Surnames beginning 'S'

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. "Surnames beginning 'S'", The Cromwell Association Online Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers , (, 2017). . British History Online. Web. 27 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/cromwell-army-officers/surnames-s.

Surnames beginning 'S'

Sabberton, Joseph Joseph Sabberton
Served initially as a junior officer in Robert Swallow’s troop in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army, but in 1643-44, until he was succeeded by Soloman Cawley, he served as the troop’s lieutenant. He may well be the Joseph Sabberton who later in the 1640s served as cornet, then lieutenant, in Whalley’s New Model Army regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.23; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 126, 144.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Sadd, William William Sadd
Lieutenant in Sir William Brereton’s troop in Brereton’s Cheshire Army. A warrant survives, dated 15 July 1645, to pay Lieutenant Sadd (and also Mr John Griffith, clerk) of Sir William Brereton’s troop £5 apiece for charges to and from London.
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 11.
Armies: Cheshire
Saddler, - - Saddler
Captain in Edmund Ludlow’s regiment of horse by 7 Dec. 1644, when he was at Salisbury. In Mar. 1645, his troop (then of only 28 men) was in Surrey, and in Apr. they were sent to the Malmesbury garrison.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 83.
Armies: Wiltshire; Waller (Southern Association)
Sadler, John John Sadler
Commissary-General to Lord Brooke’s Association Army, noted as such in an examination of Rowland Wilson, 22 Sept. 1645.
References: TNA, SP28/253B.
Armies: Lord Brooke
Sadler, John John Sadler
From Nantwich, Cheshire. Captain in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot. On 2 Jan. 1644, during the siege of Nantwich, ‘Acton Churche was Kepte wth a reasonable force by Captyn Sadler, sente further of Towne who did defend ytt very manfullie against many assaults and Cannon shotts made by the Kinges partie’, (Cheshire tracts, 98). In Feb. 1645, with captains of Mainwaring’s regiment, he tried to hold Holt Bridge. In Apr. 1645 he and his company were on loan to the Shropshire committee. On 10 May 1645 Myddelton wrote asking Brereton for the loan of Sadler and his company to reinforce his own (depleted) force in the newly-established garrison of Stansty near Wrexham, although Dore doubts whether he actually went there. As late as Oct. 1645, Sadler and his company were still listed as of Brereton’s regiment of foot, but at some point (after Brereton’s army split with the capture of Chester, perhaps), Sadler joined Mytton’s army, rising to the rank of major.
References: Cheshire tracts, 98; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324-32; 2. 279-80.
Armies: Cheshire
Sadler, Thomas Thomas Sadler
In 1643 lieutenant-colonel of Sir John Wittrough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he subsequently probably succeeded Wittrough as commander of the regiment, and was its colonel when it was broken up in early 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.112.
Armies: Eastern Association
St Aubyn, - -St Aubyn
Captain post-1643. Appointed governor of St Michael’s Mount, 1647. Captain St Aubyn may actually be John, given the year before as colonel.
References: Coate, Cornwall, 224.
Armies: Cornwall
St Aubyn, John John St Aubyn (c. 1613-84)
Of Clowance, Cornwall. Eldest son of John St Aubyn (died 1639) and his wife Katherine (died 1629), daughter of John Arundell of Trevise. He married Catherine (died 1662), second daughter of Francis Godolphin of Treveneage.
MP for Tregony, Short Parliament, Cornwall 1656 and St Ives, 1659 and 1660. Appointed to Cornish sequestration committee, 1643.
Colonel in the Plymouth garrison, where he was paid arrears of pay of £50 on 21 Feb. 1645. Colonel and sheriff of Cornwall in Aug. 1646 when he acted as one of the parliamentarian commissioners at the surrender of Pendennis Castle. (However, HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690 gives him as sheriff, 1645-6).
Active in the suppression of the Cornish rising in 1648. Among civil war and interregnum posts, vice-admiral of south Cornwall, militia commissioner, 1648, 1659 and Mar. 1660; colonel of militia foot, Apr. 1660.
References: Vis. Cornwall, 438-9; HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 3,380; Worth, History of Plymouth, 134; Worth, ‘Plymouth siege accounts’, 222; Coate, Cornwall, 56, 219, 241; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Devon; Cornwall
St Aubyn, John John St. Aubyn of Clowance (c. 1613-1684)
Colonel post-1643. MP for Tregony, Short Parliament, Cornwall 1656 and St Ives, 1659 and 1660. Appointed to Cornish sequestration committee, 1643. Colonel and sheriff of Cornwall in Aug. 1646 when he acted as one of the parliamentarian commissioners at the surrender of Pendennis Castle. (However, HoP gives him as sheriff, 1645-6). Active in suppression of Cornish rising in 1648. Among civil war and interregnum posts, vice-admiral of south Cornwall, militia commissioner, 1648, 1659 and Mar. 1660; colonel of militia foot, Apr. 1660.
References: Coate, Cornwall, 56, 219, 241; HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 3.380.
Armies: Cornwall
St Barbe, Francis Francis St Barbe (died 1643)
Captain of a troop in Richard Norton’s Hampshire regiment of horse by July 1643 (and very possibly from 1642). He was mortally wounded at the first battle of Newbury (20 Sept. 1643). His troop brought his body back to Hampshire and he was buried three days later. Brother of John St Barbe, who took over his troop.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 102.
Armies: Hampshire; Earl of Essex
St Barbe, John John St Barbe
Brother of Francis St Barbe. In 1643 he was a captain in Calshot Castle, Hampshire. After his brother’s death at the first battle of Newbury in Sept. 1642, he succeeded to the command of the latter’s troop in Richard Norton’s regiment of horse, which he commanded until the regiment disbanded in 1645. On 5 July 1645 he was appointed governor of Southampton.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 103.
Armies: Hampshire; Waller (Southern Association)
St George, John Dubose John Dubose St George
A Frenchman. On 29 Aug. 1643 he was given a commission to raise a troop of carabiniers for Jonas Vandruske’s regiment of horse which he commanded until it was reduced into Cavendish Sharpe’s troop on 14 July 1644. St George was still serving with Waller, probably as a reformado, in Dec. of that year.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 139.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
St John, Oliver, 5th Baron St John of Bletso Oliver St John, 5th Baron St John of Bletso (1603-1642)
Born Bletso, Bedfordshire, eldest son of Oliver St John, first earl of Bolingbroke (died 1646).
After his father’s elevation to the peerage he was known by the courtesy title of Lord St John. He sat as an MP in the last parliament of James I and the early parliaments of Charles I. He was knighted in 1626.
By the late 1630s he was in financial difficulties. In 1640 he became a member of the House of Lords in respect to the barony of Bletso.
In summer 1642 he raised a troop of horse and a regiment of foot for the earl of Essex’s Army, which he used to help secure Hereford and Worcester. He fought at Edgehill where he was wounded and captured and he died, presumably of his wounds, shortly afterwards. Command of his regiment of foot, which survived him and which often served under Waller during 1643, passed to Thomas Essex.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Earl of Essex
St John, Sir Anthony Sir Anthony St John
Third son of Oliver St John, third baron St John of Bletso (c. 1545-1618), and his wife Dorothy (died 1605), daughter and heir of John Read of Boddington, Gloucestershire, and so younger brother of Oliver St John, fourth Baron St John of Bletso and first earl of Bolingbroke (c. 1584-1646) and uncle of Oliver St John, fifth baron St John of Bletso (baptised 1603, died 1642).
He was knighted at Bletsoe, Bedfordshire, 1608.
His daughter Dorothy married Sir John Booth (c. 1610-1678) of Woodford, Cheshire, knight, whose sister Susannah married Sir William Brereton in 1624.
Captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army by Sept. 1642, and still captain in that regiment in Aug. 1644, evidently so continuing until the its reduction early in 1645. When the House of Lords recommended payment to St John to the Commons, they cited his service until recently laying down his commission and Essex’s support for his claim. The Commons on 2 May 1645 noted that ‘he hath been employed in the Parliament's Army ever since the Beginning of the War; and hath been forward and faithful, and wounded in this Service; and hath many Arrears for Pay due to him; and had been especially recommended to the Lords by the Lord General, upon the laying down his Commission; that he may be supplied with Monies, whereby he may be able to subsist’ (JHC, 4.128-9).
On 29 June 1646 the Lords again pressed St John’s case: ‘the Lords, considering the Relation that Sir Anthony St. Johns had to the Earl of Bolingbrooke lately deceased, whose great Loss is much lamented by this House; in respect of whose Memory, and in regard of the great Hazard of Life that the said Sir Anthony St. Johns hath undergone by his faithful and valiant Carriage in the Services of the Parliament, do recommend his Condition unto the House of Commons, and desire that he may have the Payment of his Arrears, for Want of which he is likely to endure great Misery (JHL, 8.401). The Commons decided to do nothing, but passed on the matter to the auditing and decision of the committee of accounts. The matter was evidently unresolved on 25 May 1647, when the Lords passed on a petition of St John’s to the Commons.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 25; Shaw, Knights, 2.146; Vis.Beds., 194; Oxford DNB [for his father, brother and nephew]; Vis. Cheshire, 1663, 11; TNA, SP28/2a/148; SP28/17/311; JHC, 4.128-29, 593; JHL, 8.401, 9.205.
St Nicholas, Thomas Thomas St Nicholas (born 1602)
Of Ash, Kent, son of Thomas St Nicholas of Ash, Kent. He married (1) Susan (baptised 1605/6), daughter of William Copley of Wadworth, Yorkshire (West Riding), and sister of Colonel Christopher Copley, and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Crooke of the Inner Temple.
A barrister. He held a commission as a captain, probably of foot in Yorkshire. In Oct. 1644 he was named to a West Riding committee. From 1644 receiver-general of revenues raised in the West Riding, which post he continued to hold under the Northern Association. By the 1650s he was in Kent acting as legal adviser to Sir Michael Livesay, chairman of the county committee, in his persecution of royalists. Captain of a Kent Trained Band troop of horse. He submitted his pedigree to Restoration heralds’ visitation of Kent.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 400; A. Everitt, The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion, 1640-1660 (1966)276-7; A Visitation of the County of Kent, 1663-1668, Harleian Society, vol. 54 (1906), 143; Yorks. Vis., 2.53-4; Spring, Waller’s army, 78.
Armies: Yorkshire; Kent
Salkield, William William Salkield
By spring 1643 captain and by spring 1645 major (though he appears to have lost that position and returned to captain shortly afterwards) in John Dalbier’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 49.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Salmon, Edward Edward Salmon
Of Hull, Yorkshire (East Riding). He married (1) Johan, daughter of Christopher Appleyard of Burstwick Garth. By 1643 captain in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of foot, and in the forlorn hope at Adwalton Moor. He escaped to Hull, where he fought in Oct., 1643. Probably made captain in Brandling’s regiment of horse, where he was serving when briefly captured at Keighley in Feb. 1645. He went south and served in the New Model Army. In 1646 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of Hardress Waller’s regiment of foot, serving in the West in 1648. He was a member of a committee of officers appointed by the Army Council on 2 Nov. 1648 and was active in the Army Council’s deliberations over the king in Dec. 1648.
In May 1649 he transferred to Fenwick’s (late and later) Overton’s regiment of foot, stationed at Hull, where Salmon became deputy-governor. There he disciplined Presbyterian and promoted Independent preachers. Following the death of Richard Deane in June 1653, Salmon was appointed colonel of his foot regiment (he married (2) Deane’s widow Mary on 2 Jan. 1655). In 1655 he was appointed a commissioner of the navy. The regiment served in the Hull and Dunkirk garrisons. In 1659 Salmon sided with Lambert and Fleetwood against parliament and in Jan. 1660 he took Lambert the news of parliament’s restoration and told him that further resistance was useless. In Apr. 1660 he was arrested for suspected complicity in Lambert’s rebellion and lost command of his regiment. In Dec. 1661 he was arrested for a suspected plot amongst the disbanded army officers and was for a while imprisoned on Guernsey with Lambert. Pardoned, and later a Whig. ‘Salmon appears to have been an administrator rather than a soldier, and a timeserver than a politician’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.534).
References: Greaves and Zaller, BDBR, 3.133-4; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 400: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 91; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.443-4, 531-4, 546, 555.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Salmon [Salmond], Thomas Thomas Salmon [Salmond]
Lieutenant in Dorset volunteer foot company of Captain William Lewis. References to Salmon explicitly May-July 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.507.
Armies: Dorset
Salmon, Thomas Thomas Salmon
Captain in the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands regiment in Apr. 1644 and Oct. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, ff. 546r-547v; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Saltmarsh, Edward Edward Saltmarsh
Of Saltmarshe, Yorkshire (North Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 100 [citing TNA, SP23/115/831].
Armies: Yorkshire
Salway, John John Salway
Chaplain to Colonel John Were, probably to both his regiments of horse and foot raised in Devon when the earl of Essex marched into Devon in 1644. After the capitulation of that army, Salway went with Were into the royalist camp.
References: TNA, SP28/18/93; J. Were, The Apologie of Colonell John Were, in vindication of his proceedings since the beginning of this present Parliament(1644, BL, E21.34), 4.
Armies: Devon; Earl of Essex
Salway [Salwey], [Richard] [Richard] Salway [Salwey].
Major in Colonel Richard Turner’s regiment of London horse. He is probably Richard Salwey, in which case he was born 1615 at Stanford-on-Teme in Worcestershire, in 1641 he married Ann, daughter of Richard Waring, at which time he was described as a citizen and grocer of St Leonard’s in Eastcheap, from Oct. 1645 was MP for Appleby and in June 1646 may have been present at or involved in the siege of Worcester; although frequently under suspicion, he escaped punishment at the Restoration and died in 1686.
References: TNA, SP28/132, Part 2, f. 1v.; Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660.
Armies: London
Sambach, William William Sambach
Captain in Colonel John Fiennes’s regiment of horse in Oxfordshire, Aug. 1644-July 1645.
References: TNA, SP28/139, Part 19, ff. 204r.-208r.
Armies: Oxfordshire
Samborne [ Sanford], - - Samborne [Sanford]
Captain. Possibly of family of Samborne of Timsbury. William, aged 16 in 1623, is probably the parliamentarian committeeman William Samborne of Paulton, in 1623 with two younger brothers Richard and John.
References: Vis. Somerset, 1623, 97; Vis. Somerset, 1672, 13; Underdown, Somerset, 47.
Armies: Somerset: Col. Alexander Popham’s Regt. of Foot
Sambridge, - - Sambridge
Captain in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sampson, - - Sampson
Captain. On 5 June 1643 Sampson, a refugee from Ireland, sought transfer from Hungerford’s regiment to that of Nathaniel Fiennes. There is some question whether this was definitely the foot regiment.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West,5.541.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Foot
Sampson, George George Sampson
By spring 1645, a captain in Harry/Henry Barclay’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like many of his fellow-officers in that regiment, he then transferred to the New Model Army, as captain in what became Edward Harley’s New Model Army regiment of foot.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 47, 58, 69, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Sampson, Humphrey Humphrey Sampson
In summer 1644, Cornet in Henry Andrews’s troop in Sir Samuel Luke’s Bedfordshire-based regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 92.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Samuel, - - Samuel
In summer 1642 he became a lieutenant in Holles’s short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like most of his fellow-officers and the regiment as a whole, little is heard of him after their shattering defeat at Brentford in Nov. 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sander [Sands], - - Sander [Sands]
Captain in Lieutenant-General Thomas Hammond’s regiment of foot (a regiment of firelocks guarding the artillery train) in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.38.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sanders, - - Sanders
By Apr. 1644 and, until at least Jan. 1645, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.64.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sanders, Giles Giles Sanders
Lieutenant in Captain Pritchard’s company in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; in spring 1645 he superseded Pritchard as captain when the company and regiment transferred to the New Model Army. He continued to serve in the regiment, later under first Lambert and then Constable, for the rest of the 1640s.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.70; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 58, 70, 80, 90, 102.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army.
Sanders, Mount Mount Sanders
Ensign in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sanders [Saunders], Robert Robert Sanders [Saunders]
By Mar. 1645 captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He became major of the New Model Army regiment of foot earmarked for Lawrence Crawford but actually commanded by Robert Hammond. In summer 1647 he became the regiment’s lieutenant-colonel when Ewer became its colonel. He went with the regiment to Ireland in 1649, was wounded at the storming of Drogheda but recovered and spent most of the 1650s in Ireland.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 45, 56, 66, 77, 86-7, 99.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Sanders [Saunders], Thomas Thomas Sanders [Saunders] (1610-1695)
Of Little Ireton, Derbyshire. Eldest son of Collingwood Sanders (died 1653) of Caldwell and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of the Derby lead merchant Edmund Sleigh; Collingwood and his father-in-law bought the Little Ireton estate in 1611 from Henry Ireton’s father
Thomas Sanders was MP for Derbyshire in 1654, 1656 (when he was one of those prevented from sitting) and 1659.
At the beginning of the war Sanders raised a company of 200 men and became a captain in Sir John Gell’s regiment of foot in Derbyshire, and was soon promoted major, acting as one of the parliamentarian representatives at an abortive meeting with the neutralist gentry of South Derbyshire Sanders and Gell rapidly fell out, and Sanders, stationed at Burton-upon-Trent, refused to return to Derby when recalled by Gell and instead took his company into service in a regiment of Staffordshire and Derbyshire men under Colonel Robert Haughton garrisoning Burton, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel. According to the hostile account of Gell’s ally, Sir George Gresley: ‘Captaine Saunders, who had one hundred and eighty of our foote, well armed, and some horse, raised in our county, and intended principally for this countries service, under our regiment, he refused in this our extremity to come unto us, yet he sent us his colours and commission, but kept our men, armes and horses; all which he turned over to Colonell Houghton, and for that good service made his liefetennant-colonell’ (Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’, 35-6).
Sanders claimed that he had raised the company himself and that Gell had deliberately left him dangerously exposed.
Burton fell on 2 July 1643 and Sanders was captured. Following his release, Sanders was given a commission to raise a regiment of horse in Derbyshire. He hoped to be made its colonel, but instead, in an unworkable compromise, Sanders was made major under Gell as colonel, but with power to appoint all his own officers and command all the horse except Gell’s own troop. Gell accepted the compromise in Dec. 1643, but found himself with a set of officers (including Nathaniel Barton, Joseph Swetnam and Robert Greenwood) who in their godly inclinations and dislike of their colonel were closer to Sanders. In Oct. 1643 Sanders was appointed to the Derbyshire county committee, but at that point was vastly outnumbered by Gell and his allies.
Sanders clashed with Gell over his dominance in Derbyshire several times during 1644, including over Sir John’s attempt to make his brother Thomas recorder of Derby in late 1644. In Dec. Sanders’s officers joined in a petition to enlarge the county committee. There were also military conflicts: Sanders preferred service with Sir Thomas Fairfax and felt (again) militarily isolated when Gell sent him to Coleorton (Leicestershire) to contain the royalists at Ashby.
Sanders refused Gell’s order to march to blockade Newark and instead went to London to lobby for more county committee members. In Jan., after Sanders had further disobeyed Gell’s orders, the earl of Essex was persuaded to revoke his commission and replace it with one granting him narrower authority. Sanders responded that ‘I refuse to accept a new one because I will not be under the command of him who desires my ruin more than any Cavalier in England’ (Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’, 40). Gell in turn at one point declared, ‘he had rather fight with Major Sanders than any Cavalier in England and that he would have his pennyworth out of him’ (Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’, 41).
Gell’s conflict with Sanders and his officers continued. When Sanders returned to Derbyshire in summer 1645, his own men wore Fairfax’s colours, not Gell’s. In Aug. Sanders’s force shadowed the royalist rearguard as it marched through Derbyshire. Sanders pursued Gell in complaints to parliament in late 1645 and 1646.
Although Fairfax and Cromwell were reportedly more than willing to take Sanders into the New Model Army, he remained with the Derbyshire regiment until it disbanded in 1646. He then became major in Francis Thornhaugh’s Nottinghamshire regiment of horse and during the second civil war served in South Wales and at Preston, where Thornhaugh was killed. Sanders was promoted colonel, (according to Lucy Hutchinson) over the heads of the regiment (who would have preferred John Hutchinson) because of Cromwell’s intrigues. She described Sanders as ‘a Derbyshire man, who was a very godly, honest, country gentleman, but had not many things requisite to a great soldier’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 1.282).
Sanders served in the Worcester campaign.
In Oct. 1654 Sanders was one of the three colonels (along with John Okey and Matthew Alured) who petitioned against the Protectorate constitution and for a free parliament and the principles of the Agreement of the People. On 16 Dec., Sanders attended upon Cromwell, ‘and after he had declared his dissatisfactions, his Highness told him the trust which was formerly reposed in him must not be longer continued. Whereupon Colonel Saunders replied, that he would speedily send for and deliver his commission’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 1.285).
Sanders was restored to his command upon the fall of Richard Cromwell, and dispersed the royalists at Derby during the Booth Rising. By Dec. Sanders was active for Monck and the restored Long Parliament, and was briefly imprisoned. In early 1660 he was briefly colonel, appointed by parliament, of the regiment of horse recently commanded by the Lambert ally Robert Swallow (and originally the New Model regiment of Edward Whalley).
In 1664 Sanders was suspected of involvement in conspiracy and in 1683 the authorities required him to take out a £2,000 recognizance for his good behaviour.
References: Vis. Derbyshire, 1; Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’; Brighton, ‘Governor’; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 1.280-5, 288-9, 229-30; Turbutt, Derbyshire, 2.1062, 1081, 1105; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660.
Armies: Derbyshire; Staffordshire; Nottinghamshire; New Model Army
Sanderson, Henry Henry Sanderson (born c. 1617)
Younger son of Samuel Sanderson (died 1650), sometime constable of Brancepeth Castle, County Durham. Brother of the parliamentarian officer John Sanderson.
His military service during the man civil war is obscure. He may for a time have been lieutenant in Captain Francis Duett’s troop of horse. By 1645-6 he was lieutenant-colonel and later colonel of a body of reformado foot which supported the relief of Taunton in 1645. He was probably back or still in military service in summer 1648, when there are references to him as major leading a body of horse in Northumbld. In summer 1650 he was commissioned major in Hesilrige’s newly-raised northern militia regiment of horse. He took part in the campaign in Scotland, became governor of Linlithgow in Sept. 1650 but died there in Feb. 1651.
References: P. Hill and J. Watkinson, Major Sanderson’s War(2008), 18-19.
Armies: Waller?; Northern Army
Sanderson, Henry Henry Sanderson (died 1651)
He began the civil war in the earl of Essex’s Army, as lieutenant in Francis Duett’s troop of horse. However, shortly afterwards, perhaps early in 1643, he transferred with Duett to Waller’s regiment of horse, serving first as a captain but succeeding Duett as major in Aug. 1643; by summer 1644 he had become the regiment’s lieutenant-colonel. At the disbandment of Waller’s regiment of horse in spring 1645, Sanderson moved on and was for a time commander and colonel of a regiment of reformadoes. However, he later joined the New Model Army, becoming adjutant-general of foot, serving in Berry’s regiment of horse in the Scottish campaign and ending as governor of Linlithgoe at the time of his death.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 146.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Sanderson, John John Sanderson
Born c. 1616, second son of Samuel Sanderson (died 1650), sometime constable of Brancepeth Castle, County Durham. Elder brother of the parliamentarian officer Henry Sanderson; most of this large family seem to have supported parliament in the civil war and John’s elder brother Thomas, while never a soldier, was a pro-parliamentarian administrator in and around County Durham during the 1640s.
