Surnames beginning 'G'

The Cromwell Association Online Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers . Originally published by British History Online, , 2017.

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'Surnames beginning 'G'', in The Cromwell Association Online Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers , (, 2017) pp. . British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/cromwell-army-officers/surnames-g [accessed 12 April 2024]

Surnames beginning 'G'

Gache, James James Gache
Captain in Lyme garrison. [See below.] He gave his name to, and presumably commanded, one of the town’s forts/blockhouses during the siege, Apr.-May 1644.
References: Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 138.
Armies: Dorset
Gaites, Jeffrey Jeffrey Gaites
An esquire from Yorkshire (North Riding).
A major in the Hull garrison by late winter or spring 1643, promoted lieutenant-colonel in July to replace Christopher Legard. In 1644 Gaites was one of the two lieutenant-colonels in Sir John Mauleverer’s garrison regiment. He was named on every North Riding committee from Feb. 1643, and in June 1645 was appointed to the Northern Association county committee for the East Riding.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 383; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 90.
Armies: Yorkshire
Galche, [Gauk, Gaich, Gach], James James Galche [Gauk, Gaich, Gach]
On 21 Jan. 1650 noted that he had public faith for £797 9s. 2d. i.e. £683 15s. 3d. for his faithful service for parliament in Lyme garrison for 1409 days, plus £106 7s. 9d. advanced by him for the use of the state in May 1643 in provisions and ammunition for the garrison and £3 6s. 2d. in plate upon propositions of parliament. Peachey and Turton, citing SP28/40/221 just have firm dates of 29 May 1643-25 June 1644.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 569; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.515.
Armies: Dorset
Gale, - - Gale
Ensign in the Surrey regiment of foot of Samuel Jones/John Fielder.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 66.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Gale, Ralph Ralph Gale
Ensign in John Hewson’s company in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. In 1647 he became a captain in Hewson’s New Model Army foot regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.84.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Gale, [?]Reynold [?]Reynold Gale
Captain-Lieutenant of the colonel’s company in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; promoted to captain when the regiment entered the New Model Army in spring 1645, but killed in summer 1645 during the operation against Bristol.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.84.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Gallop, John John Gallop
Ensign in Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Zachary’s company in the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands on 18 Apr. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, ff. 539r-40v; SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 576r.-577v.
Armies: Tower Hamlets;
London; Waller (Southern Association)
Gandy, - - Gandy
In Feb. 1645 a lieutenant acting as conductor to a body of recruits in Bucklow Hundred, Cheshire.
References: TNA, SP28/225, f. 39r.
Armies: Cheshire
Garband, John John Garband
During the first half of 1643, captain in Godfrey Bosvile’s Warwick-based regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 31.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Gardiner, Jeremy Jeremy Gardiner
Ensign in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gardner [Gardiner], Samuel Samuel Gardner [Gardiner]
Mayor of Evesham, Worcestershire, in 1625, 1633, 1642 and 1653. Recruiter MP for the town from 1645 until his seclusion at Pride’s Purge. He was initially a captain of a troop of harquebusiers in Lord Brooke’s Association Army (21 Jan.-15 May 1643). His troop was raised in London and was at the taking of Lichfield and the battle of Hopton Heath. After the dissolution of that army, Gardner became a captain of horse in the regiment of Brooke’s brother-in-law Sir Arthur Hesilrige in Waller’s Army (15 May 1643-2 Apr. 1645). His troop served in Waller’s Oxford campaign in summer 1644. From the account he later presented, he probably simply transferred his troop, returned to London, into Hesilrige’s regiment.
Father of Cornet (later Captain) Samuel Gardner.
In Sept. 1644 the ordinance establishing the Worcestershire county committee named him as a member.
References: Hughes, Warwickshire, 194; TNA, SP28/147, part 3, ff. 558r-560v.; Actsand Ordinances, 1.507; Spring, Waller’s army, 55.
Armies: Lord Brooke, Waller (Southern Association)
Gardner [Gardiner], Samuel Samuel Gardner [Gardiner]
Son of Captain Samuel Gardner of Evesham, in whose troop of harquebusiers in Lord Brooke’s Association Army he served as cornet. He continued to serve with his father in the latter’s troop of horse in Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment in Waller’s Army, and served in Waller’s Oxford campaign in summer 1644. Following his father’s resignation under the Self-Denying Ordinance, when Hesilrige’s regiment became that of John Butler in the New Model Army, Gardner inherited the elder Samuel’s captaincy. In Apr. 1647 he was a signatory to the counter-petition presented to the Commons against their colonel’s promise to persuade his men to volunteer for Ireland and to leave the question of their arrears to parliament. In 1648 Gardner served with the regiment (now Thomas Horton’s) in Wales, and was part of the force which defeated Sir Henry Lingen at Presteigne in July. He probably left the regiment in Aug. 1649 rather than go to Ireland.
References: TNA, SP28/147, part 3, f. 559v.; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.82-3, 86; Spring, Waller’s army, 55.
Armies: Lord Brooke; Waller (SouthernAssociation); New Model Army
Gardner, William William Gardner
An officer signatory to the Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army ‘Engagement or Declaration of the Officers and Souldiers of the County Palatine of Lancaster’, May 1648.
References: Lancashire military proceedings, 248-50.
Armies: Lancashire
Garfoot, William William Garfoot
Ensign in Thomas Ballard’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 43.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Garland, John John Garland
A captain in Robert Lilburne’s regiment of horse in the Northern Association Army. In 1647 he became a captain in Okey’s New Model Army dragoon regiment.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 92.
Armies: Northern Army; New Model Army
Garnett, - - Garnett
Captain of a troop of horse in Colonel Thomas Birch’s regiment in Lancashire.
References: TNA, E121/5/7.
Armies: Lancashire
Garrard, Sir John, second baronet John Garrard, second baronet (c.1612-1686)
Born into a wealthy London family, several of whom had served as lord mayor, which had acquired an estate at Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire. His father, who died in 1637, had acquired a baronetcy.
From the outbreak of civil war, he was colonel and commander of a militia-based regiment of foot in Herts, which served for a time in Newport Pagnell garrison. He was also sheriff of Hertfordshire in 1643-5.
References: A. Thompson, The Impact of the First Civil War on Hertfordshire, 1642-47 (2007), passim but especially 219.
Armies: Hertfordshire
Garrard, Nethermill Nethermill Garrard
Ensign in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Garrat, Matthew Matthew Garrat
Ensign in Vincent Boys’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. By 1647 he was an ensign in Muskett’s company in Fairfax’s New Model Army regiment of foot, later promoted to lieutenant in Priest’s company in the same regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.65; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 85, 113, 128.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Garrett, John John Garrett
Ensign in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Garth, Ralph Ralph Garth
Lieutenant in William Bampfield’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 40.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gaselye, John John Gaselye
Ensign in Major John Leigh’s company in the Westminster auxiliary regiment (Colonel James Prince) at muster of 13 May 1644, when the regiment was serving with Sir William Waller.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 594r.
Armies: Westminster
Gates, John John Gates
Lieutenant in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gatesy, Joseph Joseph Gatesby
By late summer 1644, cornet in Potter’s troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Warwickshire
Gattaway, - - Gattaway
In Apr. 1645, on the eve of the break-up of the regiment, serving as lieutenant in (presumably his kinsman) William Gattaway’s troop in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.96.
Armies: Eastern Association
Gattaway, William William Gattaway
By spring 1644 captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army; he was later promoted to major and served in that role until the regiment was broken up in spring 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.96.
Armies: Eastern Association
Gaulter, George George Gaulter
Captain in the regiment of foot of the earl of Peterborough in the earl of Essex’s Army, 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 28.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gauthorn, Jonathan Jonathan Gauthorn
Captain-Lieutenant in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands, in summer 1642, transferring into John Venn’s regiment of foot which garrisoned Windsor Castle.
References: Thrale 1642; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 67, citing SP28/262, Part 19, f. 219.
Armies: London
Geare, William William Geare
Captain in the London Trained Bands, 1639.
Major in the Orange regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Towse) in Apr. 1642, transferring as major in the Yellow regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Sir John Wollaston) later that year.
References: Overton 1642; Thrale 1642; Barriffe, Mars, sig. ¶r.; Lindley, Popular politics, 175, 208.
Gee, John John Gee
In summer 1645, lieutenant to newly-promoted Captain Walford in what had formerly been Godfrey Bosvile’s Warwick-based regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 31.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Geeving, - - Geeving
Ensign (by 1 Mar. 1645) and lieutenant (by 14 June 1645) in Thomas Chase’s company in Anthony Stapley’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 128.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Sussex
Geezeley, - - Geezeley
Captain-Lieutenant in Sir Horatio Carey’s Gloucestershire regiment of foot, raised in spring 1643. By June 1643 he was a captain at Bristol, described as formerly captain-lieutenant to Carey.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 623-4.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Gell, Sir John, first baronet Sir John Gell, first baronet (baptised 1593, died 1671)
Eldest son of Thomas Gell (1532-1594) of Hopton, and his wife Millicent, daughter of Ralph Sacheverel of Stanton by Dale, Derbyshire; elder brother of Thomas Gell.
In 1610 he married (1) Elizabeth Willoughby (1594-1644), daughter of Sir Percival Willoughby of Wollaton, Notts; in 1647 he married (2) the widow of an old rival, Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston, Derbyshire, but the marriage soon collapsed.
One of the richest gentry in Derbyshire, he was very efficient collecting ship money as sheriff in 1635. His enemies claimed that he came out so promptly for parliament at the beginning of the civil war in order to avoid repercussions for his earlier ship money role, but in reality there is clear evidence of religious and political disaffection from royal policies well before 1642.
Commissioned colonel of a regiment of foot by the earl of Essex in 1642, and authorised to secure Derbyshire. Recruiting local troops and with reinforcements from Hull, he secured Derby and made the county town his military and political base for the remainder of the war; as governor of Derby, he strongly resisted repeated royalist threats and incursions during 1643 and early 1644, until the collapse of royalism in the north in the wake of Marston Moor made his military position more secure. He was very active both within Derbyshire and, taking a regional perspective, in neighbouring counties, including Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire and south-western Yorkshire; thus he took command of the operation to capture Lichfield after Lord Brooke’s death in 1643 and also fought alongside Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire forces at Hopton Heath. He either commanded in person or dispatched some of his troops to bolster or attempt to (re-)capture key bases in the region, including Uttoxeter, Burton, Ashby de la Zouch, Nottingham, Belvoir and Newark. For a time, at least on paper, he was commander-in-chief of troops in Derbyshire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire.
However, Gell was prickly, quarrelsome and, his enemies within the parliamentarian cause alleged, greedy and corrupt, and while he promoted friends and family and attracted some loyal supporters, he fell out with several of his subordinate officers and with members of the Derbyshire county committee and had often strained relations with other regional commanders, including Sir John Hutchinson, Lord Grey and Sir Thomas Fairfax. His antipathy to the New Model Army, his lukeward contribution to the Naseby campaign and his involvement in a particularly corrupt recruiter election in support of his brother’s candidacy in Sept. 1645 led to the waning of his influence from the mid-1640s and although he continued to serve during the closing months of the war, active in the siege of Tutbury Castle in 1646, his military command was ended soon after. By the late 1640s he was flirting with royalism and in 1650 he was convicted of treason for his involvement in a royalist plot and imprisoned, but he was pardoned in 1653; he was pardoned by Charles II at the Restoration and made a gentleman of his privy chamber.
References: Oxford DNB; Slack, Man at War.
Armies: Derbyshire
Gell, Thomas Thomas Gell
Younger son of Thomas Gell (1532-1594) of Hopton, and his wife Millicent, daughter of Ralph Sacheverel of Stanton by Dale, Derbyshire; younger brother of Sir John Gell. A Middle Temple barrister, and a loyal brother, although (very definitely not like his brother) a man commended for his sweet nature.
