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Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840. Originally published by W.S. Maney and Son Limited, Leeds, 1986.

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Citation:

'L', Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, (Leeds, 1986), pp. 520-563. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/l [accessed 15 June 2024].

. "L", in Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, (Leeds, 1986) 520-563. British History Online, accessed June 15, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/l.

. "L", Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, (Leeds, 1986). 520-563. British History Online. Web. 15 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/l.

L

Labbett, H., address unknown, frame maker (1829). Recorded working at Moor Hall Park, Essex in 1829. He supplied twelve ‘new frames for Drawings, with sanded flutes and Composition stars on mitres’ gilded, at £18 and five other rich gilt frames at £21 10s. [Essex RO, D/DEs T50]

Laburn (or Laben), Thomas, The Morledge (or Morlidge), Derby, chairmaker and turner (1818–29). [D]

Laccohee, William M., 10 Bartholomew Sq., St Luke's, London, picture and looking-glass frame maker and cm (1839). [D]

Lace, Henry, 8 Church St, Liverpool, cm and u (b. 1796–1824). Born on 28 February 1796, son of William Lace, master mariner. Free by patrimony, 12 June 1818. In February 1822 announced the opening of his business as cm and u at 8 Church St. He claimed to have ‘lately returned from London’ where he had acquainted himself ‘with the newest & most tasteful Fashions & has selected & manufactured his Stock agreeably to the best Patterns’. Although he did not describe his stock in any detail he felt it necessary to emphasise that he did not stock ‘Yorkshire Carpets’. In 1824 he is shown both at the Church St address and at 12 Wolstenholme Sq. [D; freemen's committee bk; Liverpool Mercury, 15 February 1822]

Lacey, James, 10 Well Yd, Little Britain, London, u (1809). A Lacey of London subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793, and may be this James Lacey. [D]

Lacey, John, Cheap St, Frome, Som., cm and chairmaker (1762). In 1762 took app. named Ayres. His trade card [Heal Coll., BM] states that he made all sorts of cabinet goods and ‘sells common, round and quartered Ash and Elder Chairs, white or coloured, from eight to forty shillings per Dozen’. [S of G, app. index]

Lacey, John, Market Pl., North Walsham, Norfolk, cm and u (1822–30). [D]

Lacey, Richard Culley, Market Pl., North Walsham, Norfolk, u and cm (1839). Successor to John Lacey at this Address. [D]

Lacey, T., Market Pl., Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (c. 1796). [D]

Lacey, William, London, cm (1806–10). Maintained workshops above five tenements in the Hole in the Wall Passage, Baldwins Gdns. The address on an insurance policy issued in 1806 was however stated as ‘William Beasleys Timber Yard, West St, West Smithfield’ and in 1808 and 1810 as 11 Brooks Mkt. In 1806 insurance cover amounted to £1,300 of which £240 was in respect of utensils and stock in Baldwins Gdns. The value of his untensils and stock declined to £150 in 1808 and was £200 in 1810. [GL, Sun MS vol. 438, ref. 798423; vol. 441, ref. 812518; vol. 451, ref. 836699]

Lack, James, Dorking, Surrey, cm (1839). [D]

Lackenby, William, Nottingham, u (1822–32). Recorded at Friar Lane in 1822 and Granby St in 1832. [D]

Lacy, Tenant, Market St, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (1786–98). Freeman of Shrewsbury. [D; freemen rolls]

Lad, Richard, 19 Burr St, East Smithfield, London, upholder and auctioneer (1789–93). [D]

Ladbrooke, Robert, White Lion St, St Peter Mancroft, Norwich, carver and gilder (1830–39). [D; poll bk]

Ladd, Richard, St Mary's Yd, Exeter, Devon, u (1835–40). Four sons bapt. at St Mary Major, 1835–40. [PR (bapt.)]

Laddell, Robert Stephen, Norwich, carver and gilder (1826). Free 3 May 1826. [Freemen reg.]

Ladderdale, John, Thorngate, Barnard Castle, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1827–34). [D]

Ladkin, William, Rugby, Warks., cm (1835). [D]

Ladson, James, London, cm, writing desk and dressing case maker (1808–40). Initially at 9 Crown St, Hoxton but then moved to 25 Primrose St, Bishopsgate. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 574, ref. 1341665]

Ladson, James, 5 King St, Ramsgate, Kent, carver and gilder (1838–39). [D]

Ladson, Joseph, Canterbury, Kent, carver and gilder (1801–39). Initially in St Margaret's St but from 1824 at 5 Guildhall St. In 1801 took out insurance cover of £300 of which £100 was in respect of utensils and tools. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 40, ref. 719381; Canterbury and Dover poll bks]

Ladson, L., Guildhall St, Canterbury, Kent, carver and gilder (1838). Same address as Joseph Ladson, so this may be a directory error. [D]

Ladson, W. B., 8 Queen St, Margate, Kent, carver (1838). [D]

Ladyman, George, ‘Queen's Head’, Hawkshead, Lancs., joiner, builder, cm and victualler (1824–34). [D]

Ladyman, Henry, 51 Fleet Mkt, London, upholder (1771–1804). Son of Henry Ladyman of Ickenham near Uxbridge, Middlx, Gent. Free of the Upholders’ Co. under the terms of the 1750 Upholders’ Act, 2 January 1771. Took as app. Samuel Search until 1774, in which year he obtained a licence to employ six non-freemen for six months. In 1804 the business traded as Ladyman & Doolan. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; City Licence bks, vol. 8]

Ladyman, Thomas, Theatre St, Preston, Lancs., joiner, builder and cm (1828–42). [D]

Ladyman, Thomas, Keswick, Cumb., joiner/cm (1828–34). [D]

La Feuillade, George, Farningham, Kent, cm (1838). [D]

Laggett, James, Canterbury, Kent, u (1705). [Freemen rolls]

Laggett, Thomas, Canterbury, Kent, u (1683). [Freemen rolls]

Laidley, William, Wavertree, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1823). [D]

Lain, James, High St, Stockport, Cheshire, cm (1828). [D]

Laing, —, 3 Lee St, Manchester, cm (1800). [D]

Laing, Charles, 20 George St, Adelphi, London, cm (1809). [D]

Laing, James, Westage, Guisborough, Yorks., joiner/cm (1840). [D]

Lake, Cockell, Attleborough, Norfolk, cm, chairmaker and joiner (1822). [D]

Lake, Joseph, 15 Coburg Pl., Borough Rd, London, cm, u and bedstead maker (1835–39). In 1835 listed as a furniture broker. [D]

Lake, Nathaniel, Exeter, Devon, u (1688). [Freemen rolls]

Lake, Richard, see Thomas Gretton.

Lake, Thomas, Maidstone, Kent, upholder (1719–34). In 1719 took app. named Pett. [S of G, app. index; poll bk]

Lake, Thomas, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs., cm and u (1818–35). In 1822 at New Rd; in 1834 at Glebe St; and in 1835 at Church St. [D]

Lake, Thomas Constable, Norwich, cm (1830–40). Freeman of Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk. [Gt Yarmouth poll bks]

Lake, William, Norwich, u (1704). Free 9 October 1704, not by apprenticeship. [Freemen reg.]

Lake, William, Exeter, Devon, cm (b. 1799–d. 1837). Married on 4 January 1827 at the Church of St Mary Major, Exeter but his wife Charlotte died on 12 February 1829 aged 30. At this period resident at Pancras Buildings but later at Catherine St where he is shown as late as 1838 in directories. This may be a cm of the same name or a directory error, since his death in 1837 aged 38 was reported in Exeter Flying Post, 18 May 1837. [D; The Alfred, 9 January 1827]

Lakeman, William, Artillery St, Spitalfields, London, bed and window cornice maker (1809). [D]

Laker, William, ‘Tunbridge’, Kent, cm (1819). Daughter bapt. on 4 April 1819. Living in the parish of Tunbridge which not only included the town of Tonbridge but considerable parts of Tunbridge Wells. [PR (bapt.)]