Little is known of John’s upbringing and early life. Indeed, even his early civil war career is obscure. He may well be the Captain John Sanderson who was appointed commander of the garrison on Holy Island and perhaps the Major Sanderson who in Nov. 1644 led a body of Lord Fairfax’s horse in fighting off royalist attempts to raise the siege of Helmsley. His role becomes clearer in and from 1647-8, when he campaigned in the North, up to the Scottish borders, often alongside Captain Lilburne, both as commanders of troops of horse within Colonel Robert Lilburne’s regiment of horse.
We can reconstruct his movements and campaigning in very great detail from his surviving military diary, which begins in Jan. 1648. Over the next few months he was mainly fighting in Northumberland and County Durham, in Aug. he moved through Yorkshire into Lancashire to support Cromwell’s campaign and battle of Preston, and then helped to pursue remnants of the Scottish-royalist horse through Cheshire to Staffordshire and Derbyshire, he moved briefly into Scotland (as far as Edinburgh) in the early autumn, before ending the year helping to mop up English royalists in and around Yorkshire; the diary closes in Dec. 1648.
He made his will in Sept. 1650, ahead of joining his regiment in Scotland as part of Cromwell’s Scottish expedition. He probably died shortly afterwards, as his will was proved during winter 1650-1.
References: P. Hill and J. Watkinson, Major Sanderson’s War (2008), passim.
Armies: Northern Army (Fairfax)?; Northern Army (Lambert)
Sanderson, William William Sanderson
Previously Sergeant, in July 1644 Sanderson was promoted ensign in Captain Richard Knolly’s [Knollys’s?] company in Anthony Stapley’s regiment of Sussex foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 121.
Armies: Sussex, Waller (Southern Association)
Sandes, John John Sandes
Ensign in Captain Walter Sterling’s company of foot in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.14.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sands, Adam Adam Sands
Captain in Richard Standish’s militia regiment of foot in Lancashire, 16 Aug. 1650.
References: CSPD, 1650, 509.
Armies: Lancashire
Sandys, Edwin Edwin Sandys (c. 1613-1642)
Of Northbourne, Kent. Colonel. Second, but eldest surviving son of Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629) and his fourth wife Catherine (died 1640), daughter of Sir Richard Bulkeley of Anglesey, knight. Captain of a troop of horse in Essex’s army and colonel. In Aug. 1642 Sandys was sent into Kent with a regiment to forestall royalist initiatives in the county. On 14 Aug. 1642 he ransacked the house of the royalist Sir John Sackville of Knole and brought him back prisoner to London. Five days later he returned with a commission to disarm all malignants and secure all forts and castles in the county. At Rochester he arrested the gentry coming to implement the commission of array, whilst during service time his men tore down the altar rails. He swept through the county, securing the major towns and disarming and plundering malignant households, according to a royalist account torturing one servant to extort the whereabouts of his master’s plate. Sandys was mortally wounded at Powick Bridge, Worcester (23 Sept. 1642) and died the following month. The command of his troop passed to Thomas Essex.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 52; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.652-3; Old DNB; Everitt, Kent, 111-6.
Armies: Bristol
Sankey [Zankey, Zanchy], Jerome [Hierome] Jerome [Hierome] Sankey [Zankey, Zanchy] (c. 1621-1686)
Son of Richard Sankey, rector of Hodnet, Shropshire and younger brother of Robert Sankey.
Matriculated sizar, Trinity College, Cambridge, Michaelmas 1637; migrated to Clare Hall 4 July 1640; grad. BA 1641, proceeded MA 1644.
Jerome was, according to Richard Gough, ‘a person of a meane stature, mild disposition, and accompted a very religiouse man’ (Gough, Myddle, 220). To Anthony Wood, ‘being more given to manly exercises than logic or philosophy, he was observed by his contemporaries to be a boisterous fellow at cudgelling and foot-ball-playing, and indeed more fit in all respects to be a rude soldier than a scholar or a man of polite parts’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.87, quoting Wood, Fasti, 2.119).
Sankey joined the parliamentarian cause under his brother Robert. The first evidence of service as a soldier in Cheshire is a receipt of his, dated 3 Apr. 1643, for forced contributions towards Brereton’s forces. He was captain of Brereton’s own troop of horse at Hanmer, 20 June 1643, when he was taken prisoner. He was exchanged the following Oct. He was present at actions at Tarvin, 21 Aug. 1644, and Malpas, 26 Aug. 1644, and on several occasions Brereton commended his bravery. He was wounded at the skirmish at Beeston, 18 Jan. 1645, where Lord Byron’s forces were defeated; Brereton reported that ‘Captain Zanchy, who is a very valliant man, and commands my own troop, being without his army, was wounded in the body, but we hope not mortally’ (Cheshire tracts, 157). He had recovered and was on active service again by 26 Mar. 1645, by when he had been promoted to major of Brereton’s regiment of horse in succession to his dead brother. He continued to command Brereton’s own troop. By Apr. 1646 the troop, still Brereton’s but de facto commanded by Michael Jones, had been earmarked to form part of 400 horse to serve in North Wales under Thomas Mytton, but, arguing it was not being used and surplus to the required force, Brereton was ordering Sankey to bring it to him at the siege of Lichfield Close, to no avail and at least one evidently dusty response. Indeed, Sankey was serving in Mytton’s Army in North Wales within a few weeks, acting as a commissioner at the surrender of Caernarfon on 4 June 1646.
According to one royalist newsbook (3 July 1643) Sankey was ‘both Chaplaine and Lieutenant to Sir William Brereton’; another called him ‘a little Pope’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 179). Some support for this, it would seem, comes from a letter of the Shropshire committee to Brereton, 2 May 1645: ‘For Maj. Zankey he shall have all the respect we can express. But for the parsonage of Hodnet it hath long since been disposed of according to the Ordinance of Parlt. to Mr. Boughe and we cannot displace him unless he voluntarily leave it’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 343). According to Anthony Wood, he ‘had been a captain, a Presbyterian, an Independent, and I know not what’ (Auden, ‘Zankey’, 174, quoting Athenae Oxonienses).
On 27 May 1647 the Derby House Committee ordered a letter to be sent to the Cheshire committee and deputy-lieutenants telling them that Major Sankey had stayed here (i.e. London) by order of this committee, that he shall not be prejudiced by his stay, and that they encourage such as are willing to go to Ireland. Fairfax, by an order from Leighton Buzzard, dated 30 July 1647, ordered him to Cheshire with a troop of horse which was disbanded on 9 Jan. 1648.
Auden identifies him as involved in suppressing a riot at Norwich on 27 Apr. 1648 and in the campaign against Colchester, taking Mersea Fort and Island in June 1648. This might be true, but the sources cited refer simply to a captain Zanchie or Zanchy, so the identification is uncertain.
Sankey was made a fellow and sub-warden of All Souls’ College, Oxford, in July 1648 and was a proctor of the university the following year; as proctor, he probably presented Cromwell and Fairfax with their honorary doctorates on 19 May 1649, though according to Wood he went to Ireland a month after he was made proctor.
He was major in Oliver Cromwell’s double regiment of horse raised for service in Ireland in 1649, which he took with him there in July 1649. He left the regiment c. Jan. 1650, when he was promoted to be colonel of what had been Thomas Horton’s regiment of horse. He defeated Lieutenant-General Farrell in Dec. 1649, and forced the surrender of the Irish commanders Colonel O’Dwyer and Colonel John Grace in Mar. and Aug. 1652 respectively. He was governor of Clonmel, County Tipperary, 1651-6.
In Ireland Sankey was converted by the Particular Baptist Thomas Patient (John Jones reported his adult baptism in Sept. 1652).
MP for Counties Tipperary and Waterford in 1654; for Marlborough in 1656; and for New Woodstock in 1659 (when he was also returned for Counties Tipperary and Waterford). He was knighted in Nov. 1658.
He was commander of the Irish brigade in England, Aug.-Dec. 1659, brought over to suppress Sir George Booth’s Rising, and a commissioner at the surrender of Chirk Castle. In the conflicts of 1659, he was an ally of Charles Fleetwood and John Lambert.
He died at his house in County Tipperary in 1686.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, esp. 1. 120, 179-80, 343, 385; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 38, 94-5, 107, 109, 115, 165; J.E. Auden, ‘Sir Jerome Zankey (or Sankey) of Balderton Hall, co. Shropshire, and of Coolmore, co. Tipperary’, Transactions of the Salop. Archaeological Society, 50 (1939-40), 171-8; Al. Cantab.; Al. Oxon.;Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.87-91, 2.593-4; R. Gough, The History of Myddle, ed. D. Hey (1981), 219-20; CSP Ireland, 1647-1660, 750; Cheshire tracts, 63, 157, 243, 247;BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, f. 74r.; Oxford DNB [Thomas Patient]; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Shropshire;
Cheshire; North Wales; Ireland
Sankey [Zanchy], Richard Richard Sankey [Zanchy]
Early in the war lieutenant of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, by Mar. 1644 he was lieutenant of Captain Richard Le Hunt’s troop in the regiment of horse in the Eastern Association commanded by Colonel Francis Russell, then Colonel Vermuyden and then, from Mar. 1644, by Colonel Charles Fleetwood. He was promoted to captain in that troop in spring 1645, around the time that the regiment transferred to the New Model Army, in which he continued to serve until the early 1650s.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.34; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 61, 72, 82, 93, 106.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association; New Model Army
Sankey [Zankey], Robert Robert Sankey [Zankey] (died 1645)
Son of Richard Sankey, rector of Hodnet, Shropshire, and elder brother of Jerome [Hierome] Sankey [Zankey].
According to the local historian Richard Gough, Robert Sankey was clerk to Mr John Birch of Cannock, attorney (whose daughter Mary he married): ‘Hee went for a soldier in the Parliament Army, in the beginning of the warres in the Reigne of King Charles I., and was made a Collonell, and his brother Jerom was a captain under him, but hee dyed in the beginning of the warres, and his brother Jerom was made a Collonell in his stead’ (Gough, Myddle, 220). Auden speculates that he may have raised a regiment himself, and refers to a description of him as ‘Major Commandant of the regiment of horse of Chester’. If so, the regiment became absorbed into Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse: Robert became its major, and after his death was succeeded by his brother Jerome. From the latter’s promotion, Robert must have died between 18 Jan. and 12 Mar. 1645.
References: R. Gough, The History of Myddle, ed. D. Hey (1981), 219-20; J.E. Auden, ‘Sir Jerome Zankey (or Sankey) of Balderton Hall, co. Salop, and of Coolmore, co. Tipperary’, Transactions of the Salop. Archaeological Society, 50 (1939-40), 171-2; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 179-80.
Armies: Cheshire; Shropshire
Sarridge, - -Sarridge
Ensign in John Clerke’s company in Anthony Stapley’s/Algernon Sidney’s Sussex regiment of foot by Nov. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Saunders, - - Saunders
Of Briggate, Leeds, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 114.
Armies: Yorkshire
Saunders, Edward Edward Saunders
In 1642 listed as lieutenant in Edward Berry’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Saunders, Richard Richard Saunders
Sheriff of Exeter in 1638; elected mayor Sept. 1641.
In Aug. 1642 Saunders and some like-minded aldermen elected a ‘Committee for the Safetie of the Cittie’. An active alderman in 1642-3 who very much withdrew from local government after the fall of the city to the royalists. Described by Mark Stoyle as ‘a stern puritan in the same stern mould as [Ignatius] Jurdain’ (Stoyle, Deliverance, 42).
Colonel of the Exeter volunteer regiment, for which there is a string of references from Dec. 1642 to Aug. 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.336; Stoyle, Deliverance, 42, 52, 63-4, 73, 76, 88-9, 140, 166.
Armies: Devon
Saunders, William William Saunders (died 1645)
Lieutenant in Sir William Brereton’s Army at the siege of Chester in 1645. He was buried at Nantwich on 5 Oct. 1645. His widow was paid £3 18s for her husband’s pay and expenses for the last month; the warrant noted that the lieutenant died from the wounds received in service at Chester and desired that the money be paid his widow for the discharge of his quarters and other things that he owed in this garrison.
References: Cheshire tracts, 259; TNA, SP28/224, f. 26.
Armies: Cheshire
Saunderson, Nicholas Nicholas Saunderson
Of Ewe, Maltby, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian lieutenant in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 115 [citing BL, Add. Ms. 21418, f. 208].
Armies: Yorkshire
Savage, Richard Richard Savage (died 1668/69)
Woollen-draper of Bloxworth. Among civic offices, mayor of Dorchester, 1639-40, 1651-2, 1660-1; and governor of Dorchester Hospital. Investor in Dorchester Company.
Described as having been commissary, July 1642.
Appointed captain to a third company of Dorchester volunteers for keeping watch, Feb. 1643.
26 Jan. 1647: Dorset Committee notes that Mr Richard Savidge of Dorchester served parliament as captain of a foot company in the town for 6 months, 5 Feb.-4 Aug. 1643 [i.e. until the town fell], without pay or free quarter.
References: Whiteway, Diary, 181; Vis. Dorset, 1677, 61; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 548, 170; Underdown, Fire from Heaven, passim.
Armies: Dorset
Savell, Robert Robert Savell
At its muster in Nov. 1643, lieutenant in Captain Thomson’s company in Sir Thomas Barrington’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved. Bishop had succeeded Thomson as captain of the company by summer 1644.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.32.
Armies: Eastern Association
Savery, - -Savery
A major in the Dartmouth garrison; by Aug.-Sept. 1643 he was a major and served in the town until its surrender. He was doubtless one of the Savery family listed: possibly Christopher Savery or Richard Savery.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.417.
Armies: Devon
Savery, Christopher Christopher Savery (1593-1656)
Of Shilston, Devon. Colonel. Baptised 16 Feb. 1593. Eldest son and heir of Christopher Savery (died 1623) of Shilston, mayor of Totnes in 1593, and his wife Johan (died 1639), daughter of Thomas Carew of Haccombe, Devon. He married Johan (died 1641), daughter and coheir of Nicholas Gilbert alias Webber of Bowringsley.
Appointed to the Plymouth Committee, 19 Feb. 1645.
Commissioned colonel in the Devon militia, 1648.
A Devon JP in the 1650s.
Savery was buried at Ugborough, Devon, 31 July 1656.
References: Vis. Devon, 670-1; Worth, ‘Plymouth siege accounts’, 220; Roberts, Devon, 18, 20, 85, 89, 92, 203.
Armies: Devon
Savery, Robert Robert Savery
Possibly Robert Savery of Willing in the parish of Rattery, Devon.
Lieutenant-Colonel (or possibly colonel) of a regiment of foot in Devon.
Savery led expeditions to Tavistock in Nov. 1642 (when he led 1,000 men, took the town and had to abandon it upon the approach of the Cornish royalists) and in Jan. 1643. His troops were at Plymouth and Dartmouth in 1642-3. He was very possibly the Colonel Savery at Dartmouth in 1646, although this may have been the promoted Captain Richard Savery.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.351-2, 354-5; Vis. Devon, 670.
Armies: Devon
Savile, Sir John Sir John Savile (died 1660)
Of Lupset Hall, Alverthorpe, Wakefield parish, Yorkshire (West Riding), knight, second son of Sir George Savile of Thornhill, baronet (and MP for Yorkshire, 1592), and eldest son with his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Ayscough. The attempts of the father to make provision for the children of his second marriage (which included settling Lupset on John) created tensions within the family. John’s half-brother George had married as his second wife Strafford’s sister George’s son, and John’s nephew, Sir William, had been an opponent of the king’s secular policies in the Short Parliament, but stood by the crown during the war, was present at the raising of the royal standard at Nottingham and was royalist governor of Leeds, where he escaped by swimming across the river when Fairfax took the town by assault on 23 Jan. 1643; he became governor of Sheffield in May 1643 and died at York in Jan. 1644.
John Savile was knighted on 22 June 1627. In Sept. 1642 he was captured while en route to join Fairfax; after his release he fought with both Fairfax and the younger John Hotham. For a while he was sergeant-major-general of the Northern Army and held the garrison of Howley Hall from its capture on 16 Jan. 1643 until Newcastle recaptured it and captured him on 22 June 1643. Savile narrowly survived but was held a prisoner until Apr. 1644.
Upon his release he raised a regiment of foot which served at the siege of York and at Marston Moor. He became Fairfax’s wagon-master until 4 Dec. 1644. During summer 1644, and intermittently to Apr. 1645, he besieged Sandal Castle, on two occasions his regiment suffering reverses. In Apr. 1645 he went to siege of Pontefract, his men again suffering at hands of royalists. His regiment was disbanded at end of June 1645, with some of his men put into John Bright’s regiment.
He sat on all the West Riding committees of the war years and in 1645 was appointed to Northern Association committee for West Riding. He was high sheriff of Yorkshire, 1649-50.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 401; Yorks. visitation, 1.65-6; Oxford DNB [Savile family]; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 119.
Armies: Yorkshire
Savill, Thomas Thomas Savill
Captain. Captain in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot, although he does not appear in the Gloucester garrison records.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 646-7.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Saville, Arthur Arthur Saville
Captain of a company in Strode’s Trained Band regiment, 19 Sept. 1642; also named as advancing to Sherborne, Feb. 1643. Peachey and Turton suggest this trained band regiment may have been based on south-west Somerset, and that the force that Strode took into Cornwall in Jan. 1643 may have been volunteers rather than trained bands.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.549.
Armies: Somerset: Col. William Strode’s Trained Band Regt.
Saville, Arthur Arthur Saville
Captain of a troop raised in Surrey, in Sir Richard Grenville’s/Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse. In Mar. 1645 his troop was attached to Edmund Ludlow’s regiment of horse, guarding the country from the Winchester and Basing House garrisons. In Apr. he was ordered west to rejoin Cooke’s regiment, but he disobeyed; the Committee of Both Kingdoms ordered the Surrey deputy lieutenants to secure the troop’s horses and arms and send Saville to Fairfax to answer for his disobedience.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 48.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Saville, Thomas Thomas Saville
In Sept. 1642 a captain in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sawry, Robert Robert Sawry
Captain in Richard Standish’s Lancashire regiment and then lieutenant-colonel in William West’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 299, 302.
Armies: Lancashire
Sawyer, - - Sawyer
Ensign in Linch’s troop in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.98.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sawyer, Francis Francis Sawyer
Captain in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot. As such he figures quite frequently in Luke’s letter books and several letters to and by him survive there.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 95; Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 595, 625, 656, 1281, 1289, 1309, 1603.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Sayer, - - Sayer
In the army list of summer 1642, he appears as cornet in Asycough’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Scaife, Arthur Arthur Scaife
Of Winton (or Hartley Castle), Westmorland, esquire. He was first a corporal in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s troop, then a lieutenant in Thomas Rokeby’s troop and finally a captain under Sir Thomas Fairfax, presumably in his regiment of horse. He transferred as lieutenant under William Farrer into Christopher Copley’s regiment of horse.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 401.
Armies: Yorkshire
Scarborough, Joseph Joseph Scarborough
Ensign in the regiment of foot of Oliver Lord St John/Thomas Essex, named in the published list of officers in the earl of Essex’s army, 1642. He later served in the regiment of foot of Nicholas Devereux (Sept. 1643-June 1644); Devereux had also been an officer in Thomas Essex’s regiment.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.628, 650; Peacock, Army Lists, 34.
Armies: Bristol
Scarfe, John John Scarfe
Of Elloughton, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman. He married Elizabeth, sister of Samuel Norton of Elloughton, gentleman.
By summer 1642 he was a captain in the Hull garrison. In June 1643 he was present at the defence of Beverley against Sir Hugh Cholmley. By Mar. 1645 he was a major in Laurence Parsons’s or John Alured’s regiment of horse in the Northern Army.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 401.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Scarth, Timothy Timothy Scarth
Of Hull, a captain and later major in the Hull garrison regiment, under John Mauleverer/Robert Overton. He was also a captain in Mauleverer’s, later Deane’s, regiment created in the late 1640s in northern England and which was attached to and on the payroll of the New Model Army. He left the regiment by the end of May 1649. Commissioned major in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia, 10 Apr. 1650.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 91; CSPD, 1650, 506; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.546 [citing BL, Add. Ms. 21,418, ff. 181, 238]; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 162.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Schofield [Scofeild, Scholefield], James James Schofield [Scofeild, Scholefield] (born 1620/1)
Of Schofield [Scholefield], Rochdale parish, Lancashire, the eldest son of Gerard Schofield (died c. 1638) of Schofield and his wife Mary Lynney of Rochdale.
As a captain in Ralph Assheton senior’s regiment of foot, Schofield fought at the first (successful) defence of Bolton in Feb. 1643. He was still a captain, and in the same regiment (by then commanded by Ralph Assheton junior), during the Chester campaign. In Apr. 1645 he sat on a court martial at Dodleston, Cheshire. He was still alive in Mar. 1665.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 189; Lancashiremilitary proceedings, 81; VCH, Lancashire 5.217-8; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 256; TNA, E121/4/8. E121; Gratton, Lancs. war effort.
Armies: Lancashire
Scholes, Robert Robert Scholes
Captain in Ralph Assheton’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 58.
Armies: Lancashire
Schooler, Paul Paul Schooler
In 1642 listed as captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Scofield, - - Scofield
Captain in the Isle of Wight foot commanded by Thomas Carr, raising a company in Dec. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 24.
Armies: Isle of Wight
Scott, Edward Edward Scott
Captain of a troop in the Kentish horse which was first mustered in Dec. 1643; it escorted Major-General Browne’s brigade to Guildford and was apparently disbanded in Feb. 1644 and then raised again in Apr. Scott was imprisoned for desertion after Cropredy Bridge (29 June 1644). Possibly the Edward Scott of Scot’s Hall, who took part in the royalist rising in Kent during the second civil war.
References: Spring, Waller’s army,69, 152; Everitt, Kent, 259, 263.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Scott, Humphrey Humphrey Scott
A Trained Band captain in Kent, his company garrisoning Tonbridge. He was probably in the Aylesford Lathe regiments.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 73.
Armies: Kent
Scott, Hyber Hyber Scott
Lieutenant in Captain William Shepley’s [Shipley’s] troop in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse. In Apr. 1646 he received the arms captured at Tutbury Castle and removed them to Eccleshall Castle. A warrant dated 27 Nov. 1646 records that Scott, who was dangerously wounded in parliament’s service in Cheshire, was owed £21 1s as a gratuity for his service at the siege of Chester and in pay.
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 187; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 166, 328, 341.
Armies: Cheshire
Scott, John John Scott
Lieutenant in Captain Moses O’Neale’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.62.
Armies: Eastern Association
Scott, Joseph Joseph Scott
Ensign in John Clerke’s company in Sir William Waller’s/James Holborne’s regiment of dragoons at its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 146.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Scott, Robert Robert Scott
Captain in the Aylesford volunteer regiment and a member of the Aylesford committee. Given the common name, it is not clear whether he was also the R. Scott who was cornet in John Carmichael’s troop in Hans Behre’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army noted in a pay warrant of 29 Sept. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 74; TNA, SP28/18/5.
Armies: Kent; Earl of Essex?
Scott, Walter Walter Scott
Captain in the earl of Denbigh’s Army. On 21 Feb. 1644 Major Fraser received £4 which was appointed to be paid to Captain Scott in part of his pay which was to become due.