In 1642 Gell was appointed a deputy lieutenant for Derbyshire. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in his brother’s Derbyshire regiment of foot and authorised to raise of a company of 200 foot on 10 Nov. 1642.
In July 1643 he stormed Wootton Lodge, Staffordshire, and in Sept. 1645 was a commander in the abortive expedition against Tutbury.
As his brother’s close ally on the county committee, he also became involved in his political conflicts, when he was elected recorder of Derby in 1644 and in the bitter election for Derby in Sept. 1645, when Thomas’s company was a suspiciously visible presence. Even Thomas eventually (if temporarily) fell out with his brother in Feb. 1646, when he complained of the debts he had occurred on Gell’s behalf (the debts, by Lady Day 1648, amounted to £6,000).
References: Brighton, ‘Civil War’, 46; Slack, Man at War, esp. 68, 71, 90, 110, 132, 141 ff, 147-8.
Armies: Derbyshire
Gellibrand, Thomas Thomas Gellibrand
A Presbyterian petitioner in 1645-6.
Captain in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel William Underwood), approved by the Presbyterian City militia committee in 1647. Put out by the Independent militia committee after the failure of the Presbyterian coup.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 318; A paire of spectacles for the Citie (1648), 10.
Armies: London
Gennings, Edward Edward Gennings
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, ensign in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gent, Thomas Thomas Gent
In Jan. 1645 Gent was a captain in the garrison of Leek, Staffordshire, under Colonel John Bowyer: on 13 and 20 Jan. he was one of the officers ordered by the county committee to raise money from defaulters in Totmanslow Hundred for the support of the garrison. He remained at Leek in Mar. (when many of the garrison were ordered into Shropshire by the Committee of Both Kingdoms), apparently as second-in-command under Lieutenant-Colonel John Watson. He, with Watson and the treasurer at Leek, were ordered to enforce neighbouring townships to provide adequately armed watchmen to fill the place of the troops marched away and to collect the weekly pay. When Bowyer besieged Tutbury Castle in spring 1646, Captain Gent’s company of Staffordshire foot was just 35 men.
Commissioned major of foot in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650.
Named in ‘A list of soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Collonel Gent’, in the 1662 returns of active parliamentarians: the list is mixed with those for Stafford.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 238, 242, 274-5, 296; ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 58; CSPD 1650, 506; Brereton Staffs., 119-20, 140.
Armies: Staffordshire
George, Francis Francis George
Captain in Lord Willoughby’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army and the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.107.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
George, Hans Hans George
By early 1645 a major in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse, serving in Cheshire. George was presumably a German professional soldier.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 249, 520, 522.
Armies: Yorkshire
George, William William George
In 1643 lieutenant in Castle’s company in Godfrey Bosvile’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 30.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Gerard [Gerrard], Gilbert Gilbert Gerard [Gerrard]
Of the Gerards of Crewood Hall, near Kingsley, Cheshire, a junior branch of the royalist Gerards of Bryn, Lancashire.
By Apr. 1645 Gerard was lieutenant-colonel of John Leigh’s regiment of foot serving at the siege of Chester. On 22 Aug. 1650 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of Thomas Croxton’s militia regiment of Cheshire foot.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324-32; CSPD, 1650, 509.
Armies: Cheshire
Gerard, Nathaniel Nathaniel Gerard
Ensign in Captain Edward Fox’s company in James Wemyss’s regiment of foot at the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 155.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gerrard, - - Gerrard
In Mar. 1644 the Staffordshire county committee ordered that Ancient Gerrard be confined to his lodgings until further notice. He may equally well be a parliamentarian or royalist officer.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 66.
Armies: Staffordshire
Ghest, Charles Charles Ghest
Captain in Colonel Richard Turner’s regiment of horse, Aug./Sept. 1643 until its reduction in Mar. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/132, f. 1v.; Spring, Waller's Army.
Armies: London
Gheste, Charles Charles Gheste
Captain in Richard Turner’s regiment of horse, late 1643-early 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 136.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gibb, Henry Henry Gibb
Listed in 1642 as lieutenant in Henry Mildmay’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gibbon, Robert Robert Gibbon
Captain in Sir Michael Livesay’s regiment of horse by the beginning of 1643, when he fought at the siege of Chichester; he continued to serve in that capacity under Henry Ireton once most of the regiment had been absorbed into the New Model. He succeeded Sedascue as major in 1647-8 and played a leading role in putting down a royalist rising in Surrey during the second civil war. In 1650-1 he was briefly given command of a regiment of foot which probably fought at the battle of Worcester. In 1656 he was commissioned to raise and command a regiment of foot to serve in the Anglo-French force in Flanders and fought at the battle of the Dunes.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 89.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Waller (western Association)
Gibbons, Devereux Devereux Gibbons
Captain in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gibbs, Richard Richard Gibbs
Captain in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gibbs, Thomas Thomas Gibbs
In Feb. 1645, ensign in Captain Drapes’s company in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 95.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Gibson, Job Job Gibson
Captain in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded successively by Hampden, Tyrrill and Ingoldsby. He was still there in spring 1645 and transferred with the regiment in that capacity into the New Model Army, though he appears to have left the New Model in or by July 1645.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 148.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Gifford, George George Gifford (died 1643)
In 1642 a lieutenant (probably to Captain Robert Wilshire) in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. He was among those officers who that Dec. marched north with Sir William, and fought at Leeds. On 10 Mar. 1643 Gifford was commissioned captain in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot recruited in the Bradford area. In summer 1643 Gifford fought at Adwalton Moor and at Bradford, from where he escaped to Hull. He died there on 4 Aug. by accident: ‘plunging twice into the saltwater … cost him his death’ (Jones, ‘War in the North’, 383).
References: Peacock, Army lists, 44; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 383.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Gifford, John John Gifford
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse, 26 May 1643-16 Jan. 1645, when the troop passed to Samuel Stringer.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 143.
Armies: Waller; Waller (Southern Association
Gifford [Gyfford, Jefford], John John Gifford [Gyfford, Jefford] (born c.1602/04)
Gifford’s parentage, though probably gentry, is uncertain. He was either the eldest son of William Gifford of Northall, Middlesex, gentleman and his wife Dorothy Scowles of Wantage, Berkshire; or the elder son (in 1615 aged eleven) of Simon Gifford of Darlington and his wife Meriall (or Muriall) Midleton.
Gifford was a professional soldier, and during the Second Bishops’ War served as a captain and then major in Francis Hammond’s regiment of foot. In Dec. 1639 he led 500 Northumberland and County Durham foot to reinforce Berwick as part of the earl of Northumberland’s Army. In 1640, touchy about his status and reputation as a gentleman and an officer, he sued in the High Court of Chivalry for alleged social sneers against him made at Darlington the preceding year. He complained that: ‘Your petitioner hath been a captayne, and is now serjant major of Collonell Hamond’s regiment, and is alsoe a gent descended of an ancient family bearing armes. In Oct. last Marmaduke Browne of Dunham in the countie of Norfolk did very much villifie and provoke your petitioner to duell in manner following, viz. Browne told your petitioner that he was a base, rascally, alehouse captayne; and in a scornfull manner said sure he (meaning your petitioner) is some trooper; and, continewing his provoking language, holding a purse of money in his hand, further said if he (meaning your petitioner) had but these ten pounds and weare in an alehouse or tavern amongst his comrades sure he would thinke himself a brave fellow’ (The Court of Chivalry, 1634-1640, no. 245: Gifford v. Browne).
In 1642 Gifford was a major in the Hull garrison, where he challenged a royalist officer to a duel. In the autumn he led two companies into the West Riding and raised his own company there. He was rewarded for his role in the action at Tadcaster in early Dec. 1642 by promotion to sergeant-major-general of Lord Fairfax’s Northern Army. Between Jan. and Mar. 1643 he occupied Doncaster and raised a regiment of foot there. Gifford later withdrew to Leeds and in May fought at Wakefield. At Adwalton Moor he commanded the parliamentarian left wing, escaping to Hull in the ensuing rout. ‘Despite having forged the Fairfaxes’ Yorkshire infantry, he was stripped of command on 3 Oct. 1643 and sent to the Tower of London’ under allegations of treachery (Hopper, ‘Black Tom’, 229). Both Sir Thomas Fairfax and Joseph Lister suspected his behaviour at Adwalton Moor, and Fairfax later maintained allegations concerning Gifford’s perceived treacherous backwardness during the engagement. However, the speedy trial of Gifford intended by the Commons in Dec. 1643 did not take place, nor was he sent back to Lord Fairfax for trial as he ordered in June 1644. On 27 Feb. 1647 Lord Fairfax finally signed off Gifford’s pay claims. He may have been the Major [John] Gifford serving in Colonel Jephson’s regiment of horse in Hampshire by late 1645, who went on to be a colonel in Ireland. In Apr. 1661 Gifford was named in a general pardon, when he was described as of ‘Bolleugh’ (possibly Ballyhea, County Cork). He was alive on 28 Sept. 1666, when his landholdings in Cork were further increased by the grant of Aghern.
References: The Court of Chivalry, 1634-1640, no. 245: Gifford v. Browne (www.court-of-chivalry.bham.ac.uk/); Jones, ‘War in the North’, xxx; Hopper, ‘Black Tom’, 27, 43, 64, 229, 236; JHC, 3, 106, 341, 355, 518;Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 639-40; CSPD, 1645-1647, 353-4; CSP Ireland, 1660-1662, 317; HMC, Portland manuscripts (1891), 292, 320; B. Burke, A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Ireland (1904), 220.; Peacock, Army lists, 90; J. Foster, Pedigrees recorded at the visitations of the County Palatine of Durham (1887), 137.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Gifford, Richard Richard Gifford
By late 1644 captain in the Portsmouth-based regiment of foot commanded by William Jephson and still serving in the regiment in summer 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 72.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Hampshire
Gifford, Richard Richard Gifford
Not entirely certain that he was in Hungerford’s regiment of foot. He was at Portsmouth, 8 June 1644. Reported in 1644 that Hungerford never paid captains, officers or men a tenth of their pay, and to most officers never a penny. He never had above 1,000 men, and these not eight days together; mostly trained [band] men. He kept the pay brought to him and sent the men home to be paid by the parishes.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.541 [from SP28/16/210].
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Foot
Giggins, Symon Symon Giggins
Ensign in William Bampfield’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 40.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gilbert, - - Gilbert
Lieutenant serving with Sir William Waller in late 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 151.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gilbert, Robert Robert Gilbert
Sergeant in Cornelius Lambe’s company in Ralph Weldon’s regiment of foot, promoted its ensign when Lambe died in Aug. 1644 and was succeeded by his Lieutenant James Fenton (who was in turn succeeded as lieutenant by the existing ensign, James Hart).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 152.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Kent
Gilburne, William William Gilburne
A captain in John Birch’s newly-formed regiment of foot raised in Kent for Waller’s Southern Association army by 20 July 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 16.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Kent
Gill, Edward Edward Gill (1610-c.1670)
Of Car House, Yorkshire (West Riding), a gentleman. Eldest son of Leonard Gill of Norton, Derbyshire. He married (1) the sister of John Bright and (2) the daughter and heir of Henry Westby, from whom he inherited Car House. ‘He was a member of a tight puritan family group in South Yorkshire’ (Jones, ‘War in the North’, 384).
Gill was a captain by Jan. 1644, probably in John Bright’s regiment of foot. He was the captain ‘Gell’ who led the successful attack on Leeds that Feb. In early 1645 he succeeded Bright as governor of Sheffield Castle.
From 1649 Gill was appointed to Derbyshire committees.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 384; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 118.
Armies: Yorkshire
Gill, George George Gill
Of Beeston township, Leeds parish, Yorkshire (West Riding).
