke, and met the other J.P.s at Haverfordwest at the quarter sessions in January 1637. He understood from the under-sheriff that Stepney had deferred the setting of the rate for ship money until the sessions, 'to the end of having the assistance of the justices of the peace of the countie for the equal rating thereof.' After the adjournment of the sessions one day he went to the New Inn with other J.P.s to dine and 'confer on or about the county business'. As he went into the dining room, he heard Stepney charge Williams with having given him the lie, 'and thereupon William Williams clerk was put out of the roome'. He heard Williams say near the door 'with an extended and lowd voice', 'they are base rascals, but whom Mr Williams meant thereby he doth not know, but verilie believeth that he meant Sir John or his brothers because there was no difference at that time and place that he knew or saw but between Sir John *his brothers* and Mr Williams'. The witness believed Williams 'to be in heate and color and standing in the face of Sir John with his hatt on his head.'

23 February 1638

Signed by Owen Edwards and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1. The witness did not have 'anie dependencie or relacon' to Stepney or any of his family, but 'is of his kindred, blood and alliance and doth receive as his owne about three hundred pounds per annum.'

2. The words were spoken in Thomas Williams's house soon after the adjournment of the quarter sessions that day 'in the presence of divers persons but who heard the same particularlie he knoweth not.'

7. He saw Thomas Stepney 'laie his hand upon Mr Williams and putt him out of the dining room', because Thomas alleged he had abused his brother.

8. Sir John Stepney held the 'proprietie or farmes of Mucton, Newcastle [Little Newcastle], Lanykeven [Llanycefn], Clerbeson, Saint Martins Llanddarog and Egremont'. At Little Newcastle, Stepney's curate was Hugh Johns 'being an able scholer and preacher and one that dischargeth his place well and sufficient'. At Clarbeston, another of Stepney's curates was Mr Beech 'being likewise an able scholer and sufficient preacher'. At St Martin's in Haverfordwest, Stepney's curate was Maurice Mugleston 'being to this witness's knowledge an able preacher'. 'One Stevens, that was sometimes his schoolfellow, is curate of Lanykeven [Llanycefn] and doth discharge the cure there as he believeth; but noe preaching minister yet of honest life and conversacon. And further saith that these men were curates of the churches in the year in the libel and *some of them* for many yeares before.'

9. Stepney and his brother complained to him and other justices about Williams's abuses, and desired him punished for them 'which he told them could not be done in regard that they the justices were in a forraine countie. And further saieth that he and other justices of the peace then present had punished Mr Williams if he had been that time within their power and commission.'

10. The witnessed believed that most of the justices for co. Pembroke were at the hall attending the quarter sessions. At the beginning Stepney was present, 'but how long he staied there, or where he did dispose of himself otherwise at the quarter sessions time he doth not remember, but saith that he met or found Sir John *at the rising of the court of quarter sessions that daie* in companie with John Wogan and Williams at the time and place by him deposed of.' The witness denied any private conversation with Stepney or any other concerning what he should testify, 'or that he putt his hand to any noate or paper for the same.'

11. Williams was a preacher and a beneficed man, whom the witness had once heard preach.

23 February 1638

Signed by Owen Edwards and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 128v-129v (Witness 10), Thomas Davids of the parish of St Mary in Haverfordwest, gent, born in the parish of Rosemarket, co. Pembroke, aged about 31

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been high sheriff in 1636-7 and a baronet for five years and styled such in the commission of the peace. Stepney and his ancestors were gentlemen and so reputed and taken. Stepney 'appointed divers or sundrie meetings' for setting a rate for ship money in January 1637 at the New Inn. This witness was that year sworn county clerk of the peace for co. Pembroke.

23 February 1638

Signed by Thomas Davids and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 129v-132r (Witness 11), Alban Rice of the parish of Prendergast, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there about 26 years, aged about 56

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney had been high sheriff in 1636 and a baronet for seven years. Stepney and his ancestors were gentlemen and so reputed and taken. On 11 January 1637 the witness came to the New Inn, at Haverfordwest where the stairs led to the dining room. Sir John Stepney, Thomas ap Rice, John Phillips, esq, John Wogan, esq, Owen Edwards, esq and John Langharne, esq, and William Williams were present. He did not know if they were there employed about a ship money rate. He went downstairs after Williams and at the foot of the stairs heard Williams say 'I am a better man then the sheriff (meaning John Stepney baronet) and then alsoe, *plipping his fingers*, sayed a turd in the sheriff's teeth.'

24 February 1638

Signed by Alban Rice and by the four commissioners and notary public.

To Williams's interrogatories:

1. He was not kin to Stepney but was his tenant 'and otherwise hath noe dependencie' upon him, and was worth his debts paid £40.

2. The words spoken were on 11 January 1637 at the house of Thomas Williams in Haverfordwest at the foot of the stairs coming down from the dining room in the evening at the time of candle lighting. Accompanying Williams was his son Matthew, this witness 'and none els as he now remembreth'.

3. He had no conference with Stepney about his deposition, that he favoured neither side and 'wisheth a peace' between Stepney and Williams.

4-9. He did not answer by the consent of Williams.

10. He 'did take a noate for his owne remembrance of the passages or speeches before by him deposed of to the libel, unto which noate he subscribed his name.'

11. Williams was a 'grave minister and a beneficed man, and a peacemaker and one that hath carried himself respectfully for ought he knoweth towards all persons and believeth that he is a man well beloved.'