References: TNA, SP28/131, Part 12, f. 14.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh
Scotton, Edward Edward Scotton
Captain-Lieutenant of the colonel’s troop in John Fiennes’s regiment of horse in Oxfordshire, named in accounts, Feb.-Aug. 1645.
Probably in July 1649, Scotten became a captain in John Disbrowe’s regiment of horse (previously, and strictly up to Sept., Cromwell’s), a regiment which was generally stationed in the West Country, and which in 1655 suppressed the Penruddock Rising. Scotten may have been a West Country man; certainly like several other officers of the regiment, he became MP for a western constituency, serving as MP for Devizes in 1656 (voting for kingship) and 1659. In Jan. 1660, when Disbrowe was deprived of his command and replaced by Valentine Walton, Scotten was initially the only captain to retain his place, but a few weeks later, when Walton was in turn displaced by Monck, Scotten was also replaced.
References: TNA, SP28/139, Part 19; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 1.206-7; HoP: the Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Oxfordshire
Scrimpshire, - - Scrimpshire
Captain of a company of foot in Francis Pierreponts’s and then John Hutchinson’s Nottingham-based regiment of foot.
References: Hutchinson, Life, 111, 129.
Armies: Nottinghamshire
Scrope [Scroope], Adrian Adrian Scrope [Scroope] (1601-1660)
Colonel. first son of Robert Scrope of Wormsley and Margaret, daughter of Richard Cornwall of London. Governor Bristol Castle, 4 Oct. 1649-May 1655. Commissioned colonel and captain of horse in the Bristol and Gloucestershire militia, 3 Jan. 1651-55. Previously captain of horse, earl of Essex’s army July 1642-Apr. 1645; major, Richard Graves’s regiment of horse, New Model Army, Apr. 1645-June 1647; colonel of horse, May 1647-June 1649. He was active in army politics 1647-9, was prominent in suppressing royalist risings in the Second Civil War, and sat on the commission to try Charles I. MP for the Scottish seat of Linlithgow Shires, 1659, but as a regicide was tried and executed for treason in 1660.
References: Oxford DNB;CSPD, 1651, 513; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army; Bristol
Scrope [Scroope], Adrian Adrian Scrope [Scroope] (1601-1660)
Born the son of Robert Scrope of Wormsley Hall, Oxfordshire. He supported parliament from the outbreak of civil war, raising and as captain commanding a troop of horse in his native Oxfordshire, which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army; it was described as a troop of harquebusiers in Oct. 1643. He was captured by the royalists and was a prisoner on 20 Mar. 1643, but had been released from captivity in Oxford by 21 July. His original troop may have passed to Charles Pym in late May 1643. However, he was still captain of a troop in Essex’s Army in May 1644, and a muster at Tiverton during Essex’s campaign in the South West in summer 1644 places him commanding a troop of 11 officers and 80 troopers in Sir Robert Pye’s regiment of horse.
Appointed as major in Robert Graves’s regiment of horse in the New Model Army in Apr. 1645, he succeeded as colonel in summer 1647. Scrope commanded three troops left in Dorset to suppress possible risings in the West in 1648, putting down a riot near Blandford in Mar.; later in the year he was despatched to deal with royalists in Kent, Huntingdonshire and Norfolk He was an active regicide.
In spring 1649 Scrope failed to contain the mutiny in his regiment which culminated in the confrontation at Burford, after which the regiment was disbanded. Scrope was governor of Bristol from Oct. 1649 until the city’s fortifications were demolished in 1655.
MP for Linlithgow, Stirling and Clackmannan, 1659.
Arrested, tried for and convicted of treason at the Restoration, Scrope was executed at Charing Cross on 17 Oct. 1660.
References: Oxford DNB; Peacock, Army lists, 54; Symonds, Diary, 73; TNA, SP28/1a/238, 246; SP28/8/211, SP28/10/227, SP28/15/145, SP28/144, Part 10, f. 73r.; Temple, ‘New Model Army’, 67; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.102-15; Gentles, New Model Army, 112-3, 177, 207, 249, 255, 310, 330-4, 336-6, 340, 352; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 [forthcoming].
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army; Bristol
Scwechhausen, Simon Henry Simon Henry Scwechhausen
Cornet of a reformado troop of horse commanded by Captain Samuel Bosa in the earl of Essex’s Army in at least Dec. 1642 to Feb. 1643.
References: TNA, SP28/5/313.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Seager, Thomas Thomas Seager
Cornet in Captain Ambrose Tindall’s company in John Middleton’s regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army (pay warrant: 10 Nov. 1642).
References: TNA, SP28/3b/305.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Seagrave, Thomas Thomas Seagrave
During 1644 lieutenant in Elias Batchelor’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. In 1649 he became a captain in Deane’s New Model Army regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.65; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 89, 100.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Seale [Scale], George George Seale [Scale]
Ensign in Thomas Smith’s company in James Holborne’s regiment of foot in Nov. 1644, when it was at Wareham, Dorset.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 58.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Seale, - - Seale
Captain in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot, who was at the siege of Basing House in 1644. He may have been the captain shot by a member of the garrison on 20 July 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Searl [Searle], Michael Michael Searl [Searle]
Captain of a foot company in Jan. 1643 in a regiment then in Stamford’s army in Devon and Somerset. Commenced major of Colonel Strode’s regiment of foot on 1 July 1643. In July at Bath and Bristol. On 23 July 1643 what remained of the company was discharged into Nathaniel Fiennes’ regiment at Bristol. On 21 Aug. 1643 Searl left the regiment and was recruited into the regiment of Sir William Gould garrisoning Plymouth. He is perhaps kin of George Serle, MP for Taunton in the Long Parliament.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.556-9.
Armies: Somerset: Col. William Strode’s Regt. of Foot
Searle [Serle], Samuel Samuel Searle [Serle] (1620-1683)
Of Hale, Honiton, Devon. Eldest son of Hugh Serle of Hale, yeoman. Captain-Lieutenant of Colonel Nicholas Boscawen’s regiment of horse (raised to garrison Wareham, Dorset, in Aug. 1644) by Aug. 1645.
Commissioned captain of foot in the Devon militia, 24 May 1650 and major, Apr. 1660. Appointed assessment commissioner, 1657 (noted by Roberts as ‘the Honiton foot Captain and postmaster’). MP for Honiton (1656, 1659, 1660). John Prince in his Worthies of Devon praised him for his personal probity and lenient treatment of royalists. In 1672 his house was licensed for Baptist worship.
References: HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 3; CSPD, 1650, 507; Roberts, Devon, 54, 60, 146; Spring, Waller’s army, 17.
Armies: Massey Brigade; Dorset; Devon
Sears, Joseph Joseph Sears
Lieutenant in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded by Lord Oliver St John and then Thomas Essex in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Seaton [Seton, Settone], Sir John [Johan] Sir John [Johan] Seaton [Seton, Settone]
Of St German’s, knighted by Charles I at Holyrood on 20 June 1633. He is probably the Colonel John Seton who served in the Swedish army alongside his brother, James Seaton of Gargannock in the 1630s. Described in one 1642 newsbook as a ‘brave and valiant’ Scottish commander (Lancashire military proceedings, 60).
In the early moves of the war in 1642, Seaton was sent to Oxford to display parliamentarian authority, and was then sent as the experienced professional in a sweep against royalists in Kent, before he and Major Sparrow, ‘twoo expert Commanders’, were sent north to aid the local parliamentarians in Lancashire, ‘both to see their souldiers taught the use of their Armes as allsoe to encoradge direct and counsel them’ (Warr in Lancashire, 23). On 29 Sept. 1642 parliament commissioned Seaton to raise 1,000 dragoons in London for service in the county. By 20 Oct. the force was on the march to the relief of Manchester, being partly composed of professionals from the Netherlands. In the face of the royalist threat to London, Seaton was diverted into the earl of Warwick’s force, but by the end of the year he had reached Lancashire and taken command at Manchester and was given a three-month commission. In early Feb. 1643 he joined up with the forces of Colonel Richard Shuttleworth and was major-general of their combined force when it captured Preston. He was, however, unable to prevent the earl of Derby’s recapture of the town and had to withdraw from Lancaster and return to Manchester.
The author of ‘A discourse of the war in Lancashire’ valued the expertise of Seaton and his major: ‘Their most aboad was at Manchester and yet in other parts as occations required their counsel and assistance’ (Warr in Lancashire, 23). Yet even at the height of Seaton’s success, he was not particularly popular. John Tilsley, a local clergyman present at the taking of Preston, registered both his military efficiency and energy and his insensitivity to local sensibilities: ‘we owe (subordinate to God) a great deal to Sir John Seaton: things are artificially and methodically done, past what they were before, he is a man of wonderfull care and unwearied industry, onely rather too harsh for our northern knotty rigged dispositions; had he the meek spirit and smooth tongue of S.M. Sparrow, he were peerlesse, and without parallel doubtlesse’ (Lancashire military proceedings, 73).
Seaton himself complained in a letter of 25 Mar.: ‘And now I am att Manchester scarslie dare I come to the streets for feare of killing of me, Wee are presentlie to go to the feelds to seeke the enemie and ether fecht wth. them or attempt some Towne, But yet I am in als bad a Case as before the sogiors say they will kill me because I gave them not the plundrage, and Papists goods of Preston goods of Preston wch. I never medled with. The Lord knows what shall become of me … I can not live in securitie hier, nether have I gott a sexpence to mentean my selfe and people, having 8 horses and 6 servants wch I brocht from London’ (‘Letter from Sir John Seton’, 15).
Seaton’s commission was not renewed. Some newsbooks refer to his returning to besiege Preston and his forces taking Blackburn in the weeks following, and crediting him with the storming of Warrington and Wigan in early Apr., but other accounts make no mention of his part in the last two attacks, and he may already have left the county. Certainly, in early May a newsbook reflected that, ‘since Sir John Seatons coming out of that county there hath been little action on either side’ (Lancashire military proceedings, 100).
References: Shaw, Knights of England, 1.42; Lancashire military proceedings, 41, 57, 60, 73-4, 94, 95, 100; Warr in Lancashire, 23, 27, 108, 111; ‘Letter from Sir John Seton’, ed. T. Heywood, in Chetham miscellanies III, Chetham Soc., 57 (1862); SSNE database, www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ssne/item.php?id=3477andid2=3477 www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ssne/item.php?id=3477andid2=3477
Armies: Lancashire; Kent; Earl of Warwick
Sedascue, George George Sedascue
A German, he fought in Ireland in the early 1640s. He probably began the civil war as cornet in Urry’s troop in Sir William Balfour’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, as confirmed by his signature to a pay warrant of 16 Nov. 1642. By spring 1644 he was major in Sir Michael Livesay’s regiment of horse; he continued to serve in that capacity under Henry Ireton once most of the regiment had been absorbed into the New Model, until promoted to adjutant general of the horse by the beginning of 1648.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 89; Peacock, Army lists, 67; TNA, SP28/1d/276, SP28/2a/95, SP28/3b/353; Luke Letter Books, no. 1396.
Armies: Waller; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Seddon, Peter Peter Seddon
Lieutenant in the Lancashire forces at the siege of Chester, present in records dated Dec. 1645 and Jan. 1646. He was later a captain of foot in the Lancashire militia, who was either displaced, or chose not to serve, in May 1650.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 382, 396, 510, CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Lancashire
Sedgwick, Francis Francis Sedgwick
On 16 Apr. 1644 he was lieutenant in Captain Luke Bradley’s company in the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon). During the regime of the Presbyterian militia committee in 1647, chosen captain in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel William Underwood).
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, ff. 567r.-568r.; SP28/46, Part 1, f. 37r.
Armies: Southwark
Sedley, Isaac Isaac Sedley
Of St Clere, Kent. Captain. Son of Sir John Sedley of St Clere. He was with Colonel Richard Browne’s forces at the storming of Sevenoaks in 1643. Captain of a troop of horse in Kent by 1 May 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army,73; Everitt, Kent, 194, 197.
Armies: Kent
Sedley, Sir John Sir John Sedley
By 1643 and still there in spring 1645, colonel of the Aylesford Lathe Kentish regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 82.
Armies: Kent
Selby, - - Selby
Appointed captain in Nottingham by the anti-Hutchinson faction in 1644 as part of their intrigues against Hutchinson’s governorship.
References: Hutchinson, Life, 206.
Armies: Nottinghamshire
Selby, John John Selby
Lieutenant in Francis Russell’s troop of horse in the Eastern Association Army, becoming a captain in Charles Fleetwood’s New Model Army regiment of horse until he was killed at the battle of Naseby.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 51, 61, 72.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Semple, Bryce Bryce Semple
Captain-Lieutenant by the time of the battle of Cheriton and later captain in Sir William Balfour’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 19 Luke Letter Books, no. 1214.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Sergeant, James James Sergeant (born 1596/97, alive on 2 Apr. 1663)
Of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire. Third son of John Sergeant of Cotes, Staffordshire and his wife Margaret Boughey of Colton, Staffordshire.
He is probably the Captain-Lieutenant Sergeant who had been captured at Chillington, Staffordshire, early in the war and had been released by 25 Jan. 1643. If so, by late Feb. he had been promoted to major, and on 3 Mar. he was given command of a Stafford force which was to march to join with Colonel Mytton via Lichfield, an order that was countermanded the same day. He was given command of the horse and, because he knew the country, overall command. There were problems with the alleged depredations of his troops, which may explain why on 4 May 1644 articles were exhibited against him and the Staffordshire county committee ordered he be confined to his chamber; two days later it ordered his release upon his paying £20 to the Treasurer.
Disappearing from the county committee records for a while, he reappears as a holder of royalist property rather than a serving officer. On 5 Apr. 1645 he was granted possession of the mills at Millmeege formerly belonging to a recusant, and on 15 May Sergeant was ordered to pay money out of another sequestered estate towards the upkeep of Colonel Jackson’s troops.
In 1662 the constable of ‘Charleton’ (probably Chorlton, Eccleshall parish) presented ‘Major Sergant’ as a former active parliamentarian.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 19, 43, 58, 64, 70, 74, 91, 94, 111, 114, 290, 307; Vis. Staffs., 263-4; ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 51.
Armies: Staffordshire
Serle [Searle], Michael Michael Serle [Searle]
During Prince Maurice’s siege of Plymouth (Sept.-Dec. 1643), Major Serle was one of only fifteen men who escaped capture during a sortie where they had gone too far forward. Promoted lieutenant-colonel and possibly later colonel: by Sept. 1644 he was Colonel Kerr’s second-in-command at Plymouth. On 24 Sept. 1644 Kerr hanged a cousin of the royalist commander Sir Richard Grenville’s for attempting to bribe Serle to betray the town for £3,000.
Possibly a kinsman of Samuel Serle.
References: Worth, History of Plymouth, 101, 110, 123.
Armies: Devon
Servis, - - Servis
Sergeant-Major. He commanded a Bristol Trained Band company. He was not one of the company commanders in late 1642, but appears from Apr. 1643. Sometimes called sergeant-major, sometimes captain.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.603.
Armies: Bristol
Sexby, Edward Edward Sexby (c. 1616-1658)
Major in Weymouth garrison, 1651. An officer in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment 1643, and a trooper in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s horse regiment in the New Model Army. Celebrated as one of the most radical ‘Agitators’ of the New Model Army, advocating the rights of his fellow-soldiers, notably at the Putney Debates in 1647, he seems to have left the army soon afterwards. However, he re-joined the army of the Commonwealth, serving in various positions and various places until he was cashiered for a range of irregularities. After promoting radical ideas in France, he returned to become an active enemy of the Cromwellian protectorate, publishing a pamphlet, Killing Noe Murder, which advocated Oliver Cromwell’s assassination. He was arrested, and died in the Tower of London on 13 Jan. 1658.
References: Oxford DNB;
Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337.
Armies: Eastern Association; Dorset; Scotland
Seyliard, - - Seyliard
Captain in the Sutton at Hone Lathe Trained Band volunteer regiment
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 73.
Armies: Kent
Seymore, - - Seymore
Captain. A parliamentarian officer captured at Cirencester when it fell to the royalists on 2 Feb. 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 617.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Shambrooke, William William Shambrooke (died 1648)
Shambrooke was admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 31 May 1641. He was major of the Tower Hamlets auxiliary regiment in 1643. In Dec. 1643 he was seriously wounded when he was shot in the thigh at the storming of Alton parish church. He became lieutenant-colonel in succession to William Willoughby when the latter became its colonel, and was still in that position in Oct. 1646. About 21 June 1647, the Presbyterian militia committee put him out of his command, ‘upon these grounds that hee differ’d in judgment from them and that hee was of a particular Congregation’ (Clarke Papers, 1.153). He was an Independent, a member of Henry Jessey’s semi-separatist (later Baptist) Congregation by 1640, and in 1644 was host to a meeting of Baptists over the validity of infant baptism.
Shambrooke was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Tower Guards, a regiment of foot under Colonel Robert Tichborne established by Fairfax to guard the Tower of London in Aug. 1647. Ordered into the field during the second civil war, the Tower regiment passed to the command of Colonel Simon Needham and after his death at the siege of Colchester on 13 June 1648, to that of Shambrooke. Shambrooke was also mortally wounded at the siege, shot while repelling a royalist sally. The bullet was poisoned: according to one report ‘boiled in Coprice [copperas]’, according to another, rolled in sand. Shambrooke died the next day (Rushworth, Historical Collections, 7.1179). In Nov. 1651 the Commons referred the case of his widow to the Committee of the Army.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11; Clarke Papers, 1.153;Lindley, Popular politics, 142, 144, 216; S. Wright, The early English Baptists, 1603-1649 (2006), 131-2; Rushworth, Historical collections, 7.1179, 1181; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2.571-3; JHC, 7.39.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Shank, John John Shank
Lieutenant in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Shanke, Robert Robert Shanke
By the beginning of 1644 he was serving as captain-lieutenant in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; later promoted to captain with his own company in the regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.40, 42.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sharpe, - - Sharpe
By late 1647, when he helped put down the rising in Canterbury, he was major in Captain William Day’s St Augustine Lathe’s Kentish Trained Bands regiment of volunteers.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 82.
Armies: Kent
Sharpe, Cavendish Cavendish Sharpe
Captain in Jonas Vandruske’s regiment of horse from July 1644 until its disbandment in Apr. 1645. From May 1645 he was a cornet in Captain Otter’s troop in Sanderson’s regiment of reformadoes.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 139.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); reformado
Sharpe, Edward Edward Sharpe
By summer 1644 lieutenant in Henry Middleton’s troop in Sir John Norwich’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.74.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sharples, George George Sharples (born 1620/1)
Of Freckleton, Lytham parish, Lancashire. Eldest son of John Sharples of Freckleton and his wife Anne, daughter of Roger Nowell of Rede, esquire.
In autumn 1643 Sharples attempted to raise a company for Alexander Rigby’s regiment of foot in his parish, ‘but the people of the parish would not raise with or follow him, but some few only, for which he had the Gear’. He was captured at the fall of Bolton on 28 May 1644, and according to a parliamentarian account ‘was caried through the streets almost Naked and bare fotted in the mire and dirt’ to the son of his royalist landlord, and there ‘forced to sing a psalm in the mud for their sport’. He escaped the following morning. Sharples was still alive in Sept. 1664.
References: Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 52; Warr in Lancashire, 42, 51; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 257.
Armies: Lancashire
Shawe, William William Shawe
Lieutenant in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sheffield, James James Sheffield
Born a younger son (amongst many) of Edmund Sheffield, first earl of Mulgrave (died 1646), probably by his second wife Mariana Irwin.
Like many of the earl of Mulgrave’s sons, he fought for parliament. In 1642 he is listed as captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army and in July 1643 he was commissioned colonel of a regiment of horse in Essex’s Army. He and his regiment fought at the relief of Gloucester and first battle of Newbury in late summer 1643, in the doomed campaign in the South West and at the second battle of Newbury in 1644. In spring 1645 he initially transferred as colonel with much of his regiment to the New Model Army, but he withdrew from the New Model in May 1645 and his military career apparently ended at that point.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 49; Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 51, 150; Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 489, 490, 502, 1200, 1209.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Sheffield, Samuel Samuel Sheffield
Captain of a troop of horse in the Sussex Trained Bands, from at least 16 Sept. 1643 to at least 18 Sept. 1644, possibly the troop of horse for Lewes Rape.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 124.
Armies: Sussex
Sheffield, Thomas Thomas Sheffield
Born c. 1614 a younger son (amongst many) of Edmund Sheffield, first earl of Mulgrave (died 1646), probably by his first wife Ursula Tyrwhitt.
By spring 1645, and probably from the formation of the regiment in summer 1643, he was captain in the regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded by his (probably half-brother) James Sheffield. He transferred with James and the regiment into the New Model Army, becoming the regiment’s major, but when James withdrew from the New Model in May 1645, Thomas succeeded him as colonel. He led the regiment for two years, leaving in summer 1647.
In early 1660 he was appointed by Monck as colonel of a New Model horse regiment, but his command was brief, as he was demoted to lieutenant-colonel at the Restoration and in any case the regiment was soon disbanded.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 51, 61, 72, 82, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Sheinton, - - Sheinton
Perhaps of Shavington, Shropshire, an officer in the Shropshire county forces present at the capture of Shrewsbury in Feb. 1645.
References: R. Gough, ‘Antiquityes and Memoryes of the Parish of Myddle’, edited by D. Hey as The History of Myddle (1981), 176.
Armies: Shropshire
Shelley, William William Shelley
Ensign in William Wilkes’s company in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. By 1647 he was ensign in John Lambert’s New Model Army regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.71; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 118.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Shelmerdine, Edmund Edmund Shelmerdine (baptised 1592, died 1653)
Of the Shelmerdine family of Kenworthy, Etchells, Northenden, baptised 2 Oct. 1592, possibly son of William Shelmerdine; churchwarden of Northenden in 1629. Probably indicted at the royalist Chester assizes in Feb. 1644 for treason, when he was recorded as Edward Shelmerdine of Northenden, gentleman.
Captain (with William Siddal) in a country company of 120 men in Robert Duckenfeild’s regiment of foot in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army on 30 Apr. 1645.
Shelmerdine died on 17 Dec. 1653.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 325-6, 331; Groves,Northendon and Etchells, 81-2; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 311.
Armies: Cheshire
Shelmerdine, Francis Francis Shelmerdine (baptised 1615, died 1674)
Baptised 3 June 1615 at Northende, Cheshire, son of Francis Shelmerdine of Chamber Hall, Etchells and his wife Ellen Williamson.
Chaplain to Henry Bradshaw’s militia regiment of foot when it fought at the battle of Worcester as part of the Cheshire brigade (though Shelmerdine himself may not have been present at the battle).
Curate of Cheadle, 1637-42. In 1643 he was one of a number of ministers who preached at Northenden during a vacancy, and later preached one day at Stockport. Vicar of Mottram in Longdendale, Cheshire (he was there in June 1651 and June 1661). He was ejected after the Restoration. He was apparently a weaver or clothier following ejection. One of a number of clergy to whom Samuel Eaton left 20s. in his will (12 Dec. 1664). He was licensed as a Presbyterian at his house in Northenden in 1672. Sherlmerdine was buried at Northenden on 10 Apr. 1674.
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 1.221, 293, 303; 2.64-8, 130-1; Calamy revised, 437; Groves, Northenden and Etchells, 82-3.
Armies: Cheshire
Shephard, Robert Robert Shephard
Captain of a company in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army, in place by Jan. 1644 and continued to serve in that capacity until the regiment was disbanded in spring 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.42.