On 17 May 1643 Gill was commissioned captain of horse in the Fairfaxes’ Northern Army, having spent £600 (some borrowed) in raising his troop. He fought at Adwalton Moor and later served in Lincolnshire in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s regiment of horse. In Jan. 1644 Gill fought at the battle of Nantwich with the Yorkshire horse. In Feb. he accompanied Christopher Copley to London to lobby for Fairfax’s return to Yorkshire. Gill was major in Copley’s regiment of horse from (at least) mid-June 1644 until Nov. 1645, when he was ordered to relinquish his troop to the colonel. He remained militarily inactive until 1650, when in Apr., described as a major, he was commissioned captain in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia. In May Gill gained approval from the Council of State to raise a regiment of foot, but on 1 Aug. 1650 he was forced to relinquish command to Matthew Alured following allegations that he had defrauded the state. In his defence, Gill claimed that he had been victimised due to personal malice, over a quarrel concerning the Leeds town charter and, especially, by Alured’s scheming to gain the regiment.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 384; Firth and Davies, RegimentalHistory,2, 461-2; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 114; CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Gill, William William Gill
Appears in the list of 1642 as cornet in John Hammond’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gimbert, Godfrey Godfrey Gimbert (died c. 1648/50)
Possibly a Dutch officer and probable professional soldier. Dore suggests that he may previously have served in Ireland. By Apr. 1645 Gimbert was captain of a 30-strong company of dragoons in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot. On 9 May 1645, while engaged in besieging Beeston Castle, Gimbert received a letter of defiance from the castle’s royalist governor, William Vallett, against his threat to burn a house that apparently lay between the castle and the siege works. Gimbert countered: ‘You said you delighted in civility; it appears in your beastlike expressions. You told me you would not be tied to conditions. And do you think to tie [me] that am at liberty, and that by you whom I keep close prisoner amongst your anti-Christian, Babylonian crew and will wait to expend my dearest blood upon the destruction of such traitors to King and state as that den of blaspehemers whereof you are the chief. You cause me to burn the house by your expressions’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1, 381-2). In Sept. both Gimbert and Captain Finch were wounded in a night attack against a breach in Chester’s walls: ‘But beinge in the Nighte, and the Trayned bands not speedylie followinge theim… The said twoe Captyns, wth their fyerlocks, weire both of theim wounded, but not mortally’ (Cheshire tracts, 182).
In spring 1646 Gimbert and his company were engaged in besieging Holt Castle, Denbighshire. By mid-May the unit had joined Sir William Brereton’s siege of Lichfield Close (on 23 May Gimbert’s company numbered 65 rank and file plus officers). By spring 1647 he was an officer in the Chester garrison. In Nov. 1648 orders were given to pay Gimbert £20 towards his arrears from money owed for the royalist Colonel Werden’s ransom. However, the money remained unpaid by 9 July 1650 when Gimbert was dead; then Colonel Robert Duckenfeild wrote to the committee for compounding asking for the money to be paid from Werden’s estate to Gimbert’s widow, described as very poor and having lost her husband in the service of the state.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 191-2, 324, 328, 381-2, 2. 273, 384, 497, 511; Carr and Atherton,Brereton Staffs., 59, 111, 241, 270, 325, 328-30, 339, 347-8, 350-1, 354; Cheshire tracts, 152, 182; TNA, SP28/224, f. 267r.; Calendar of Committee for Compounding, 1.269; Cheshire tracts, 146, 152, 182
Armies: Cheshire
Ginnings, Thomas Thomas Ginnings
Ensign in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ginnt, William William Ginnt
Ensign in Captain Robert Bennett’s Trained Band company, dated reference 22 Aug. 1642.
References: Peachey and Turton, 3.308.
Armies: Cornwall
Gittings, Edward Edward Gittings
Captain in the regiment of foot commanded successively by Henry Bulstrode, Adam Cunningham and Richard Fortescue. He transferred at that rank into the New Model Army becoming captain in Fortescue’s New Model regiment of foot. He left the army in Aug. 1646.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Gittings, Philip Philip Gittings
Ensign in Viscount Saye and Sele’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. Appointed captain in the successor regiment in the New Model Army, Walter Lloyd’s (originally intended as Edward Aldrich’s) regiment of foot.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30; Temple, ‘New Model Army’, 61.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gladman, John John Gladman (died 1685)
His birth, parentage and early life are obscure. Became captain-lieutenant in Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army in 1644, continuing in that regiment (under Fairfax) when it formed part of the New Model Army, promoted to captain in or after 1649. He fought in Cromwell’s Scottish campaign but was eventually cashiered by Cromwell towards the end of the Protectorate for opposing the changes entailed in the new written constitution. He was reinstated by the Rump in 1659, promoted to colonel and resisted the Restoration. He was under suspicion and repeatedly arrested thereafter – for a time he was held in Dublin Castle – and was active in dissenter and later exclusionist circles. He was arrested for alleged involvement in the Rye House Plot and the Monmouth Rebellion but on both occasions, protesting his innocence, he was released. He seems to have died later in 1685.
References: Oxford DNB; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 50, 61, 72, 82, 92, 105.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Glegg, Edward Edward Glegg (baptised 1615, died 1672)
Son of William Glegg, of Gayton in the Wirral, and brother of John Glegg, a captain in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse.
Edward Glegg was probably the Captain Glegg identified in a list dated 30 Apr. 1645 of officers in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army, as of ‘Wirrhal’,‘now disposed of’, recently holding command, or joint command, of a 160-strong company by then transferred to Captain Birkenhead. On 10 Apr. 1645 the deputy-lieutenants at Nantwich had reported that Captain Glegg had laid down his commission and that most of his men (stationed at Tilston) had subsequently deserted. The deputy-lieutenants attributed this to their captain’s resignation, to their sense of hard usage, and from being posted away from their local area. Glegg was therefore captain of a Trained Band company within Brereton’s regiment of foot. However, on 19 July 1645, in response to Lieutenant-Colonel Chidley Coote’s entreaties for Brereton’s council of war to appoint a Governor for Hooton House, Captains Edward Glegg and Birkenhead were ordered to take charge of the garrison. In Apr. 1646 Glegg’s company was ordered to join Brereton at the siege of Lichfield. Despite his men having initially refusal to march without pay, by mid-May Glegg’s 69-strong company was serving at Lichfield. Glegg died 26 May 1672.
References: Dore, Brereton’s letter books, 1. 162-3, 191-2, 324, 328, 2. 112-3, 451, 453, 497; BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, no. 174; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 88-9, 100, 241, 271, 274, 325, 328, 330, 348, 351, 353.
Armies: Cheshire
Glegg, John John Glegg
Son of William Glegg senior of Gayton in the Wirral.
Identified by a letter dated 10 Oct. 1646 as a captain of a troop of horse in Colonel Michael Jones’s regiment. Glegg’s was then one of several troops to be posted to Ireland.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 163; Vis. Cheshire, 1663, 45; TNA, SP28/224, f. 163.
Armies: Cheshire
Glisson, - - Glisson
By Jan. 1645, and still there when the regiment was broken up in spring 1645, captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.98.
Armies: Eastern Association
Glover, - - Glover (died 1644)
Captain in the earl of Denbigh’s regiment of horse. In Apr. 1644 he was paid towards maintaining his troop. He was killed at the battle of Tipton (June 1644): ‘after he was shot in the arm, [he] would not be persuaded to come off, and was slain upon the place’ (CSPD, 1644, 236).
References: TNA, SP28/131, Part 12, ff. 22-3; CSPD 1644, 236.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh
Goddard, - - Goddard
At some point before the reduction of the regiment in spring 1644, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of dragoons in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.58.
Armies: Eastern Association
Goddard, - - Goddard
Captain in Edmund Ludlow’s regiment of horse by Sept. 1644, but had apparently had left the regiment by Dec.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 83.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Goddard, James James Goddard
Cornet in John Gunter’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 49.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goddard, Thomas Thomas Goddard
In spring 1645 he was a lieutenant of Chute’s troop in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of horse, commanded by Stapleton, and like several officers from that regiment he transferred to the New Model regiment of horse initially commanded by Richard Graves, at first as a lieutenant but promoted to captain in 1647.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 96, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Godfrey, - - Godfrey
Lieutenant [of foot].
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Godfrey, Nathaniel Nathaniel Godfrey
Lieutenant.
References: Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337.
Armies: Dorset
Godman, Edward Edward Godman
Captain in the Sussex Trained Bands in 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 126.
Armies: Sussex
Goffe, William William Goffe (died 1679?)
Born the son of Stephen Goffe, sometime rector of Bramber, Sussex, though his date of birth, upbringing and early life are all obscure and little is known. By the 1630s he was apprenticed to a London grocer and was made free of the Grocers’ Company in 1642. At some point over the next ten years he married a daughter of his fellow-officer Edward Whalley.
By spring 1645 and probably from 1643 Goffe was a captain in Harry/Henry Barclay’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like many of his fellow-officers in that regiment, he then transferred to the New Model Army regiment of foot which came to be commanded by Edward Harley. When, after Harley’s departure, Pride became the regiment’s Colonel, Goffe became lieutenant-colonel in his stead. In Sept. 1648 he transferred to Fairfax’s own New Model regiment of foot as lieutenant-colonel, but given Fairfax’s broader duties Goffe became in effect day-to-day commander of the regiment.
Goffe had been to the fore in army politics in 1646-7 and was one of the radical voices at the Putney Debates. He may have been the officer who at the Windsor prayer meeting in spring 1648 led the way in interpreting God’s will to be opposing Charles I’s continuance in power. He was an active regicide.
He accompanied Cromwell’s army into Scotland in 1650-51 and played prominent roles at the battles of Dunbar and Worcester. He supported Cromwell’s ejection of the Rump and the ending of the Nominated Assembly.
He was elected MP to the first two Protectorate parliaments and in 1655-7 was very active as major-general of Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. He supported Richard Cromwell and so lost out when the Protectorate was removed by the army.
At the Restoration he fled with his father-in-law to New England and lived there for many years, moving around and eluding capture. His letters home to England ended in 1679 and so it is assumed that he died around then.
References: Oxford DNB; Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 47, 58, 69, 79, 90, 97, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Goldegay, George [?Gawen] George [Gawen?] Goldegay
A captain of one of the dragoon companies that Brereton led from London to Cheshire in Jan. 1643. Goldegay was wounded, and his lieutenant killed, in the engagement at the end of that month resulting in the parliamentarian occupation of Nantwich. Goldegay was transferred to the Shropshire committee in later 1643 or early 1644; by Apr. 1644 he was a major in the garrison at Wem. By Nov. 1645 Goldegay had risen to lieutenant-colonel, and, along with Thomas Mytton, Michael Jones and James Louthiane, held command in the victory at Denbigh Green.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books,2. 193, 205.
Armies: Cheshire; Shropshire
Goldham, Abel Abel Goldham
A captain in the Lancashire regiment of John Booth.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 285.
Armies: Lancashire
Goldsmith, David David Goldsmith
Lieutenant in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
Possibly Daniel Goldsmith, lieutenant in Francis Hamond’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s regiment of foot raised to fight the Scots in 1640.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 44, 90.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goldsmith, Thomas Thomas Goldsmith
Identified by a pay warrant dated 10 Apr. 1644 as a cornet in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade, probably in Myddelton’s own regiment of horse.
References: TNA, SP28/346, no. 99.
Armies: North Wales
Golledge, - - Golledge
Lieutenant in Thomas Chase’s company in Anthony Stapley’s Sussex regiment of foot by 24 May 1645; by 14 June Ensign Geeving had been promoted in his place.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 128.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Golledge, Thomas Thomas Golledge (died 1645)
Ensign in Viscount Saye and Sele’s, later Sir John Meldrum’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. He was no longer in the regiment by 5 Aug. 1643, when he was claiming for arrears for the period 2 Feb.-4 May 1643 as ensign in Captain Walter Lloyd’s company.
Appointed captain in Richard Fortescue’s regiment of foot in the New Model Army. He was killed at Taunton in May 1645.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30 (name corrected from original 1642 List); TNA, SP28/9/28; Temple, ‘New Model Army’, 57; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.336-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Gooday, Forth Forth Gooday
Second son of Richard Gooday of Kettlebaston, Suffolk, and his wife Frances, daughter of Sir William Forth of Butley Abbey, Suffolk, knight. He had married by 1634 Sara, daughter of John Britten of Hadleigh, Suffolk.