Lakin, Benjamin & Son(s), High St, Whitchurch, Salop, cm (1822–28). Trading as Lakin & Sons in 1822 and Lakin & Son 1828. [D]

Lakin, Thomas, Angel Row, Nottingham, cm and u (1825–40). A small mahogany Regency Pembroke table with the name ‘T. LARKIN’ impressed on the drawer edge has been recorded. [D]

Lakin, William, Market Pl., Burton-on-Trent, Staffs., turner and chairmaker (1828). [D]

Lakin, William & Abraham, High St, Whitchurch, Salop, cm (1835). [D]

Laking, Charles, Diglake, Stafford, cm (1818–22). [D]

Laking, Thomas, Mount St, Nottingham, chairmaker (1828). [D]

Lamb, Charles, 12 Snargate St, Dover, Kent, chairmaker and u (1826–39). Possibly the son of Elizabeth Lamb. Recorded in directories trading on his own behalf, 1826–29. From 1833– 39 the business is listed as Lamb & Son. [D; poll bks]

Lamb, Daniel, 29 Cumberland St, Manchester, cm (1825). [D]

Lamb, Elizabeth & Son, Snargate St, Dover, cm and u (1824). The son was probably Charles. [D]

Lamb, George snr, London, upholder (d. by 1727). Freeman and member of the Upholders’ Co. Father of George jnr and Samuel Lamb, both upholders. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lamb, George jnr, London, upholder (1727). Son of George Lamb snr, freeman and upholder of London. Brother of Samuel Lamb, upholder. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony, 3 May 1727. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lamb, Henry, Feathers Ct, Westminster, London, carver (1738–49). In September 1738 submitted an account to Richard Hoare for a set of mahogany vases, bracket tables etc. amounting to £13 19s 6d which was settled in October. [V & A, 86 NN 3; Hoare's Bank, private accounts; poll bk]

Lamb, Henry, Hadleigh, Suffolk, cm (1824). [D]

Lamb, James, Dover, Kent, upholder (1705). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury freemen rolls]

Lamb, James, Dover, Kent, u and auctioneer (1790–96). Freeman of Canterbury. [D; Canterbury poll bks]

Lamb, John, Lincoln, chairmaker (1765). In March 1765 advertised for a ‘spindle or a varnish chair maker and likewise a chair bottomer: both shall have constant employment’. In October 1762 Lord Monson settled an account with a John Lamb amounting to £1 37s 4d for a ‘seeing glass’, a japanned tea tray and two mahogany trays. These may have been supplied by this craftsman whose business may have extended beyond chairmaking. The sum of £2 12s paid by the executors of the 2nd Duke of Ancaster in 1742 to a Mr Lamb, upholsterer, probably also refers to a local craftsman in the Lincoln area. [Cambridge Chronicle, 16 March 1765; Lincoln RO, Monson 12, 5 ANC 8/2/5]

Lamb, John, Boston, Lincs., cm (1805–08). Recorded in High St, 1808. [D]

Lamb, Joseph, Newcastle, u (1781). App. to Edward Coates and free, 15 January 1781. [Freemen reg.]

Lamb, Michael, Newcastle, u (1777). App. to Thomas Hunt and free, 6 March 1777. [Freemen reg.; poll bk]

Lamb, Nathaniel, Denton-chare, Newcastle, joiner, cm and fruiterer (1790–1811). The trade of fruiterer is first recorded in a directory of 1801. In an 1824 directory he is listed solely as a fruiterer. [D]

Lamb, Ralph, Bigg-market, Newcastle, joiner and cm (1811). [D]

Lamb, Samuel, London, upholder (1729). Son of George Lamb snr, freeman of the Upholders’ Co., and brother of George Lamb jnr, also a member of the Upholders’ Co. Free of the Upholders’ Co. himself, by patrimony, 2 July 1729. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lamb, Thomas, 102 James St, Devonport, Devon, carver and gilder (1838). [D]

Lamb, William, Snargate St, Dover, upholder (1784–1803). In 1803 the business was trading as Lamb & Son. For successors see Elizabeth Lamb and Charles Lamb. [D]

Lamb, William, 9 and 10 Jewin St, Aldgate, London, cm and u (1798–1811). Son of John Lamb of Scarborough, Yorks., vintner, and free of the London Upholders’ Co. by redemption, 7 March 1798. Shown in directories from 1801 and in 1803 included in the list of master cabinet makers in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lamb, William Henry, High St, Hadleigh, Suffolk, u and cm (1830–39). Probably the successor of Henry Lamb. [D]

Lamb, Woolhouse, St James's, Westminster, London, upholder (1742). Executor of the will of James Brown, upholder, Covent Gdn. [PRO, C108/367]

Lamb & Wells, 44 New Bond St and 34 Cockspur St, London, pocket book and desk makers (1820–35). In 1835 described as writing and dressing case makers. [D]

Lambden, Edward, Reading, Berks., u (1722–48). In 1722 took app. named Blanch. Named in 1748 as the recipient of the sum of £6 6s from the executor of the will of a member of the Neville family of Bilingbear, Berks. [S of G, app. index; Essex RO, D/DBy/A379]

Lambden, James, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., upholder (1740). In 1740 took app. named Hayward. [S of G, app. index]

Lambden, John, West Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1798). [Militia Census]

Lambdon, Charles, Reading, Berks., upholder (1748). Took out insurance cover of £600 in 1748. [GL, Sun MS vol. 83, ref. 111840]

Lambe, John, Cockspur St, London, dressing case maker (1837–39). On 11 August 1837 appointed dressing case maker to the Lord Chamberlain's Offices on the recommendation of the Duchess of Northumberland. The drowning of Lambe jnr is recorded in July 1839. [PRO, LC5/243, p. 41; Gents Mag., July 1839]

Lambe, Richard, 24 High St, Cliffe, Lewes, Sussex, u and cm (1805–40). In 1810 he was paid £2 9s for the use of 94 chairs, two tables and two glasses at the Shire Hall, Lewes. Further payments were made from 1810–11 for upholstery materials and furniture amounting to £58 19s 2d and on 15 February 1812 a further £63 10s for furniture. This patronage was in connection with the furnishing of the new County Hall in Lewes. After 1832 the business traded as Richard & William Lamb. In May 1838 they advertised for an app. in the upholstery and paper hanging side of their business who would ‘be treated as one of the family’ though a premium was expected. An oak library table in a Jacobean revival style bearing a lead plaque underneath inscribed ‘Rd. Wm. Lambe, cabinet makers, Lewes 1838’ was included in Christie's sale of 7 February 1980, lot 79. [D; poll bks; E. Sussex RO, QAH/1/ ES(264), QAH/1/7/E2, no. 259; Sussex Agricultural Express, 19 May 1838]

Lambe, Richard, 96 Gracechurch St, London, carver, gilder, frame maker and printseller (1821–39). In 1821 took out insurance cover of £1,000 of which £600 was for untensils, stock and goods in trust and £100 for glass. This was a substantial amount for this trade. In 1839 the business is recorded as Richard Lambe & Son. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 486, ref. 985037]

Lambe, William, Lewes, see Richard Lamb.