Armies: Eastern Association
Shepheard, - - Shepheard
Ensign in the Colonel’s company in Samuel Jones’s regiment of Surrey foot garrisoning Farnham.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 65; TNA, SP28/135/1.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Shepley, William William Shepley
Possibly of a Stockport family. A cavalry captain in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army, Shepley took part in the battle of Montgomery (18 Sept. 1644), and was later paid £5 for horses captured. On 30 Apr. 1645 he was listed as captain in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse; a year later, in Apr. 1646 Brereton sought (apparently unsuccessfully) to summon him from Cheshire to the siege of Lichfield. He was possibly the Lieutenant Shipley in Robert Duckenfeild’s troop of horse in 1650.
Shepley was active in the opposition to Henry Bradshaw in the Cheshire election of 1659, and took part in Booth’s Rising in 1659.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324, 328, 2. 186; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs.,123;Morrill, Cheshire, 297; CSPD, 1650, 310.
Armies: Cheshire
Sheppard, Jo. Jo. Sheppard
Lieutenant in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sheppard, Matthew Matthew Sheppard (died 1669)
Son of Matthew Sheppard of London and his wife Sarah Howkins [Hawkins] of Rugby. He married (1) Anne, daughter of Daniel Winch, Citizen and grocer, of St Mildred Poultry in 1622; and possibly (2) Leah in 1655; and (3) Deborah Sowde in 1655 (but note that his son, alive in 1633, was also called Matthew).
Residences: St Stephen Walbrook (1627 and 1636, when he was churchwarden); St Thomas the Apostle by 1638.
Merchant and sugar-baker, partner with Thomas Juxon in St Thomas the Apostle (Symonds, BL, Harl. 986, p. 36). Sheppard was half-uncle to Thomas Juxon: his mother had previously been married to Thomas’s grandfather, Ralph. They also served in the same Trained Bands regiment in the 1640s.
Sheppard was admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company) on 9 Mar. 1618. He was a lieutenant of the City by 1633.
Sheppard was captain in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in 1642 (described as senior captain in a summer 1642 broadsheet and first captain in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands in Sept. 1643). He was not among the senior officers named in that regiment (by then under Colonel Owen Rowe) in Oct. 1646, but was appointed colonel of the Green regiment, London Trained Bands, by the Presbyterian militia committee in 1647. When the militia was purged again after the New Model Army entered London in Aug., he was put out and Rowe reinstated; they ‘have turned out the discreet and faithfull Colonel Sheppard, and put in the Bull Rowe’ (Juxon, Journal, 10, quoting A paire of spectacles for the Citie, (1648), 9).
Common councilman, Vintry Ward, 1657-60. Buried 18 Dec. 1669.
References: Overton 1642; Thrale 1642; BL, Harl. 986, p. 36; Vis. London, 1633-5, 234; Juxon, Journal, 3, 8, 10, 174, 175;Woodhead, Rulers, 147.
Armies: London
Shergall, Robert Robert Shergall
Ensign in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sheringham, - - Sheringham
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel Ashley’s company in Sir John Palgrave’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. Perhaps the same man who by Apr. 1644 appears as captain in Sir John Palgrave’s regiment, though superseded before the regiment was disbanded by Captain Robert Dales.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.77, 81.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sherley, Robert Robert Sherley
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel John Bellamy’s company (probably the White regiment, London Auxiliaries), drawn from the first precinct of Dowgate Ward, on 11 Nov. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 677Ar.-682Bv.
Armies: London
Sheward, William William Sheward
Lieutenant (Bringer-Up) in the colonel’s company in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Shibborne, Cornelius Cornelius Shibborne
Captain of a company of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army which fought at the first battle of Newbury.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 57.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Shipley, - - Shipley
An officer in the Shropshire county forces present at the capture of Shrewsbury in Feb. 1645.
References: R. Gough, ‘Antiquityes and Memoryes of the Parish of Myddle’, edited by D. Hey as The History of Myddle (1981), 176.
Armies: Shropshire
Shipman, John John Shipman
Ensign in Sir Nicholas Byron’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots in 1640.
Ensign in the colonel’s company in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in Lord Wharton’s regiment raised for service in Ireland in 1642. Later that summer he went instead with the regiment, probably also in the colonel’s company, into the earl of Essex’s Army as ensign in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 87, 69, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Shirte, George George Shirte
Of Rowroyd, Cawthorne parish, Yorkshire, probably a yeoman.
Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Eyre’s troop of horse, later captain of horse. In Jan. 1647 William Rich and Adam Eyre, Joseph’s brother, visited Shirt, ‘who told us he had stated his accounts at London as leiftenant to my brother, and it was to be reported to the House, amongst others, and that hee had entrusted Mr. Boswell to speak for him there’ (Eyre, 6-7). In 1648 he claimed £756 8s arrears of pay and £318 expenses.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 402; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 107; Eyre.
Armies: Yorkshire
Shorlyfe, Anthony Anthony Shorlyfe
Ensign in John Joyner’s company in Colonel John Feilder’s regiment of Surrey foot (previously Samuel Jones’s).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 66.
Armies: Surrey
Short, - - Short
Captain in the White regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel John Bellamy) in Oct. 1646.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Shorter, - - Shorter
Ensign in John Hampden’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 46.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Shortgrave, Robert Robert Shortgrave
Captain in Sir John Norwich’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.74.
Armies: Eastern Association
Shrubshall, Charles Charles Shrubshall
Captain in the Aylesford volunteer regiment of foot. He was wounded at the second battle of Newbury, for which he was awarded £40 in Nov. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 74.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Shuttleworth, Barton Barton Shuttleworth
A younger son of Richard Shuttleworth, senior, of Gawthorpe, Lancashire, with his second wife Judith, daughter of Jeremiah Thorpe of Bradford; half-brother of Richard Shuttleworth, junior and Nicholas Shuttleworth, and brother of Ughtred Shuttleworth, William Shuttlworth and Edward Shuttleworth. He married (1) Margaret Walker and (2) Margaret Clayton. He became a farmer of sequestered property in the early 1650s.
A major during the civil war, though it is not certain that his service was in Lancashire, and he is not listed as an officer by Gratton.
References: Vis. Lancs., 1664, 271-2; Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 95, 107-8; Gratton, Lancs. war effort.
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, Edward Edward Shuttleworth
A younger son of Richard Shuttleworth, senior (1587-1669) of Gawthorpe, Lancashire, and his second wife Judith, daughter of Jeremiah Thorpe of Bradford, esquire; brother of Barton Shuttleworth, William Shuttleworth and Ughtred Shuttleworth and half-brother of Nicholas Shuttleworth and Richard Shuttleworth, junior. He married Alice, daughter of John Woodhouse of Larbreck.
Captain in Colonel Shuttleworth’s regiment of horse; captain-lieutenant to Colonel Nicholas Shuttleworth’s own troop of horse; reformado in Colonel Nicholas Shuttleworth’s own troop of horse. He was owed £586 13s 4d arrears in May 1659.
References: Vis. Lancs., 1664, 271-2; Warr in Lancashire, 15; TNA, E121/4/8; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 296-8.
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, Nicholas Nicholas Shuttleworth
Son of Richard Shuttleworth, senior (1587-1669) of Gawthorpe, Lancashire, and his first wife Fleetwood Barton; brother of Richard Shuttleworth and half-brother of Ughtred Shuttleworth, Barton Shuttleworth, Edward Shuttleworth and William Shuttleworth.
Probably a reformado cornet on half-pay in June 1642, he became an officer in Lancashire: captain in Colonel Richard Shuttleworth’s regiment of foot; then captain of a troop of horse and major in Colonel Richard Shuttleworth’s regiment (identified by Gratton as Richard senior). In due course he became colonel of a regiment of horse which was apparently formed in June 1644 and which over the period to Mar. 1645 incorporated officers from three pre-existing regiments. In Aug. 1645 it was confirmed as the consolidated Lancashire county regiment of horse. It was disbanded in 1646, but revived in 1648 during the Preston campaign and finally dissolved in Jan. 1649.
Gratton describes Nicholas and his brother Ughtred as ‘apolitical’ (Gratton, Lancashire war effort, 99). But he was a signatory to the Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army ‘Engagement or Declaration of the Officers and Souldiers of the County Palatine of Lancaster’, May 1648. He was owed £650s 19s 6d arrears in May 1659.
References: TNA, E121/4/8; Lancashire military proceedings, 248-50; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 8, 46. 99, 169, 177, 180, 195-7, 199, 296-8.
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, Richard, junior Richard Shuttleworth, junior (baptised 1613, died 1651)
Of Gawthorpe, Lancashire. Eldest son of Richard Shuttleworth of Gawthorpe and his first wife Fleetwood Barton; brother of Nicholas Shuttleworth and half-brother of Ughtred Shuttleworth, Barton Shuttleworth, Edward Shuttleworth and William Shuttleworth. He graduated BA, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1633. He married Jane Kirke of London.
MP for Clitheroe in the Short and Long Parliaments.
Colonel of a regiment, probably of foot, in Lancashire, which he relinquished under Self-Denying Ordinance. A Presbyterian in religion.
References: Keeler, Long Parliament, 339; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 273-4; History of Parliament: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, Richard, senior Richard Shuttleworth, senior(1587-1669)
Of Gawthorpe Hall, near Burnley, Lancashire, eldest son of Thomas Shuttleworth (died 1593) and his wife Anne, daughter of Richard Lever; he was nephew and eventual heir of Sir Richard Shuttleworth, chief justice of Chester, and succeeded to the family estates in 1608. A student at Brasenose College and Gray’s Inn. He married (1) Fleetwood, daughter and heir of Richard Barton of Barton, and (2) Judith, daughter of Jeremiah Thorpe of Bradford. With his first wife he was father of Richard Shuttleworth, junior, and Nicholas Shuttleworth; with his second wife he was father of Ughtred Shuttleworth, Barton Shuttleworth, Edward Shuttleworth and William Shuttleworth.
He was a JP by 1616 and served continuously from 1625 to 1665. He was probably sheriff twice, in 1620 and 1636-7.
MP for Preston in the Short and Long Parliaments (abstaining after Pride’s Purge) and in the Protectorate parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 1659. A Presbyterian in religion.
Colonel of a regiment of horse in Lancashire (or regiments of horse and foot: it is difficult to be sure because his eldest son Richard Shuttleworth was also a colonel). He was appointed (along with John Starkie) a colonel for Blackburn Hundred in 1642, and in Oct. ‘ould Colonell Shutleworth’ led the clubmen of Blackburn Hundred against Sir Gilbert Hoghton at Blackburn and successfully prevented him from taking arms out of the Hundred. In Feb. 1643 he was one of the commanders of the force that captured Preston. Edward Robinson later accused Shuttleworth of being too mild with the royalist gentry in the weeks that followed; he also recorded his flight from the town before the earl of Derby’s army and later recalled how he transferred his troop from Shuttleworth’s regiment to Alexander Rigby’s, ‘no doubt with both their wills’. Shuttleworth resigned the command of his regiment (or regiments) under the Self-Denying Ordinance.
Robinson also records how in 1651 ‘ould Colonell Richard Shutleworth and the Country thereabouts’ came to Robert Lilburne at Hoghton Tower which may have helped lead the earl of Derby to retreat.
References: Keeler, Long Parliament, 338-9; Underdown, Pride’s purge, 385; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 273-4;Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 49, 74, 93n., 95, 96, 127-8; Warr in Lancashire, 9, 12, 15, 20, 23-5, 30-2, 40, 74; History of Parliament: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, Ughtred [Oughtred] Ughtred [Oughtred] Shuttleworth
A younger son of Richard Shuttleworth, senior (1587-1669) of Gawthorpe, Lancashire, and his second wife Judith, daughter of Jeremiah Thorpe of Bradford, esquire; brother of Barton Shuttleworth, William Shuttleworth and Edward Shuttleworth; half-brother of Nicholas Shuttleworth and Richard Shuttleworth junior
Early in the war he, like his brothers, was commissioned captain by his father to raise companies in Blackburn Hundred. He rose to be lieutenant-colonel in his father Richard Shuttleworth’s regiment of foot. He later became colonel of a regiment of foot in succession to Richard Shuttleworth (it is not entirely certain which – his father or his half-brother, but very probably the latter, and presumably upon their having to relinquish command under the Self-Denying Ordinance).
In May 1648 Shuttleworth was a signatory to the pro-Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army petition of Lancashire officers. In Jan. 1648, when he was serving in John Disbrowe’s own troop of horse, he claimed arrears of £683 16s 7½d. In June 1648 he was colonel of a militia regiment of foot, and also had the command of Alexander Rigby’s regiment of foot.
Gratton describes Ughtred as ‘apolitical’ (Gratton, Lancashire war effort, 99).
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 99; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 271-2; Warr in Lancashire, 15; Lancashire military proceedings, 250, 252-3;TNA, E121/4/8.
Armies: Lancashire
Shuttleworth, William William Shuttleworth (died 1643)
A younger (probably youngest) son of Richard Shuttleworth, senior (1587-1669), of Gawthorpe, Lancashire, and his second wife Judith, daughter of Jeremiah Thorpe of Bradford, esquire; brother of Barton Shuttleworth, William Shuttleworth and Ughtred Shuttleworth and half-brother of Nicholas Shuttleworth and Richard Shuttleworth junior.
He and his brothers were early commissioned captains to raise companies in Blackburn Hundred. He was slain when he was taken unawares by the earl of Derby’s attack on Lancaster: ‘Captaine William Shuttleworth and some souldiers with him not being far from the Castle and not being wary of their entrance at soe severall waies was sodenly surprized and slayne before he could recover it’ (Warr in Lancashire, 28-9).
References: Vis. Lancs., 1664, 271-2; Warr in Lancashire, 15, 24, 28-9; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 298.
Armies: Lancashire
Siddal [Syddal], William William Siddal [Syddal]
A tenant of William Davenport of Bramhall, Cheshire. His name headed the petition of those refusing to obey his injunction to enlist for the king in Sept. 1642; he was probably one of the tenants who a few days later enrolled with Captain Edward Hyde of Norbury to go to the relief of Manchester.
On 30 Apr. 1645 Siddal was a captain in Robert Duckenfeild’s regiment of foot in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army.
In 1644 and 1647 he appears as a sequestrator in Macclesfield Hundred.
He may be the William Siddal who campaigned in northern England in the later 1640s as captain in Mauleverer’s New Model Army regiment and Lambert’s brigade.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 331; Earwaker, East Cheshire, 1.32, 429-30, 432; Wanklyn, I, 162.
Armies: Cheshire; New Model Army?
Sidney [Sydney], Algernon Algernon Sidney [Sydney] (1623-1683).
Born 1623, younger son of Robert Sidney, second earl of Leicester (died 1677), he was brought up at Penshurst, Kent. During the 1630s he accompanied his father to Paris, where he had been appointed as Charles I’s ambassador to France. They returned to England in 1641 and in 1642-3 young Algernon served as a captain of horse in the English army sent over to restore English and Protestant control in Ireland under the overall command of his father
He returned to England in summer 1643 and was initially under suspicion of royalism, but in May 1644 he was commissioned colonel of the earl of Manchester regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. He led the regiment in the campaign and battle of Marston Moor, where he was wounded but survived. However, he was still too weak in spring 1645 to take command of a New Model regiment of horse, as originally intended, and instead he took on the far less demanding role of governor of Chichester, 1645-7.
He became Recruiter MP for Cardiff in 1645. In 1647 he and his elder brother went back to campaign in Ireland; returning to England in 1648, he became governor of Dover Castle.
During the early 1650s he became an active member of the Rump and a committed republican. Accordingly, he was disenchanted by the Protectorate and spent much of the Restoration period abroad. He returned to England at the time of the Popish Plot and Exclusion Crisis, becoming a leading Whig exclusionist. In 1683 he was convicted of and executed for treason.
References: Oxford DNB; Spring, Eastern Association, 1.50.
Armies: English Army in Ireland; Eastern Association
Silverlock, James James Silverlock
At its muster in Nov. 1643 captain in the Earl of Warwick’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.31.
Armies: Eastern Association
Silverwood, John John Silverwood
By spring 1644 until spring 1645, shortly before the regiment transferred to the New Model Army, captain in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He transferred as captain with the regiment to the New Model Army and served in that capacity until he left the regiment early in 1647.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.87; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 49, 59, 71, 81.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Simcott, Thomas Thomas Simcott
Ensign in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Simons, Nathaniel Nathaniel Simons
Ensign in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Simpson, Richard Richard Simpson
A captain in John Birch’s newly-formed regiment of foot raised in Kent for Waller’s Southern Association army by 20 July 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 16.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Kent
Simpson, Richard Richard Simpson
Ensign in Captain Roger Nore’s company in Anthony Stapley’s regiment of Sussex foot by 4 Oct. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Singleton, William William Singleton (1602-1667)
Captain. Draper and Alderman of Gloucester, 1635-1662. MP for Gloucester in the Short Parliament. Eldest son of William Singleton of Gloucester. Captain in the regiment of Gloucester townsmen raised in spring 1643, commanded in turn by Henry Stephens, Edward Massey and Thomas Morgan. Singleton served as captain from 1 May 1643 until the regiment’s disbanding in 1647/8 (Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6 .625, citing SP46/109/178). During the siege of Gloucester, he was informed of the Backhouse plot to double-cross the royalists. In June 1645 Parliament appointed him one of three men delegated to share the governorship of Gloucester until the arrival of Massey’s replacement.
He was a county committeeman, and was appointed to two government commissions in the early 1650s. He continued to serve as alderman throughout the 1640s and 1650s until he ‘effectively went into retirement after his second mayoralty’ (Warmington, Glos., 104). He was purged from the Aldermanic Bench at the Restoration.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 625-7; Bibliotheca, 77, 152; Warmington, Glos., 27, 92, 102-4, 183; VCH Glos., 4.377; HoP: The Commons 1640-1660, (forthcoming).
Armies: Gloucestershire
Sinkeleram, - -Sinkeleram
Ensign in company of Captain Lieutenant Smith, probably in foot regiment of Sir Walter Erle.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.511.
Armies: Dorset
Sinkins [Simpkis], - - Sinkins [Simpkis]
An officer in Mytton’s garrison at Oswestry, reported as too ill to lead his men to Stokesay in June 1645. Perhaps the Captain Simpkis in command of Mytton’s own troop of horse by Apr. 1646.
References: Perfect Passages, 26 June 1645; .R. Phillips, Memoirs of the Civil War in Wales and the Marches (1874), II, 301.
Armies: Shropshire
Sisson, - - Sisson
Lieutenant in Captain Hoogan’s company in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he did not go on to serve in the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.41.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sittey, - - Sittey
Captain in the Green (Cripplegate) regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel William Webb) in Oct. 1646.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Skelton, William William Skelton
Captain-Lieutenant of the colonel’s company of the Red regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel Samuel Harsnett), when it mustered on 27 Apr. 1644. Captain in the same regiment on 22 Oct. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, ff. 691r.-692v.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Skinner, - - Skinner
Captain in the Aylesford Lathe volunteer regiment.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 74.
Armies: Kent
Skinner, - - Skinner
Captain of a troop of Kentish dragoons in June 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 70.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Skinner [Skynner], Augustine Augustine Skinner [Skynner]
By early 1644 until spring 1645, captain in Sir Michael Livesay’s regiment of horse. He might be the Augustine Skinner of West Farleigh in Kent who was MP for the county in the Long Parliament and Rump, in the first Protectorate parliament and the restored Rump, and who was active during the civil war as a member of the Kent county committee, though the identification is far from certain.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 89.
Armies: Kent; Waller; Waller (Southern Association;
Skinner, Thomas Thomas Skinner
Captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 25.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Skippon, Philip Philip Skippon (died 1660)
Son of a minor Norfolk, gentleman, Luke Skippon (died 1638), he fought on the continent in Dutch service during the 1620s and early 1630s.
Captain-leader, the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 1639-Apr. 1645, commander and captain-general, from Mar. 1655.
Sergeant-Major-General, London Trained Bands, 12 Feb. 1642-3 Mar. 1660, as such leading them at Turnham Green in Nov. 1642.
But Skippon was also sergeant-major-general of the infantry in Essex’s Army from late 1642, in which capacity he served at the siege of Reading in spring 1643, in the relief of Gloucester and the first battle of Newbury in late summer 1643, before capturing Newport Pagnell towards the end of the year, in Essex’s doomed campaign in the South West in summer 1644 and at the second battle of Newbury in autumn 1644. In 1645 he held the same position in the New Model Army and fought at Naseby, where he was severely wounded. Although he survived, his active service in the field was effectively ended by this wound, and thereafter his main military role was in defending – and overseeing recruitment in – London, including as major-general of London, 1655-7. He was recruiter MP for Barnstaple from 1647, was a Protectoral councillor and sat in both of Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate Parliaments. He died in summer 1660.
References: Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660.
Armies: Earl of Essex; London; New Model Army
Skipwith, Henry Henry Skipwith
Fourth captain in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in his army raised for Ireland in 1642; he went as captain in Wharton’s regiment in the earl of Essex’s Army later that summer.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 68, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Skirmager, Harold Harold Skirmager
In 1643 Skirmager served in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot. After Brooke’s death and the demise of his Association Army, Skirmager became a captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot, where he still was in Dec. 1644. In the New Model Captain Skirmager was an officer of Sir Thomas Fairfax’s Lifeguard.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 150; Peacock, Army lists, 107.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Lord Brooke; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Skrimpshiere, Jo. Jo. Skrimpshiere
Probably Cornet Skrynsheer, cornet to Captain William St Leger in a troop of horse intended for Lord Wharton’s Army to be sent to Ireland in 1642. Instead, by Aug. 1642 he was a captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 68, 25.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Skrimshaw, Harold Harold Skrimshaw
Ensign in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Skudamore, John John Skudamore
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, ensign in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Skutt [Scutt], George George Skutt [Scutt]
Of Poole. It is not absolutely clear whether this is the alderman (and in 1643 mayor) and committeeman of Poole, and MP (died 1654) for the town from 1645 until his seclusion at Pride’s Purge) or George junior. As George junior is occasionally identified as such, but not when military rank is specified, the officer may well be junior. Certainly Captain George Skutt is described in the summer of 1643 as ‘son of the arch-traitor Skuts of Poole’. He is later major in the Poole garrison (references Apr. 1647, Mar. 1648). In Apr. 1651 Major Skutt was appointed governor of Poole and Brownsea castle in place of the then governor Lieutenant-Colonel Rede. This followed the complaints of the civic authorities against Rede, whom they accused of favouring Levellers, Ranters and Baptists; and attempting to impose one Gardiner, ‘a soldier and dipper’, to be pastor and lecturer ‘in opposition to the orthodox divines and well-affected ministers as were provided by the magistracy of Poole,’ In the face of Rede’s resistance, and ‘some recrimination’ against Skutt, the Council of State decided to appoint a third party to the post until matters were settled.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, x-xii, 79, 81, 243, 359, 369-70, 377; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 22, 84, 111-2, 114, 307-8, 327-8, 343-8, 388-90.
Armies: Dorset
Skutt, William William Skutt
On 24 Mar. 1643 he was captain of the Poole volunteers, who arrested the mayor. Described as commander-in-chief of the Poole garrison 13 Aug. 1643. If he was indeed in command in Aug. 1643, he was superseded by Colonel John Bingham. However, by 10 Feb. 1647 he is again commander of town and garrison of Poole, when he was ordered to seize arms at Wimborne. On 17 June 1647 Lords and Commons approve his name as governor of Poole, but 11 Nov. 1647 superseded by Lieutenant-Colonel John Rede.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.517; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 189; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 327.