Captain-Lieutenant in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642; Vis. London, 1633-35, 1.322.
Armies: London
Gooday, Samuel Samuel Gooday
By Apr. 1644 and continuing with the regiment until it was absorbed into the New Model Army in spring 1645, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He became a captain in, later major of, Fairfax’s New Model Army foot. He left the regiment in 1647.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.65; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 43, 55, 65, 76, 83, 113.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Goodham [Goodchild], Nicholas Nicholas Goodham [Goodchild]
By the beginning of 1645, ensign in John Silverwood’s company in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.87.
Armies: Eastern Association
Goodier, Thomas Thomas Goodier
Captain. Captain Goodier was serving at Bristol in Mar. 1643, when some of his men arrested the royalist conspirators at Bristol; Goodier was at the trial of the most prominent, Robert Yeamans.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.610.
Armies: Bristol
Goodman, Thomas Thomas Goodman
In late 1644, captain-lieutenant in the colonel’s own troop in Sir Samuel Luke’s Bedfordshire-based regiment of horse. As such, he features quite frequently in Luke’s letter books and a handful of letters to or by him survive there.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 92; Luke Letter Books, nos. 133, 172, 240, 1248.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Goodricke, Henry Henry Goodricke (died 1668)
A younger son of William Goodricke of Walton Head, Yorkshire (West Riding) and Skidby, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman. Henry married Jane, daughter of Henry Gascoigne of Thorpe-on-the-Hill.
A captain in Yorkshire, regiment and service unknown.
He presented a petition to parliament, ‘on the behalfe and by the dirreccon of the multitudes of the well affected people of the County of York principally in the West and East Ridings’.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 384; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 99.
Armies: Yorkshire
Goodricke, William, junior William Goodricke, junior (died 1666)
Eldest son of William Goodricke of Walton Head, Yorkshire (West Riding), and Skidby, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman.
In 1642 William raised a company of dragoons in the East Riding, and by May 1643 was holding Wressell Castle. That June he rejected Sir Hugh Cholmley’s attempts to encourage him to change sides. Goodricke was later commissioned captain in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse.
In spring 1644 he was promoted Major in Sir William Constable’s regiment of horse (replacing Hugh Bethell). He commanded the regiment when it was posted to Cheshire in Feb. 1645. Little is known of Goodricke thereafter, though in 1649 he reappears as a captain in the newly-raised northern regiment of horse commanded by John Lambert on the New Model Army payroll. He was suspected of royalist leanings at the time of the Restoration.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 98; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 163.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Goodricke, William, senior William Goodricke, senior
Of Walton Head, Yorkshire (West Riding) and Skidby, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman. Younger son of Richard Goodricke of Ribston and uncle of the royalist Sir John Goodricke. His son William Goodricke and Henry Goodricke were parliamentarian officers.
In 1642 William was a captain in the Hull garrison, promoted major by Oct. He later had to re-affirm his loyalty because of supporting Hotham against Cromwell in June 1643. That July, after Lord Fairfax’s arrival in Hull, Goodricke was appointed major in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of foot. He later transferred to Christopher Legard’s regiment of foot as lieutenant-colonel, and then (holding the same rank) to Richard Thorneton’s regiment of foot. In June 1645 Goodricke was appointed to the Northern Association committee for the East Riding. In 1649 he was lieutenant-colonel in John Bright’s newly-raised northern regiment of foot which was on the New Model Army payroll.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 384; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 98; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 161.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Goodwin, - - Goodwin
Lieutenant in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goodwin, Ambrose Ambrose Goodwin
Ensign in Major William Chapman’s company in the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands regiment on 18 Apr. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, f. 571r.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Goodwin, Arthur Arthur Goodwin (died 1643)
Only surviving son and heir of Sir Francis Goodwin (died 1634) of Upper Winchendon, Buckinghamshire, a leading landed and political family in Buckinghamshire.
Arthur was born towards the end of the sixteenth century. He sat as an MP in the later parliaments of James I and the first parliament of Charles I and again in the Short and Long Parliaments. A close friend of John Hampden and allied to other critics of Charles I’s government, he was prominent in support of reform in 1641-2. He supported the parliamentarian war effort both financially and as captain of a troop of horse and then colonel of a regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army. He took part in the campaign and battle of Edgehill and stand-off at Turnham Green in autumn 1642, but he was more often involved in actions to secure or to oppose royalist advances in and around Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and the fringes of Oxfordshire. He was present at the skirmish at Chalgrove in June 1643 at which Hampden was mortally wounded. He died a few weeks later, in Aug. 1643. His regiment of horse survived him for a while, commanded by Richard Brown, but was broken up in spring 1644.
References: Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629, 4.418-9.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goodwin, Jasper Jasper Goodwin
Ensign in Lord Mandeville’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goodwin, Thomas Thomas Goodwin
Ensign in Lord Mandeville’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goodwyn, Robert Robert Goodwyn
Captain in Lord Mandeville’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642 from or by 3 Sept.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36; TNA, SP28/2a/130.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Goodyear, - - Goodyear
Captain in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.70.
Armies: Eastern Association
Goodyeare, John John Goodyeare
In 1650 commissioned as a captain in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia.
References: CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Gookin [Geokin], - - Gookin [Geokin]
Captain. He was a captain in Nathaniel Fiennes’s regiment of foot in 1643. He had been serving in the west before Fiennes’ arrival in Feb. (he later describes a soldier maimed at Roundway Down in July 1643 as having been in his company for a year), consistent with Peachey and Turton’s suggestion that Fiennes’ regiment drew heavily on Wiltshire men.
But by July Gookin was a captain in Fiennes’s regiment. He was captured at Roundway Down, 13 July 1643, and was still a Bristol prisoner at Oxford on 16 Sept., despite a specific clause in the Bristol surrender terms for his release. He is probably Vincent Gookin (c. 1616-1659), who sat for Irish constituencies in the Cromwellian parliaments of 1653, 1654, 1656 and 1659, by virtue of his property interests in County Cork.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.608; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming); Oxford DNB.
Armies: Bristol
Gorden [Gooden], William William Gorden [Gooden]
Cornet to Captain John Innis, in the earl of Essex’s regiment of horse by 24 Apr. 1644; when the troop of its new Captain Robert Bruce transferred to Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse, Gorden went with it and was its lieutenant by Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 40.
Armies: Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Gordon, Nathaniel Nathaniel Gordon
Major of John Browne’s regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642, from or by 25 Aug.
Perhaps the Nathaniel Gordon who by Feb. 1644 was a royalist commander in Scotland, and who in Aug. 1645 led a section of the infantry at Montrose’s defeat of the Covenanters at Kilsyth.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 57; TNA, SP28/1a/288; Furgol, Covenanting armies, 116, 137, 166, 170.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gore, Christopher Christopher Gore
Lieutenant in Captain Leonard Leonards’s company in the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands regiment on 16 Apr. 1644, when he took the muster. By 22 Oct. 1646 he was captain, presumably in Leonards’s place.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 602r.-603r.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Gore, Theodore Theobold Gore
Captain in Sir Edward Hungerford’s regiment of dragoons, a regiment raised in early 1643. Gore deserted to Prince Rupert after the parliamentarian forces abandoned Malmesbury and marched towards Bristol.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.546-7.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Dragoons
Gore, Thomas Thomas Gore
Captain of a company in Hungerford’s regiment of foot, 7 Jan.-28 July 1643. From then a captain of a troop in Edward Massey’s regiment of foot.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West,5.540.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Foot
Gore, Thomas Thomas Gore
Cornet in Captain Francis Dowett’s troop of horse in Essex’s Army.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 7.708; Peacock, Army lists, 50.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gorge, - - Gorge
Captain. From Cooper’s account of the taking of Abbotsbury House, Nov. 1644: ‘Captain Gorge, a very gallant young gentleman, is hurt in the head with a freestone from the church tower and shot through the ankle, but we hope will live’.
References: Christie, Shaftesbury, 1.63.
Armies: Dorset
Gorge, John John Gorge
Ensign in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gorges, John John Gorges (c.1620-1696)
Second son of Henry Gorges of Batcombe, Somerset, and his wife Barbara, daughter of Thomas Baynard of Colern, Wiltshire. Brother of Thomas Gorges.
In 1642 Gorges was an ensign in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. He was among those officers who accompanied Sir William Fairfax to Yorkshire. From 20 Sept. 1643 to 18 Apr. 1644 Gorges was a captain in Sir William Constable’s (later Sir William Fairfax’s) regiment of dragoons. He resigned his commission when Thomas Morgan took command of the regiment. From 29 Apr. 1644 until 5 Apr. 1645 Gorges was a captain (in succession to Captain Douglas) in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot, converted a few months later into a regiment of dragoons. Gorges did not accompany his company when it was transferred to John Okey’s regiment of dragoons in the New Model Army. On 17 July 1647 parliament appointed Gorges governor of Exmouth. In 1649 he was appointed a militia commissioner and in 1650 a sequestration sub-commissioner in Somerset He also became a JP, appointments which marked his acceptability to the county boss of Somerset John Pyne. However, when in 1653 Gorges attempted to investigate the misdemeanours of certain county committeemen, Pyne accused him of taking bribes and of being opposed to the godly and the well-affected, and removed him from his posts as a JP and sub-commissioner. By the late 1650s Gorges was lieutenant-colonel in Henry Cromwell’s regiment of foot (he was probably brother to Dr Robert Gorges, Henry’s secretary). In 1659 the republican committee for the nomination of officers removed him from his command. Gorges was MP for Taunton in 1654, for Somerset in 1656, and for Counties Derry, Donegal and Tyrone in 1659.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42; Spring, Waller’s army, 150; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 627; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385; Underdown, Somerset, 167-8, 173, 176, 178, 180, 182, 188, 190; Vis. Somerset, 1623, 41; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax); Devon; Waller, Southern Association; Massey Brigade
Goring [Goreinge], John John Goring [Goreinge]
Captain in the Derbyshire regiment of horse serving with Sir William Brereton in Mar. and Apr. 1645, one of the officers complaining against their colonel, Sir John Gell. Dore suggests that he may be John Goring of Croxden Abbey, a Staffordshire committeeman in the 1650s whose residence lay close to the Derbyshire border.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.73, 96, 526.
Armies: Derbyshire
Goring, John John Goring
Possibly John Goring (died 1654) of Kingston, Staffordshire, eldest son of Henry Goring (died 1642) of Kingston and his wife Joyce, daughter and heir of Evan Powell of London and widow of Thomas Orrell of Slaugham Lodge, Sussex. This John Goring married Felicia, daughter and coheir of William Ticksall of Leeshill, Staffordshire.
Commissary at Stafford, whose account of munitions delivered out of the Stafford magazine in May 1644 survives.
Commissioned colonel of foot in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650.
References: Vis. Staffs., 153; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 340; CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Staffordshire
Gostolow, - - Gostolow
By Mar. 1644 and still there in Feb. 1645 shortly before the regiment’s transfer to the New Model Army in spring 1645 (though he appears not to have entered the New Model), captain in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.69.
Armies: Eastern Association
Gough [Goff], William William Gough [Goff]
Captain of horse in Staffordshire. On 15 Jan. 1644 the Staffordshire county committee ordered that all the horse that could be raised were to march to Captain Gough’s relief. In May the weekly assessment of six townships in Seisdon Hundred, including Pattishall and Wrottesley, was assigned to him for his garrison (which is not specified in the committee book at any point); it was transferred to Captain Henry Jackson and his troop in Oct., by when Gough ‘hath now but few men lefte and he now absent’ (Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 197). By Nov. Gough lay at Stafford, where he was one of the cavalry captains to provide troopers for the scoutmaster. In Jan. 1645 there was a dispute over a horse taken by one of Gough’s troopers from a Pattingham man.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 34, 90, 118, 122-3, 127, 143, 197, 212, 241.