23 February 1638

Signed by Alban Rice and by the four commissioners and notary public.

fos. 132r-135r (Witness 12), John Laugharne of St Brides, co. Pembroke, esq, born there, aged about 51

To Stepney's libel:

Stepney's grandfather had been a J.P., his father a knight and baronet, and his eldest brother a baronet. Stepney had been a baronet since his eldest brother's death about 6 or 7 years ago. Stepney was high sheriff, and his ancestors were gentlemen and so reputed and taken. In January during the quarter sessions time at Haverfordwest, the witness came to the New Inn, and up the stairs to the dining room, where there were present Stepney, John Wogan, esq, his son, Rowland Lawharne, esq, and William Williams clerk, and others whom he did not remember. Stepney called a meeting to set a rate for ship money and for such had called for the help of the justices of the peace.At the time of the words, he saw Williams 'was much moved with anger'.

2 April 1638

Signed by John Laugharne and by commissioners Warren, Vaughan, and the notary public.

Cur Mil I, fo. 135v, Notary public's certificate

Certificate in Latin signed by Lawrence Belringer, notary public that the examinations had been completed and were now being returned.

No date.

Notary's mark.

Defendant's case

13/2aa, Defence [damaged]

1. [Damaged] Williams was educated at the University of Oxford and had been a chaplain to Sir John Herbert, knight, and Esme Stuart, the late duke of Lennox.

2. [Damaged] See as Cur Mil I, fo. 8.

3. [Damaged] See as Cur Mil I, fo. 8.

4. Between 4 and 5pm on 11 January 1637 Williams was with John Wogan, esq, Rowland Langharne and John Lloyd in Thomas Williams's alehouse when Stepney came into the room. After 'some compliment with Master Woogan', Williams offered Stepney a glass of wine, but Stepney looking upon Williams 'with an angrie countenance' refused to accept and seemed offended. When Williams asked why he was offended, or what wrong he had done him, Stepney replied 'you know when and where'. Stepney added 'in a threatninge manner', 'if you come under my hand you shall knowe it (meaninge as he was high sheriff) for I will provide for your safe custody and you shalbe forth comynge but not comynge forth'. Williams replied 'I wonder whie you should be so harshe to a minister', adding 'because a great parte of your estate or meanes is by church livings and me thinks that you should be more loving seeing that you participate of the same that we doe'. Then Stepney replied in a 'disgracefull manner', saying 'I keepe as good men as you under mee.'

5. Then Stepney's brother entered and 'laid violent hands' upon Williams. Taking him to the cellar, Stepney's brother said 'do you compare with my brother'. Williams replied 'I doe not compare with you nor your brother', adding that he had brought his hogs to an ill market if servants and hackneys should be compared to him. The door was shut on Williams.

6. Mr Wogan, Mr Langharne and Mr Lloyd and others present heard the words that passed and as Williams left Stepney that day, no other words passed between them.

7. Williams 'did not at that time or anie other time utter the wordes in the libel of or against Stepney' or any other J.P.s.

Cur Mil I, fo. 8, Defence

1. Williams was descended from a family of gentlemen and esquires, and was a minister educated at the University of Oxford for six or seven years. He had been domestic chaplain to Sir John Herbert, knt., Secretary of State to James I. Williams had also been a chaplain to Esme Stuart, the late duke of Lennox.

2. Williams denied the words in the libel, supposedly spoken at the inn of Thomas Williams in Haverfordwest in January 1637.

3. On 11 January 1637, the J.P.s assembled for the quarter sessions at Haverfordwest but did not meet concerning ship money at all during that week. Ten or twelve days later Williams sent a petition to Stepney on behalf of the inhabitants of Walwyn's Castle arguing that they were overcharged and desiring a mitigation, which Stepney granted.

4. Between 4 and 5pm on 11 January 1637, Williams was with John Wogan, esq, Rowland Langharne, esq, and John Lloyd, gent, in an upper roome of Thomas Williams's house in Haverfordwest, when Stepney entered 'and after some complement with Mr Wogan', Williams offered Stepney a glass of wine, which Stepney refused 'with an angrie countenance', and seemed to be offended. When Williams asked why he was offended or what wrong he had done him, Stepney replied 'you know when and where', adding 'if you come under my hand you shall know it (meaning he was then high sheriff) for I will provide for you safe custodie, and you shall be forthcoming, but not coming forth'. Williams replied 'I would have you knowe that I have either so much witt as to avoid you or so much courage to endure what you can lay upon me'. Williams asked Stepney why he 'should be so harsh to a minister'? Stepney asked why and Williams replied 'because of your estate, a great part thereof and your meanes is by church livings, and methinks you should be more loving, seeing that you participate of the same that we do.' Stepney responded 'in a disgraceful manner', saying 'I keepe as good men as you under me'. Williams replied that was not true 'to that undervaluing comparison, or the like in effect, and to noe other'. Stepney's brother then entered 'laying violent hands' upon Williams, and along with other followers of Stepney, thrust him out of the room, with ill speeches, shutting the door 'hastely after him.'

5. No credit was to be given to Stepney's witness Alban Rice, who had been a tenant and servant to Stepney and his father for many years 'and that by his sufferance keepeth a common alehouse in the parish of Prendergast, and there entertaineth many disordered persons and such as are given to excessive drinkinge; and a contriver of unlawful and clandestine marriages by enveighglinge young men to marrie to his daughters in the night time without the consent of their parents and governors. And is one that hath beene suspended and so standeth suspended for several misdemeanours by him committed against the ecclesiastical lawes of this kingdome and particularly for keeping and using of a seale of office without licence and is generally suspected and reputed dishoneste in all his actions.'

No date.

No signatures.

Cur Mil I, fo. 9, Letters commissory for the defendant

Addressed to commissioners John Milward and Henry Lloyd, gents, and also, John Warren and Richard Vaughan, gents, to meet to examine witnesses in a cause of words provocative of a duel from 20 to 22 September 1638 in the town hall of Haverfordwest, co. Pembroke.