Armies: Dorset
Slade, Henry Henry Slade
By Jan. 1643 and continuing until Aug. 1646, captain in Godfrey Bosvile’s Warwick-based regiment of foot, though Slade and his company also served with Waller and at Coventry.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 31.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Slangham, - - Slangham
Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel West’s troop in Robert Burghill’s regiment of horse in May 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 7.711.
Armies: Waller
Slatford, George George Slatford
Lieutenant in Sir Jacob Astley’s regiment in foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots.
Captain in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 77, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sleigh, James James Sleigh
Ensign in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 44.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sleigh, Samuel Samuel Sleigh
Sleigh’s identity is uncertain. He was perhaps a kinsman, but not the son, of the leading parliamentarian Sir Samuel Sleigh of Ashe and/or of Thomas Sleigh, mayor of Derby in 1648-9.
A captain in the Derbyshire regiment of horse, serving with Sir William Brereton in 1645, signing two of the letters of complaint about their colonel Sir John Gell to Brereton in Mar. By the end of the year he was again – or still – in Cheshire, serving at the siege of Chester.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.72-3, 96, 525; 2.382, 510.
Armies: Derbyshire
Slyfox, - - Slyfox
Captain in a Gloucestershire regiment early in 1643, referred to in an account for 14 Apr.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 621 [citing SP28/299/552: this may be a misreading of a variant spelling of Sylcox]
Armies: Gloucestershire
Smalley, John John Smalley
By 1646, ensign in Purefoy’s company in John Barker’s/Thomas Willoughby’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 23.
Armies: Warwickshire
Smallwood, - - Smallwood
Ensign to Major Thomas Croxton in the Cheshire forces. There are references to payments to him in the account of disbursements made by Croxton since 26 Dec. 1645, and forwarded to the county treasurer, 3 May 1646.
Possibly Joseph Smalewood of Spurstow, webster, indicted for treason at the royalist assizes at Chester on 5 Feb. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 3; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 303.
Armies: Cheshire
Smart, John, junior John Smart, junior (died 1679)
Possibly eldest son of John Smart, Merchant Taylor, and his wife Dorothy, daughter of Samuel Rawlinson of London.
Lieutenant in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
Possibly the Captain John Smart who commanded an unsuccessful expedition to Madagascar, 1645.
In Dec. 1659 Captain Smart junior was named as captain in the White regiment, London Trained Bands.
References: Thrale 1642; Vis. London, 1633-5, 2.239; Brenner, Merchants, 177; Strype, London, 2.i.302.
Armies: London
Smart, John, senior John Smart, senior
Ensign in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington). Common councilman in 1641-2.
References: Thrale 1642; Lindley, Popular politics, 141; Vis. 1633-5, 2.239.
Armies: London
Smart, Tracey Tracey Smart
Ensign in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smelomb [Smellom], Barnard Barnard Smelomb [Smellom] (died 1642).
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, lieutenant in John Mill’s company in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
He was killed at Edgehill (23 Oct. 1642). In Aug. 1643 his widow Susan was granted £10 to relieve the necessities of her and her children.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37; TNA, SP28/9/48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smith, - - Smith
Captain-Lieutenant references, June-July, to him and his company, probably in regiment of foot of (probably) Sir Walter Erle. Also noteworthy is a claim for troops of Captain Smith quartered on a Dorchester widow (for which the date must be 1643).
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.511; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 55.
Armies: Dorset
Smith, - - Smith
Captain in Samuel Luke’s Bedfordshire regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army (pay warrant: 10 May 1643).
References: TNA, SP28/7/313, 320.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smith, - - Smith
Captain in Sir John Norwich’s short-lived regiment of dragoons in the Eastern Association Army, listed as such in Nov. 1643 shortly before the regiment was transferred to Lord Grey of Groby and his army. Possibly the same man, possibly a different man, was serving by Mar. 1644 as captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army, possibly promoted to major in that regiment later in 1644.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.75, 96.
Armies: Eastern Association
Smith, - - Smith
Captain-Lieutenant in John Hutchinson’s Nottingham-based regiment of horse, captured in 1644 in the aftermath of Hutchinson’s successful raid on Shelford when, against orders, he lagged behind drinking.
References: Hutchinson, Life, 189.
Armies: Nottinghamshire
Smith, - - Smith
Lieutenant [of horse].
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Smith, Andrew Andrew Smith
In 1642, probably at and from soon after its formation, captain in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smith, Anthony Anthony Smith
Of Dalton-le-Dale, County Durham. Apparently a gentleman captain in Francis Wren’s regiment of horse, 23 July 1643 to 24 Jan. 1646 (when the regiment was disbanded).
In 1654 Smith was put on the Durham committee for ejecting scandalous ministers.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 402.
Armies: Yorkshire; County Durham; Northern Army (Fairfax); Northern Army (Poyntz)
Smith, Edward Edward Smith
Ensign in the Colonel’s company, Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon) on 16 Apr. 1644, when it was serving as part of Sir James Harrington’s London brigade in Sir William Waller’s Army.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 3, f. 339r.
Armies: Southwark
Smith, George George Smith
Lieutenant in the Surrey regiment of foot of Samuel Jones/John Fielder.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 66.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Smith, Henry Henry Smith
Ensign in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smith, Israel Israel Smith (died 1649)
Captain in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot from 1 Feb. 1644. The prisoners his company took at York in summer 1644 were recorded. On 4 Jan. 1645 his company mustered twenty-four men.
In the New Model Army Smith became captain in Robert Hammond’s regiment of foot (the regiment Fairfax had originally assigned to Crawford). By Feb. 1648 Smith was ‘eldest captain’ in the regiment, now commanded by his friend Isaac Ewer. Smith went with the regiment to Ireland in 1649 as part of Cromwell’s expedition, but he was killed at the storming of Drogheda, leaving a widow, Elizabeth, and two children.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.17; Davies, ‘Eastern Association’, 94; TNA, SP28/25/509; TNA, E315/5/39 [IG]; Firth & Davies, Regimental history, 1.348, 354; Temple, ‘New Model Army’, 56; JHC, 7.39; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 45, 56, 66, 77, 86, 99.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Smith, Jarvis [Gervase ?] Jarvis [Gervase?] Smith
Possibly Gervase Smith of Brighton [or Brightonside], York. (West Riding), also lessee of lands in Ugthorpe, Yorkshire (North Riding). Captain of foot, in 1648 claiming arrears of only £63, suggesting brief service.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 402.
Armies: Yorkshire
Smith, John John Smith
By the beginning of 1645, captain in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot. As such, he features from time to time in Luke’s letter books and a handful of Luke’s letters to him survive there.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 95; Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 359, 586, 629.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Smith, John John Smith
Captain in Richard Norton’s Hampshire regiment of horse, 6 Nov.-11 Dec. 1643 and in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse, 4 Mar. 1644-28 Feb. 1645. It is possible that either this or a different John Smith also served for a time as major in Jonas Vandruke’s regiment of horse, possibly succeeding John Anderson as major in summer 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 103, 143.
Armies: Hampshire; Waller (Southern Association)
Smith, Joseph Joseph Smith
In Dec. 1644, ensign in Captain Whitehead’s company in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 95.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Smith, Joseph Joseph Smith
Of Shalbourne, Wiltshire ensign in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
Captain by spring 1643, when he was wounded at the siege of Reading.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42; Young, Edgehill, 256.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Smith, [Joseph?] [Joseph?] Smith
Probably Joseph Smith, ensign in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot by mid-1642. He was captured at Bradford on 2/3 July 1643. Nothing more is known of him.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 402.
Armies: Yorkshire
Smith, Richard Richard Smith
A captain in the Shropshire county forces, captured at High Ercall on 5 July 1645. Probably a captain in Humphrey Mackworth’s regiment of foot.
References: BL, Harl. Ms. 6852, f. 274; Mercurius Aulicus, 13-30 July 1645; TNA, SP28/134.
Armies: Shropshire
Smith, Richard Richard Smith
Captain in Alexander Rigby’s Lancashire regiment of foot.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 294.
Armies: Lancashire
Smith, Richard Richard Smith
Cornet in Captain Richard Nichollett’s troop of horse in the regiment of horse of Edward Topham and later George Starre.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 136.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Dorset; Massey Brigade
Smith, Robert Robert Smith (born c. 1612, died in or before 1674)
Of Cheadle, Staffordshire, probably a mercer there. If so, he is the man noted in 1662-3 as aged 50, and as ‘A tradesman in Cheadle. Prisbyterian. Able and as willing to do mischefe’ (‘Staffs. Gentry’, 28).
Smith was a captain of foot during the first civil war. At the end of 1643 he was governor of Lapley House, Staffordshire (he was evidently appointed – perhaps shortly – before 4 Dec. 1643). The house had fallen by Mar. 1644, when he was ordered to attend the county committee to explain its loss.
In 1645 Smith’s company served with Brereton, and seems to have been so when sent to Shropshire On 27 Apr. his was one of those Staffordshire units returned to Brereton by the Shropshire county committee ‘for supply of your present necessities’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, I, 303). Nevertheless, he must have been back at Stafford by 17 May, when his company was ordered to march to join Brereton who was to link up with the earl of Leven against the king’s army.
Smith was commissioned major of foot in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650. He was an assessment commissioner in 1657. He was misnamed as Roger when presented as a former active parliamentarian by the constable of Cheadle in 1662.
Smith’s will was proved in 1674.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 5, 10, 17-8, 78, 308; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.303; ‘Staffs. Gentry’, 28; ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 50; CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Staffordshire
Smith, Robert Robert Smith
Captain of foot in Colonel Ralph Weldon’s Kentish regiment of foot, by 17 Jan. 1644 and until 30 Nov. 1644, when his company was turned into one of dragoons.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 70.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Smith, Robert Robert Smith
Lieutenant in Captain William Meredith’s company of foot in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.14.
Armies: Eastern Association
Smith, Robert Robert Smith
Lieutenant in Major William Hobson’s company in the Southwark White Auxiliaries (Colonel James Houblon) in spring 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 124.
Armies: Southwark
Smith, Stephen Stephen Smith
In Aug. 1643, probably a captain serving in one of the three regiments of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.33.
Armies: Eastern Association
Smith, Thomas Thomas Smith
In early 1643 he campaigned with Lord Brooke as a captain in his regiment of foot. By late 1643 he was a captain in and later major of Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of foot. Given the very common name it is hard to be certain, but this was probably the Thomas Smith who in spring 1645 transferred to the New Model Army as Major of Sir Hardress Waller’s regiment of foot, who was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1649 but who was killed in an accidental gunpowder explosion in London early in 1650.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 55, 66, 77, 86, 99.
Armies: Lord Brooke; Waller; New Model Army
Smith, Thomas Thomas Smith
Lieutenant in Captain Richard Grantham’s company in Henry Bradshaw’s miilitia regiment in the Cheshire brigade at the battle of Worcester (3 Sept. 1651).
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2.64-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Smith, Thomas Thomas Smith
Lieutenant in George Thompson’s regiment of horse in Mar. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 137.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Smith, Thomas Thomas Smith
Of Thwayte, Bingley parish, Yorkshire (West Riding). Captain in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s regiment of horse in Yorkshire. He spent a long time as a prisoner, asking for money for his support. His origins are obscure.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 402; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 104.
Armies: Yorkshire
Smith, William William Smith
Captain-Lieutenant of the colonel’s company in Robert Duckenfeild’s regiment of foot by 30 Apr. 1645, superseding William Duckenfeild, Colonel Robert’s younger brother, in this position.
His family were tenants of the Davenports of Bramhall, and signed the petition refusing to obey William Davenport’s injunction to enlist with the king; he was one of the officers who enforced the sequestration of William Davenport’s goods.
A surviving pay warrant to Captain-Lieutenant Smith orders him money for satisfaction of the officers and men of Colonel Duckenfeild’s troop for gratuity for service at siege of Chester and pay; the acquittance was signed Samuel Smith (presumably a close relative), 29 Dec. 1646.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 331; TNA, SP28/224.
Armies: Cheshire
Smithson, George George Smithson (born 1619/1620-1692)
Of Moulton township, Middleton Tyas parish, Yorkshire (North Riding), eldest son of Christopher Smithson (died 1650) of Moulton and his wife Dorothy, daughter of Leonard Calvert of Kipling, Yorkshire (North Riding); he inherited both family estates. He married in 1653 Eleanor, daughter of Charles Fairfax (1597-1673), Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax’s younger brother. His sister Helen married a brother of John Wastell, whilst his sister Grace married Nicholas Conyers of Cleasby.
An officer in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of horse in the Northern Army, serving (probably as captain) at Winceby and Nantwich. He was promoted to Major in Apr. 1644, when Matthew Alured became colonel. In Apr. 1645, patrolling the north of the West Riding, he beat a royalist force at Redmire, and in May threatened the royalist lady Katherine Graham and her son.
By summer 1648, when he fought at Preston, Smithson was major in Robert Lilburne’s regiment of horse (originally a Durham regiment, but its strength was made up from other northern regiments).
MP for the North Riding in 1654 and Northallerton in 1659.
In 1659/60, Smithson sided with Thomas, Lord Fairfax against Lambert, and brought his own and three other troops to meet Fairfax on Marston Moor. By Jan. Monck could write to Lenthall that most of Lilburne’s regiment had come over to Major Smithson, and upon his recommendation Smithson was made its colonel on 8 Feb. When the earl of Oxford was made its colonel, in July 1660, Smithson reverted to major. The regiment was disbanded in Nov.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Yorks. visitation, 3.492-3; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1. 264, 266, 273-6; Woolrych, ‘Yorkshire and the Restoration’, 488n; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 164.
Armies: Yorkshire
Smyter, William William Smyter
A religious activist in his parish of St Olave, Southwark in the early 1640s, and a tax officer for parliament in the civil war. Captain in the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel Daniel Sowton) in Oct. 1646. In Sept. 1647 appointed to the Southwark militia committee.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11; Lindley, Popular politics, 224, 232; Acts and Ordinances, 1.1010.
Armies: Southwark
Smyth, John John Smyth
Appointed captain of a London City auxiliaries regiment (either Blue or Yellow) by the Presbyterian militia committee in 1647.
References: TNA, SP28/46, f. 35r.
Armies: London
Smyth, Samuel Samuel Smyth
Captain-Lieutenant of Colonel Robert Duckenfeild’s troop in Cheshire, as confirmed by surviving warrants of 10 Sept. 1645 referring to him as such and of 17 Nov. 1646 directing payment to Captain-Lieutenant Smith for satisfaction of officers and men of Colonel Duckenfeild’s troop for gratuity due to them for service at leaguer of Chester and pay under the New Model; in calculating the gratuity, treasurer James Croxton names Captain-Lieutenant Smyth, and mentions, but does not name, a cornet, a quartermaster, 3 corporals, one trumpet, a clerk of the troop and 53 troopers; Samual Smith signed the acquittance for same, 29 Dec. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/224, ff. 32-3, 178-80.
Armies: Cheshire
Smythe, Henry Henry Smythe
By spring 1644, cornet in the colonel’s own troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 121.
Armies: Warwickshire
Smythe, Richard Richard Smythe
By spring 1644 and still there at the end of 1645, lieutenant in John Bridges’s company of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 32.
Armies: Warwickshire
Snawden, Joshua Joshua Snawden
Origins unknown. Captain in Laurence Parsons’s regiment of horse in Yorkshire, 22 May 1644-21 June 1645. In 1648 he claimed arrears of £766 and expenses of £498.
References: Jones. ‘War in the North’, 403.
Armies: Yorkshire
Snelling, - - Snelling
By the end of 1643 and continuing to serve until the regiment was broken up in spring 1645, captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.97.
Armies: Eastern Association
Snelling, George George Snelling
Distiller of strong waters in St Olave’s parish.
Captain in a Southwark regiment, either Trained Bands or auxiliaries, in Sept. 1643. Noted by Symonds of him and all the other Southwark captains he named: ‘all these violent ○ [i.e. Roundhead]’ (BL, Harl. 986, p. 66). MP for Southwark, 11 Sept. 1645.
References: BL, Harl. 986, pp. 66-67; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660.
Armies: Southwark
Snellinge, George George Snellinge
Lieutenant in William Sydenham’s troop of horse, references in Apr. and May 1643, confirmation that he was an officer in Erle’s regiment.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.532-3; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 95.
Armies: Dorset
Snow [Snowe], Walter Walter Snow [Snowe]
An officer in Staffordshire. A lieutenant on 4 May 1643, when he took part in the dawn foray on Leek, Staffordshire, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Stepkin and Captain John Bowyer which opened up the town for Sir William Brereton’s Army. Snow, with Captain Eardley, took one party of ten men to the market-place, where he fought two or three bouts with the royalist captain of the Watch, striking him in the shoulder with his halberd whilst Captain Eardley shot the man with his pistol.
Snow was a captain by Mar. 1644, when the weekly assessment for Newcastle, Uttoxeter and other parishes was assigned to him and his troops. He was still a captain at the end of Aug. 1644, but by early Apr. 1645 he had been promoted major.
Snow was hostile to Brereton and his allies in Staffordshire. On 8 Apr. 1645 Snow’s lieutenant complained to the county committee that ‘he thought his Majors Companie were sent to Sir William Brereton for no other end but to be disperst and destroyde’ (Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 291). Brereton’s ally Captain Stone advised Brereton on 5 May to ask for Snow’s company (amongst others) ‘to march to you speedily, for though we have good use for men, as the case stands yet, I believe they will but endanger our peace and security here’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, I, 362). On 12 May John Swinfen advised Brereton that, ‘There had been much pleading for the government of Eccleshall Castle to be placed in Major Snow’, and advised on how to secure the place for a more reliably pro-Brereton officer. On 17 May the county committee ordered Snow’s company (amongst several others in the strengthening of forces to meet the threat of the king’s army) again to serve with Brereton.
By spring 1646 Snow was still serving under Brereton, sent as second-in-command of the forces besieging Tutbury Castle, evidently trusted as a loyal field officer by Sir William and reporting to him on the foot-dragging of Sir John Gell’s Derbyshire men.
References: J. Vicars, Jehovah Jireh (1644), 329, 334; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxxii, 73, 82, 84, 95, 174, 291-2, 303-4, 308; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.362, 403-4, 504-5; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 16, 104, 113-4, 143-4.
Armies: Staffordshire
Sole, William William Sole
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel Brewster’s company in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he did not go on to serve in the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.41.
Armies: Eastern Association
Somester, Henry Henry Somester
Captain in Lord Mandeville’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36;TNA, SP28/2b/362.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Song, Jenkin Jenkin Song
Ensign in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sontley, Richard Roger Sontley
Of Bron Deg, Wrexham. He is known from a pay warrant of 21 Mar. 1644, to pay Roger Sontley £10 (another case where neither warrant nor endorsement gives any rank). He was possibly sent with Captain John Jones by Myddelton to raise recruits for his regiment in south-east England. By the time the record on him fills out, during the second civil war, Captain Sontley was evidently an experienced and trusted officer. For a time in 1653 he was captain of ‘the Welsh troop’ in Thomas Harrison’s regiment of horse which had been commanded by Colonel John Jones until he went to Ireland in early 1651 (the regiment had been stationed in Wales since summer 1649).
References: TNA, SP28/346, no. 11; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.185-6, 190; Tucker, Denbighshire Officers, 129-30.
Armies: North Wales
Sorrocold, John John Sorrocold
Captain in John Booth’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 285.
Armies: Lancashire
Sotherton, Thomas Thomas Sotheron
Of Holme, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman, captain of foot in John Mauleverer’s Hull garrison regiment from its beginning and still there in spring 1647. He evidently stayed in it through its permutations into Overton’s regiment of foot, and was probably only displaced in 1659: it was presumably his company (Captain Thomas Southerne’s late company) which marched with Monck into England.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.559; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 100.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Southcote, - - Southcote
By Apr. 1644 until at least Jan. 1645, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.64.
Armies: Eastern Association
Southcote, Thomas Thomas Southcote
Major in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sowton, - - Sowton
Lieutenant in Major Joseph Young’s company in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot by 16 Feb. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Sowton, Daniel Daniel Sowton
A woodmonger in Southwark.
Captain in the Southwark auxiliaries regiment in Sept. 1643 (possibly Trained Bands regiment, but the source for that, Richard Symonds’s notes, seems to have been confused between the auxiliaries and the Trained Bands, and Southwark militia sub-committee record implies auxiliaries).
By 16 Apr. 1644 lieutenant-colonel of the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon) and by 22 Oct. 1646 its colonel. Noted by Symonds of him and all the other Southwark captains: ‘all these violent ○ [i.e. Roundhead]’ (BL, Harl. 986, p. 66). In the early 1640s he was a ‘parish zealot’ in Southwark, and active in the local levying of supplies for the parliamentarian army. In Aug. 1642 he was one of those authorized to search and arrest suspected persons in Southwark.
References: BL, Harl. 986, p. 66; TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 651 r. & v., SP28/131, Part 13, f. 5v.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11; Lindley, Popular politics, 219; JHC, 2.707.
Armies: Southwark
Sowton, Thomas Thomas Sowton
Ensign in Major Joseph Young’s company in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot by 7 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Spackhurst, Thomas Thomas Spackhurst
Lieutenant in Major John Allsupp’s company of the Red regiment (London auxiliaries) when it mustered on 27 Apr. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, f. 690r.
Armies: London
Sparrow, - - Sparrow
Evidently a professional soldier who came north to Lancashire as major to Sir John Seaton. In Feb. 1643, he marched out of Manchester with the force that took Preston (9 Feb.). Edward Robinson had a low opinion of Sparrow, suggesting that he was all too willing to avoid running into Derby’s army; when his scouts discovered Derby’s army, Sparrow ‘(as it was then thought) to avoid the Earle drew all his Companies to Wyre and ferying them over marched all along it…being as feard of the Earle as the earle was of him’ (Warr in Lancashire, 26). At the end of Mar. Sparrow was one of the defenders of Lancaster, forced into the castle until Derby’s withdrawal. Others were more positive than Robinson about Sparrow; John Tilsley contrasted his diplomatic skills with that of his Colonel Sir John Seaton, praising ‘the meek spirit and smooth tongue of S.M. Sparrow’ (Lancashire military proceedings, 73).
References: Warr in Lancashire, 23, 26, 27, 108; Lancashire military Proceedings, 73, 74, 85, 87.
Armies: Lancashire
Sparrow, John John Sparrow
Captain in Sir John Seaton’s/George Melve’s regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army, from or by 30 Nov. 1642 until at least early Mar. 1643.
References: TNA, SP28/4/359, SP28/5/204-6, 340.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sparrow, John John Sparrow
In summer 1644 commissioned to raise and command a regiment of foot in Essex, which was then to be added to the Eastern Association Army. By autumn 1644 Sparrow was at Abingdon with his partly-raised regiment, but problems with recruitment and desertion meant that this seems always to have been an under-strength as well as short-lived regiment, for it was broken up and men absorbed into other regts. and units at the start of 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.100; Holmes, Eastern Association, 163-4, 175, 176.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sparrow, Robert Robert Sparrow
By summer 1644 captain, then major, in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army, serving for a time as governor of Abingdon.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.54; Holmes, Eastern Association, 171.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sparrow, Thomas Thomas Sparrow
Lieutenant in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Spence, William William Spence
Captain of a company in the Pevensey Rape Trained Bands which mustered 53 men on 5 Dec. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Spencer, - - Spencer
A captain in Derbyshire. Possibly a tenant of Sir John Gell at Wirksworth, Derbyshire. He served as governor of Chatsworth House in 1643, but disappears from the record after he abandoned it.