Armies: Staffordshire
Gould, - - Gould
Captain. Of Dorchester. Captain of a Trained Band Company of 116 musketeers and 55 pikemen in 1641. In Sept. 1642 he complained that Gould and Captain Sydenham had made great show of forwardness, but that this was just dissembling. ‘For they disheartened the soldiers, and gave out that the soldiers would not go. The lieutenants and under-officers have left them and enlisted under other captains.’
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.503.
Armies: Dorset
Gould, - - Gould
Ensign.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Gould, Humphrey junior Humphrey Gould, junior
Ensign in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Gould, Humphrey senior Humphrey Gould, senior
Colonel’s ensign in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Gould, Richard Richard Gould
Captain of foot. His company was in the Wareham garrison when order for its reduction was made, 27 Apr. 1646.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 97 (see also 27, 113, 236, 244, 255, 377).
Armies: Dorset
Gould, William William Gould (1615-44)
Eldest son of William Gould (died 1635) and his wife Alice, daughter of Robert Taylor of Pinhoe, Devon. He married Anne (died 1642), daughter of John Browne of Frampton, Dorset, in 1637/8.
Gould originally was captain of a company in Sir John Bampfylde’s regiment of foot, which was transferred to Captain Robert Bennet. On 26 Apr. 1643 Gould’s troop was present at the battle of Sourton Down, where it played a leading part in the victory. In May he succeeded George Chudleigh as head of the Devon horse following the latter’s resignation. Thereafter records consistently call him colonel. He led the Devon horse as it retreated through Somerset, where it joined Waller’s army. On 21 Sept. 1643 Gould brought 500 or 600 men to Plymouth on 21 Sept. 1643, 150 of whom were immediately mounted. Peachey and Turton consider that they were evidently the remains of the West Country horse which had been at Roundway Down, 13 July. The foot were described as poor little boys.
Gould was appointed governor of Plymouth in late Jan. 1644, but died on 27 Mar., although there is a discrepancy in the date recorded for his burial of 9 July. Stephen Midhope, delivering his funeral sermon, praised the ‘the person and spirit of Colonell Gould to stand for the publique cause of religion, lawes and liberties’. Both Midhope and the author of a newsletter of events in Plymouth praised his puritan activism. The former described him as ‘impartially active in punishing malignants against the case of Christ, therein another Moses’, whilst the latter recorded that, ‘Colonel Gould hath much purged the Garrison, from swearers, drunkards and abominable livers, causing the town and garrison to be very carefull in observing the Lords day, daies of humiliation, and to be frequently present at the ordinances of the Lord of Hosts’ (Continuation, 9).
References: Vis. Devon, 421-2; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.440-2, 3.360; Worth, History of Plymouth, 110-1; Cotton, Barnstaple, 155.
Armies: Devon
Gower, - - Gower
From summer 1644, when he superseded Captain Meadows, until Jan. 1645 or later, captain in the earl of Manchester’s foot regiment in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.65.
Armies: Eastern Association
Gower, Thomas Thomas Gower (died 1676)
Colonel. Of St Mary Woolchurch (1659) and Highgate (at the time of his death).
A member of the Grocers’ Company; by June 1640 he was a master able to take his son Thomas apprentice; he was Master of the Company in 1656. A tobacco-merchant.
Although not named in the Apr. 1642 list of Trained Bands captains, shortly after third captain of the Orange regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Towse); by Sept. 1643 he was first captain of the same regiment, commanding the Holborn company (from Holborn Bars downwards). By Oct. 1646 he was colonel of the Orange regiment, London Auxiliaries.
In 1642 a member of his ward’s committee for supplying the army; later a committed political and religious Presbyterian, who was appointed to the Presbyterian militia committee in May 1647.
Elder of Third London Classis, 1648-53.
Common councilman by 1645; sworn as alderman, Farringdon Without, Sept. 1652 (but succeeded less than a month later); common councilman, Walbrook Ward, 1657-62.
Commissioner for determining differences among the adventurers to Ireland; commissioner for London militia, 1659; assessment commissioner, June 1657, Jan. 1660.
References: Thrale 1642; BL, Harl. 986, p. 43; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12; Lindley, Popular politics, 313, 375-7; Pearl, ‘London puritans’, 321, 323; Woodhead, Rulers, 78; Beaven, Aldermen, 2.80-1; C. Webb, Grocers’ Company Apprenticeships (2007), 77; Brenner, Merchants, 425, 430, 482-4, 488, 492.
Armies: London
Graden, George George Graden
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, lieutenant in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Grame [Grane], Robert Robert Grame [Grane]
Lieutenant-Colonel in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41; Davies, ‘Essex’s Army’, 47.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Grantham, Francis Francis Grantham (died 1657)
Of the Black Monks, near Lincoln, and Goltho, Lincolnshire.
Fourth son of Sir Thomas Grantham (1573-1630) of St Katherine’s, near Lincoln, and Goltho, Lincolnshire, and his wife Frances (died 1619), daughter of Sir John Puckering, Lord Keeper; younger brother of Thomas Grantham. He married (1) Jane, daughter of Thomas Hutchinson of Owthorpe, Nottinghamshire, aunt of John Hutchinson and George Hutchinson; and (2) - Poulton.
Captain in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41; Lincs. pedigrees, 2.423; Vis. Notts., 1662-64, 64.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Grantham [Grantherne], Richard Richard Grantham [Grantherne] (c.1590-1666)
Of Davenport Green Hall, Hale, Cheshire. Son of John Grantham (died 1626), bailiff to lady Mainwaring of Peover. Grantham’s grandfather, also Richard, had accumulated ‘a small estate of freehold and leasehold farms’ (Groves, Northenden, 74). In 1616 Grantham married Elizabeth Whitworth of Manchester.
At the royalist assizes at Chester on 5 Feb. 1644 Grantham was one of 286 individuals indicted for treason. By Apr. 1645 he was a captain in Sir George Booth’s regiment of foot in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army (Hale was near Booth’s seat at Dunham Massey). On 5 Apr. Booth ordered Grantham to muster his company, which ‘proved very backward to be gotten on service’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 176). By the end of Apr. two companies eventually mustered as one 100-strong ‘country’ company under the joint command of Grantham and Captain Edward Alcocke. By 9 Nov. 1645 unrest had recurred, when Booth went to Bowdon, ‘to set forth [presumably to release from temporary captivity] Captain Grantham’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 235). On 4 Dec. Booth reported the complaints of Grantham’s and Alcocke’s companies: ‘Capts. Grantham and Alcocke have given us here intimation that their companies having done the same duty other auxiliaries of the county have, yet you have been pleased to allow money to others, none to them’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 303). (Brereton replied that they had been paid before Booth’s letter was sent). By 20 Dec. Grantham’s and Alcocke’s 70-strong joint company was part of the force covering the siege of Chester. After the fall of Chester, £102 8s 8d was allotted to Grantham and Alcocke, their officers and men. In the later 1640s Grantham leased land in Etchells and Wythenshawe from the sequestrators of Macclesfield Hundred, while serving as a grand juryman and as head constable of Bucklow Hundred, when he was sometimes referred to as Captain. On 22 Aug. 1651 he was commissioned a captain in Henry Bradshaw’s regiment of foot in the Cheshire militia, and fought with the Cheshire brigade at the battle of Worcester. Grantham died in 1666, leaving a personal estate worth £202 6s. With ten rooms and three hearths, his house, Davenport Green Hall, was then the largest in Hale.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 161-2, 176, 325, 329, 2. 168, 235, 303-4, 305-6, 402-3, 511; Grove, Northenden, 37, 46, 74; CSPD, 1650, 509-10; Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2, 64-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Grantham [Grantherne], Richard Richard Grantham [Grantherne] (c.1590-1666)
Of Davenport Green Hall, Hale, Cheshire. Son of John Grantham (died 1626), bailiff to lady Mainwaring of Peover. Grantham’s grandfather, also Richard, had accumulated ‘a small estate of freehold and leasehold farms’ (Groves, Northenden, 74). In 1616 Grantham married Elizabeth Whitworth of Manchester.
At the royalist assizes at Chester on 5 Feb. 1644 Grantham was one of 286 individuals indicted for treason. By Apr. 1645 he was a captain in Sir George Booth’s regiment of foot in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army (Hale was near Booth’s seat at Dunham Massey). On 5 Apr. Booth ordered Grantham to muster his company, which ‘proved very backward to be gotten on service’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 176). By the end of Apr. two companies eventually mustered as one 100-strong ‘country’ company under the joint command of Grantham and Captain Edward Alcocke. By 9 Nov. 1645 unrest had recurred, when Booth went to Bowdon, ‘to set forth [presumably to release from temporary captivity] Captain Grantham’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 235). On 4 Dec. Booth reported the complaints of Grantham’s and Alcocke’s companies: ‘Capts. Grantham and Alcocke have given us here intimation that their companies having done the same duty other auxiliaries of the county have, yet you have been pleased to allow money to others, none to them’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 303). (Brereton replied that they had been paid before Booth’s letter was sent). By 20 Dec. Grantham’s and Alcocke’s 70-strong joint company was part of the force covering the siege of Chester. After the fall of Chester, £102 8s 8d was allotted to Grantham and Alcocke, their officers and men. In the later 1640s Grantham leased land in Etchells and Wythenshawe from the sequestrators of Macclesfield Hundred, while serving as a grand juryman and as head constable of Bucklow Hundred, when he was sometimes referred to as Captain. On 22 Aug. 1651 he was commissioned a captain in Henry Bradshaw’s regiment of foot in the Cheshire militia, and fought with the Cheshire brigade at the battle of Worcester. Grantham died in 1666, leaving a personal estate worth £202 6s. With ten rooms and three hearths, his house, Davenport Green Hall, was then the largest in Hale.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 161-2, 176, 325, 329, 2. 168, 235, 303-4, 305-6, 402-3, 511; Grove, Northenden, 37, 46, 74; CSPD, 1650, 509-10; Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2, 64-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Grantham, Thomas Thomas Grantham (1612-c. 1655)
Eldest surviving son of Sir Thomas Grantham (1573-1630) and his wife Frances (died 1619), daughter of Sir John Puckering, Lord Keeper. Sir Thomas was an MP in the early parliaments of Charles I and an opponent of the forced loan.
His son Thomas, who was elder brother of Thomas Grantham, fought in the Dutch army from the end of the 1620s until around 1632, when he returned to England and married into a Yorkshire family. During the 1630s he held office in both Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. He was elected MP for Lincoln in both the Short and Long Parliaments and supported those seeking reform.
In summer 1642 he became colonel of a regiment of foot in the Earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41; Keeler, Long Parliament, 193.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Granwell, William William Granwell
Lieutenant in Captain Henry Rutter’s troop in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse by 30 Oct. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 148.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gratwick, Thomas Thomas Gratwick
In late summer 1642, down to the troop’s poor performance at Edgehill, lieutenant in Lord Hastings’s short-lived troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gravenor [Grosvenour], Edward Edward Gravenor [Grosvenour]
Ensign in the regiment of foot of Lord Oliver St John/Thomas Essex, 1642-3. At Bristol he was ensign in Thomas Essex’s own company, and later captain in the same regiment until 29 Aug. 1643. At the latter date he became captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot, in which he served until 22 Mar. 1644.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.648, 650; Peacock, Army lists, 34; Spring, Waller’s army, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Bristol; Waller); Waller (Southern Association)
Gravenor[Grosvenour], Edward Edward Gravenor [Grosvenour]
Ensign in the regiment of foot of Oliver Lord St John/Thomas Essex, 1642-3. At Bristol he was ensign in Thomas Essex’s own company.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.648, 650; Peacock, Army Lists, 34.
Armies: Bristol
Graves, Richard Richard Graves (c. 1618-1671)
Born c.1618, a younger son of Sir Richard Graves of King’s Norton near Birmingham.