Lambert, —, Hull, Yorks., cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lambert, —, 37 Regent St, corner of Piccadilly, London, upholder, undertaker, auctioneer and appraiser (c. 1820). Trade card in Banks Coll., BM

Lambert, Benjamin & Jane, ‘New Church’, u (1728). In 1728 took app. named Hayter. [S of G, app. index]

Lambert, Charles, London, cm and u (1835–39). At 184 High St, Wapping in 1835 and 177 Old Gravel Lane, Ratcliffe in 1839. [D]

Lambert, Christopher, 177 New Market St, Old Gravel Lane, London, cm (1822–24). In 1822 took out insurance cover for £300 of which £30 was in respect of a chest of tools in Ferguson & Co. manufacturing in Providence Court, North Audley St.’ The New Market St address was occupied by Charles Lambert in 1839. [GL, Sun MS vol. 491, ref. 991555; vol. 497, ref. 1016724]

Lambert, Cornelius, Carolgate, Retford, Notts., cm (1832–40). [D]

Lambert, George, ‘The Rose & Dolphin’, London Wall, over against Little Moorgate, London (1727). Advertised tapestries for sale in 1727. [Heal]

Lambert, George, York and Doncaster, Yorks., u (1739–58). Son of Stephen Lambert, butcher. Free of York as an u in 1739 and in 1741 living in Spurriergate. By 1756 had moved to Doncaster and in that year took app. named Ellis. Still living in Doncaster in 1758. [Freemen rolls; York poll bks; S of G, app. index]

Lambert, Henry, Moorgate, Retford, Notts., cm (1830–35). [D]

Lambert, James, Godalming, Surrey, cm and u (1822–26). [D]

Lambert, James, 1 Lambeth Pl., Clapham Rd, London, u (1835). [D]

Lambert, John, Newcastle, u (1728–d. by 1753). Free on 8 January 1727/28 by servitude. In 1745 took app. named Reed. By February 1753 he was dead and in that month his warehouse and shop goods and also his household goods were sold by auction. His son John was free by patrimony, 7 April 1766. [Freemen reg.; S of G, app. index; Newcastle Courant, 17 February 1753]

Lambert, John, address unknown, joiner and cm (1739–59). Undertook work for Lord Monson in 1739, 1746–47 and 1758–59. Only one indication is given of where the work was undertaken. In 1758 the carpentry was for Charles Monson's dwelling house in Spring Gdns. Two carved tabernacle frames were supplied in 1746 at £1 16s, and in 1759 a walnut library table, part of which appears to have been delivered in January and part in March. For this £16 was charged. [Lincoln RO, Monson 12, Monson 11/27]

Lambert, John, Lancaster, cm (1789–1802). App. to R. Mashiter in 1789 and free, 1801–02. [Lancaster app. reg. and freemen rolls]

Lambert, John, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1791). A journeyman cm named in the list of workmen in sympathy with the Leeds Cabinet and Chair Makers Book of Prices, 1791, which was printed at the end of the book.

Lambert, John, 20 Berwick St, London, cm (1792–94). On 9 April 1792 took out insurance cover of £200 on utensils, stock and goods in trust ‘in his timber workshop behind 42 and 43 Wardour St.’ In 1794 described as a broker and cm when he insured his new dwelling house for £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 382, ref. 598475; vol. 401, ref. 626900]

Lambert, John, Stoney Stratford, Bucks., u (1798). [D]

Lambert,, John, Primrose Hill, Liverpool, cm (1818–21). In 1818 at 1 Primrose Hill and in 1821 at 21. [D]

Lambert, John, 11 Earl St, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Lambert, John, 8 Upper Clapton St, Finsbury, London, wood carver and cm (1839). [D]

Lambert, John, 12 Broad St, Soho, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Lambert, Joseph, Lancaster (1797–99). Named in the Gillow records, 1797–99, in connection with an altarpiece. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/98, p. 1488]

Lambert, Joseph, 11 Lower St, Islington, London, carver and gilder (1808). [D]

Lambert, Philip, London, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lambert, Pierre, address unknown, cm (1701). Undertook minor work in 1701 for Lord Monson, the largest item being the supply of ‘15 square glasses’ at 15s. A fine lock costing 5s was provided for ‘ye book case’. [Lincoln RO, Monson 12]

Lambert, Robert, London, upholder, cm, appraiser and undertaker (1767–93). A partner with Robert Chipchase in the business of Chipchase & Lambert, 1767–88. In 1774 Robert Lambert was shown living at New St and in 1784 at Beak St. When the partnership was dissolved in 1788 Robert Chipchase moved to 39 Dover St, leaving Robert Lambert in possession of the former business premises in Warwick St, Golden Sq. and Beak St. He traded on his own account until 1790 when he went into partnership, trading as Lambert & Turner. The business was carried on in a substantial manner and of the £2,700 insurance cover taken out in January 1791, £1,600 covered ‘the shops, warehouse, counting house & shop and yard nearby’ used by the business. The remainder was cover for Robert Lambert's dwelling house. The business continued to trade until 1793. A number of the customers of Chipchase & Lambert transferred their patronage to Robert Lambert. In 1788 the Earl of Stair paid £63 13s 1d for work undertaken and goods supplied. Lord Howard of Audley End, Essex patronised Lambert in connection with his London house in New Burlington St, 1789–91. Much of the work was of a minor nature but on 20 January 1791 an account for £23 10s 6d was submitted for alterations and new hangings for a bed. Lambert's billhead shows a crown on a cushion supported by three feathers, but no commissions for the Royal Household have come to light. [D; poll bks; GL, Sun MS vol. 373, ref. 579443; Scottish RO, GD 135/Box 52/6/24–25X; Essex RO, D/DBy/A47/3, A49/2, A49/5, A50/2]

Lambert, Robert, Lower Edmonton, London, u (1809). [D]

Lambert, Robert, 6 All Saint's Pl., 12 Grosvenor St, Liverpool, cm (1839). [D]

Lambert, Thomas, 1 Naval Row, East India Docks, London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Lambert, Thomas, 154 New Bond St, London, u (1829). [D]

Lambert, Thomas, Brough, Westmld, joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Lambert, William, High St, Knaresborough, Yorks., cm and u (1822–28). [D]

Lambert, William Henry, South Parade, Bawtry, Yorks., cm and joiner (1834–37). [D]

Lambert & Turner, see Robert Lambert, London.

Lambley, Abraham, Birmingham, cabinet travelling and dressing case maker (1800–18). At Moseley St, Deritend, 1800–05, Bordesley and Deritend, Birmingham in 1809 and Birchole St, 1816–18. Recorded as Abraham Lambley & Co., 1816–18. [D]

Lambley, James William, Birchole St, Birmingham, case maker (1793). [D]

Lambley, James, 33 Deritend St, Birmingham, ‘manufacturer of all forms of small cabinet articles for travelling &c.’ (1800). [D]

Lambley, James & William, Birmingham, writing desk and dressing case makers (1818–21). Their advertisement in Wrightson's Directory of Birmingham, 1818, declares them to be successors to Abraham Lambley & Co. They manufactured ‘Writing Desks, Work Boxes, Liquer Bottle Cases, Stands, Tea Chests, Caddees, Shaving Cases, Toilet Cases, Medicene Chests, Card Boxes, Knife Cases etc.’. Copying machines for office use were also manufactured. Initially the business was in Moseley St, but by 1821 had transferred to 10 New St. By this year James Lambley was also selling pianofortes and church and chamber organs. [D]

Lambley, William & Abraham & Co., 86 Caroline St, Birmingham, writing desk and cabinet case manufacturers (1822–23). In 1823 the business was taken over by Wagner & Cottrell. [D]

Lambourn, John, Bell St, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., chairmaker (1830). [D]

Lamdin, Charles, 30 Northbrook St, Newbury, Berks., cm and u (1840). Successor to Joseph Lamdin. [D]

Lamdin, Joseph, Northbrook St, Newbury, Berks. cm and u (1830). By 1840 the business was in the hands of Charles Lamdin, probably a son. [D]

Lamerton, Julia, Guinea St, Exeter, Devon, u (1830–38). [D]

Laming, John, St Peter, Canterbury, Kent, cm (1826–30). [Poll bks]

Lammas, Edmund, Moulton, Norfolk, cm (d. 1717). Will proved at Norwich, 1717. [Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Lamson, Thomas, Stamford, Lincs., cm (1809). A Thomas Lambson appears in the Stamford poll bks, 1830–34. [Poll bk]

Lancaster, Benjamin, London, upholder (1709–d. by 1737). Father of Thomas and Jane Lancaster. Benjamin was free of the Upholders’ Co., 1 June 1709. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lancaster, George, Narrow Weir, Bristol, cabinet and bedstead maker and size maker (1818–29). At 4 Narrow Weir, 1818– 21, but after this the number was 6. From 1820 listed as furniture broker and size maker. [D]

Lancaster, H., 2 Winkworth Buildings, City Rd, London, cm (1829). [D]

Lancaster, Henry, 8 Edgar Terr., Tunbridge Wells, Kent, cm (1831–39). Daughter bapt. on 23 November 1831. Bankruptcy announced, London Gazette, 14 February 1834, but despite this resumed business. [D; PR (bapt.)]