Dethick assigned Lawrence Belringer as notary public.

Dated 12 June 1638.

Signed by Gilbert Dethick.

Cur Mil I, fo. 36, Letters substitutional for the plaintiff

The plaintiff's advocate, Dr Duck, appointed [blank space left for name to be inserted] to act for him by letters substitutional.

Dated 14 July 1638.

Signed by Arthur Duck.

Cur Mil I, fos. 34r-35v, Plaintiff's interrogatories

1. The witnesses were warned of the penalty for perjury and bearing false witness. What was the witnesses' age, occupation, place and condition of living for the last seven years? How did the witness know the parties and to whom would they give the victory if it were in their power?

2. Was the witness a household servant or retainer of Williams? Was the witness indebted to Williams, if so for how much? How much was the witness worth in goods with his debts paid?

3. Were they asked to come to testify? Had the received or been promised expenses?

4. Was the witness related to Williams, if so in what degree? Had they been instructed how to depose?

5. Was there a meeting for levying ship money for co. Pembroke held in Haverfordwest by Sir John Stepney, high sheriff, at which the J.P.s attended in January 1637? Was the witness present at the meeting, and in what house and room was it held? Was Williams then present, and did he hear Williams tell Stepney that he lied 'or that what he said was untruth'? Did Williams say that Stepney and the other gentlemen there were 'base rascals', and being asked whom he meant, did he say the sheriff? At another time that month did Williams say he was a better man than the sheriff, 'phillipping his finger thereat'? Did Williams use 'divers other opprobrious and disgracefull speeches and words of provocation' against Stepney?

6. If the witness deposed that he was present and heard no such words spoken by Williams, they were to be asked if they were present all the time Williams and Stepney were together, and whether it was impossible for Williams to have said them without the witness knowing? What words did Williams use concerning Stepney?

7. When Williams said the company assembled were 'base rascals, and phillipped his fingers, or used any other words, or gesture to that effect, did he not by such words and gesture meane and intend Sir John Stepney'?

8. Whether Williams 'be not *the son of a base reputed daughter of Sir John or Sir William Herbert knight* and a man of very intemperate carriage and behaviour both in words, and actions, and much given to utter words, and gestures of provocation to quarrels and dissention'?

9. Were Stepney's witnesses John Phillippes, Thomas Hayward, Maurice Beatman, Thomas ap Rice, Henry Williams, William Lawharne, Lewes Davids, Rowland Lawharne, Owen Edwards, Thomas Davids, Alban Rice, and John Lawharne, 'persons of good name and fame, of honest life and conversation, and such to whose testimony credit is to be given, and soe commonlie accompted, reputed and taken'?

10. 'If any pretended witness shall happen to depose to the contents of the first article let every such witness be asked how many yeares he hath known or heard that Alban Rice should keep a seale of office in the article mentioned, and what processe or other instruments did he use to seale therewith, and if any was it not with the approbation of the register within the archdeaconrie of St David's and the knowledge and allowance of the Bishoppe and Chauncellour there, and by them not contradicted, or by any other disliked as you have heard, or believe until of late by them called in from him'?

11. Did Williams live in the University of Oxford, 'of what house and continuance, and at whose charge, and what degree tooke he there'?

12. Was Williams a gentleman, and if so, how the witness knew this. What coat of arms or office did his father have, 'or whether he were a retainer or servant in livery to Sir William Herbert or any other in that county'?

No date.

No signatures.

Cur Mil I, fos. 10-33, Defence depositions

Taken before commissioners John Milward and Henry Lloyd, gents on 22 September

1638, in a case of words provocative of a duel.

fos. 14r-15r (Witness 1), Thomas Bowen, clerk, vicar of Llanddeilo Talybont, co. Glamorgan, aged 72

To Williams's defence:

1. He knew 'William Morgan *ap Rice Lloyd*, great grandfather, Phillip Williams, grandfather, and Robert Williams, father of William Williams to be gentlemen of great worth and as well respected as any in the parts where they lived and for such accompted, reputed and taken'. Williams and his ancestors descended paternally from Thomas ap Evan Gwynne who descended from Griffith Gwyer 'a man of great name and account in the country where he lived'. This witness had seen 'records and ancient books of heraldrie manifesting soe much'. Williams's mother was reputed the daughter of Sir William Herbert knt. Williams had been a scholar brought up in the University of Oxford, 'but for how long since he knoweth not'. Williams had been a minister for over fifteen years and a 'beloved preacher'. He had heard that Williams was a domestic chaplain to Sir John Herbert, knt., Secretary of State to James I.

7. Williams 'carried and behaved himself honestlie and lived like a gentleman', and was 'known to be a man that took much paines in reconciling of his neighbours and friends and for a peacemaker known to be for all the time aforesaid and thereby prevented manie suits of law'. Williams kept company with Sir William Herbert, knt, Sir Thomas Mansell, knt, 'and others of the best rank and quality' in co. Glamorgan, 'and one that carried himself in an humble manner towards his superiors and inferiors and for such a one reputed and taken.'

Signed by Thomas Bowen and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd and Warren, and by the notary public, Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

1. 'He that forswears himself is in danger of damnation. This witness was born in the parish of Llanddeilo Talybont in the diocese of St David's, was aged about 72 years, was a preacher for 36 years, and had known Williams from his birth 'and further cannot saie but referreth himself to the lawe.'

3. 'He was served with a warrant to appear in the town hall of Haverfordwest this daie to testifie the truth and his knowledge of an allegation annexed to the commission.' Williams paid his charges to come to testify.

8. Williams's mother was the reputed daughter of Sir William Herbert of Swansea, co. Glamorgan, knt.

9. Williams had lived at Oxford University, but he did not know for how long. He heard that Williams was maintained at Jesus College by his father's charge, but did not know what degree he took.