References: Brighton, ‘Governor’, 17.
Armies: Derbyshire
Spenser, John John Spenser (baptised 1619, d. 1665)
Of Attercliffe, Sheffield parish, Yorkshire (West Riding), third son of William Spenser (died 1649) of Attercliffe and his wife Alice Mitchell and younger brother of Lieutenant-Colonel William Spenser (baptised 1613, died 1667). He married Anne, daughter of Richard Taylor, alderman of Chesterfield.
Captain of foot, probably in Sir John Savile’s regiment of foot in Yorkshire. In Mar. 1645, he was ordered to Pontefract to reinforce the siege.
He might be the John Spencer who later appears as a captain-lieutenant and then a captain in Thomas Sheffield’s/Thomas Harrison’s New Model Army regiment of horse, but the name is not distinctive enough to be sure.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Yorks.Vis., 2.115; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 118; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 82, 93, 106.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army?
Spenser, William William Spenser (baptised 1613, died 1667)
Of Attercliffe and Bramley Grange, Sheffield parish, Yorkshire (West Riding), eldest son of William Spenser (died 1649) of Attercliffe and his wife Alice Mitchell (died 1644). He married (1) Elizabeth (baptised 1614, died 1636), daughter of Leonard Gill of Norton, Derbyshire, and sister of Edward Gill; and (2), in or before 1641, Sarah, daughter of George Westby of Gilthwaite, Whiston parish, Yorkshire (died 1669). His second wife’s cousin, the daughter of Henry Westby, George’s brother, married Edward Gill. The Spensers were one of the wealthiest families in the Sheffield area.
William was active in south Yorkshire in late 1642 and 1643, fleeing to the clothing districts after the fall of Rotherham in May 1643. He was in Hull by July 1643, and rose in quick succession in late 1644 from captain to lieutenant-colonel (by Dec. 1644) in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse. He acted as a hostage during the negotiations for the surrender of Knaresborough in Dec. 1644. In Feb. 1645 he took the regiment to the siege of Chester, and fought in Cheshire and North Wales where he fell out with Brereton as the Yorkshire troops were plagued with questions of supply and pay. When the MP Sir John Trevor’s house at Plas Teg was plundered by his men, Spenser commented, ‘Let the mischief be what it will, Yorkshiremen doeth it; for the business of Sir John Trevor’s house, it is well known who did it’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.519).
When the regiment was reduced, he went into Hugh Bethell’s regiment of horse, where he was lieutenant-colonel in Feb. 1648.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Yorks. visitation, 2.115-6; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 517-522; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 118.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Poyntz)
Spensley, - - Spensley
Captain in 1643-4 in Sir John Palgrave’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; promoted to the regiment’s major in late 1644, around the time that Palgrave was replaced by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.78.
Armies: Eastern Association
Spensley, Richard Richard Spensley
In 1644 a lieutenant serving under Sir Samuel Luke in Bedfordshire.
References: Luke Letter Books, nos. 679, 1403.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Spicer, Francis Francis Spicer
Of unknown origins. A captain in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot in the latter’s Cheshire Army. In Apr. 1645, when he commanded a company of 40 men, he was serving in Shropshire. By 9 Dec. 1645 he was governor of Lilleshall Castle, Shropshire.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324-5, 328; 2. 327.
Armies: Cheshire
Spicer, Peter Peter Spicer
Captain in Valentine Walton’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army (commanded by James Hobart from spring 1645).
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.105.
Armies: Eastern Association
Spooner, John John Spooner
In 1642, probably at and from its formation, lieutenant in Lord Robartes’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sprate, Thomas Thomas Sprate
Lieutenant in John Clerke’s company in Anthony Stapley’s Sussex regiment of foot by 18 May 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Sussex
Springate [Springett], Sir William William Springate [Springett] (1621/22-1644)
Of Ringmer, Sussex, though the family had strong Kentish connections and he became a deputy-lieutenant for Kent. He was commissioned colonel of a Kentish regiment of foot, raised in 1642, which the following year joined the earl of Essex’s expedition to relieve Gloucester and fought under him at the first battle of Newbury; Springate was wounded in the battle. Springate and his regiment joined Waller later in the year and were with him at the storming of Alton and the siege of Arundel. Having captured the castle and garrisoned it, with Springate becoming joint governor, parts of the regiment went down with an infectious disease, referred to as spotted fever, which had been rife amongst the royalist defenders. Springate himself succumbed and although he lingered long enough to be joined by his heavily pregnant wife, who had travelled down from London in dreadful weather when she heard he was ailing, he died in early Feb. 1644. His regiment did not long survive him; what remained of it was absorbed into Ralph Weldon’s regiment of foot.
His widow married again in the 1650s and she and her second husband, Isaac Pen(n)ington, and their children were all prominent early Quakers.
References: Oxford DNB [under Mary Penington], Spring, Waller’s army, 126.
Armies: Kent; Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Springate, Herbert Herbert Springate
In Dec. 1643 he was reported to be recruiting soldiers for the Pevensey Rape Trained Bands.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Springate, Thomas Thomas Springate
Captain in the Pevensey Rape Trained Bands by 1639 until at least Oct. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Sprint, - - Sprint
Ensign. Committee order for arrears, 6 May 1647. 1 Aug. 1643-late June 1645 (96 weeks), ensign under the command of Colonel Bingham in Poole garrison.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 277-8.
Armies: Dorset
Spry, William William Spry
In 1642 listed as lieutenant in Thomas Tyrrill’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Spurle, Thomas Thomas Spurle
Ensign in Captain John Thornton’s company of the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon) when it mustered on 16 Apr. 1644. A Rowland Spurle was the company’s drummer.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, f. 646r.
Armies: Southwark
Spurway, John John Spurway
Lieutenant in the troop of Captain Henry Oland [Owland] in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 142.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Stackhouse, William William Stackhouse
Of St Thomas the Apostle parish, classified by Lindley as a ‘godly zealot’ and radical petitioner.
Lieutenant in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in summer 1642. Later that year went with John Venn into his regiment of foot.
Captain in Sir John Seaton’s regiment of dragoons; he was one of the officers specified in parliament’s commission of 29 Sept. 1642 for raising the regiment with whom volunteers were to enlist. On 24 Apr. 1651 he bought out of crown lands meadows near Clitheroe, Lancashire, for £270 9s 9d.
References: Lancashire military proceedings, 40-1; Gentles, ‘Debentures Market’, 358; Thrale 1642; Lindley, Popular politics, 72, 207-8; Nagel, London Militia, 67.
Armies: London; Lancashire
Stafford, - - Stafford
A captain in Derbyshire, presumably in Sir John Gell’s regiment of foot. In Feb. 1643 he was stationed at Whaley Bridge, covering the passes into the North-West. He disappears from the record after 1643.
References: Brighton, ‘Civil War’, 49; Brighton, ‘Governor’, 7.
Armies: Derbyshire
Stafford, Robert Robert Stafford
Of Thwing, Yorkshire (East Riding), gentleman captain in Hugh Bethell’s regiment of horse from 1 Aug. 1644, having raised and financed his troop. He resigned his commission on 23 Jan. 1646 when the Northern Association Army was reduced in size.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 102.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Poyntz)
Stafforton, Thomas Thomas Stafforton
Captain in William Bampfield’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 40.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stamford, - - Stamford
Captain in the Blue regiment, London auxiliaries (Colonel George Langham junior) in Oct. 1646.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Stamner, John John Stamner
Captain in Christopher Potley’s regiment of foot, 29 Aug.-15 Dec. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 112.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Stanard, - - Stanard
A captain whose company was with Sir William Waller in Nov. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, app. 2, p. 3.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Standish, Alexander Alexander Standish (baptised 1618).
Of Duxbury, Lancashire. Baptised 8 Nov. 1618. Second son of Thomas Standish (c. 1594-1642) of Duxbury, and his first wife Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Wingfield of Letheringham, Suffolk His father was MP for Liverpool in 1626 and for Preston in the Short and Long parliaments.
Alexander was the younger brother of the royalist Captain Thomas Standish (killed at the siege of Manchester), and elder brother of Richard Standish. He married (1) Alice, daughter of William Farington of Shawe Hall and widow of – Banstre of Banke and (2) Margaret, widow of Colonel Clifton. By his will, Thomas Standish left Alexander his estate at Duxbury.
Appointed a JP in 1642. In 1645 Thomas Birch accused him and others of being soft on royalist sequestered estates (even though he was not even a member of the sequestration committee).
Colonel of a regiment of horse in Lancashire by 1644, in which his brother Richard served. In Mar. 1645 the Lancashire county committee ordered him to secure provisions out of Leyland Hundred for the forces besieging Chester. He may be the Colonel Standish reported as colonel commanding his own and Lieutenant-Colonel Rigby’s foot in June 1648, though this may be his brother Richard.
Letters of administration were granted for the estate of Alexander Standish of Duxbury on 5 Sept. 1648, shortly after the battle of Preston: however, this is probably another Alexander, uncle of Colonels Alexander and Richard. The uncle was alive and without a son in 1637, and administration was granted in 1648 to the deceased’s nephew and adopted son Richard.
Colonel Alexander Standish’s death date is uncertain. He is probably the Alexander Standish commissioned as lieutenant-colonel in Colonel Thomas Birch’s Lancashire militia regiment in May 1650.
References: J. Croston, The History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster, 5 vols. (1888-1893), 4.244-5; VCH Lancs., 6.210; TNA, E121/4/8; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 104; CSPD, 1650, 507; Lancashire military proceedings, 85, 252; HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629, 6.412-3; A calendar of ... the collection of deeds and family papers of the Moore family of Bankhall, co. Lanc., now in the Liverpool Public Library ... , ed. J. Brownbill and K. Walker, Lancs. and Ches. Rec. Soc., vol. 67 (1913), 167; IGI; Lancashire andand Cheshire wills and inventories from the ecclesistical court, Chester, ed. G.J. Piccope, Chetham Soc. vol. 61 (1860), 141-2.; (for 1648 probate).
Armies: Lancashire
Standish, Richard Richard Standish (baptised 1621, died 1662)
Of Duxbury, Lancashire. Baptised 21 Oct. 1621, third son of Thomas Standish (died 1642) of Duxbury and his first wife Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Wingfield of Letheringham, Suffolk. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Piers Legh of Lyme, Cheshire.
Standish’s father, who died in Oct. 1642, was MP for Liverpool in 1626 and for Preston in the Short and Long Parliaments. Richard’s eldest brother Thomas was a royalist captain who was killed at the siege of Manchester, ‘slaine by a bullet in Salford, who (as we heare) was reproaching his Souldiers because they would not fall on’ (Lancashire military proceedings, 55). Richard was also the younger brother of the parliamentarian Colonel Alexander Standish.
Captain and later major in Lancashire; captain in Colonel Alexander Rigby’s regiment of foot; captain of a troop of horse in his brother Colonel Alexander Standish’s regiment (possibly that troop previously commanded by Captain Richard Crosse); major in Colonel Ughtred Shuttleworth’s regiment of foot. He was reported as captured at Preston in 1643 in a royalist newsletter, and he is probably the Captain Standish serving with the Lancashire forces at the siege of Chester in 1645-6.
By June 1648 Richard was very possibly the Colonel Standish commanding a militia regiment of foot which the Lancashire county committee ordered him to take with Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Rigby’s foot into Yorkshire to join with John Lambert.
(One certificate of sale, of 28 Oct. 1650, notes the debenture for £26 19s 6d of a corporal, John Garstang, for service in Colonel Richard Standish’s regiment of foot.)
Standish was commissioned colonel of a Lancashire militia regiment of foot, 16 Aug. 1650. Returning from Scotland at the end of the year, he browbeat the sequestrators’ agent and paid only a small part of what he owed as rent. The county committee demanded that he be dealt with before his regiment returned, ‘for the soldiers will eye this business as a fit precedent, unless he that has laid down the rule be made exemplary’ (CCC, 1.396). By July 1651 the county committee no longer thought it necessary to complain to Oliver Cromwell, as Standish had been discharged of his commission and was at his own house; however, the following month, the complaints against him were forwarded to the army committee. Standish was owed arrears of £511 13s 2½d in Oct. 1650.
MP for Lancashire, 1654 and 1656, and for Preston 1659 and c. Apr. to June 1660. His election to the Convention Parliament as MP for Preston was declared void on 20 June 1660.
References: HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 3.472; TNA, E121/4/8, E121/5/5; CCC, 1.392-3; CSPD, 1650, 509; Lancashiremilitary proceedings, 85, 252; 382, 386, 510; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 382, 510);HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming); HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629, 6.412-3; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 294, 299; CCC, 1.392-3, 396-7, 411, 448, 464, 473-4; Lancs. composition papers, 6.130-2.
Armies: Lancashire
Stanhope, Richard Richard Stanhope
Of Almondbury, Yorkshire (West Riding). Captain of horse in the Fairfaxes’ Northern Army. He was signatory to a petition of officers in Lincolnshire to Sir Thomas Fairfax in Dec. 1643 and fought at the battle of Nantwich.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 102.
Armies: Yorkshire
Stanhope, Walter Walter Stanhope
Of Horsforth, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 109 [citing TNA, E121/3/4].
Armies: Yorkshire
Staninough, Daniel Daniel Staninough
Captain in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot by 22 Jan. 1644, serving at the siege of Basing House where he may have been shot dead by a royalist soldier.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Stanley, Francis Francis Stanley
Eldest son of Hastings Stanley and daughter of Margaret, daughter of John Lewis of Marr, esquire, and mother of John Mauleverer by her first husband.
Stanley was a captain at Rotherham by 13 Feb. 1643, fleeing to the clothing district when the town fell to the royalists in May 1643. He was possibly serving in his half-brother John Mauleverer’s regiment. He fought at Adwalton Moor and was taken prisoner at Bradford (2/3 July 1643).
Released and going to Hull, he was put in as a captain in John Mauleverer’s new garrison regiment. In Jan. 1645 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and sent with several companies to the siege of Scarborough. He was wounded in Apr. and injured again and captured on 10 May. According to parliamentarian accounts he was stabbed to death in the Castle, although other sources claim that he was living near Gray’s Inn in 1666.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 403.
Armies: Yorkshire
Stanley, Peter Peter Stanley
A captain in Cheshire. Son of Thomas Stanley of Alderley, deputy-lieutenant and an enemy of Brereton’s. Appears as voucher to his trumpeter (Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 186-8, evidently from TNA, SP28/152, dated 8 July 1644) for Stanley’s troop. The troop had evidently been either disbanded or given to another captain by the Apr. 1645 list.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 186-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Stanley, Sir Thomas, second baronet Sir Thomas Stanley, second baronet (baptised 1616, died 1653)
Of Bickerstaffe, Lancashire, eldest son of Sir Edward Stanley (died 1640), first baronet, and his second wife Isabel, daughter and coheir of Peter Warburton of Arley, Cheshire. He married Mary, daughter of Peter Egerton of Shaw, who afterwards married Sir Gilbert Hoghton of Hoghton Tower, knight.
Stanley was a deputy-lieutenant in Lancashire in 1642. With John Holcroft, Stanley attempted to implement the Militia Ordnance in Manchester in July 1642 when James Stanley, Lord Strange (shortly to succeed as seventh earl of Derby) was in the town, and allegedly fired a pistol at the latter in the ensuing skirmish. After summer 1642 he is evidently much more significant as an administrator – one of the most active county committeemen in the period 1643-8, who continued to serve after the execution of the king, and a was sequestrator who was alleged to be too soft on his royalist victims.
Stanley was also, however, colonel of a regiment (at least partly of horse) formed in Mar. 1643. In Sept. 1643 he was granted a pass to go to France, so that in Nov. it was his father-in-law Peter Egerton who led the regiment when it went in Sir William Brereton’s Army into North Wales. Andrew Ashton, one of John Moore’s Captains (and from his account probably previously in Stanley’s regiment) alleged that in 1644 Stanley had snapped, ‘By God’s blood he could never be quiet for a company of puretannicall rogues and that he would rather fight against Manchester than any towne in England for they were a company of puritannicall rascalls’. Moreover, pointing to his (at least nominal) military role, Ashton claimed that ‘this examt. his officers seinge that their Colonell Sr Tho Stanley did soe much countenance papists and malignants were soe disheartened, as also by his calling of them prick eared rogues, that they were resolved to leave him’ (HMC, Tenth report, Part 4, 102).
Other evidence of his command is a record of a debenture for arrears owed to a trooper under Thomas Bexwicke in Sir Thomas Stanley’s regiment.
References: Complete Baronetage, 2.27; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 284; HMC,Tenth Report, Part 4, 101-2; Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 73, 82-3; TNA, E121/5/7 (Duckenfeild, 6/5/1651).
Armies: Lancashire
Stansfield, Joshua Joshua Stansfield
Of the Pond, Triangle, Sowerby, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 111.
Armies: Yorkshire
Stanton, - - Stanton
Captain in the Orange regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel Thomas Gower).
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Stanyon, Abraham Abraham Stanyon (died 1684)
Of St Catherine Cree and Monck Hadleigh, Middlesex, in 1680. Captain in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Edward Hooker) approved by Presbyterian militia committee in 1647; not there in Oct. 1646.
Named as major of the Red regiment, London Trained Bands, Dec. 1659; lieutenant-colonel of Red regiment 1672, 1676, 1678.
Common councilman Aldgate Ward, 1660-1; deputy for Aldgate Ward, 1664, 1666, 1669-70; lieutenancy commissioner, 1676, 1677, 1681. In later years, a Tory.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 318; Strype, London, 2.i.320; Woodhead, Rulers, 156.
Armies: London
Staple, - Anthony Staple
Lieutenant in Captain Strick’s troop in Nathaniel Whetham’s Northampton-based regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 164.
Armies: Northamptonshire
Staples, - - Staples
Ensign in Sir Richard Onslow’s regiment of foot (Surrey auxiliaries) by 27 May 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 107.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Stapleton, Sir Philip Sir Philip Stapleton (baptised 1603, died 1647)
Baptised Wighill, Yorks, second son of Henry Stapleton, esquire. He inherited an estate worth £500 per year and acquired further property in the East Riding. In 1629 he married (1) a daughter of Sir John Hotham, baronet, and in 1630 he was knighted. Following the death of his first wife, he married (2) Barbara, the Catholic daughter of Lord Dacre of Sussex. He represented Yorkshire constituencies in the Short and Long parliaments and in the latter was a prominent critic of royal government in 1641-2, several times serving in delegations of MPs taking key messages or documents to the king. He was commissioned captain in the earl of Essex’s lifeguards of cuirassiers at the outbreak of the civil war and colonel of Essex’s regiment of horse, in which capacity he and his men helped stabilise parliament’s foot at the battle of Edgehill. Despite his administrative commitments in the East Riding, he continued to play an active military role in southern England during 1643, present at both Chalgrove (June) and the first battle of Newbury (Sept.). Although a close ally of Essex, from spring 1644 his active military role and campaigning in the field diminished – a year before he formally lost all military commands under the Self-Denying Ordinance – and instead he became more prominent in parliament and its key committees, where he increasingly identified with and became a leading light of the peace group and the political Presbyterians, working with Denzil Holles and others to oppose army radicalism in general and the programme of the New Model Army and its supporters in particular. Under threat of arrest and prosecution by that army, he fled to France in summer 1647 and died there shortly after landing at Calais.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire
Stapley, Anthony Anthony Stapley (1590-1655)
Born Framfield, Sussex. He represented Sussex county or Sussex boroughs in the parliaments of 1624, 1625, 1628-9 and the Short and Long parliaments. He was a prominent member of godly Sussex society and allied with other Sussex gentlemen who opposed Charles I’s government. During the civil war he played a leading role in the parliamentary war effort in Sussex and was a leading light of the county committee, but he also played a direct if lesser military role. He was colonel of a regiment of foot raised in Sussex in 1643, was present at the siege of Chichester and became the town’s governor. From time to time he dispatched some companies of his regiment to reinforce garrisons, such as Lyme, and to join and campaign with Waller – some may have been present at the second battle of Newbury – but Stapley did not lead them in person, not least because he and Waller appear to have fallen out. He resigned his commission in spring 1645 in accord with the Self-Denying Ordinance. Command of his regiment passed to Algernon Sidney and under him at least parts of it were present at the final and successful sieges of Basing and Donnington in 1645-6 and reinforced Abingdon.
In the running of Sussex and in parliament during the mid and late 1640s, Stapley became a prominent radical and political Independent, a diligent regicide and an active member of the Rump. He sat in the Nominated Assembly and the first Protectorate Parliament, down to his death in Jan. 1655.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Staresmore, James James Staresmore
Lieutenant, Weymouth garrison, 1651.Possibly cousin of William Clarke.
References: Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337; Clarke Papers, 2.x, 228.
Armies: Dorset
Starkey, Edward Edward Starkey
Captain in Peter Egerton’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 288.
Armies: Lancashire
Starkey, John John Starkey
In Sept. 1642 ensign in the lieutenant-colonel’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Gloucestershire
Starkie, John John Starkie
Of Huntroyd, Lancashire, eldest son of Nicholas Starkie (died 1618) and his wife Anne, daughter of John Parr of Cleeworth; father of Nicholas Starkie.
Starkie was sheriff of Lancashire in 1633-4, and as war approached he raised a small regiment in Blackburn Hundred (Gratton suggests that it was probably the Hundred’s Trained Band). In Oct. 1642, after arms had been seized from Sir Gilbert Hoghton, Starkie and Richard Shuttleworth, senior, ‘were very diligent and industrious to put their Hundred of Blackburn into a posture of warr, and therefore gave Commissions to severall Captaines to raise Companies’, including Starkie’s son. Nicholas Starkie. In Dec. 1642 Colonels Starkie and Shuttleworth put to flight a royalist force raised in Leyland Hundred by Sir Gilbert Hoghton of Hoghton at Hinfield Moor; on 7 Feb. 1643 the Blackburn contingent formed part of the army which took Preston.
An active county committeeman and deputy-lieutenant in Lancashire; a Presbyterian.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 71, 79, 81, 98, 115, 117-8, 122, 125, 128, 177, 190-1, 196, 217, 297, 301-2; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 296; Warr in Lancashire, 9, 15, 21, 23, 32; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 104-5.
Armies: Lancashire
Starkie, Nicholas Nicholas Starkie (died 1643)
Eldest son of John Starkie of Huntroyd and his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Leigh. He married (1) Katherine, daughter of Lambert Tildesley of Garratt and (2) Grace, daughter of James Murgatroyd of Hollins, Yorkshire.
Starkie was commissioned captain to raise a company in Blackburn Hundred, Lancashire by his father in 1642. He was killed in Feb. 1643 by an accidental explosion at the recently-captured Hoghton Tower.
References: Vis. Lancs., 1664, 296; Warr in Lancashire, 15, 24, 105; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 302.
Armies: Lancashire
Starr, Philip Philip Starr
Captain in the Plymouth garrison, 1642 and until at least 15 Mar. 1643; by 30 June he had been promoted Major.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.362.