Lancaster, James, Upper Westwick St, Norwich, chair and cabinet maker (1824–39). App. to James Ringer and free, 24 February 1824. [D; freemen rolls; admission reg.]

Lancaster, Jane, London, upholder (1748). Daughter of Benjamin Lancaster, freeman of the Upholders’ Co. and sister to Thomas Lancaster. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony, 4 May 1748. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lancaster, John, 135 Wapping, London, carpenter, undertaker and cm (1823). Took out insurance cover for £1,000 in November 1823. Of this £400 was in respect of utensils, stock and a workshop with loft over. A saw pit was located under the workshop. [GL, Sun MS vol. 496, ref. 1010182]

Lancaster, John, Heighington, Co. Durham, joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lancaster, Joseph, Wycombe Marsh, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1816–22). Two sons bapt., 1816–22. [PR (bapt.)]

Lancaster, R., 5 Rose St, Covent Gdn, London, chairmaker (1826). [D]

Lancaster, Richard, 122 St Martin's Lane, London, cane worker (1808). [D]

Lancaster, Thomas, London, upholder (1737). Son of Benjamin Lancaster, member of the Upholders’ Co. Brother of Jane Lancaster. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony, 12 October 1737. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lancaster, William, Liverpool, cane worker (1797–1814). At 2 Preeson's Row in 1797, but from 1800–03 the number was 4, and in 1806, 10. At 34 Paradise St, 1807–09, and in 1814 at London Rd. Employed by Mathew Gregson, cm and u, and in 1809 in a letter to Sir John Sinclair, Gregson indicated that Lancaster had worked for him for the last twelve years. William Lancaster was brother of the celebrated educationalist, Joseph Lancaster, and in 1814 was the contact through whom tickets could be obtained for a lecture on the ‘Royal Lancastrian System of Education’ which was to be given by his brother. Co-operated with Mathew Gregson in his experiment to manufacture furniture from whalebone. [D; Liverpool RO, GRE 920 2/23, 920 GRE 2/23/2; Liverpool Mercury, 8 July 1814]

Lance, George, 37 Castle St East, Oxford Mkt, London, cm and chairmaker (1817–29). In 1827 listed as a buhl maker and in 1829 as a buhl manufacturer and cm. [D]

Lanceley, Thomas, Chester, cm (b. 1771–d. 1834). At Gorst stacks in 1812, Brook St in 1818 and George St, 1819–26. Died on 17 Feburary 1834 aged 63 after a protracted illness. [Poll bks; Chester Courant, 25 February 1834)

Land, Benjamin Cole, Woodbridge, Suffolk, cm (1803). Married in 1803. [Suffolk RO, FAA: 50/2/112 A, p. 5]

Land, John, 8 Wild Ct, Wild St, London, upholder (1775). In 1775 insured his house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 236, p. 406]

Land, Samuel, Bampton St, Tiverton, Devon, cm (1803–38). In September 1803 married Mary Chapple, linen draper. [D; Exeter Flying Post, 15 September 1803]

Land, Titus, 30 Seward St, Goswell Rd, London, dyed chair manufacturer (1793–1808). [D]

Landall, Thomas, Little Argyle St, Westminster, London, cm and upholder (1724–c. 1756). In 1749 took as app. William Lenden, the premium of £20 being met from a fund for apprenticing the sons of poor clergymen. In the 1750s trading as Landall & Gordon from the sign of the ‘Griffin & Chair’, Little Argyle St. They made ‘all sorts of Tables, Chairs, Setee-Beds, Looking-Glasses, Picture-frames, Window-Blinds & all sorts of Cabinet work’. Their trade card is embellished with engravings of an elaborate splat back chair and a tea chest. [Heal; poll bks; General Advertiser, 17 April 1749]

Landcastle, John, Bristol, turner, cm and undertaker (1825–29). In 1825–27 at 26 Clare St, in but in 1828 at Nicholas St and Brislington, and in 1829 under the Bank and Brislington. Carried on a varied trade which included the sale of jewellery, perfumery, wooden toys, carpentry and building. A drawing [Bristol Art Gallery] shows his workshop at Brislington. In 1829 he supplied stools for Brislington Church. [D; Bristol Art Gallery, K4826; Brislington Churchwarden's accounts]

Landells, George, Church St, Whitehaven, Cumb., tool and cabinet maker (1811). [D]

Landen, Joyce, next ‘The Cross Keys’, Beton St, London, upholder (1777). In 1777 living in the house of W. Luthys, carver. Took out insurance cover of £100 of which £40 was in respect of utensils, stock and goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 258, p. 545]

Lander, Francis, Gt Brook St, Birmingham, coffin maker, cm and u (1828–30). [D]

Lander, John, London, upholder (1730). Son of Thomas Lander of London, a freeman of the Upholders’ Co. His son John was free of the Company by patrimony, 1 September 1730. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lander, Paul, Norwich, u (1777). Will proved at Norwich 1777. [Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Lander, Thomas, London, upholder (1730). Member of the Upholders’ Co. His son John was free by patrimony, 1 September 1730. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lander & Co., 1½ Frances Pl., Westminster Rd, London, cm (1829). [D]

Landers, James, 87 and 93 South St, Sheffield Moor, Sheffield, Yorks., cm (1814–37). [D]

Landor, G, Clemens St, Leamington, Warks., cm and u (1837). [D]

Lands, David, 12 Gt Russell St, Bloomsbury, London, upholder and cm (1785). Took out insurance cover of £400 on his utensils, stock and goods in trust. His house was insured for £600 more. [GL, Sun MS vol. 334, p. 7]

Landsall, Matthew, 4 Water St, Manchester, cm (1825). [D]

Lane, Charles, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (b. c. 1816–41). Son bapt. in 1840. Aged 25 at the time of the 1841 Census. [PR (bapt.)]

Lane, Edward, London and Basingstoke, Hants., upholder (1733–80). Son of Edward Lane of Basingstoke, grocer. App. to Robert North snr of London on 22 December 1733 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 3 August 1749. Living with his brother in Bartholomew Lane in 1750 but by 1778– 80 had returned to Basingstoke, Hants. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records, Livery lists, 1750]

Lane, Henry, 1 Litchfield St, Soho, London, upholder and undertaker (1837). [D]

Lane, Israel, parish of St Martin-at-Palace, Norwich, cm (1825–30). Son of Robert Lane. Free 5 February 1825. [Freemen rolls and admission reg.; poll bk]

Lane, Jacob, parish of St Clement, Cambridge, cm (1818). Child bapt. at St Clement's Church in 1818. [PR (bapt.)]

Lane, James, Beccles, Suffolk, cm (1797–98). [D]

Lane, James, 51 Vine St, Westminster, London, u (1835). [D]

Lane, John, Little Britain, London, cm (1790–93). The nearness of this address to St Martin-le-Grand makes it possible, that despite Sheraton's emphasis on the separation of the trades of cm and knife case maker, this maker was the John Lane recorded in his Drawing Book, 1793. [D]

Lane, John, 44 St Martin-le-Grand, London, knife case maker (1791–93). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793, in which he is mentioned as an eminent knife case maker. Sheraton emphasised that this was a separate trade from that of cabinet maker.