12. Williams was 'a gentleman of worthy descent and his father was thought a fitt man to be a justice of the peace in the county where he lived, and the ancestors from whence Williams came or descended gave the Hart for their cognizens, and further refereth himself to the court of heralds.

Signed by Thomas Bowen and by the above three commissioners and notary public.

fos. 15v-16r (Witness 2), Edmund Donnelee, of Haverfordwest, co. Pembroke, gent, born in Llandyfaelog, co. Carmarthen, aged about 28

To Williams's defence

5. Alban Rice kept an alehouse, but he did not know by whose authority. Donnelee found among the records of the archdeaconry of St David's a suspension against Rice removing him from his proctorship in the archdeaconry of St David's. Bishop Field, bishop of St David's had issued it, 'for using a seale of office without authoritie, and whether he be thereof freed as yet he knoweth not'.

Signed by Edmund Dunnelee and by the commissioners Milward, Lloyd, Warren, Vaughan and by notary public Belringer.

24 September 1638

To Stepney's interrogatories

1-9. He was not examined by the consent of Williams.

10. He did not know how long Alban Rice used the seal of office, 'but he hath seen original citations sealed with that seale and returned into the court within the archdeaconrie of Cardigan and saieth that he believeth that the seale of office so used by Alban Rice was allowed of by the register then and *by the register that now is* of the archdeaconrie of Cardigan, but whether by the bishop of St David's, or his chancellor, he knoweth not.'

Signed by Edmund Donnelee and by the commissioners Milward, Lloyd, Warren, Vaughan and by notary public Belringer.

fos. 16r-17v (Witness 3), Henry Daniel of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, husbandman, lived there for about 13 years, born in Llanddeilo Talybont, co. Glamorgan, aged about 40

To Williams's defence:

1. He knew Williams and his father were gentlemen, and that his father rode 'always with his man with him in his liverie to attend him; and saieth that Williams discended by the mother's side from Sir William Herbert knight, being Williams's grandfather, and that his ancestors by the father's side were accounted gentlemen of an ancient familie descended. He knoweth Williams to be a minister in holie orders and a preacher of God's word, and a scholler bredd and brought up in the University of Oxford at his owne and his father's charges.'

2-3. He heard that Williams on behalf of his parishioners 'preferred a peticon unto John Stepney, barronet, therein setting forth that they were overrated in the ship rate and desiring that they might be eased.'

6. Williams 'hath been to his knowledge for about twentie years last past a minister and careful in discharging his place, function and calling for all the time, and a man well esteemed in the companie of knights, esqs. and gentlemen within the countie of Pembroke and elsewhere where he formerlie lived and with them carried himself humblie and discreetlie and thought worthie of theire companie and for such a one reputed for all the time aforesaid and still is.'

24 September 1638

Signed by Henry Daniel [his mark] and by commissioners Milward, Warren, and Lloyd, and by notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

2. He was worth £50 with his debts paid.

3. He testified because he was 'served by a warrant on the behalf of Will. Williams clerk and at his charges.'

8. He had heard Williams's mother was the daughter of Sir William Herbert, knight

5-7, 9-10. He was not examined by the consent of Williams.

11. He knew Williams to have studied at Oxford, but not for how long nor for which degree, nor college.

12. He knew Williams was a gentleman 'but what coate of armes his father gave he knoweth not, nor what office he did bear in the countrie where he lived neither was he any retainer or servant in liverie to Sir William Herbert'.

Signed by Henry Daniel [his mark] and by commissioners Milward, Warren, and by notary public Belringer.

fos. 17v-18v (Witness 4), David Thomas ap Bynon of Llansteffan, co. Carmarthen, lived there for about 24 years, born in Llangynin, co. Carmarthen, aged about 50

To Williams's defence:

1-4. He was not examined by consent of Williams.

5. Alban Rice did keep an alehouse in Prendergast because this witness had drunk there 'and also saith that there was one Morris John Thomas by his tutors sent unto Tenby, or elsewhere in the county of Pembroke, to school and there hence was brought unto the house of Alban Rice and by his procurement, as he believeth, married or matched unto one of his daughters, and that without the consent of his tutors'. When the tutors heard of the marriage, they requested this witness to accompany them to Haverfordwest 'neere adjoining unto Prendergast to enquire further thereof'. There, 'meeting with Alban Rice asked him the truth of the premises and where Morris John Thomas was that he might have him home with him'. Alban Rice answered that Thomas was married to his daughter and that they could not have him. Soon after there was a composition between the tutors and Rice, as Morris John Thomas was only aged about 12, that the tutors should pay to Rice £40 to allow a divorce, whereof the tutors paid unto Alban Rice £20 in this witness's presence. By 'the adward of John Stepney knight and barronet, the complainant's father and Barronet Mansell, and, the divorce being not accordinglie admitted by the bishop of St David's, Morris John Thomas and the daughter of Alban Rice were within sixe or seven yeares after married according to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England in that behalf set forth the second time.'

24 September 1638

Signed by David Thomas ap Bynon [his mark] and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

3. He was served with a warrant to depose by Williams who was bearing his charges.

12. Williams was 'reputed and taken to be a gentleman'.

24 September 1638

Signed by David Thomas ap Bynon [his mark] and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd and notary public Belringer.

fos. 19r-v (Witness 5), John Laugharne of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there for about all his life, aged about 35

To Williams's defence:

2-3. 'About St Pauls tyde' after the quarter sessions at Haverfordwest, a warrant came to the petty constable of the parish of Walwyn's Castle with the name John Stepney baronet, and High Sheriff subscribed, requiring the parishioners to levy £5-10s towards ship money. The parishioners thought themselves to be overrated and sent a petition to Stepney, with the aid of their rector Williams. The parish was thereupon eased of 20s of the rate 'and for more certainlie of the time he referreth himself unto the warrant.'