Little is known of his life and career before the civil war. He was active in the Midlands during the opening months of the war, including attempting to defend Birmingham when it was attacked by Rupert in Apr. 1643.
By 1644 he was lieutenant-colonel of the earl of Essex’s own regiment of horse, in fact commanded by Colonel Stapleton. Like several officers of that regiment, he transferred to the New Model Army in spring 1645, becoming colonel of a New Model regiment of horse.
He left the regiment and the army in 1647 and by the end of the decade had become an open and active royalist, joining the exiled royal court on the continent. He went to Scotland with Charles Stuart, was with the Scottish-royalist army which invaded England in summer 1651 and was captured at Worcester, imprisoned for a time in the Tower. He was released and lived quietly for the rest of the 1650s. He died in 1671, aged around 53.
References: Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.102-15; Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 46, 53, 63, 74, 84, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Gray, Edward Edward Gray
Major. Captain in the regiment of foot of the earl of Stamford, in Essex’s army. The regiment became the professional regiment garrisoning Gloucester at the end of 1642. He fought with distinction at the siege of Gloucester, leading sallies out on 12 and 18 Aug. 1643. Gray was promoted major at some point after Oct. 1643. On 25 May 1644 he distinguished himself in the storming of Malmesbury. By July he and several other officers had fallen out with Massey, and petitioned the earl of Essex against their commander. They were forced to submit by the Committee of Both Kingdoms. In Aug., as the Gloucester garrison was preparing for an attack on the royalist Colonel Mynne, Gray got into a furious row with Major Robert Hammond, commanding Massey’s horse. According to John Corbet:
‘The heat of a quarrel then brake forth by occasion of a verball contestation at a councell of warre the same day, when both had orders to march, and were commanded to their particular charges. Major Gray began to question Hammond for his hasty language, and to require satisfaction. The challenge at the present was refused or sleighted, wherefore impatient of the supposed injury, and full of revenge, he smote him on the face with his fist: upon this to swords they went in the street, and after a little clashing, Gray received his death’s wound by a thrust in the neck, and expired in the place. This miserable accident was like to beget a greater mischief among the souldiers, who being in arms, and ready to advance, came backe with full streame of violent resolution for the present revenge of Gray’s blood: that the whole city and garrison was not farre from an uproar. It rested on the governor’s sole care to allay that violence of the souldier, who used his best art, and industry to appease them, whilest the officers indulging their own discontent at the losse of their major, fell quite off the hinges’ (Bibliotheca, 109-10).
A foray did take place that night, ‘but with little help from the discontented officers’, initially with no great success but the following day Massey caught up with Mynne at Redmarley and defeated him (Bibliotheca, 110). By his own account, the only officers who accompanied Massey that night were a captain from his own regiment (i.e. the city regiment), the captain-lieutenant from Stamford’s regiment and Captain Backhouse.
Hammond was sent prisoner to London and suspended, but was acquitted as he had struck in self-defence.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.642-7. Bibliotheca, 213, 217, 333; CSPD, 1644, 343-4, 396-7; Oxford DNB (Robert Hammond).
Armies: Gloucestershire
Gray, Francis Francis Gray
Lieutenant in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gray, James James Gray
Captain in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41; Davies, ‘Essex’s Army’, 47; TNA, SP28/2a/81.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gray, James James Gray
Ensign. Ensign in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 30; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 646.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Gray, Simon Simon Gray
Captain. An officer in Gloucestershire noted on 3 June 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 635.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Greathead, Joshua Joshua Greathead (born c.1615)
Of Gildersome township, Batley parish, of below gentry status. Brother or cousin of Captains Nicholas Greathead and Thomas Greathead, of Lieutenant Samuel Greathead and Quartermaster Peter Greathead.
In 1643 Joshua fought and was wounded at Adwalton Moor. He was later promoted major of horse (probably in Sandy’s, Parson’s or John Alured’s regiment of horse). In 1648 he claimed £499 4s in arrears and £120 in expenses. On 10 Apr. 1650 Greathead was commissioned Major in a regiment of foot of the Yorkshire militia.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 103-4; CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Greathead, Nicholas Nicholas Greathead
Of Holbeck township, Leeds parish, Yorkshire (West Riding). Of the Batley Greatheads, and kin to Joshua, Thomas, Peter and Samuel Greathead.
In May 1644 Nicholas was commissioned as a troop captain in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse, having raised and financed his officers and 60 troopers. He served at the siege of York and at the battle of Marston Moor. Greathead relinquished his commission on 2 Dec. 1645, his troop passing to Adam Baynes. In 1648 he claimed £944 3s in arrears and £693 10s in expenses.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 114.
Armies: Yorkshire
Greathead, Peter Peter Greathead
Of Morley township, Batley parish.
An army quartermaster, and later a sequestrator in Agbrigg and Morley wapentakes.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 104; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385.
Armies: Yorkshire
Greathead, Samuel Samuel Greathead
A member of the Batley family including Joshua, Nicholas and Peter Greathead.
Samuel served as a lieutenant in Yorkshire.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385.
Armies: Yorkshire
Greathead, Thomas Thomas Greathead
Of Morley township, Batley parish. A kinsman of Joshua, Nicholas, Samuel and Peter Greathead.
From 17 May 1643 to 1 Jan. 1644 Thomas was a Quartermaster in George Gill’s regiment of horse. By 20 Jan. 1644 he had been promoted captain of a troop in John Lambert’s regiment of horse, in which he fought at the battle of Nantwich. In Feb. 1644 he returned with Lambert to the West Riding. Greathead served with the regiment into June 1645, and probably well after. In 1648 he claimed arrears of £985 13s and £566 in expenses.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 104.
Armies: Yorkshire
Green, Henry Henry Green
Ensign in Captain Harold Skirmager’s companies in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot and later in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot. He also served as ensign in Colonel Pierrepont’s regiment of dragoons. He was later a lieutenant in Captain Road’s troop of horse and finally a captain in Sir John Gell’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 150.
Armies: Brooke; Waller (Southern Association); Derbyshire
Greene, Henry Henry Greene
Of Poulton-cum-Spital, on the Wirral, Cheshire.
By Apr. 1645 Greene was captain of a 120-strong company in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot.
In Mar. 1650 he faced accusations of having taken a royalist oath, and having supplied a horse to the earl of Derby. Greene in his defence stated that throughout the war he had served parliament as a captain in Wirral and maintained the garrison at ‘Horton’ (probably Hooton), and since had served as a JP and kept the Wirral obedient to parliament. Greene and Sir William Brereton (who testified that he had always known Greene as well-affected to parliament and that he had been imprisoned under the king’s own warrant) rejected the accusations as malicious. Morrill concluded that Greene, an ally of Brereton’s in the 1640s, was one of several placeman magistrates who were not particularly active. One of this name was commissioned as a captain in Robert Duckenfeild’s Cheshire militia regiment of foot.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324, 329, 2. 111-2; CCAM, 3, 1209-10; Morrill, Cheshire, 185, 215, 296; CSPD, 1650, 509.
Armies: Cheshire
Greene, John John Greene
Lieutenant in Robert Burghill’s troop in Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 50.
Armies: Essex’s Army
Greene, John John Greene
On 10 May 1644 commissioned lieutenant to Captain John Batty in Sir Thomas Norcliffe’s Yorkshire regiment of horse. He was soon after either made captain-lieutenant to Norcliffe or served both Batty and Norcliffe as a lieutenant. Greene went with the regiment to Cheshire in Feb. 1645. In the quarrels over supplies and pay there he publicly insulted Sir William Brereton. At the beginning of May, Lieutenant-Colonel Spencer wrote to Brereton that he had cashiered Greene; however, at the same time he had promoted Greene to captain in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse. Greene’s troop was disbanded on 24 Dec. 1645.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 337-8.
Armies: Yorkshire; Cheshire
Greenhill, John John Greenhill (1604-1662)
Cordwainer, by City Company (Master, 1660) and by occupation.
Captain in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Player) in Oct. 1646, a position the Presbyterian militia committee retained him in the same regiment (then Colonel Jos. Vaughan).
Captain in the same White regiment, London Trained Bands, 1654, and major, Dec. 1659-62.
A Presbyterian, elected common councilman of Bishopsgate Without in Dec. 1645 for 1646, and held that position until 1648 and again 1654-60.
D. 29 Nov. 1662.
References: Marshall, Essex funeral, 12; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 318; Lindley, Popular politics, 361; Woodhead, Rulers, 80; Strype, London, 2.i.302.
Armies: London
Greening, John John Greening
Lieutenant in James Holborne’s regiment of foot in Nov. and Dec. 1644, serving at the relief of Taunton in the latter month.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 57.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Greenleaf, John John Greenleaf
He began the civil war as a captain in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Became a captain in Thomas Rainsborough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. By the later 1640s he was a captain in John Bright’s newly-formed northern regiment of foot on the New Model Army payroll.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.90; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 161.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association; New Model Army
Greenstreat [Greenstreet], James James Greenstreat [Greenstreet]
Captain in Ralph Weldon’s recently-formed Kentish regiment of foot by 22 Jan. 1644. By 20 July 1644 he had transferred as captain to the newly-formed regiment of foot of Colonel Thomas Birch, like Weldon’s raised in Kent for Waller’s Southern Association Army.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 16, 153.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Kent
Greenwall, Robert Robert Greenwall
By Jan. 1644 a captain in John Lambert’s new regiment of horse. At that time Greenwall was also engaged in recruiting foot for Sir Thomas Fairfax in Westmorland and in the north-west of the West Riding. ‘He had little success on this occasion but his letter describing his difficulties suggests a strong commitment to the Parliamentarian cause’ (Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385).
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 385.
Armies: Yorkshire
Greenwood, Alexander Alexander Greenwood
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 148.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Greenwood, Robert Robert Greenwood(born 1614)
A skinner of Ashbourne, Derbyshire. A captain in the Derbyshire regiment of horse, no doubt appointed by its major Thomas Sanders, and hostile to Sir John Gell (although in Mar. 1645 the other captains named Greenwood’s troop as one given preferential treatment by Gell when it came to pay).
In autumn 1644 he was one of the garrison commanders, with Nathaniel Barton, at Barton Blount, and in summer 1645 marched with Sanders in his shadowing of the royal army in Derbyshire. In Dec. 1645 he was one of Gell’s accusers before the committee of examinations.
In 1648 Greenwood was ordered to raise a troop of horse for the defence of the Derbyshire and in July fought under Edward Rossiter at the defeat of the royalists at Willoughby-on-the-Wolds, Nottinghamshire, and, joining Lambert’s Army, fought at Preston.
Greenwood was commissioned major of horse in the Derbyshire militia, 2 Mar. 1650.
References: Turbutt, Derbyshire, 3.1062, 1078, 1081, 1086, 1087; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.73; CSPD 1650, 504; Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’, esp. 137.
Armies: Derbyshire
Gregson, - - Gregson
Captain-Lieutenant in the colonel’s troop of Edmund Harvey’s regiment of London horse, at least Dec. 1643-May 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/131, Part 7, ff. 3r., 17v.
Armies: London
Gregson, George George Gregson
By spring 1645 a captain in Harry/Henry Barclay’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like many of his fellow-officers in that regiment, he then transferred to the New Model Army, as captain in what became Edward Harley’s New Model Army regiment of foot. He was promoted to major in the regiment in 1647 but in Sept. 1648 he left the regiment and effectively retired from the army because of his wounds and he died soon after.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 47, 58, 69, 85, 90, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Grenville, Richard Richard Grenville (died 1665)
Of Wotton Underwood, Buckinghamshire, eldest son of Richard Grenville and his wife Frances, daughter of Thomas Sanders of Long Marston, Buckinghamshire. He married (1) Anne (died 1646), daughter of Sir William Borlase of Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire and (2) Eleanor, daughter of Sir Timothy Tyrrell and widow of Sir Peter Temple of Stantonbury.
Sheriff of Buckinghamshire 1641-2. Deputy-lieutenant and county commiteeman.