Lane, John, 1 Brick Lane, Old St, London, cm (1809). [D]

Lane, John, 47 Sloane St, London, carver and gilder (c. 1820). A giltwood convex mirror with inner ebonised border and deep surround set with balls was included in the Sotheby's sale of 29 September 1978, lot 124. This item had Lane's trade label affixed, as did also two carved and gilt brackets, with a label inscribed ‘John Lane of Knightsbridge’, sold at Sotheby's, 30 November 1962, lot 214.

Lane, John, Tavistock Lane, Devonport, Devon, turner, carver and chairmaker (1822). [D]

Lane, John & Co., Bristol, cm (1829–34). At 5 and 6 All Saints St in 1829, 6 All Saints St and 43 Wire St in the following year and John Lane, 6 All Saints St and Narrow Wire St, 1831–32. From 1833–34 traded in addition at 26 Union St. [D]

Lane, Joseph, 49 Millbank St, Westminster, London, u (1839). [D]

Lane, Richard, parish of St Giles, Norwich, chairmaker (1800– 06). Son of Thomas Lane, weaver and free, 15 February 1800. [Freemen admission reg.; poll bks]

Lane, Robert, Norwich, cm and u (1805–d. 1837). At St Lawrence, 1805–22, but in 1830 at Heigham. Will proved at Norwhich in 1837. His son Israel was admitted free on 5 February 1825. [D; poll bks; freemen admission reg.; Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Lane, Samuel, St Martin's parish, Westminster, London, cm (1749). [Poll bk]

Lane, Samuel, 38 Tything, Worcester, u (1822). [D]

Lane, T., Ambrose St, Cheltenham, Glos., cm (1839). [D]

Lane, Thomas, Exeter, Devon, cm (1819–27). At Cowick St, St Thomas in 1819 when his son Charles Thomas was bapt., and Gandy St in 1827 when his son Henry was bapt. [PR (bapt.)]

Lane, Thomas, 7 James St, Plymouth, Devon, cm (1822–38). [D]

Lane, Timothy, London, u, auctioneer and undertaker (1816–20). At 3 North Audley St in 1816 and 5 Vernon Pl., Bloomsbury Sq. in 1820. [D]

Lane, William, Cricklade St, Cirencester, Glos., chairmaker (1839). [D]

Lane & Billing, London, writing desk and dressing case makers at 60 and 74 St Paul's Churchyard initially, then 86 Strand and finally at 22 Coventry St, Haymarket. [D]

Lang, George, 8 Brooks St, Liverpool, cm (1804–12). Petitioned freedom on servitude to John Mears in 1804 but not sworn free until 5 October 1812. [Freemen's committee bk; freemen reg.]

Lang, M., London, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Langdale, John, Yarm, Yorks., joiner and cm (1827). [D]

Langdale, John, Tanner's Hill, Deptford, London, cm (1839). [D]

Langdon, —, London, u (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Langdon, Edward, 15 Old St Rd, London, look-glass manufacturer (1789). [D]

Langdon, John, London, upholder, cm, auctioneer, appraiser and undertaker (1795–1830). At 5 Old Bailey, 1795–96 and 3 Pilgrim St, 1797–99. At this period he listed his trade as cm and auctioneer. From 1799–1830 at 3 Broadway, Blackfriars. His trade card of 1830 lists in addition an address at Blackheath Hill. Declared bankrupt, Chester Courant, 25 May 1830. [D; PRO, B3/3111]

Langdon, John, High St, Barnstaple, Devon, cm, chairmaker and u (1808–d. by 1812). In 1808 advertised for a journeyman cm. By May 1812 he was dead and his business, utensils and stock were put up for sale. [Exeter Flying Post, 5 May 1808, 28 May 1812]

Langdon, William, Cottles Lane, Bath, Som., cm (1833). [D]

Lange, Charles, 54 Crown St, Finsbury, London, cm (1840). [D]

Langford, J. L., Chester, u (1833). One of the creditors of William Thomas & Henry Hesketh, bankers. [Liverpool Mercury, 20 September 1833]

Langford, John, Yeovil, Som., cm (1784). Freeman of Bristol. [Bristol poll bk]

Langford, John, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Langford, John, Birmingham, chairmaker (1830–35). Recorded at 233 Bradford St in 1830 and 22 Court, Bradford St in 1835. [D]

Langford, John, 89 East St, Lambeth, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Langford, Joseph, Bristol, cm (1774–84). In Bedminster, 1774– 81, but in 1784 at Worle, Som. [Bristol poll bks]

Langford, R., Church St, Worcester, chairmaker (1820). [D]

Langford, Richard, Dudley, Worcs., cm (1783). In 1783 insured his house for £140. [GL, Sun MS vol. 314, p. 130]

Langford, Richard, 26 and 27 Broker Row, Moorfields, London, u (1789–1802). In the period 1789–93 only 27 Broker Row used. In 1790 the business was referred to as a ‘cabinet warehouse’. [D]

Langford, Richard, Church St, Worcester, chairmaker (1820). [D]

Langford, Richard, St George's Mkt, London Rd, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Langford, Robert, Hatton Gdn, London, cm (1774). Freeman of Bristol. [Bristol poll bk]

Langford, Thomas, Hart St, Covent Gdn, London, cm (1749). [Westminster poll bk]

Langford, Thomas Stringer, Upper Bridge St, Chester, u (1792– 1802). Despite the fact that he was in business as early as 1792 he is not shown as free until 15 April 1797 after servitude to J. Stringer of Chester, u. It would seem unlikely that two persons with exactly the same names would be present in Chester at this period. Declared bankrupt, Liverpool Advertiser, 5 July 1802. [D; freemen rolls]

Langford, William, 13 New Compton St, London, upholder (1802). Freeman of Oxford. [Oxford poll bk]

Langford, William G., Leonard St, Finsbury, London, cm and u (1826–39). At 88 Leonard St in 1826 and at 15 in 1839. [D]

Langford, William, Hitchin, Herts., cm and u (1823–39). Trading at Sun St, 1826–39, and as Langford & Son, cm, u, appraisers and ironmongers, 1838–39. [D]

Langford, William, High St, Witney, Oxon., cm and u (1830). [D]

Langham, George, Harwich, Essex, cm (1784–88). Probate granted on will, 1788. [D; Wills at Chelmsford]

Langham, Henry, Lothbury, London, u (1764). [Heal]

Langham, Peter, London, upholder and cm (1775–79). At 23 Wardour St in 1775 when he took out insurance cover for £400 of which half was to cover utensils, stock and goods. In the period 1777–79 at the corner of Upper James St, Golden Sq. Here the insurance cover was much more substantial indicating a considerable extension of the scale of the business. In 1777 it was £2,400 with £1,000 for utensils and stock, and in 1779 the corresponding figures are £1,500 and £1,000. Bankrupt in 1779. [GL, Sun MS vol. 239, p. 327; vol. 260, p. 581; vol. 271, p. 579; Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Langland, William, Bromley, Kent, cm (1823). [D]

Langlands, James, 34 White Hart Yd, London, grocer and cm (1775). In 1775 insured his utensils and stock for £100 out of a total insurance cover of £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 239, p. 630]

Langlands, John, Epsom, Surrey cm (1838). [D]

Langlands, Robert, Bedlington, Northumb., joiner and cm (1827). [D]

Langlers, Edward, Church Lane, St Martin's, London, carver and gilder (1780). In 1780 insured his house for £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 282, p. 625]

Langles, John, West Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (b. c. 1801–41). Aged 40 at the time of the 1841 Census.