6. Williams 'for the time of his living in the parish of Walwines Castle behaved himself honestlie but how he is esteemed of in other men's companie he knoweth not.'

24 September 1638

Signed by J. Laugharne and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

8. He knew not who Williams's mother was, but Williams 'carried himself faire towards him and how towards others he cannot depose.'

9. 'He conceiveth the parties in the interrogatorie menconed to be honest men upon their oaths, and some of them he knoweth to be gentlemen of good reputacon.'

24 September 1638

Signed by J. Laugharne and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 19v-20v (Witness 6), Henry Bowen of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, yeoman, lived there for about 25 years

To Williams's defence:

2-3. As witness 5.

6. Williams had been parson at Walwyn's Castle for 14 years, and was accepted in the company of the best gentry in co. Pembroke. Williams 'had the love of his parishioners there' and 'for ought he knew carried himself in an humble manner towards his superiors and betters'.

24 September 1638

Signed by Henry Bowen and by commissioners Warren, Milward and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

8. He 'never for all the time of his knowledge knew William Williams to be anie such man as in the interrogatorie is menconed.'

9. 'John Phillips, Thomas Hayward, William Lawharne, Lewis Davids, Owen Edwards, esq, Rowland Lawharne, esq, Thomas Davids and John Lawharne esq, be men of good name and fame and of honest life and conversation and soe reported and taken for ought he knoweth to the contrarie.'

24 September 1638

Signed by Henry Bowen and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 20v-21r (Witness 7), Evans David Reece of the parish of 'Dmes', co. Pembroke, lived there since his birth, aged about 60

To Williams's defence:

5. Rice was tenant and servant to Stepney and his father. Rice kept an alehouse in Prendergast, 'and there suffers many disorders in his house and disordered persons which give themselves to excessive drinking; and also saieth that his sonne was married unto a daughter of Alban Rice, and that without a license in that behalf obtained, and without his knowledge and consent, and that in the night time, and that by the procurement of Alban Rice who inveigled his sonne (having first made him drunke in his house) to performe the marriage.'

24 September 1638

Signed by Evan Reece [his mark] and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

8. 'The parties in the interrogatorie named are all honest men of good name and fame for ought he knoweth, excepting Alban Rice therein named whom he knoweth to be a dishonest man.'

24 September 1638

Signed by Evan Reece [his mark] and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 20v-21r (Witness 8), Elizabeth Reece, wife of Evan David Reece, of the parish of 'Dmes', co. Pembroke, lived there for about 16 years, born at 'Llanerchleydege', co. Pembroke, aged about 60

To Williams's defence:

5. Rice kept an alehouse at Prendergast and had married her son to his daughter without her or her husband's knowledge or consent.

24 September 1638

Signed by Elizabeth Reece [her mark] and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 22r-23r (Witness 9), Eynon Morgan curate of Walton West and Talbenny, co. Pembroke, born in the parish of Betws, co. Carmarthen, aged about 40

To Williams's defence:

1. 'Williams's father was a gentleman and kept in his house good hospitalitie and never rode without a man with him in liverie; and Williams is a gentleman and preacher of God's word in divers places for the space of twentie years last past or thereabouts and hath heard that Williams was brought up in the Universitie of Oxford.'

5. He did not know Alban Rice 'but hath heard that he is a wrangling man and of ill fame.'

6. For all the time he had known him, Williams had 'carried himself verie faire towards all men and honestlie and carefullie discharged his function and calling by all the time aforesaid; and was well esteemed of all men and of the best sort and by them well thought of and to be a man worthy of their companie.'

25 September 1638

Signed by Eynon Morgan and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

1. 'He believeth that he that shall forsweare himselfe is in danger of damnation'. He lived in Talbenny and had known Williams for twenty years and Stepney for one year.

2. He came to co. Pembroke seven years ago to serve as curate in Talbenny parish church under William Williams. For the last four years he had been paid by Williams to officiate during Williams's absence. He was worth with his debts paid about £10 or 20 marks.

3. He was served to appear in the cause by a warrant, and his charges were borne by Williams.

8. Whether Williams's mother 'be a base or reputed daughter of Sir William Herbert knight in the interrogatorie menconed he knoweth.'

12. He knew that Williams and his father were gentlemen. Williams's father was not a J.P. in co. Pembroke, but the men that rode with him 'had his cloak.'

25 September 1638

Signed by Eynon Morgan and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 23v-25r (Witness 10), William Daniel of Freystrop, co. Pembroke, yeoman, born at Ilston, co. Glamorgan, aged about 70

To Williams's defence:

1. He knew Williams and his father were gentlemen, and that Williams had been a minister for 22 years, and had been at Oxford University for four years. He knew this to be true because he was formerly Williams's father's servant and he used to carry money to Williams. He had heard Williams preach and for one year Williams had been domestic chaplain to Sir John Herbert, then Secretary of State to James I. Before his sermon, he had heard Williams pray for the late Lord Esme, Duke of Lennox.

6. Williams 'was a man of good behaviour and respected in companie with the best gentlemen of rank and qualitie, and knoweth that he hath carefully discharged his ministerial function and calling within the parish of Walwin's castle and other places where he formerlie lived; and that Williams carried himself towards all men gentlie and humblie and was and is reputed to be a worthie and well deserving man.'

25 September 1638

Signed by William Daniel and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

1. 'He believeth that he that shall forsweare himselfe is in danger of hell fier'. He had been living in Freystrop for 10 years 'a <collier> labourer by profession'. He had known Williams since childhood and Stepney for about two years 'and further wisheth peace between' Williams and Stepney.