Captain of a troop of Harquebusiers in Colonel Arthur Goodwin’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, one of its first four troops raised in summer 1642. Commissioned captain on 30 July 1642, he held the command after the death of Goodwin and the dissolution of the regiment in late 1643, until 28 Mar. 1645, when he passed over its command to Captain John James. For much of the time from spring 1643 the troop seems to have been stationed at Aylesbury, attached to the garrison there. About Aug. 1644 he was taken prisoner, released from Oxford on exchange about Feb. 1645.
MP for Buckinghamshire in all three Protectorate parliaments, but excluded from the second.
References: Vis. Bucks., 1634, 66-7; Bucks. Contributions, esp. 115-32; Peacock, Army lists, 54; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 [forthcoming].
Armies: Earl of Essex; Buckinghamshire
Grenville, Sir Richard Sir Richard Grenville, baronet (1600-1659)
Son of Sir Bernard Grenville and grandson of Sir Richard Grenville, the Elizabethan sea captain. He fought in the Thirty Years' War, as well as in the duke of Buckingham’s Ile de Rhe and La Rochelle expeditions. He took part in Charles I’s two wars against the Scots, 1639-40, and in the expedition to restore English and Protestant control over Ireland in 1641-2. However, falling out with Ormonde and disenchanted by the Cessation, he returned to England later in 1643 and offered his services to parliament. His sincerity was always doubted by many, but during winter and spring 1643-4 he was trusted sufficiently to be commissioned colonel of a new regiment of foot to be raised in southern and south-eastern England, which he was to take to reinforce Plymouth – he may have been earmarked as the new governor of the town – and to be made lieutenant-general of horse under Waller. In fact, Grenville promptly defected back to the king – was his apparent parliamentarianism ever genuine or just deception from the outset? – appearing in Oxford in Mar. 1644 and bringing with him some of his officers and men, cash and valuable military information. Thereafter he was an active and sometimes ruthless and brutal royalist general in the West, though he fell out with several royalist courtiers, administrators and fellow-officers there, as well as being a parliamentarian hate-figure. He fled into exile on the continent when the far South West fell to parliament in 1646 and he died there, embittered and out of favour, a few months before the Restoration.
His parliamentarian regiment of horse survived his defection, rebuilt under Colonel Edward Cooke, and it supported Waller at the battle of Cheriton, in his Oxfordshire campaign of summer 1644 and at the second battle of Newbury. Most of the regiment seems to have been disbanded in spring 1645, upon the formation of the New Model Army.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gresley, Sir George Sir George Gresley (1579/1580-1651)
Of Drakelow, Derbyshire, second, but eldest surviving, son of Thomas Gresley (died 1610) of Drakelow and his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Walsingham of Scadbury, Kent. He married Susan, daughter of Sir Humphrey Ferrers of Tamworth Castle, Warwickshire.
He raised a troop of horse in Derbyshire early in the war, but he was too old to serve himself and his troop was later absorbed into the Derbyshire regiment of horse. He was a close friend and ally of Sir John Gell on the Derbyshire county committee and left a written account of the opening year of the civil war in Derbyshire, 1642-3, strongly praising Gell.
References: Vis. Derbyshire, 95; Brighton, ‘Governor’, 6-7; Turbutt, Derbyshire, 3.1058-9.
Armies: Derbyshire
Greville, Fulke Fulke Greville
Probably son of Fulke Greville (1575-1632) of Thorpe Latimer, Lincolnshire, and his wife Mary, daughter of Christopher Copley of Wadsworth, Yorkshire, and younger brother of Robert Greville, second baron Brooke of Beauchamps Court. Cornet in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. On 29 Aug. 1643 he became a captain in the regiment, and continued to serve in it until its disbandment on 20 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army,143; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West,7.707; Peacock, Army lists, 49.
Armies: Essex’s Army, Waller; Waller (Southern Association)
Greville, Robert, second Baron Brooke Robert Greville, second Baron Brooke (1607-1643)
Born the son of Fulke Greville (died 1632) of Thorpe Latimer, Lincolnshire, and his wife Mary, who by her first marriage had a son Godfrey Bosville – the two half-brothers became close associates. Robert was chosen as heir by his childless cousin once removed, the first Baron Brooke, from whom at his murder in 1628 Robert inherited the title and substantial property, notably Beauchamps Court in Warwickshire, the castle and other properties in Warwick and houses in London. He sat in the Commons at the start of the parliament of 1628, before moving to the Lords on inheriting the title. In 1631 he married a daughter of the fourth earl of Bedford. During the 1630s he became part of the group of elite dissidents who met to further commercial and colonial interests, some of them linked to the Providence Island Company.
He actively supported reform in 1640-2 and the justice of war in defence of parliament in 1642. During the summer he expended time and money securing Warwick, Coventry and much of the county for parliament. He brought up troops from London to Warwickshire to lift the royalist siege of Warwick Castle in Aug. 1642.
Around the same time he was commissioned captain of a troop of horse and colonel of a regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Although Brooke was absent, his regiment fought at Edgehill and then played a role in defending Brentford, suffering heavy losses there. The surviving elements of the regiment were probably disbanded in London during Dec. 1642.
At the end of the year Brooke was given command of Staffordshire and Warwickshire. Having raised further troops, he took to the field in Feb. 1643, disarming royalists in and around Stratford and then laying siege to Lichfield Close. On 2 Mar. he was killed by a stray or lucky shot from a royalist perched on the cathedral tower.
References: Oxford DNB; Hughes, Warwickshire, 135-7, 169-81; Peacock, Army Lists, 34, 48;TNA, SP28/1a/16, 118.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Warwickshire
Grey, - - Grey
In June 1643, a major serving in one of the three regiments of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.33.
Armies: Eastern Association
Grey, Edward Edward Grey
In Sept. 1642 a captain in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West, 6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Grey, Henry, first earl of Stamford Henry Grey, first earl of Stamford (c. 1599-1673)
Born Bradgate, Leicesterhire, the eldest son of Sir John Grey. Following his father’s early death, in 1614 he succeeded his grandfather as Baron Grey of Groby. Upon his marriage he also acquired the manor of Stamford, Lincs, and he adopted that title upon being created an earl in 1628. He acquired properties and offices in both Lincolnshire and Leicesterhire, in the latter coming into increasing conflict with the Hastings family, earls of Huntingdon.
In the Long Parliament both he and his eldest son, Thomas Grey, who held the courtesy title of Lord Grey of Groby and sat in the Commons, were critical of aspects of royal government.
In summer he attempted, with only limited success, to secure Leicester and Leicesterhire for parliament in opposition to the royalist Hastings interest, and then he was commissioned to command a regiment of foot and a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army. He accompanied Essex and the main army to Warwickshire but was then dispatched to secure and hold Hereford and so was not present at Edgehill. However, short of supplies and threatened by royalists, he evacuated Hereford without a fight in mid Dec. and withdrew first to Gloucester, where much of his regiment stayed effectively under the command of his lieutenant-colonel, Edward Massey, and then on to Bristol.
Early in 1643 he was appointed parliament’s commander in Devon and for several months sought to bottle up Hopton and the Cornish royalists west of the Tamar. Despite occupying a strong position and having numerical superiority, he and his forces were heavily defeated at Stratton in May, enduring a long siege in Exeter before surrendering the town and returning to London. There he was dogged by accusations of poor leadership compounded by cowardice. Although he retained some political influence and office, his military career was over. In 1659-60 he was arrested for alleged involvement in Booth’s Rising. He was pardoned and regained some property at the Restoration.
References: Oxford DNB.
Grey, Henry, first earl of Stamford Henry Grey, first earl of Stamford (c. 1599-1673)
Eldest son of Sir John Grey (d. 1611) of Pirgo, Essex, and Bradgate, Leicesterhire, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Neville, Lord Bergavenny. He succeeded his grandfather Henry Grey as second Baron Grey of Groby on 26 July 1614; he was created earl of Stamford on 26 Mar. 1628.
In 1620 he married Anne (c.1603–1676), youngest daughter of William Cecil, second earl of Exeter.
His eldest son was Thomas Grey, Baron Grey of Groby.
Commissioned colonel of a regiment of foot and captain of a troop of horse in Essex’s army in Aug. 1642. The regiment, under the de facto command of Edward Massey (its lieutenant-colonel) became the garrison regiment of Gloucester in 1643. On 13 Dec. he was appointed Parliament's general in Essex's absence for Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Shropshire, Worcestershire and the entire principality of Wales.
Stamford was appointed lord general (commander) of the parliamentarian forces in Devon in Jan. 1643, and reached Exeter on 6 Jan. with several London regts. He negotiated a local truce with Hopton at the end of Feb. to give him time to strengthen his forces. Gout prevented him taking the field immediately once the truce ended, but on 11 May he marched against Hopton. Five days later his army was heavily defeated by Hopton’s much smaller army (he left the fighting to his major-general, James Chudleigh, and fled the field to Barnstaple and then to Exeter). He was besieged in Exeter from early June, and finally surrendered on 5 Sept., when he and his remaining troops were allowed safe passage. His military career was at an end and accusations of military incompetence and cowardice dogged him whilst he sought to shift the blame onto his subordinates, especially Chudleigh, who defected shortly after Stratton, and Anthony Nicholl, who in turn charged him in the Commons ‘with disbanding a brave army that he had in the West, when he might have routed the Lord Hopton; with favouring the malignants and oppressing the well-affected and betraying of Exeter’ (BL, Add. 31116, p. 275). In the late 1640s and 1650s he became increasingly alienated from the regimes, and in Aug. 1659 declared for the king at the time of the rising of Sir George Booth, his son-in-law. MP for Leicestershire, 1654.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 29; Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660(forthcoming).
Armies: Earl of Essex; Devon
Grey, James James Grey
In Sept. 1642 ensign in Captain Grey’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester. In spring 1644 he became lieutenant-colonel of Godfrey Bosvile’s regiment of foot, largely serving in Warwickshire, though Grey led part of the regiment in support of Waller’s campaign around Oxfordshire in summer 1644.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Warwickshire; Waller
Grey, Thomas, Baron Grey of Groby Thomas Grey, Baron Grey of Groby (1622-1657)
Born the eldest son and heir of Henry Grey, second Baron Grey of Groby and created first earl of Stamford in 1628. He was accorded the courtesy title of Baron Grey of Groby, Elected MP for Leicester in the Long Parliament.
Captain of a troop of horse in Sir William Balfour’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642, he fought in the campaign and battle of Edgehill. In Jan. 1643 he was appointed commander-in-chief of a group of Midlands counties including Nottinghamshire; he commanded an army of around 6,000 men from his initial HQ of Nottingham though he was also for a time governor of Leicester. He supported Essex’s Army in the relief of Gloucester and at the first battle of Newbury in late summer 1643. He spent part of 1644 campaigning in the north Midlands. His military career seems to have petered out in 1644-5 and for a time was ended by the Self-Denying Ordinance. However, in 1648 he raised and commanded a Leicesterhire force which helped mop up Scottish-royalist horse after Preston.
He supported the New Model in its quarrel with parliament in 1647 and in Pride’s Purge in Dec. 1648 and was an active regicide and rumper. During the early 1650s he held various central and local officers, calling out and commanding militia forces and raising further horse in several Midlands counties during the Worcester campaign of 1651.
He was elected to the first Protectorate parliament but in 1655 was arrested and briefly imprisoned on suspicion of radical- and Fifth Monarchist-inspired plotting against the Protectorate. He held no further political office and died in spring 1657. As he predeceased his father, he never became Baron Grey or earl of Stamford in his own right and in due course those titles passed to his only son.
References: Oxford DNB; Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Midlands Association
Grey, William, first baron Grey of Warke William, first Baron Grey of Warke (1593/4-1674)
Born son of Sir Ralph Grey of Chillingham, Northumberland Created baronet in 1619 and, having sat in the House of Commons in the early 1620s, shortly before James I’s death he was raised to the peerage.