Langley, —, London, cm (1769). In April 1769 submitted an account for French pattern chairs etc. amounting to £25 13s 6d, supplied to Shelburne House, Berkeley Sq., London. [Bowood MS]

Langley, George, 29 Broad-chare, Newcastle, cm (1833). [D]

Langley, James, 1 Blakey St, Blackburn, Lancs., cm, joiner and house builder (1824). [D]

Langley, John, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1814). Son bapt. in 1814. [PR (bapt.)]

Langley, John, ‘Tunbridge’, Kent, cm (1837). Son James bapt. on 3 September 1837 in Tunbridge parish, which included not only the town of Tonbridge but also large parts of Tunbridge Wells. [PR (bapt.)]

Langley, Jos., 50 Foley St, London, carver (1835). [D]

Langley, Richard, Frome, Som., carver (1722–39). Freeman of Bristol. [Bristol poll bks]

Langley, Richard, Salisbury, Wilts., carver (1759). Took app. named William Elderton in 1759. [Wilts. Apps and their Masters]

Langley, Stephen, house on north side of Hart St and west side of Southampton Sq., parish of St Giles-in-the Fields, London, upholder (1712–d. by 1735). In 1712 insured two houses that he owned, but not his own dwelling, for £550. Dead by 1735 when his account for ‘two saffoy frames with carved feet, elbows and other ornaments richly gilt in gold, made suitable to the chairs’ at £11 15s was submitted to the 3rd Countess of Burlington. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 10, ref. 4394; V & A archives]

Langley, Thomas, London, upholder (1667–82). Name included in the records of the parish of St Mary, Woolchurch, Hawe. [Heal]

Langley, Thomas, Melton Mowbray, Leics., cm (1762). In 1762 took app. named Hides. [S of G, app. index]

Langley, Thomas, Downley, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (b. c. 1806–41). Aged 35 at the time of the 1841 Census.

Langley, William, Uppingham, Rutland, cm (1822). [D]

Langley & Cross, London, u (1700). In September 1700 paid by the executors of the 1st Duke of Bedford for ‘putting pulpit etc in Covent Garden Church into mourning’. [Bedford Office, London]

Langley & Denne, 166 Lower St, Deal, Kent, cm (1839). [D]

Langlois, Daniel, London, cm and ormolu maker (c. 1778). Probably the son of Pierre Langlois. App. to Dominique Jean in 1771, and after training probably carried on Pierre's business, or worked in it. A fine inlaid commode in the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge has the signature of Daniel Langlois on the carcase. [Goodison, Ormolu, p. 21]

Langlois, Pierre, 39 Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm (1759–81). Pierre Langlois was one of the leading cm in London in the 1760s and 1770s. He produced a wide range of furniture in the French manner, specializing in commodes in the Louis XV and Louis XVI styles decorated with floral marquetry and gilt-bronze mounts. His trade card [Heal Coll. BM] advertised cabinets and commodes, secretaries, corner cabinets and clock cases ‘Inscrutez de fleurs en Bois et Marqueteries garnies de Bronzes, doreez.’ It is illus. by Heal, but the text, in English (and French) reads: Peter Langlois | CABINET-MAKER | In Tottenham Court Road near Windmill Str. | Makes all Sorts of Fine Cabinets and | Commodes made & inlaid in the Politest manner | with Brass & Tortoiseshell & Likewise all rich Orna- | mental Clock Cases, and Inlaid work mended| with great Care. Branch Chandelier & Lanthorns | in Brass, at the Lowest Prices. | Pierre Langlois Ebeniste | dans Tottenham Court Road Proche Windmill St | Fait touttes sortes de Commodes …’. [Text follows in French the English text above]

In the Universal Director, 1763, Thomas Mortimer noted that Langlois made ‘all sorts of curious inlaid work, particularly commodes in the foreign taste, inlaid with tortoiseshell, brass, etc.’. His early marquetry was closely related to that of the Parisian ébéniste, Jean-François Oeben, in whose workshop he may have trained. He was probably well established in London by 1759, when he began to provide furniture for the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. He continued to pay rates on his shop at 39 Tottenham Ct Rd, which he shared with the bronze caster and gilder Dominique Jean, through to 1781. It was Jean who probably made the elaborate mounts for his furniture. Langlois had a fashionable clientele, including, in addition to the Duke of Bedford, Lady Louisa Conolly at Castletown, the Duchess of Northumberland at Alnwick, Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill and the Earl of Coventry at Croome Ct. Surprisingly few bills and references to his work are known but two securely documented pieces of furniture survive: a commode at Woburn (1760) and a commode from Croome Court, now in the MMA, NY (1764). P. Thornton and W. Rieder published a series of five articles on Langlois in 1971–72 in which all the bills and documents are quoted and a body of furniture is attributed to him. They divided the furniture into twelve stylistic groups, based on repeated patterns of marquetry, gilt-bronze mounts, general shape and constructional features. Subsequently the name has been applied rather too generously in the auction rooms, and in the trade, to many pieces of English furniture in the French taste that were more likely executed by several different, still anonymous cabinet-makers. [A. Coleridge, ‘Pierre Langlois, His Oeuvre and Some Recent Discoveries’, Gazette des Beaux Arts, September 1967; R. Fastnedge, ‘An Unpublished Commode Attributed to Pierre Langlois’, Furn. Hist., 1967; N. Goodison, ‘Langlois and Dominique’, Furn. Hist., 1968; T. Dell, ‘A Langlois Commode’, V & A Bulletin, April 1968; P. Thornton and W. Rieder, ‘Pierre Langlois, Ebéniste’, pts 1–5, Conn., December 1971, February—May 1972; W. Rieder, ‘More on Pierre Langlois’, Conn., September 1974]
WOBURN ABBEY, Beds. (4th Duke of Bedford). 1759–60: 1759: 13 Apr: A japan'd fire screen £2.20. 19 May. Une table de vide poche incrusté de fleur de bois violette des indes enjolivée de ornement de bronze dorée du prix de neuf quinée £9.9.0.
1760: 10 Dec. A large inlay'd commode table. £78. 8. 0. [now Yellow Drawing Room at Woburn] ‘Received Decm 18th 1760 of his Grace the Duke of Bedford by Richd Branson, Seventy Eight pounds Eight Shillings in full for a large Inlay'd Commode Table £78: 8: 0. Witness, P. Beaumont [Signed] Pierre Langlois’. 17 Dec. Madame la Duchesse de Bettefort pour une caisse pour emballer la grande commode incrustée (sent to Woburn Abbey) £1. 10. 0. 18 Dec. An Inlay'd writing desk £41.12.0.’ This last piece may have been made for Francis Marquess of Tavistock. Langlois did make furniture for him, for after the Marquess's death in 1767 the list of payments made to his creditors includes one to ‘Veuve Langlois for two comode tables of inlaid wood — £14. 0. 0.’. This perhaps refers to the pair of rectangular commodes now in the so-called Sporting Room at Woburn. It is of interest that at the same time as the widow Langlois was paid, Sir William Chambers was paid 10 guineas for work unspecified: could he have been involved with their design? [Bedford Office, London]
CROOME COURT, Worcs. (6th Earl of Coventry). 1764. Illus. Thornton & Rieder, pt 3, figs 1–2, p. 176.

Juliette Le 20 1764. Aux tres Honnorable Mon Segner Le Conte De Coventry. Pour une Grande Commode Pour Mettre Des Abit inscrutée de fleur du bois Natturelle des hinde et ornée de bronze Dorée du prix de £55–0–0
Plus pour La Caisse de bois de Pouce £1–5–0
pour deux botte de paille ficele et papier £0–4–4
Le Totale £56–9–4

Le meme jour recu Le Contens de ce billiet en plen et toutte Demende par moy. [Signed] Petter Langlois
SHERBORNE, Dorset (7th Lord Digby). 1762: 21 May. To Peter L'Anglois’ £12. 12s. [Hoare's Bank, Digby account] 1764: 23 June. ‘Money paid in London — L'Anglois £23’. [Sherborne Castle MS, Burnet's accounts. Possibly for the ‘ostrich’ tables in the Red Drawing Room] W.R.