2. He was worth with his debts paid, £5.

3. As witness 9, and he had already received 6d from Williams.

8. He believed Williams's mother was the daughter of Sir William Herbert and Williams 'is counted a peacemaker amongst his neighbours'.

12. He knew Williams was a gentleman 'and that his grandfather and his ancestors gave the reed hart for their cognizens; and never knew Williams's father to beare office in the countrie where he lived; and that Williams was son in lawe unto Sir William Herbert knight in the interrogatorie menconed, and never his servant or did weare his cloth.'

25 September 1638

Signed by William Daniel and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 25r-26v (Witness 11), John Walter of St Martins in the town and county of Haverfordwest, corviter [sic], lived there for 11 years, born in St Mary's parish there, aged about 70

To Williams's defence:

1. Williams 'was a worthy gentleman and allowed preacher of Gods word.'

2. Alban Rice had been a servant and tenant to Stepney since his childhood. Rice kept an alehouse in Prendergast 'and as he hath heard doth contrive unlawful marriages and did keep a seale of office without licence and for the same *and manie other misdemeanours against the ecclesiastical court was suspended by Bishop Field late bishop of St David's being about three years sithence'. He knew this was true as he was an 'apparitor' to the bishop and brought the suspension against Rice 'from Carmarthen, then unto Saint Cleers, where he delivered it unto the sub register then within the archdeaconrie of Saint David's.'

6. Williams was 'a worthie *and noble* gentleman and well thought of by all the men in the countrie where he liveth and by them well beloved; and hath discharged carefully his place and calling and carried himself humblie to all sorts of people and for such a one accompted and taken.'

25 September 1638

Signed by John Walter and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

1. 'He believeth that he that shall forsweare himself or take a false oath is in danger of damnacon'. For 7 years he had been 'an apparitor within the Archdeaconrie of Saint David's.'

2. 'Everie man paid he this deponent is scarce worth three half pennys.'

3. As witness 10.

9. All the parties mentioned in the interrogatory, except Alban Rice, were 'gentlemen of honest life and conversation and credit to be given to *whatever they shall say or speake* for ought he knoweth.'

10. Alban Rice had kept a seal for 3 years without the allowance of the Bishop of St David's, and that Rice 'did seale with the seale *many* originall process or citations without the knowledge of the Lord Bishop.'

12. Williams was 'a gentleman well respected by all the countrie where he liveth' and Williams's father was 'a worthy gentleman and one that gave Williams good breading in bringing him up a gentleman like, and in good bearing; but what coate of armes he gave or office beare in the countrie where he lived he knoweth not.'

25 September 1638

Signed by John Walter and by commissioners Warren, Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 26v-28r (Witness 12), Matthew Williams of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, gent, lived there for 14 years, born at Ilston, co. Glamorgan, aged about 21 years

To Williams's defence:

2-4. On 11 January 1637 the Pembroke J.P.s assembled for the quarter sessions, held in the town hall of Haverfordwest 'and did not see or here that John Stepney, baronet, by himself or with other Justices of the peace of the countie did meet at the house of Thomas Williams about the leaveing or rateing of anie ship money'. This witness was present there for much of 11 January. Around 21 or 23 January he was with Williams and others of Walwyn's Castle when a petition was preferred unto John Stepney, baronet, on the behalf of the parish, 'therein setting forth that they were overcharged in the ship rate and desired a mitigation thereof', whereupon, they were eased by 20s.

Between 4 and 5pm on 11 January Williams was in the dining room of Thomas Williams's house with John Wogan, esq., Rowland Lauharne, and John Lloyd with other gentlemen. John Stepney, baronet, entered the room alone and after some speeches had passed between Wogan and Stepney, Williams offered Stepney a glass of wine, but Stepney 'with an angrie countenance refused to pledge and seemed to be offended' with Williams. So Williams asked Stepney, 'Wherein have I offended you'? Stepney replied 'you knowe when and where and if you come into my custodie you shalbe forthcominge, but not coming forth'. Williams replied 'I have either so much witt as to avoid you, or soe much courage as to endure what you can laie upon me', adding, 'I wonder why you should be so hard against church men... because most or a great part of your meanes is in church livings'. Stepney answered 'in a scornful manner' that 'I did keepe as good men under me as you, meaning Williams, are'. Stepney refuted these words. Thereupon Thomas Stepney 'being then in the roome, and being a brother to the baronet took Williams by the coller or bandstrings' and said 'what, do you compare with my brother'? 'I may compare with you'. Williams answered, 'I did not compare myself with you nor your brother; and then at the persuasion of Thomas ap Reece, esq., left the roome.'

25 September 1638

Signed by Matthew Williams and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 28v-29r (Witness 13), Richard Holland of Walwyn's Castle, co. Pembroke, gent, born in the parish of St Mary, Haverfordwest, aged about 37

To Williams's defence:

6. Williams 'was a carefull man in discharging his function and calling there and a man well esteemed and regarded of within the countie where he liveth amongst knights, esqs., and gentlemen there, and a good peacemaker amongst his neighbours and others... he carried himself humblie and respectfully towards all men for ought he hath heard to the contrary.'

26 September 1638

Signed by Richard Holland and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

9. The testimony of John Philips and all others mentioned in the interrogatories was to be trusted, except that of Alban Rice, as he 'hath heard ill report of Alban Rice.'

26 September 1638

Signed by Richard Holland and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 29r-v (Witness 14), John Owen of Eglwyswrw parish, co. Pembroke, gent, born there, aged 70

To Williams's defence:

1. Williams came to his house a month ago, desiring to see some books of pedigrees, and Owen showed him 'a book of pedigrees of the collection of George Owen, clerk, who was well skilled in haraldrie and Williams's cuntriman and in which booke, Williams said unto him that he found some of his ancestors and some of their armes.