At the outbreak of civil war he served briefly as captain in Sir William Balfour’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, but by the end of 1642 he had become major-general of the Eastern Association Army and had command of his own regiment of horse. Grey, his regiment and a larger Eastern Association Army brigade served with the earl of Essex in spring and summer 1643, including at the siege of Reading. However, Grey’s Eastern Association command and regiment were both short-lived; he was dismissed in summer 1643 on refusing to support and facilitate an alliance with the Scots – perhaps because he opposed the intensification of the war, perhaps in part because of his dislike of the Scots following their plundering of his Northumberland estates in 1640, but not on religious grounds, as he seems to have been a Presbyterian – and his regiment of horse was disbanded. His political career continued, and he served as Speaker of the House of Lords in the mid-1640s. He broadly supported the army’s restoration of order in London in summer 1647 but had no part in the regicide. Out of office during the 1650s, he supported and was pardoned at the Restoration and resumed his seat in the House of Lords.
References: Oxford DNB; Holmes, Eastern Association, 55, 64, 66-7, 69-72, 75-9, 82, 85, 87, 89, 94, 105, 114, 164, 170, 190, 221-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
Griffin, - - Griffin
Captain in Sir William Waller’s Southern Association Army in May 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, App. 2, p. 3.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Griffin, Nicholas Nicholas Griffin
Ensign in the colonel’s company in Samuel Jones’s regiment of Surrey foot; by Aug. 1645 he had transferred as ensign in Captain Francis Hanson’s company of London dragoons.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 65.
Armies: Surrey, London
Griffin, Richard Richard Griffin
By Sept. 1643, soon after the regiment’s creation, and still there in May 1645, by which time it was about to be absorbed into the New Model Army, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.52; Holmes, Eastern Association, 149, 240.
Armies: Eastern Association
Griffin, Thomas Thomas Griffin
In Sept. 1642 ensign in Captain Saville’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West, 6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Griffith, - - Griffith
Chaplain (‘minister’) to Edmund Harvey’s regiment of London horse (payment dated 13 Mar. 1644).
References: TNA, SP28/131, Part 7, f. 11r.
Armies: London
Griffith, John John Griffith
A cornet in Robert Duckenfeild’s Cheshire militia regiment of horse, commissioned on 22 Aug. 1650. He was later a captain; on 28 Oct. 1651 the Council of State wrote to the Cheshire militia commissioners that: ‘Captain Griffith’s troop still continues together, despite order for its disbanding, seconds the Commissioners’ order for its disbandment, orders return of horses to their proprietors and Commrs. To investigate the oppressions inflicted upon the country by this troop’ (CSPD, 1651, 504).
References: CSPD, 1650, 509; CSPD, 1651, 504.
Armies: Cheshire
Griffith, Lewis Lewis Griffith
Identified by pay warrants dating from Aug. and Sept. 1643 as lieutenant to Captain Robert Venables’s company in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army. On 16 Dec. 1646, when he had received a posting to Ireland, Griffith, lieutenant to Lieutenant-Colonel Venables, was described as ‘much in arrears of pay for his service in this county [i.e. Cheshire], and whereas he is now engaged in this present expedition for Ireland and wants monies for his necessaries: Treasurer to pay him £30 in full satisfaction of all his arrears, hee having beene in constant service for the space of four yeares in this county’ (TNA, SP28/224, f. 203).
References: BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, f. 61v.; TNA, SP28/224, f. 203.
Armies: Cheshire
Grimes, James James Grimes (died 1644)
A lieutenant in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army, buried at Nantwich on 17 May 1644. The previous day his widow received 10s to pay for the funeral.
References: Cheshire tracts, 258; TNA, SP28/225, f. 420.
Armies: Cheshire
Grimes, James James Grimes
Lieutenant in the earl of Peterborough’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 28.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Grimes, Mark Mark Grimes
He probably began the civil war as a captain of foot in Essex’s Army. In spring 1644, he succeeded Thomas Long as lieutenant-colonel in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he continued to serve in that capacity within the regiment both during the remainder of its Eastern Association lifespan and once it transferred to the New Model Army, down to 1649. He was cashiered or resigned in June 1649. In 1659 he was governor of Carlisle.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.69; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 48, 58, 70, 80. 90. 102-3.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association; New Model Army
Grimes, Mark Mark Grimes
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, and until at least Aug. 143, ensign then captain in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37; TNA, SP28/9/5.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Groome, Benjamin Benjamin Groome
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, ensign in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Groome, John John Groome
Lieutenant in Captain Henry Cannon’s company in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot, and perhaps later in the latter’s company in Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 68.
Armies: Brooke; Waller (Southern Association)
Grosvenor, Henry Henry Grosvenor
Citizen of London, eldest son of William Grosvenor of the Hill, High Offley, Staffordshire, and his wife Bridget, daughter of Edmund Braddock of Adbaston, Staffordshire, esquire and elder brother of Robert Grosvenor.
A captain in Staffordshire. On 27 Jan. 1644 the Staffordshire county committee ordered Grosvenor to return six horses and four arms which they had taken from six inhabitants of Doxey, falsely claiming to carry the committee’s warrant. On 3 Oct. 1644 the committee ordered that he receive £50 out of the sequestered rents of Sir Richard Leveson towards the discharging of his quarters and present subsistence.
References: Vis. Staffs., 163; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 45, 187.
Armies: Staffordshire
Grosvenor, Robert Robert Grosvenor (born 1605/1606; alive in Apr. 1663)
Of Hungersheath, Ashley parish, Staffordshire. Second son of William Grosvenor of the Hill, High Offley, Staffordshire and his wife Bridget, daughter of Edmund Braddock of Adbaston, Staffordshire, esquire; younger brother of Captain Henry Grosvenor. He married Mary, daughter of William Brian of Sambrooke, Shropshire.
A captain in Staffordshire. On 17 Jan. 1644 Grosvenor was granted a warrant to press teams to carry his goods away to safety. On 13 Apr. 1644 he was granted an allowance out of a farm’s rents by the sequestrators, and a further similar order, possibly referring to the same farm, was granted ten days later, when the county committee noted both his own great charges and losses in the public service and his present subsistence, ‘his whole estate being kept from him by the Enemie’ (Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 103). In Jan. 1645 a friend who had helped maintain Grosvenor’s children was exempted from quartering the soldiers of Captain Henry Jackson, and on 3 May Grosvenor himself, ‘having suffered much by the Enemie be freed from Freequartering’ (Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 303).
References: Vis. Staffs., 163-4; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 37, 95, 102-3, 243, 303.
Armies: Staffordshire
Groute, Stephen Stephen Groute
Lieutenant in Captain Burkett’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of dragoons in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.58.
Armies: Eastern Association
Grove, Francis Francis Grove (died 1644)
A founder of the Martial Yard of Southwark at Horselydown in 1635. In 1642 he served with the Southwark Trained Bands at Kingston. Captain in the Southwark auxiliary regiment in 1644 when it was campaigning as part of the London brigade with Sir William Waller, which fought at Cropredy. He fell ill in late June and died at Northampton early in July. His body was brought back to London for burial.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 20, 96, 197-8;R. Coe, An exact diarie. Or A breife relation of the progresse of Sir William Wallers army since the joyning of the London avxilliaries with his forces: which was the twelfth of May 1644. untill their returne homeward on Thursday the 11 of Iuly (1644), 7; K. Roberts, London & Liberty (1987), 62.
Armies: London
Grove, John John Grove
He served in Captain Henry Vaughan’s troop within Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes’s horse regiment, then as lieutenant within the same troop (Vaughan’s) when it formed part of Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. At the formation of the New Model Army in spring 1645 he served as a captain in Colonel Edward Whalley’s regiment of horse, in 1652 transferring as major to Colonel Francis Hacker’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.21; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 53, 63, 74, 84, 95, 108.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Grymes [Grime], Samuel Samuel Grymes [Grime]
By the end of 1644 lieutenant in John Silverwood’s company in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He transferred to the New Model Army in spring 1645, initially as a lieutenant in Silverwood’s company in Pickering’s regiment, but by 1646 had been promoted to captain in what had become Hewson’s New Model Army regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.87; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 59, 71, 81, 91, 103.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Guest, Joseph Joseph Guest
Identified in pay warrants dating from May 1644 as lieutenant in the company of Captain Hugh Massye in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade.
References: TNA, SP28/346, nos. 155, 157.
Armies: North Wales
Gulston, Theodore Theodore Gulston
Captain of troop of horse in regiment of Colonel William Sydenham and belonging to the garrison of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, and one of two troops in the county by Sept. 1646.
25 Sept. 1646: Dorset committee orders payment of a month’s pay to every officer of Captain Gulston’s troop, and also the sheriff’s troop, which have lately been reduced; 12 Oct. order to pay Gulston £80 upon this reducement (and same day a further £64 for 25 of his troop).
22 Oct. 1646: arrears of £609 16s. 0d. owing to Gulston as captain of troop of horse in Sydenham’s regiment. This would imply between 44 and 45 weeks at £13 13s. 0d. per week.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 9, 19, 21, 25, 34-5.
Armies: Dorset
Gunn, - - Gunn
A captain in Staffordshire. On 4 Dec. 1643 he was one of three captains at Stafford ordered to be ready to attend at 8 a.m. the next day to do what service they were commanded. In Jan. 1644 he was ordered to give an account of what arms and coats belonging to his company were in his hands, whilst a few days later arrangements were made for the exchange of two of his troopers who had been captured. There are no further references in the county committee records.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 6, 38, 40.
Armies: Staffordshire
Gunter, John John Gunter (died 1643)
Captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army from 15 July 1642, which he retained command of until his death.
Major in Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army from or by 1642; however, whilst there are pay warrants issued to him as captain of his troop until just before his death, and he was always referred to as major after mid-Aug., his last payment as major of Essex’s regiment of foot was in Nov. 1642 (for one month from 26 Nov.). He also seems to have had some staff duties in responding to pay warrants.
In June 1643 Gunter led his own and two other troops in following Prince Rupert’s reconnaissance mission in Oxfordshire; joined by other officers and men, the pursuit culminated in the parliamentarian defeat Chalgrove (18 June), at which Gunter was killed, ‘a man of much courage and fidelitie, his bravery engaging him and his small Partie too farre’ (Essex, A letter written from his excellency…, 6).
References: TNA, SP28/1a/34, SP28/1d/461, 468, SP28/2a/223, 227, SP28/3a/124, SP28/3b/513, SP28/7/395; Peacock, Army lists, 49; Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, A letter written from his excellency Robert Earle of Essex unto the speaker of the House of Commons, relating the true state of the late skirmish at Chinner (1643); A true relation of a gret fight between the Kings forces and the Parliaments at Chinner neer Tame (1643).
Guntir, - - Guntir
Captain, Dorset, paid for 16 days, 1 May 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.524.
Armies: Dorset
Gurney, Henry Henry Gurney
Ensign in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Guthrie, - - Guthrie
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 144.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Gwaller, [?]Henry [?] Henry Gwaller
Captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army by June 1643 and probably from early 1643. Killed at the second battle of Newbury.
References: TNA, SP28/9/1.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Gwalther, - - Gwalther
Ensign. An officer in Gloucestershire, noted 19 Apr. 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 635, citing SP28/299/720.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Gwilliam [Guilliams], William William Gwilliam [Guilliams] (died 1645)
Having failed to raise a troop for Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of horse, he became a captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse on 7 Feb. 1644, taking over the troop of Captain Cooke. He served in Waller’s regiment until its disbandment on 30 Apr. 1645. He then became captain in Henry Ireton’s regiment of horse in the New Model Army. On 21 Aug. 1645 he was killed at the siege of Bristol during a royalist sally. Joshua Sprigge memorialised him as ‘a valiant, faithful, and religious man’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.116).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 148; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.116.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association), New Model Army
Gyffard, - - Gyffard
A captain who was paid 10s. for labourers by Colonel John Fiennes on 21 Sept. 1644, during the siege of Banbury.
References: TNA, SP28/139, Part 19, f. 205r.
Armies: Oxfordshire