Langman, George, St Pancras, London, cm (1818). On 4 April 1818 married Hannah Giles of Littlemore, Oxon., at the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Oxford. [Bodleian index of Oxf. marriage bonds]

Langman, John, High St, Downham Market, Norfolk, u and cm (1822–39). [D]

Langmead, William, High St, Hampstead, London, carver and gilder (1838–39). [D]

Langmore, William & Co., corner of King St, Guildhall Yd, London, upholders (1726–27). A large business if insurance records provide a true picture. In 1726 insured their stock for £1,000 which was increased in the following year to £2,000. [GL, Sun MS vol. 23, p. 121; vol. 25, ref. 43059]

Langrich, John, Arundel, Sussex, upholder (1772). [Bailey's List of bankrupts]

Langridge, John, London, chairmaker (1808–20). In 1808 at Holywell Row, Shoreditch and in 1820 at 48 Halfmoon Alley, Bishopsgate. [D]

Langshaw, William, Bristol, cm (1793–1806). At Milk St, 1793–95, but by 1801 had moved to Stokes Croft. The number in Stokes Croft was 53 in 1805–06. In 1793 subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book. [D]

Langslow, Edward, 13 Peter St, Bloomsbury, London, u (1789–93). [D]

Langstaff, Francis, Richmond, Yorks., u (1823–40). At Market Pl., 1823–27, but in 1840 in Frenchgate. [D]

Langstaffe, Joseph, Newcastle, upholder (1734). [Poll bk]

Langthorn, Mr, near Corner of Coventry Ct, Haymarket, London, glass grinder and glass seller (1768). Sale of entire stock in trade and household furniture on his retirement, at his house above, announced in Public Advertiser, 15 March 1768.

Langthorn, Henry, parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, frame maker (1706–16). In addition to his own house he possessed at least two other houses that he rented out. One was in the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields and was insured for £125 in 1706, and the other in Portugal St was valued at £175 in 1716. Supplied frames for Felbrigg, Norfolk in 1708 to a value of £3 4s 6d. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 4, ref. 10729; vol. 16, ref. 31439; Norfolk RO, Felbrigg WKC 6/23]

Langton, David, 10 Queen St, Cheapside, London, upholder (1737–d. 1795). Son of William Langton of Southwark, tanner. App. to William Rose, 7 August 1723 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 5 October 1737. Master of the Upholders’ Co., 1772. Took as apps Samuel Stephens (1739– 47), Edward Polhill (1747–56), William Meade (1755–62), Powell Buckler (1769–76), William Chinnery (1771–73) and Joseph Stephens (free 1778). At a date between 1778 and 1781 he took a partner named Buckler probably his former app., and the partnership continued until c. 1783 when David Langton retired. In 1786 he was living at Silver St, Edmonton, London and his death was recorded in November 1795. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Gents Mag., November 1795]

Langton, Robert, St Mary's Gate, Grimsby, Lincs., joiner and cm (1826). [D]

Langton, Robert, Epworth, Lincs., cm and joiner (1835). [D]

Langton, William, Epworth, Lincs., cm and joiner (1835). [D]

Lankford, Joseph, parish of St Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, cm (1754). [Poll Bk]

Lankford, Robert, Bristol, cm (1754). [Poll Bk]

Lannder, Paul, Norwich, u (1743). Free 20 June 1743 but not by apprenticeship. [Freemen rolls]

Lanning, —, 9 Kirby St, Hatton Gdn, London, carver and gilder (1835). [D]

Lanning, Thomas, 43 Theobalds Rd, London, cm and u (1835– 39). [D]

Lano, W., 40 Greek St, Soho, London, white wood box maker (1835). [D]

Lansdale, Matthew, Manchester, cm (1808–17). In 1808 at Both St, but from 1813 at 4 Water St, Bridge St. Recorded at 22 Back King St in 1815. [D]

Lansdell, George, Mays Buildings, Kings Rd, Brighton, Sussex, cm and u (1820–24). Two daughter bapt. in 1820 and 1824. [PR (bapt.)]

Lansdell, James, 48 Union Pl., Brighton, Sussex, carver and gilder (1826–27). [D]

Lansdell, John, Brighton Pl., Brighton, Sussex, cm, u, carver and gilder (1805–24). One directory of 1822 lists the number in Brighton Pl. as 5 and another as 6. In 1824 it was 6. Some directories list the trade as cm or cm and u and others as carver and gilder. [D]

Lansdell, Stephen, Brighton, Sussex, carver, gilder and looking-glass manufacturer (1832–40). In 1832 shown by one directory at 55 Meeting House Lane and another at 54 Union Pl. The latter address was in use in 1833. In 1839 at 50 East St where the manufacture of looking-glasses is mentioned for the first time. May have been a partnership as some directories refer to Messrs Lansdell. [D]

Lansdell, Stephen, 31 South St, Worthing, Sussex, carver and gilder (1839). Possibly a branch of the Brighton maker. [D]

Lansdell & Moppett, 6 East St, Brighton, Sussex, cm and u (1799–1800). [D]

Lantheon, J., address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Lapierre, Francis, Pall Mall, London, u (1688–d. 1717). An important Huguenot u who was employed on an extensive scale by the Crown and on major furnishing schemes in the last years of the 17th and the first two decades of the 18th century. His French nationality led him to be prosecuted in 1697 as an alien enemy.

The earliest commissions of this maker occur in the year of the Revolution in 1688 which placed William III and Mary II on the throne. He had worked for the Crown before the overthrow of James II, however, for commissions in connection with the furnishing of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea commence in the early months of that year. They carried on until 1692 and involved the supply of beds, chairs, cushions and other upholsterer's work costing £1,361 7s 6d. Immediately following the Revolution Lapierre supplied on loan for the Duke of Schomberg's appartment at St James's an ornate bed of crimson Genoese velvet, six walnut chairs and a large Turkey carpet. These were retained until August 1690, and for the 20 months hire a charge of £230 was made. In the period 1693–94 fifteen ‘French frames’ were provided for Hampton Court at a cost of £26 5s. The upholstery materials provided at the same time as the chair frames was however more significant from the point of view of cost and the whole account totalled £337 13s 4d. For Kensington Palace a large Persian carpet was supplied in 1691 for the Queen's Gallery at a cost of £64 10s.

This patronage by the Royal Household was matched by that of the aristocracy and nobility. For Chatsworth, Derbs. extensive furnishings were provided. In 1694 Lapierre was paid £5 for his expenses in travelling to Chatworth and in the years that followed rich furniture was produced in his workshops for this house. A bed supplied in 1697 cost £470 and arrangement was made to pay for this at £6 per week. The first seventeen payments amounting to £102 were made at Michaelmas of that year. A further £70 was incurred in altering another bed. The canopy and back of Lapierre's bed survive in the Long Gallery at Hardwick Hall, Derbs., another Cavendish property. Payments to Lapierre at Chatsworth continue to March 1700 when 22 yds of velvet were charged at £29 5s and some gold brocade at £15 13s 6. At Drayton House, Northants. commissions are recorded as early as 1689 and again beds were involved. An account of the Earl of Peterborough's debts drawn up in May 1702 included a sum of £50 due to Lapierre. For Boughton House, Northants. considerable work was undertaken with balances reaching as much as £1,432 4s in 1704. Supplying mending and cleaning tapestries and hangings alone for the period 1695–1705 came to £448 5s. This account was settled in February 1712. The renowned designer Daniel Marot, a fellow Huguenot, is associated with this work at Boughton. At Knole, Kent, gilt chairs and stools were supplied and these are now in the ballroom. The name ‘Lapierr 1695’ has also been found on a marble fireplace in one of the main bedrooms. He also worked for the 5th Earl of Exeter at Burghley House, Northants. [Wren Soc, vol. XIX, p. 85; V & A archives; DEF; Nat. Trust guide to Hardwick, p. 28; PRO, LC5/43, LC9/125, pp. 34–35, LC9/126, p. 30, LC9/280, LC9/128, p. 17; Apollo, April 1975; C. Life, 9 June 1977, p. 1620; Conn., April 1981, p. 282; Glyn Mills Bank (Child's), Exeter account] B.A.