26 September 1638

Signed by John Owen and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

9. He knew John Phillips, Thomas Hayward, Owen Edwards and Thomas ap Rice, William Lauharne, Lewis Davids, Rowland Lauharne, Thomas Davids, Alban Rice and John Lauharne mentioned in the interrogatories, and that credit could be given to their testimony.

26 September 1638

Signed by John Owen and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 30r-v (Witness 15), Thomas Picton of Nevern, co. Pembroke, gent, born there aged about 30

To Williams's defence:

5. He knew that Alban Rice was a servant and tenant to Stepney and his father, and that Rice sold ale in his house, 'by whose sufferance he knoweth not'. Rice had been suspended by the bishop of St David's for keeping a seal belonging to the commissary of the archdeaconry of St David's. Furthermore 'not long sithence Alban Rice was suspended from his practice as a proctor for some misdemeanour by him committed in open court by Thomas Barckley, clerk, doctor in physick and then commissarie within the archdeaconrie of St David's and is a man not generallie well reputed of in all his actions.'

27 September 1638

Signed by Thomas Picton and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

9. As witness 13.

10. For 2 years before he was suspended, Rice kept and used a seale 'wherewith he sealed citations original process'.

Signed by Thomas Picton and by commissioners Milward, Lloyd, and notary public Belringer.

fos. 31r-v (Witness 16), Thomas Phillips of St David's, in the diocese of St David's, gent, born there, aged about 26.

To Williams's defence:

5. He had heard at the quarter sessions in the town hall at Haverfordwest question made against Alban Rice for 'making of a marriage between one of his daughters and a sonne of one Reece.' He had also heard of Rice's suspension 3 years ago by the bishop, and had also heard of Rice's recent suspension by Thomas Barckley, commissary of the archdeaconry of St David's, 'for words used by Alban Rice in the commissarie's court, and Alban hath an ill report for his dealings.'

6. Williams 'carried himselfe faire <and humblie> towards all men for ought he knoweth to the contrarie.'

27 September 1638

Signed by Thomas Phillips and by commissioners Milward, Warren, and notary public Belringer.

To Stepney's interrogatories:

9. As witness 13.

27 September 1638

Signed by Thomas Phillips and by commissioners Warren, Milward, and notary public, Belringer.

Cur Mil I, fo. 32r, Notary public's certificate

Certificate in Latin signed by Lawrence Belringer, notary public that the examinations had been completed and were now being returned.

No date.

Notary's mark.

Seal.

Summary of proceedings

Dr Duck acted as counsel for Stepney and Dr Talbot for Williams. There were early proceedings on 14 October and 18 November 1637. In November 1637 the commissioners and the days of hearing for Stepney's witnesses were nominated and Williams was to propound material for the defence. On 6 November 1638 Dr Talbot had to prove the material for the defence, and called the witnesses John Wogan, esq, John Laugharne, esq and John Lloyd, gent, to appear and submit to examination by the commissioners. On 15 November 1638 Dr Talbot produced the witnesses for the defence, Henry Keire and Richard Maden, who were again required to submit to examination in the next sitting.

Notes

Sir John Stepney (b. c. 1608) was the son of Sir John Stepney of Prendergast, co. Pembroke and Catherine, daughter of Sir Francis Mansel of Muddlescwm, co. Camarthen, bart. He married Magdalene, daughter of Sir Henry Jones of Abermarlais, co. Carmarthen, bart. He succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his elder brother Sir Alban Stepney in 1629. He was high sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1637, a forceful collector of ship money and M.P. for Haverfordwest in the Long Parliament. He was an inactive royalist colonel of foot in the civil wars and governor of Haverfordwest.

G. E. Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Baronetage, 1611-25 (Exeter, 1900), vol. 1, p. 179; P. R. Newman, Royalist officers in England and Wales, 1642-1660: A biographical dictionary (London, 1981), p. 359; M. F. Keeler, The Long Parliament, 1640-1641: A Biographical Dictionary of its Members (Philadelphia, 1954), pp. 351-2; J. Broadway, R. Cust and S. K. Roberts (eds.), A Calendar of the Docquets of Lord Keeper Coventry, 1625-40 (List and Index Society, special series, 35, 2004), part 2, p. 368.

Documents

  • Initial proceedings
    • Petition: 3/157(3 Jul 1637)
    • Plaintiff's bond: 3/158 (3 Jul 1637)
    • Defendant's bond: 3/115 (31 Oct 1637)
    • Libel: Cur Mil I, fo. 92 (no date)
  • Plaintiff's case
    • Letters commissory for the plaintiff: Cur Mil I, fo. 93 (8 Nov 1637)
    • Defence interrogatories: Cur Mil I, fos. 94-6 (no date)
    • Preamble to plaintiff's depositions: Cur Mil I, fos. 88-91 (20 Feb 1638)
    • Plaintiff's depositions: Cur Mil I, fos. 98-135 (20-22 Feb and 2 Apr 1638)
    • Notary public's certificate: Cur Mil I, fo. 135 (no date)
  • Defendant's case
    • Defence: 13/2aa (no date).
    • Defence: Cur Mil I, fo. 8 (no date)
    • Letters commissory for the defendant: Cur Mil I, fo. 9 (12 Jun 1638)
    • Letters substitutional for the plaintiff: Cur Mil I, fo. 36 (14 Jul 1638)
    • Plaintiff interrogatories: Cur Mil I, fos. 34-5 (no date)
    • Defence depositions: Cur Mil I, fos. 10-31 (22-27 Sep 1638)
    • Notary public's certificate: Cur Mil I, fo. 32 (no date)
  • Proceedings
    • Proceedings before Arundel: 8/26 (14 Oct 1637)
    • Proceedings before Maltravers: 8/27 (14 Oct 1637)
    • Proceedings before Maltravers: 8/29 (18 Nov 1637)
    • Proceedings before Maltravers: 8/30 (28 Nov 1637)
    • Proceedings before Arundel: R.19, fos. 434r-449v (20 Oct 1638)
    • Proceedings before Maltravers: R.19, fos. 454r-468v (6 Nov 1638)
    • Proceedings before Marten: R.19, fos. 470v-471v (15 Nov 1638)
    • Proceedings before Maltravers: R.19, fo. 400v-412v (20 Nov 1638)