Armies: Devon
Starre, George George Starre (1615-1647)
Colonel. MP for Shaftesbury, 1646-47. Firmest evidence on the military career is perhaps note of service of Robert Williams as Starre’s lieutenant when he was captain in Colonel William Sydenham’s regiment of horse.
Samuel Bull claimed to have served under Colonel Starre, 1 Apr. 1645-31 Oct. 1646. Starre in June 1644 was one of the parliamentarian commanders who plundered Blandford; the following month in relieving force for Dorchester; in the struggle over Weymouth later in 1644. In Nov., when bitterly complaining of the reluctance of Dorset forces to obey his summons (and evidently looking back to the summer), Waller singled out Captain Starre’s troop as an exception. At the taking of Abbotsbury in Nov. 1644, Starre was one of the officers singled out by Anthony Ashley Cooper; another account of the same action wrote of how ‘Captain Starre [behaved] incomparably bravely’ in the action.
When appointed to the governorship of Sherborne Castle, Starre (by now major) was described in the Moderate Intelligencer (no. 26, 21 Aug). as ‘an honest valiant gentleman, Major to Colonel Popham sometime, but last Major of Colonel Tomson’s [Thompson’s] regiment of horse’; however, this does not fit with account of Williams’s arrears claim.
Captain of troop of horse in regiment of Colonel William Sydenham, 1 Dec. 1643-1 Sept. 1645, these being the minimum dates from the claim of his lieutenant.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 62, 114-5; Christie, Shaftesbury, 1.64, 67; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 194, 204, 228, 230, 289.
Armies: Dorset
Stayces, - - Stayces
Captain in George Mills’s/Sir William Waller’s regiment of dragoons.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 146.
Armies: Waller; Waller (Southern Association
Staynes, Richard Richard Staynes
Captain in Valentine Walton’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army (commanded by James Hobart from spring 1645).
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.105.
Armies: Eastern Association
Stearne [Sterne], Edward Edward Stearne [Sterne] (died 1645)
Of Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire. He married Mary Peddy, widow. A member of the Hertfordshire militia committee in 1643.By the end of 1643 captain in Sir John Wittrough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he continued to serve in the regiment, which later passed to Thomas Sadler; he was also regimental commissary, at least for the period from its first marching out of the county on 24 Apr. 1643 to its muster on 10 July following. His company was then absorbed into Ayloffe’s regiment of foot, in which he also served as captain. He served as captain in Rainborowe’s New Model Army regiment of foot, but was killed in the operation against Bristol in Sept. 1645.
References: Thomson, Hertfordshire, 101-2;TNA, SP28/11/145, 147, 151; Spring, Eastern Association, 1.7, 10, 113; Firth & Davies, Regimental history, 2.419; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 57.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Steed, - - Steed
In spring 1645 ensign in Colonel John Browne’s Shepway Lathe Kentish Trained Band regiment of Auxiliaries.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 86.
Armies: Kent
Steele, - - Steele
Cornet in the colonel’s troop in Colonel Richard Turner’s regiment of London horse, from 22 Sept. 1643 until its reduction on 3 Mar. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/132, Part 2, f. 4r; Spring, Waller’s army, 135.
Armies: London; Waller (Southern Association)
Steele, Thomas Thomas Steele (died 1644)
Third son of Thomas Steele of Weston, Sandbach, Cheshire (for his nephew William Steele, recorder of London and Lord Chancellor of Ireland, see Oxford DNB).
A cheese factor, Steele was a captain in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army. By Dec. 1643 he was governor of Beeston Castle, Cheshire, a well-provisioned stronghold where many local parliamentarians had stored their property for safekeeping. A little before dawn on 13 Dec. 1643 the royalist Captain Sandford and eight of his firelocks got into the upper ward of the castle. Steele quickly surrendered the castle on terms which allowed him and his men to march away with their colours and arms. Thomas Malbon’s account described how Steele had received and dined with Sandford in his lodging, and sent beer up to the royalists in the high ward. To Thomas Malbon, the surrender: ‘was wickedly and treacherouslie performed by the said Captyn Steele. And the same daye att Nighte, they all came to Namptwiche [Nantwich], where the said Steele was presentlie ymprissoned, and Kepte close for feare the soldyrs wolde have killed him’ (Cheshire tracts, 91-2).
Edward Burghall’s account gave much the same version of Steele’s actions. However, whilst noting suspicions of treachery, he put Steele’s behaviour down to distrust of his own men and a failure of nerve: ‘it was verily thought, that he had not wilfully betrayed it; but some of his Souldiers proving false, had not Courage enough to withstand Sandford, or try it out with him’ (Cheshire tracts, 92).
A few weeks later, and four days after the battle of Nantwich, Steele was executed on 29 Jan. 1644 for having surrendered Beeston Castle. Malbon recorded:
‘Thomas Steele (late badd governor of Beeston Castle) whoe before had Judgmt. to dye by a Councell of war, was shott in the Tynkers Crofts att Namptwiche, behind the Churche, Leanynge his Backe to the Crosse wall theire (after a very longe confession and repentance of his Synnes made) By twoe Common Soldyers; the one shott him in the Belly, and the other in the Throate; whoe was presentlie carried awaye, beinge laid in a coffin standing on the ground by him, brought into the Churche Yarde and buryed ymedyatlie neeare the Rowe of Gravestones on the Northe side of the heigh Chauncell’ (Cheshire tracts, 117-8).
For the Manchester Puritan Henry Newcome, Steele’s end was the inevitable providential punishment which faced even the repentant professor of religion who had sinned scandalously: ‘At his death he disclaimed all treachery, but God had taken away his courage. But he most freely acknowledged a desperate sin ... that he had lived in, and was suspected for, though he was a rare professor in his parts ... Being a cheese factor, he was about in the country, and came late to his inn. The maid of the house got up to let him in, and was all bare, and partly undressed. He took fire at this sight of her, and offered lewdness to her, which she resisted not; and so whenever he came that way he lived in sin with that woman. And now the Lord brought this shameful and untimely end upon him, as he acknowledged, in just judgment for that foul wickedness he had lived in. Mr Stringer told me he was by at his death, and heard him make this acknowledgement, and gave excellent counsel to all that were by upon it; and so was shot to death’ (Newcome, Autobiography, 1.95).
References: Cheshire tracts, 91-2, 117-8, 257; Ormerod, Cheshire, 3.i.98; H. Newcome, The autobiography of Henry Newcome, M.A., ed. R. Parkinson, 2 vols., Chetham Soc., vols. 26-7 (1852), 1.95.
Armies: Cheshire
Steevenfranke, - - Steevenfranke
A Captain, buried at Nantwich on 6 Feb. 1644. As burial took place a couple of weeks after the battle there, it is not certain that he was a parliamentarian; if he was, he may have been an officer of Fairfax’s Yorkshire forces.
References: Cheshire tracts, 257.
Armies: Cheshire; Yorkshire?
Steevens, Philip Philip Steevens
A reformado major serving in Cheshire, as revealed by a warrant of 15 Nov. 1645 paying him £5 as he had lately lost his horse in his quarters and was unable to serve until he had another.
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 63.
Armies: Cheshire
Stelfox, Ed. Ed. Stelfox
Commissioned captain in Henry Brooke’s Cheshire militia regiment of foot, 22 Aug. 1650.
References: CSPD, 1650, 509.
Armies: Cheshire
Stenchion, James James Stenchion
Captain in James Wardlawe’s regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 57.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stephens, Henry Henry Stephens (1616/7-1643/4)
Colonel. Eldest son of Nathaniel Stephens (1589-1660) of Eastington, Gloucestershire and his wife Catherine (died 1632), daughter of Robert Beale; brother of Colonel Richard Stephens. Henry Stephens never married.
In spring 1643 Stephens was made colonel of a foot regiment raised in Gloucester under Sir William Waller’s commission. John Corbet wrote that:
‘To enable the city to defend itselfe, a foot regiment was raised by commission from Sir William Waller out of the town men, for the major part both officers and souldiers, under the command of Colonell Henry Stephens. The first intention of this regiment was to defend the city only within the walls, according to the infancy of warre; but the hard service of this place did suddenly require and exact the full duty of souldiers’ (Bibliotheca, 37).
Stephens was taken prisoner in a skirmish near Stow-on-the-Wold: ‘The springing hopes of Colonell Stephens failed unfortunately, when his eager minde, engaged him in the action without order, and against the will of the commander in chiefe [Massey]; he had no command in the action, but hasted after as greedy of the service; he was led captive to Oxford, and a while after breathed his last in that poisonous ayre, where many gentlemen were observed in those dayes to expire’ (Bibliotheca, 38-9). Corbet’s account implies that the action was before the fall of Bristol in late July, although accounts still name him as colonel as late as 30 Nov. 1643. By 23 Dec. 1643 it had become ‘the governor’s regiment’.
References: Vis. Glos., 1623, 151-2; Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 175; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.624-6; Bibliotheca, 37-9.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Stephens, Nathaniel Nathaniel Stephens (1589-1660)
Of Eastington, Gloucestershire. Colonel. Only surviving son of Richard Stephens (died 1599) of Eastington and his first wife Margaret, daughter of Edward Seintloe of Kingston, Wiltshire. In or before 1617 he married Catherine, daughter of Robert Beale (1541-1601), Elizabethan Clerk to the Council (for whom see Oxford DNB). On 31 Dec. 1642 Stephens was paid £2 when his trained bands marched to Gloucester. He later became temporary governor of Gloucester, 4-18 June 1645. MP for Gloucestershire 1628 and in the Long Parliament from Nov. 1640, and although he was active in the Commons on matters of military finance, he was regarded as hostile to the New Model Army, and in Dec. 1648 was secluded by the army from sitting further.
References: Keeler, Long Parliament, 350-1;Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.614 [citing SP28/154], Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 174-5;
Armies: Gloucestershire
Stephens, Richard Richard Stephens
Captain. Probably Richard Stephens (1622/23-1679) of Eastington, second son of Nathaniel Stephens (1589-1660) and his wife Catherine (died 1632), daughter of Robert Beale. Captain in Arthur Forbes’s Gloucestershire regiment of foot, 15 Apr.-19 Sept. 1643. Later a County Committeeman in 1645, where he proved sympathetic to the plight of the Berkeleys and helped protect Berkeley Castle from further demolition.
References: Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 174-5; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 633-4: Warmington, Glos., 79, 83, 92, 196.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Stephens, Thomas Thomas Stephens (born 1618/1619)
Colonel. Eldest son of Edward Stephens of Little Sodbury (1597-c.1670) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Crewe. He married Catherine, daughter and coheir of William Combe of Stratford-upon-Avon. His father was a cousin of Nathaniel Stephens and MP for Tewkesbury in the Long Parliament.
His regiment was being raised by 10 Apr. 1643, and, partly-formed, took part in Waller’s capture of Hereford on 25 Apr. It is last certainly mentioned on 1 June, and it may have been effectively destroyed at Roundway Down. By 26 July Stephens was at the siege of Bristol, holding a sector of the defences.
In 1644 Stephens was sheriff of Gloucestershire. In May 1644 he became governor of the recaptured Beverstone Castle. On 31 May Stephens was commissioned colonel of a regiment of horse to be raised in the associated counties of Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and South Wales. Stephens’s regiment (and that of Edward Harley) were to be subordinate to Edward Massey, whose own regiment was to be given priority in recruitment. Stephens’s regiment became a source of contention between Massey and the civilian authorities. ‘Massey believed that some committeemen were trying to raise Sheriff Thomas Stephens's horse under their own authority while systematically starving the regiments he controlled of pay and men’ (Oxford DNB: Edward Massey). When Massey marched on Monmouth later in the year Stephens refused to send three of his four troops, claiming the authority of 1642 Instructions to the deputy-lieutenants and denying that Massey had any authority to command them. Massey duly complained to London that several of Stephens’s men were slow to obey his commands, whilst Stephens had taken upon himself to assess the county for horse ‘without relation to the command and by virtue of his own warrants’ (Warmington, Glos., 64). Stephens seems to have been well-supported at Westminster, and he was made sheriff indefinitely in June 1644 and retained the office until Nov. 1645.
In Feb. 1645, he took his forces from Beverstone to relieve Rawden House, he was trapped there by the Wiltshire royalists and forced to surrender. He was later exchanged and returned to Gloucester, whilst his forces were replaced by other regiments; his capture took the heat out of the feud with Massey.
References: Vis. Glos., 1623, 151;Vis. Glos, 1682-3, 176; Keeler, Long Parliament, 350; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.621-2; Warmington, Glos. 45, 58, 61-5, 68-70.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Stephenson, James James Stephenson
A Scottish officer, probably one of those sent from London to Devon in the autumn of 1642. A captain, serving at Plymouth, he commanded the garrison at Stonehouse Fort. By 20 Jan. 1643 Stephenson had been promoted lieutenant-colonel. On 30 May 1643 he was one of the senior officers sitting in the Council of War for Barnstaple, and possibly lieutenant-colonel of the Barnstaple Town Garrison regiment.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.331-4.
Armies: Devon
Stephenson, John John Stephenson
Commissioned captain in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia.
References: CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Stephenson, William William Stephenson
Of Bishop Thornton, Yorkshire (West Riding), gentleman
A captain of foot in John Mauleverer’s garrison regiment at Hull from its formation until late winter 1645.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 404.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Stepkin, Peter Peter Stepkin (died 1648)
Of Wapping, Middlesex, and Seighford, Staffordshire.
Fourth son of John Stepkin, esquire and his wife Mary Bramston, daughter of Roger Bramston of Boreham, Essex. He married Mary, daughter of Stocket Lutwich, prebendary of Lichfield Cathedral and his wife Jane, daughter of William Benbow; her first husband had been Richard Elde of Seighford. At his father’s death, Peter’s upbringing was bequeathed to his uncle, the judge Sir John Bramston (see Oxford DNB), whom he later served as his marshal; however, he was actually raised by Sir John’s mother-in-law Mary Moundeford in London.
With the coming of war, Stepkin was arrested carrying a letter urging him to join the king; on 19 Aug. 1642, the Commons ordered his committal to the Gatehouse prison. He was released on bail six days later, only to go to the king’s army and fight at Edgehill. Then, however, his cousin Sir John Bramston the younger recalled:
‘he had strooke his strooke his collonell, and was sentenced by a councell of warr to be shot; he escaped and tooke up armes on the other side’ (Bramston, Autobiography, 20).
By the end of Apr. 1643 Lieutenant-Colonel Stepkin was governor of Leek in the heart of the strongly parliamentarian Staffordshire Moorlands. Faced with the threat of a royalist mustering to take the county, Stepkin called on the aid of Sir William Brereton. The muster was dispersed and at Stepkin’s urging Brereton went on to take Stafford. Just before dawn on 4 May 1643 Stepkin and John Bowyer took 50 or 60 men across the river, drove away the sentinels, took control of the market-place and let in Brereton’s Army: the town was taken almost without a fight.
A colonel of horse by Feb. 1644, when he was ordered by the county committee to report on the state of two local garrisons. In May 1644 he commanded the rearguard of the earl of Denbigh’s Army as it marched from Tamworth.
In the conflicts between Denbigh and his enemies on the Staffordshire county committee, Stepkin aligned with the earl. On 4 Jan. 1645 the Lords summoned him as a witness to testify against the committee. However upon his coming to London, he found himself thrown into gaol. On 20 Mar. he and his cousin William Bramston (a royalist, with whom he had gone to join the king in 1642) came into the house of Robert Raystrick and assaulted and dangerously wounded the latter’s wife Jane. Whilst he lay in the Wood Street Compter, his creditors took the opportunity to sue him for debt (his cousin Sir John Bramston later thought he had wasted his estate). The Lords ordered his release over his debts. Faced with the Raysticks’ allegations, they confirmed that Stepkin should be released, allowing him the privilege of one in service as to his debts, but allowing the Raystricks’s prosecution to go forward. On 17 Apr. he was released upon a writ of habeas corpus.
The Raystricks won their case and on 28 May 1646 appealed to the Lords that they assign a day to prove his writ of error which was staying execution of judgment and damages.
In the meantime, Stepkin had been serving with Sir William Brereton. He was evidently at the siege of Chester: in June 1646 he was paid £50, ‘according to the order of the deputy lieutenants of Cheshire for his gratuity upon the taking of Chester’ (Carr and Atherton, Brereton, Staffordshire, 355). Stepkin was a senior officer at Brereton’s siege of Lichfield Close: he later claimed arrears of pay for the period 1 Mar.-14 July 1646, ‘whiles he did command the forces at Lichfield Close, at the siege there’ (Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffordshire, 229). On 10 May 1646 he was one of the commissioners appointed by Brereton to take the surrender of Dudley Castle.
Stepkin changed sides in the second civil war. According to his cousin Sir John Bramston, ‘he was in great esteeme with Cromwell; but yet, at last, quarrellinge with some of the officers, was in danger there also, and was in some of the cavalier risings, and one day Cromwell sent a partie to take him in his own house; he defended himself, and was killed’ (Bramston, Autobiography, 20).
References: The Autobiography of Sir John Bramson, Knight Baronet, ed. T.W. Bramston, Camden Soc., 1st ser. (1845), 14-5, 20, 21; Vis. Staffs., 204, 287; JHC, 2.728, 737; ; JHL, 7.125, 291, 302, 315, 323; JHL, 8.225; HMC 6th Rep., 52, 118;J. Vicars, Jehovah Jireh (1644), 329, 334; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxiii, 57, 86, 163, 176, 272, 316; Newes from Prince Rupert (1644); Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 227-9, 324, 329, 355.
Armies: Staffordshire; Earl of Denbigh; Sir William Brereton
Sterger [Steiger], Hans [?] Hans [?] Sterger [Steiger]
By spring 1645, on the eve of its disbandment, captain-lieutenant in Sir William Balfour’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 19.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Sterling, Robert Robert Sterling
Lieutenant-Colonel of the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army in its early weeks, in late summer 1643; by 30 Sept. 1643 he had been replaced by Lieutenant-Colonel Clifton.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.61.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sterling, Walter Walter Sterling
Sterling was evidently a captain in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army by June 1644 (probably from the formation of the regiment), taking over the company of Daniel Crawford. He was a Scotsman, and very probably one of the officers in Crawford’s regiment who had previously served in Ireland (however, he is not one of the several men of that surname listed amongst Ormonde’s officers). Although wounded at the second battle of Newbury, he was still captain in the regiment when it disbanded on 17 Apr. 1645. On 24 May 1645 he had the indignity of being disarmed of his sword and threatened with impressment himself by a Covent Garden constable when he went on Crawford’s behalf to get his servant released from being pressed.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.14; Davies, ‘Eastern Association’, 94; TNA, SP28/13/192; JHL, 7.393; JHC, 3.428.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sterling, William William Sterling
Ensign in Captain Smith’s, later Captain William Meredith’s company of foot in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army, in Apr. 1644 and at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.14; TNA, SP28/22/335.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sterre, Thomas Thomas Sterre
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel Sowton’s company in the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon) when it mustered on 16 Apr. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 646r.
Armies: Southwark
Stevens, Edmond Edmond Stevens
Lieutenant in Captain Richard Stevens’s troop in Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 49.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Stevens, Edward Edward Stevens
In spring 1645, when the regiment was disbanded, lieutenant in (perhaps his kinsman) Richard Stevens’s troop in Colonel Hans Behre’s regiment of horse.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 151.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Stevens, Henry Henry Stevens
Lieutenant in the colonel’s troop in Grey of Warke’s short-lived regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army during the first half of 1643.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.37.
Armies: Eastern Association
Stevens, Henry Henry Stevens
Lieutenant in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stevens, Philip Philip Stevens
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot (later dragoons) from 29 Aug. 1643 until its disbandment on 26 Apr. 1645. He then became lieutenant of James Baker’s troop of reformadoes in Henry Sanderson’s regiment of reformadoes.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 149.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); reformado
Stevens, Richard Richard Stevens
Captain in Colonel Hans Behre’s regimentof horse, until June 1644 when he transferred to Waller’s army. His troop formed part of Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse from 7 June 1644 to 22 Apr. 1645. He served at the relief of Taunton in Dec. 1644. In Apr. 1645 the troop was in Surrey, described as broken and unarmed. Following the disbanding of the regiment, Stevens became lieutenant of Captain John Otter’s troop in Colonel Henry Sanderson’s regiment of reformadoes.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 49; TNA,SP28/14/265.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association); reformado
Stevens, Richard Richard Stevens
Major of the small regiment of reformado horse commanded by Major James Baker which came up from London to the siege of Chester in late 1645.
On 27 Nov. 1645 he was one of the officers who signed a letter to Brereton explaining the mixture of social slighting and lack of pay and secure quarters which had led the men to disobey a direct order to march.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 275, 383, 511.
Armies: Reformado; London; Cheshire
Stevenson, Robert Robert Stevenson
Captain. Captain-Lieutenant of the colonel’s company in the regiment of Gloucester townsmen raised in the spring of 1643 (the regiment of Stephens/Massey/Morgan). During the siege of Gloucester, he led an unsuccessful sortie against the enemy trenches on 21 Aug. 1643. By Sept. 1645 he had been promoted captain, and was the local commander at the taking of Berkeley Castle under Morgan and Rainborowe. He was still a captain in Morgan’s regiment when it was disbanded under the Ordinance of 24 Dec. 1647 for disbanding supernumerary forces.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 625-7; Bibliotheca, 48-9, 219; HMC, Fifth Report, 356; HMC, Seventh Report, 68-9.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Stewart, - - Stewart
Major in Richard Norton’s horse regiment in 1643 and probably still serving in that capacity in spring 1645, when wounded near Winchester.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 110.
Armies: Hampshire; Waller (Southern Association)
Stewart, William William Stewart
Lieutenant in Captain Henry Ponsonby’s company in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.16.
Armies: Eastern Association
Stiffington, James James Stiffington
A Trained Band captain in Kent, his company garrisoning Tonbridge. He was probably in the Aylesford Lathe regiments. Spring, Waller’s army, gives his surname as Stiffington, but it may actually have been Skiffington, a Kent gentry name.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 73.
Armies: Kent
Stile, Humphrey Humphrey Stile
Captain in Colonel Ralph Weldon’s Kentish regiment of foot in Waller’s Southern Association Army by 15 Jan. 1644, transferring in June to John Birch’s newly-raised regiment of foot, possibly bringing his company with him.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 152.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Stoaker, Matthew Matthew Stoaker
Lieutenant in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stockdale, Anthony Anthony Stockdale
An officer in the Northern Army. Lieutenant to Captain Fenwick in Christopher Legard’s regiment of foot; then captain in Richard Thorneton’s regiment of foot.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 404.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Stockdale, George George Stockdale
Son or nephew of Edward Stockdale of York, king’s messenger. He replaced Laurence Parsons as captain of Lord Fairfax’s lifeguard, Apr. to 26 Sept. 1644. He in turn was replaced by Hans George Van Strobella.
By Sept. 1645 he was signing himself as colonel, possibly of the Trained Bands.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 404.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Stockdale, Thomas Thomas Stockdale (1593-1653)
Of Bilton Park, Yorkshire (West Riding), eighth son of William Stockdale of Green Hameron, County Durham, and eldest son with his second wife Dorothy Mill. Stockdale bought Bilton park, near Harrogate, in 1631, for £1,880, as well as the rectory of Franham and more property in Knaresborough. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir William Parsons (c. 1570-1650), and in Ireland Master of the Wards and Lord Justice.
In 1641-2 he had been involved in a fight over the parliamentary seat of Knaresborough and in 1645 became its Recruiter MP.