People mentioned in the case

  • Barckley, Thomas, clerk
  • Beatman, Maurice, gent (also Bateman)
  • Beech, Mr, clerk
  • Belringer, Lawrence, notary public
  • Bowen, Henry, yeoman
  • Bowen, Thomas, vicar
  • ap Bynon, David Thomas
  • Collin, Dermot, servant (also Colline)
  • Daniel, Henry, husbandman
  • Daniel, William, yeoman
  • David, Lodovick, gent
  • Davids, Lewis, gent
  • Davids, Thomas, gent
  • Dethick, Gilbert, registrar
  • Donnelee, Edward, gent (also Dunnelee)
  • Duck, Arthur, lawyer
  • Edwards, Owen, esq
  • ap Evan Gwynne, Thomas
  • Field, Theophilus, bishop of St David's
  • Grobham, John, Mr
  • Gwyer, Griffith
  • Hayward, Thomas, gent
  • Herbert, earl of Worcester
  • Herbert, John, knight
  • Herbert, William, knight
  • Holland, Richard, gent
  • Howard, Henry, baron Maltravers
  • Howard, Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey
  • Johns, Hugh, clerk
  • Jones, Henry, baronet
  • Jones, Magdalene
  • Keire, Henry
  • Laugharne, John, esq (also Langharne, Lawharne, Lawherne)
  • Laugharne, Rowland, esq (also Langharne, Lawharne, Lawherne)
  • Laugharne, William, gent (also Langharne, Lawharne, Lawherne)
  • Lloyd, Henry, gent
  • Lloyd, John, gent
  • Lloyd, Lodovick
  • Maden, Richard
  • Maunsell, Edward, knight (also Mansell)
  • Maunsell, Francis, baronet (also Mansell)
  • Maunsell, Jane (also Mansell)
  • Maunsell, Thomas, knight (also Mansell)
  • Marten, Henry, knight
  • Milward, John, gent
  • Morgan, Eynon, curate
  • Mugleston, Maurice, curate
  • Parrott, John, knight
  • Philips, John, esq (also Phillips)
  • Phillips, Mary
  • Phillips, Thomas, gent
  • Phillips, William, esq
  • Picton, Thomas, gent
  • Poyne
  • Price, Thomas, esq
  • Reece, Elizabeth
  • Reece, Evans David
  • ap Rice, Thomas, esq (also ap Rees)
  • Rice, Alban, gent
  • Rivers, earl of
  • Stepney, Alban, baronet
  • Stepney, Catherine
  • Stepney, John, baronet
  • Stepney, Magdalene
  • Stepney, Mary
  • Stepney, Paul
  • Stepney, Ralph
  • Stepney, Thomas, esq
  • Stevens, Mr, curate
  • Stuart, Esme, duke of Lennox
  • Stuart, James I, king
  • Talbot, Clere, lawyer
  • Tanckred, Morgan, gent
  • Thomas, Maurice John
  • Vaughan, Rees, gent
  • Vaughan, Richard, gent
  • Walter, John, corviter
  • Warren, John, gent
  • Watson, John
  • Williams, Henry, yeoman
  • Williams, Matthew, gent
  • Williams, Robert
  • Williams, Thomas, innkeeper
  • Williams, William, clerk
  • Wogan, John, esq

Places mentioned in the case

  • Carmarthenshire
    • Abermarlais
    • Betws
    • Egremont
    • Llanddarog
    • Llandyfaelog
    • Llangynin
    • Llansteffan
    • Muddlescwm
    • St Clears
  • Glamorganshire
    • Ilston
    • Llanddeilo Talybont
    • Morganstown
    • Swansea
  • Hertfordshire
    • Aldenham
  • Middlesex
    • Westminster
  • Oxfordshire
    • Jesus College
    • University of Oxford
  • Pembrokeshire
    • Brawdy
    • Clarbeston
    • Dmes
    • Daugleddau
    • Eglwyswrw
    • Freystrop
    • Haroldston West
    • Haverfordwest
    • Jordanston
    • Little Newcastle
    • Llanerchleydege
    • Llanycefn
    • Monkton
    • Mua Mota [New Moat?]
    • Narberth
    • Nevern
    • Pembroke
    • Picton
    • Prendergast
    • Rosemarket
    • Rudbaxton
    • St Brides
    • St David's
    • St Legwell's [St Dogmael's or St Dogwell's or St Twynnells]
    • St Martin, Haverfordwest
    • St Mary, Haverfordwest
    • Talbenny
    • Tenby
    • Uzmaston
    • Walton West
    • Walwyn's Castle
    • Wiston
  • Wales

Topics of the case

  • allegation of illegitimacy
  • apparel
  • arbitration
  • assault
  • bishop
  • civil war
  • coat of arms
  • comparison
  • custos rotulorum
  • denial of gentility
  • deputy lieutenant
  • drunkenness
  • giving the lie
  • heraldry
  • high sheriff
  • insult before gentlemen
  • justice of the peace
  • livery
  • Long Parliament
  • member of parliament
  • military officer
  • office-holding
  • royalist
  • ship money
  • scatological insult
  • taxation