He was strongly puritan and closely connected with the Fairfaxes, and especially Ferdinando, throughout the war. He was appointed to all West Riding committees from Feb. 1643, and in Aug. 1643 was placed on the East Riding and North Riding committees. He was put on the Northern Association committeees.
He was a captain, and later major, but his regiment is not known. He fought, and sent to parliament, accounts of the battles of Adwalton Moor and Marston Moor.
By 1644 he was treasurer at war in Yorkshire, holding the post for several years.
He was not secluded at Pride’s Purge, but only took his dissent in July 1649.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 404; Yorks. visitation, I, 277-8; Underdown, Pride’s Purge, 386; A. Hopper, ‘Black Tom’: Sir Thomas Fairfax and the English Revolution (2007); HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Yorkshire
Stoddart, Amor Amor Stoddart
Captain-Lieutenant in Robert Lilburne’s regiment of horse in the Fairfaxes’ Northern Army, in 1645 he became a captain in Hardress Waller’s New Model Army regiment of foot. He left that regiment in 1647 and became a captain in John Lambert’s northern regiment of horse.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 66, 77, 86, 98, 163.
Armies: Northern Army; New Model Army
Stokes, - - Stokes
At the time of the storming of Bristol Stokes was captain-lieutenant in Nathaniel Fiennes’s regiment of foot. His company was kept in reserve during the storm (26 July) and in the castle. By Aug. he was at Brentford, and a captain, when he took over the companies of Gabriel Holmes and Henry Archbold, previously in John Fiennes’s regiment of foot.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.608-9; State Trials, 4.199.
Armies: Bristol
Stone, Henry Henry Stone (c. 1612-1689)
Of the Windmill, Walsall. Nephew of Henry Stone (died 1642), mayor of Walsall in 1628-9, who by the time of his death had acquired various properties in the town and in Cannock (Staffs.), Yardley (Worcs.) and Castle Bromwich (Warws.). The family was long-established in the town: the elder Henry ‘was the thirteenth Stone to be Mayor’ (Homeshaw, Walsall, 33). The younger Henry, originally of Plymouth, was required by his uncle’s will to occupy his house in Walsall, but by the latter’s death was already a prosperous merchant in the town who had served as mayor in 1638-9. In 1662-3 he was recorded as aged 50 and worth £200 per annum: ‘A great stocke of mony. A voyalent prisbyterian, a cheefe destroyer of Lithfely Minster. A prudent wise man [a phrase deleted and replaced with ‘suttle man’], a good souler. Of mean extracion but a great intrest in the Cuntre.’ (‘Staffs. Gentry’, 30).
Stone possibly married Elizabeth, sister of Simon Rugeley.
Stone early raised a troop of horse in Staffordshire and was nominated to the Staffordshire county committee and served with Lord Brooke at the siege of Lichfield in 1643, and in Apr. at the defence of Lichfield Close. Later in 1643 Sir William Brereton made him governor of Eccleshall Castle and, following the coup against the latter’s opponents on the Staffordshire county committee in Dec. 1644, governor of Stafford. Stone was, as that appointment suggests, very much Brereton’s ally. On 22 Dec. 1645 he wrote to Sir William, ‘But I assure you I believe there was not any two days in which I writ you not’ (Dore, Brereton Letter Books, 2. 415). His troop of horse, though evidently not with him, as commander, is listed as part of Brereton’s Army in Apr. and Oct. 1645.
In Feb. 1645 Stone captured and garrisoned Patshill House.
Stone was an active figure in county administration during the Interregnum, as JP, ejector and commissioner for charitable uses.
In 1656 he stood, but was defeated, for one of the Staffordshire county seats.
Presented by the constables of Walsall, Staffordshire as a former active parliamentarian in 1662. He was purged from the corporation the same year.
Stone augmented his uncle’s charities to the town and by his will established a rent-charge of £5 from his estates in Staffordshire and Warwickshire to provide coats for five poor men and gowns for five poor wids. on Christmas Day.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, passim, Dore, Brereton Letter Books, 1.50 and passim ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 62; ‘Staffs. Gentry’, 30; Homeshaw, Walsall, 27, 33-8, 40-2, 46-9, 54-6, 58, 60-2, 66, 69, 70, 72-4, 76-7, 82, 153-4; VCH Staffs., 17.145-6, 179-80, 215, 269, 271, 273.
Armies: Staffordshire
Stonham, - - Stonham
Ensign in Lieutenant-Colonel John Thorpe’s company in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot by 7 Dec. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Stoning, John John Stoning
Lieutenant in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams), summer 1642. Probably the Edward Stoning referred to in BL, Harl. 986, p. 26, where the entry is ambiguous, noting that Francis West was colonel of the Blue regiment at the first battle of Newbury and that ‘Captain Edw. Stoning was his leiut Coll & killd Shott in the heele & dyed at Reading & buried there’.
References: Thrale 1642; BL, Harl. 986, p. 26.
Armies: London
Stopford [Stockport], James James Stopford [Stockport]
Of Saltersford Hall, Prestbury parish, Cheshire. He was mentioned with Mainwaring’s four captains in the fighting at Farndon Bridge, and may have commanded the colonel’s company. Dore suggests that with Mainwaring’s disgrace and Major Jackson’s death, he may have had some sort of command of what remained of the regiment. He was commissioned captain in Duckenfeild’s militia regiment of foot in 1650, and sat on the court martial of the earl of Derby in 1651. He later fought in Ireland, and acquired extensive estates in Dublin and counties. Meath, Westmeath, Wexford, Carlow, Kilkenny and Kerry and established the family seat at Tara Hall, County Meath.
Dore (Brereton letter books, 2. 511-3) notes a payment to Captain Stockport for his dragoons, pointing out that this is the only reference to his men being dragoons rather than, as in most sources, foot.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 327, 2.511-3; Earwaker, East Cheshire,456; Collins’ Peerage of England, 8.445.
Armies: Cheshire
Storie, Edward Edward Storie
Captain in Colonel Richard Turner’s regiment of horse, Oct. 1643 until its reduction in Mar. 1644; his troop did not join the regiment campaigning against Newport Pagnell until 23 Oct.
References: TNA, SP28/132, f. 1v.; Spring, Waller's Army, 136.
Armies: London; Waller (Southern Association)
Stoughton, Israel Israel Stoughton
Lieutenant-Colonel in Thomas Rainsborough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.89.
Armies: Eastern Association
Strachan, Archibald Archibald Strachan
A Scot. From Feb. to July 1643 he was captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of dragoons and from then until spring 1644 its major, probably succeeding his brother James who perished at the battle of Lansdown; he also served as Waller’s quartermaster general of foot over the same period. In spring 1644 he was appointed major of the horse at Plymouth and he accompanied Essex in his south-western advance of summer 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 150.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Earl of Essex
Strachan, James James Strachan
A Scot, brother of Archibald Strachan. He served in the regiment of dragoons, formed out of dragoon units from Essex’s Army, commanded first by Colonel Mills and then by Sir William Waller, becoming the regiment’s major by the time it fought under Waller at the battle of Lansdown. James Strachan was killed there and his brother succeeded him as major.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 149-50.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Earl of Essex
Strachan, John John Strachan
A reformado until 26 Apr. 1644. He was a captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse from 1 July 1644 to 1 May 1645. (In Sept.-Dec. 1644 his troop numbered 29-31 men). He then served in Edward Popham’s/George Starr’s regiment of horse in Massey’s brigade as captain from 4 May 1645 until the regiment’s disbandment on 23 Oct. 1646.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 137.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Massey Brigade
Strachan, John John Strachan
Between May 1645 and Oct. 1646 captain in the London-raised regiment of horse commanded successively by Richard Turner, George Thomson, Francis Popham and Colonel Starr.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 142.
Armies: London
Stradling, Robert Robert Stradling
Probably lieutenant in Thomas Lidcott’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. From Sept. 1643 but probably not beyond spring 1644, captain-lieutenant in the Colonel’s troop of Mazieres’s short-lived regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.67.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
Straghan, James[?] James [?] Straghan
By spring 1644 until at least Jan. 1645, captain in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He may be the Captain Straghan who by the late 1640s was serving in Fairfax’s New Model Army regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.65; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 97.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army?
Straight, Edward Edward Straight
Ensign in Captain Spensley’s company in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army commanded first by Sir John Palgrave and later by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.78.
Armies: Eastern Association
Strangways, Thomas Thomas Strangways
Of Ugglebarnby, later Pickering Lythe, Yorkshire (North Riding), a parliamentarian lieutenant in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 96 [citing TNA, SP28/138/3, E121/1/7, no. 57].
Armies: Yorkshire
Strangways, William William Strangways
Lieutenant in John Moore’s Lancashire regiment of foot.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 292.
Armies: Lancashire
Stratford, William William Stratford
Ensign in Sir James Hamilton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots in 1640.
Ensign in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 87-8, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stratton, Willard Willard Stratton
By the beginning of 1644, lieutenant in Richard Harvey’s company in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. In spring 1645 he transferred to the New Model Army as captain in Hammond’s regiment of foot; he became major in that Regiment, by then commanded by Ewer, by or in 1650.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.43; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 56, 67, 77, 87, 99.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Streater, Edward Edward Streater
By 1643 captain in Skippon’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army and still there in spring 1645. He transferred to the New Model Army and became a captain in Skippon’s New Model regiment of foot, serving until summer 1647 when he appears to have left the army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 44, 55, 148.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Streeter, - - Streeter
Cornet in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse in the Southern Association Army.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 142.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Streeter, Benjamin Benjamin Streeter
Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Staninough’s company in Herbert Morley’s regiment of foot, probably succeeding to the command of the company in July 1644 and remaining its captain until the company was disbanded at the reduction of the regiment on 30 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 100.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Strelley, Henry Henry Strelley
Lieutenant in John Gunter’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642, continuing in the troop under Gunter’s successor Thomas Sheffield until at least late July 1643.
In late July and mid-Sept. 1644 he was paid as a reformado officer.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 49; TNA, SP28/3a/264, SP28/9/56, SP28/17/244, SP28/18/86.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Strelley, John John Strelley
Cornet in the earl of Essex’s own troop of harquebusiers, commanded by Mathew Draper, in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Strick, John John Strick
Captain in Nathaniel Whetham’s Northampton-based regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 164.
Armies: Northamptonshire
Stringer, Jacob Jacob Stringer
Lieutenant in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Stringer, Samuel Samuel Stringer
Lieutenant in the colonel’s troop in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse by 13 June 1644, when he was sent to London to recover from a wound that he had received before Oxford, and for which he was granted £10. In Dec. 1644 he took part in the relief of Taunton.
In Dec. 1644 he became captain of the troop previously commanded by John Gifford in Waller’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 141-2.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Strode, William William Strode (1589-1666)
Colonel. Third son of William Strode (died 1592) of Shepton Mallet, Somerset and Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Jeffrey Upton of Warminster, Wiltshire colonel of a regiment in Somerset 1642-5. Strode prevented Sir Ralph Hopton from publishing the king’s commission of array at Shepton Mallet in July 1642. Subsequently active in Somerset and Wiltshire for parliament, but was forced to retreat to Bristol after the battle of Roundway Down. His military career came to an end with the creation of the New Model Army. He was elected as MP for Ilchester, Feb. 1646, and is not to be confused with William Strode (c. 1594-1645) of Devon, MP for Bere Alston in the Long Parliament.
References: HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Somerset
Struce, Elias Elias Struce
Fifth captain, of firelocks, in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in his army raised for Ireland in 1642; he went as captain in Wharton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army later that summer. Officer in the foot serving at Portsmouth garrison from the time of its capture in Aug. 1642, initially as captain, later as major. He also seems to have served as major in the Hampshire horse regiment in 1643. He died in Apr. 1644 of wounds received at the battle of Cheriton, a few weeks before the Portsmouth-based infantry were incorporated into William Jephson’s regiment of foot.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 31, 68; Spring, Waller’s army, 71.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association); Hampshire
Stubbs [Stubber], Peter Peter Stubbs [Stubber]
Captain in Thomas Rainsborough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army from its creation in spring 1644 until spring 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.90.
Armies: Eastern Association
Stubes, Edward Edward Stubes (died 1645)
A lieutenant, presumably in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army. Buried at Nantwich, 9 Nov. 1645.
References: Cheshire tracts, 260.
Armies: Cheshire
Style, Robert Robert Style
Captain in John Hampden’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army from or by 10 Aug. 1642.
References: TNA, SP28/2b/516.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sumner, - - Sumner
Lieutenant in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sumner, John John Sumner
Cornet in Captain Arthur Saville’s troop in Richard Grenville’s/Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse, Nov. 1643 to May 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 49.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Surrenden, - - Surrenden
Captain in Herbert Morley’s regiment of horse, commanding a company of dragoons by Dec. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army,107.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Suthill, Thomas Thomas Suthill
Around the time it was disbanded in Apr. 1645, lieutenant in the company of Captain Palgrave in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army initially commanded by Sir John Palgrave but by then commanded by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.78.
Armies: Eastern Association
Sutton, - - Sutton
An officer in Cheshire. Amongst pay warrants dated 8 Nov. 1645 is one for a month’s pay for soldiers of Bucklow Hundred upon list under hand of Captain-Lieutenant Sutton.
References: TNA, SP28/224, ff. 47, 49-50.
Armies: Cheshire
Sutton, - - Sutton
By Mar. 1644 and still there in Feb. 1645 shortly before the regiment’s transfer to the New Model Army in spring 1645 (though he appears not to have entered the New Model), captain in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.69.
Armies: Eastern Association
Swaine, Francis Francis Swaine
Of York, a captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 90 [citing TNA, SP16/513/141; SP19/121/20b; SP19/126/9; SP28/249].
Armies: Yorkshire
Swaine, Henry Henry Swaine
Dore suggests that he may have been a citizen of York, as he was a commissioner there in 1652.
In Apr. and May 1645 Swaine was a captain in Sir William Constable’s regiment of horse in the Northern Army. The regiment was then temporarily serving Sir William Brereton. In Apr. Swaine was signatory to a letter from the regiment’s officers proclaiming their urgent needs. In May he wrote a regretful letter to Brereton, as the mutinous behaviour of the men had forced the regiment to depart. An attempted rendezvous had ended in threats to Swaine in Sir William’s presence when he pressed the men to stay. After he left, there had been a stand-off with drawn swords. ‘I wish that our departure be neither offence to God nor prejudicial to you in your undertakings’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 395).
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 177-8, 394-5, 415, 522; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 404.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Swallow, Robert Robert Swallow
Captain of a troop raised in summer 1643 funded by the young women of Norwich which served in Oliver Cromwell’s horse regiment in the Eastern Association Army. He served in that capacity down to the absorption of the troop into Edward Whalley’s regiment of horse in the New Model Army in spring 1645, when he initially became a captain in Fairfax’s regiment of horse, but in summer 1645 he moved as captain to Whalley’s New Model regiment of horse, becoming its major by the end of 1646. In 1659-60 Swallow briefly commanded the regiment but was removed at the Restoration.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.16; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 50, 61, 63, 74, 84, 95, 108.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Swarbreck, William William Swarbreck
Of Roseacre, Elswick township, St Michael on Wyre parish, Lancashire. Son of John Swarbreck of Rosecare.
In early 1643 the earl of Derby’s men plundered Swarbreck’s books. In summer 1643 Swarbreck was commissioned captain and raised a company in St Michael on Wyre for the Amounderness regiment raised by Alexander Rigby, senior In May 1644 he was one of the captains guarding royalist prisoners at Preston, withdrawing to Lancaster and then marching with Colonel Dodding to the siege of York. He fought at Marston Moor.
References: Warr in Lancashire, 28, 42, 49-50; VCH Lancs., 7.283n.; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 294.
Armies: Lancashire
Sweeper, Thomas Thomas Sweeper
Ensign in Viscount Saye and Sele’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Sweeting, John JohnSweeting
Lieutenant (Bringer-Up) in the colonel’s company, Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin).
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Swetnam [Swettenham], Joseph Joseph Swetnam [Swettenham] (died 1664)
Son of Thomas Swetnam, vicar of St Alkmund’s, Derby, and his second wife Hellena Barret. He matriculated from Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1619, graduated BA in 1623 and MA in 1627. Instituted rector of Dalbury, 1624.
Captain of horse in the Derbyshire regiment of horse which, in Mar. 1645, was serving with Sir William Brereton. ‘Two of their captains, [Nathaniel] Barton and [Joseph] Swttenham’, Sir William noted, ‘are very reverend divines and the rest of the commanders godly men’ (Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 79). In Apr. he was one of the captains faced with having to return to Derbyshire because their colonel, Sir John Gell, was starving them of funds. In Dec. 1645 Swetnam was one of Gell’s military accusers before the committee of examinations.
In 1646 Swetnam disputed the living of Weston-on-Trent. Assistant to commission for Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, 1654. Instituted rector of Whitwell, 13 Apr. 1659, resigning by May 1662, and so jumping before he was ejected.
A Presbyterian royalist by 1653, when a newsletter stated that, ‘The Presbyterians speak out boldly for the King, e.g. Mr. Swetnam of Derby’ (Calamy Revised, 471).
References: Calamy Revised, 471; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1.72-3, 79, 96, 205, 233, 500-1, 524; Slack, ‘Gell and Sanders’, esp. 137.
Swettenham, Nathaniel Nathaniel Swettenham
Lieutenant in Captain Edward Glegg’s company in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire forces at the siege of Lichfield in 1646.
References: Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 271, 326, 348, 351, 353.
Armies: Cheshire
Swift, Thomas Thomas Swift
An officer in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade. He raised a company of foot for Myddelton in summer 1643. His acquittance, dated 2 Nov. 1645, reads: ‘Recd. of Commissary Morris, 20 June 1643-22 Sept. 1643 to raise my company and pay my officers and soldiers £167 9s 10d’ (TNA, SP28/346, no. 261). In early 1644 Swift re-recruited his company or raised a new one for Myddelton’s regiment of foot when Sir Thomas formed his second, larger brigade in London and the south-east. He served with the brigade when it invaded Montgomeryshire in Sept. 1644 and had been promoted major by Apr. 1645. By that Oct. he, along with what remained of Myddelton's units, had transferred to colonel (acting major-general) Thomas Mytton’s command for North Wales; he was mentioned as ‘a Major of Sir T. Myddelton's old Regiment’ (TNA, SP28/45, Part 1, no. 130) and served with Mytton until spring 1647. In 1650 he acted as a commissioner for the propagation of the gospel in Wales.
References: TNA, SP28/45, Part 1, no. 130; SP28/346, nos. 261, 285, 286; Acts and Ordinances, 1, 342-8; National Library of Wales, Chirk Castle Ms. 1/Biii, 93.
Armies: North Wales
Sydebothom, William William Sydebothom
Ensign in the Colonel’s company of Henry Bradshaw’s regiment of foot in the Cheshire militia at the battle of Worcester (3 Sept. 1651).
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2.64-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Sydenham, - - Sydenham
Captain. In 1641 commanded Trained Band of 70 musketeers and 54 pikemen. Like Gould, Sydenham was accused of foot-dragging and loss of men and officers. Presumably either William Sydenham or his younger brother Francis Sydenham. [See below.]
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.502-4.
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, Francis Francis Sydenham (1617-1645)
Son of Richard Sydenham of Winford Eagle and younger brother of William Sydenham. Captain of a troop of dragoons raised at the end of Apr. 1643. References in Peachey and Turton cover Apr. 1643-Aug. 1643. In Sept. 1643, when at Poole, by presenting himself as a disillusioned parliamentarian, complaining of his losses in Ireland, he was able to trap a royalist attempt to take the town by stealth.
Francis later became major in his brother William’s regiment of horse and was killed at the siege of Weymouth, Feb. 1645, leaving a widow.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.535-7; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 115-7; Oxford DNB (biography of Thomas Sydenham); Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 185.
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, George George Sydenham
Quartermaster, Francis Sydenham’s troop of dragoons.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.537.
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, John John Sydenham
Lieutenant. Son of William Sydenham of Wynford Eagle (1593-1661) and brother of Colonel William and Cornet Thomas Sydenham. [See Oxford DNB biography of the latter.]
References: Oxford DNB; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337.
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, Thomas Thomas Sydenham (baptised 1624, died 1689)
Physician. Son of William Sydenham of Wynford Eagle (1593-1661) and younger brother of Colonel William Sydenham. He had been an active soldier, and he may have been wounded when the royalists briefly took Weymouth in Feb. 1645 (in the attacks which also saw the death of his brother Francis). By Apr. 1648 he had been for some time at Oxford and in Apr. 1648 was involved in parliament’s visitation of the university and the expulsion of the politically unsound.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, William William Sydenham (baptised 1615, died 1661)
Captain then colonel. First son of William Sydenham of Wynford Eagle and Mary, daughter of Sir John Jeffrey of Catherstone, Dorset.
Captain of Troop in Sir Walter Erle’s regiment of horse, at least Apr. 1643-Aug. 1643. By Apr. 1644 a colonel. Appointed governor of Weymouth by Essex on 17 June 1644. A leading figure on the Dorset county committee, elected MP for Melcombe Regis and Weymouth, Nov. 1645. Colonel, regiment of foot, New Model Army, 13 Feb.-June 1649; Joint Governor (with Charles Fleetwood), Isle of Wight, Aug. 1649-Jan. 1660; colonel of foot, June 1659-Jan. 1660. MP for Dorset 1653, 1654, 1656, raised to Cromwell’s Other House as Lord Sydenham, 1657. In 1660 he was barred for life from holding all public office.
References: Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Dorset
Sydenham, William William Sydenham
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse by 29 Aug. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 143.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Sydes, - - Sydes
Cornet in Captain Simon Finch’s troop in the Cheshire forces of Sir William Brereton at the siege of Lichfield in 1646.
References: Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 270, 326, 354.
Armies: Cheshire
Sylcocke, Guy Guy Sylcocke
Lieutenant. A Gloucestershire man. Possibly Capt Slyfox. In Feb. 1644 he provided convenient but doubtful hearsay evidence against Colonel Thomas Essex, reporting the claims of a man who had been a prisoner of war at Oxford to have seen a letter from Essex to prince Rupert declaring his unswerving loyalty. In Sept. 1645 Sylcocke was at the taking of Berkeley castle and profited from its plunder. He complained himself how he had been arrested as a felon and imprisoned at Bristol for seizing goods from Sir Maurice Berkeley in the course of his duties.
References: A full declaration of all particulers concerning the march of the forces under Collonell Fiennes to Bristoll (1643), 14; HMC, Fifth Report, 356-7; Warmington, Glos., 79, 90-1 (where he is called lieutenant-colonel).
Armies: Gloucestershire
Syler, Edmund Edmund Syler
Major in Edward King’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army, for a time serving in the Boston garrison. Dismissed by King, but he went on to become lieutenant-colonel and governor of Boston with his own foot unit or regiment. For a time he also served as major in Edward Rossiter’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. He later raised and commanded a full regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.46, 2.91.
Armies: Eastern Association
Symmes, - - Symmes
Captain, Dorset, payment 12 July 1643: he could be the Lieutenant Symmes in the next entry.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.524.
Armies: Dorset
Symmes, - - Symmes
Lieutenant, Dorset, payment 12 July 1643: he could be the Captain Symmes in the previous entry.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.524.
Armies: Dorset
Symonds, Robert Robert Symonds
By 1645-6 major in the Plymouth garrison.
References: Worth, History of Plymouth, 134.
Armies: Devon