Lapierre, Jean, address unknown, u(?) 1707. This name is recorded in the accounts for Dalkeith House, near Edinburgh, On 9 May 1707 £15 was paid to him ‘for helping ye Groom of ye Chamber’ furnish the house.

Lapley, James, ‘The Three Cocks’, upper end of Cheapside, London, goldsmith. On 21 February 1688/89 offered for sale a silver table, stands and looking-glasses with andirons, sconces and several pieces of plate. [London Gazette, 21 February 1688/89]

Lappington, Thomas, Piccadilly, London, upholder (1709). In November 1709 insured his house and workshop ajoining for £250. In 1720 a Mrs Lappington was carrying on the business, suggesting that Thomas was by this date dead. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 7, ref. 19266; Heal]

Larche, Peter, 29 Gresse St, Rathbone Pl., London, carver (1806). In 1806 took out insurance cover of £100 on household goods ‘in the house of Linney a cabinet maker’. [GL, Sun MS vol. 437, ref. 795193]

Large, James, 226 Piccadilly, London, see Eyre & Large.

Large, James, 19 Old Cavendish St, London, upholder (1825– 37). [D]

Large, Thomas, Church St, Wellington, Salop, cm (1822). [D]

Large, W., address unknown, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Larkin, Philip, Queen St, Chelsea, London, bedstead maker (1837). [D]

Larking, Thomas, Mount St, Nottingham, cm, u and paper hanger (1835). [D]

Larner, William, Church St, Chelsea, London, cm and u (1823). [D]

Laroche, William, Bridgwater, Som., draper and u (1754). [Poll bk]

Larrance, Samuel, Norwich and London, cm, chairmaker and u (1777–1812). In 1777 trading from an address in Dove Lane, when he took out insurance cover of £250 on his utensils, stock and goods and £50 on his warehouse. He was made a freeman of Norwich on 6 November 1778 but had not been app. in the City. By March 1780 he had come to a decision to leave Norwich and advertised his stock in trade for sale by auction. Later in this year he commenced trading from 42 Carnaby St, London as a cm. He took out insurance cover of £300 of which half covered his utensils and stock. His stay in London was however brief and by 1786 he was back in Norwich and living the parish of St John Maddermarket. From 1801 his business address was 1 St Andrew's Plain. [D; poll bks; freemen admission reg.; Norfolk Chronicle, 18 March 1780; GL, Sun MS vol. 255, p. 325; vol. 282, p. 443]

Larson, William, parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, carver (d. 1661). ‘Died abroad or at sea’. [PCC Wills, 1935, p. 148]

Larter, Thomas, St Gregory's Churchyard, Norwich, cm and u (1829–40). On 24 February 1829 his app. Robert Riches jnr was admitted a freeman, which suggests that his business was active well before the first directory entry in 1830. [D; poll bk]

Larter, William, Colegate St, Norwich, cm (1836). [D]

Lary, Joseph, 6 Oxford St, Commercial Rd East, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Lasbury, F, 2 Bruton St, Bath, Som., u (1819). [D]

Lascelles, Robert, Exeter, Devon, carver and gilder (1824–40). Four sons and three daughters bapt. at St Sidwell's Church, 1824–40. From 1834–36 at Well Lane, but in 1840 at Summer Lane. [PR (bapt.)]

Lascelles, William, Lancaster, cm (1767–68). [Freemen rolls]

Lascells, Edmund, Exeter, Devon, carver (b. 1758–d. 1839). At New Bridge St in 1791 and St Sidwell St, 1825–28. Died 12 December 1839 aged 81. [D; Exeter Flying Post, 26 December 1839]

Lashmar, Charles, Brighton, Sussex, cm (1793). [D]

Laskey, John, Exeter, Devon, cm (1727). Free 1727 and in the same year took app. named Waye. [Freemen rolls; S of G, app. index]

Laskey, John, Exeter, Devon, cm and chairmaker (1791–1811). In 1791 also a linen draper. In this year he insured his utensils, stock and goods for £300. In a Militia Census of 1803 his address is recorded as St Paul and Bradninch. In February 1811 announced a change of address from North St to Goldsmith St. [GL, Sun MS vol. 376, p. 362; Exeter Flying Post, 21 February 1811]

Laskey, Robert, Exeter, Devon, cm (1796–1816). At North St in 1796 and Goldmith St in 1816. These addresses suggest some relationship to John Laskey. [D]

Laskey, Samuel, London, cm and u (1827–39). At 1 Francis St, Gray's Inn Rd in 1827, 11 Sidmouth St in 1829, 31 Judd Pl., New Rd in 1835 and 4 Wakefield St, Brunswick Sq. in 1839. [D]

Lassell, Thomas, Liverpool, joiner and cum (1811–24). At 1 Sefton St in 1811, 1 Hill St, 1813–14, 10 Park Lane, 1823 and 1 Park Lane in 1824. [D]

Latchford, Thomas, Liverpool, cm (1761). When in September 1761 he was released from Debtors’ Prison, he was said to be ‘late of Liverpool’. A person of the same name and trade became a freeman of Chester in 1770 and established a business in that city. [London Gazette, 13 September 1761]

Latchford, Thomas snr, Northgate St, Chester, cm (1770–84). Free 23 June 1770. His son Thomas Latchford jnr was his app. and free in 1784. A craftsman of the same name described as ‘late of Liverpool’ was discharged from Debtors’ Prison in 1761. [Freemen rolls; poll bk]

Latchford, Thomas jnr, Chester cm (1784). Son and pupil of his father Thomas Latchford snr. Assigned to John Cooke of Chester and free, 6 April 1784. [Freemen rolls]

Lates, John James Benjamin, High St, Walsall, Staffs., cm and u (1830). [D]

Lates, John, 16 Tonk St, Birmingham, u (1839). [D]

Latham, Edmund, Bradford St, Birmingham, u (1828). [D]

Latham, Henry, Dole Lane, Chorley, Lancs., cm and joiner (1818–22). [D]

Latham, James, Gt Wild St, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, cm (1820–22). In 1820 at 60 Gt Wild St and in 1822 at 50. [D]

Latham, James, St Helens, Lancs., cm (1818–34). In Parr St, 1818–25 and also in 1834, but one directory of 1828 shows the address as Church St. [D]

Latham, James, Liverpool, cm (1829–39). At 86 Norfolk St in 1829 but from 1834 in St James St. The number here is 43 in 1834, 40 in 1835, 57 in 1837 and 83 in 1839. [D]

Latham, Joseph, Gray's Inn Rd, London, cm and u (1825–29). At 6 Terrace, Gray's Inn Rd in 1825 but subsequently at 4 Upper North Pl. In 1825 declared his trade to be wholesale cm. [D]

Latham, Joseph, Welsh (or Welch) Row, Nantwich, Cheshire, cm (1828). Associated with Samuel Latham at this address. [D]

Latham, Peter, Chapel Lane, Wigan, Lancs., cm (1822–25). [D]

Latham, Peter, Chapel Lane, Salford, Lancs., cm (1828–34). [D]

Latham, Samuel, Welsh (or Welch) Row, Nantwich, Cheshire, cm (1822–28). Associated with Joseph Latham who followed the same trade at this address in 1828. [D]

Latham, Thomas, Cross Lane, London, carver (1749). [Westminster poll bk]

Latham, William, Tickle St, Manchester, cm (1800–04). At 23 Tickle St in 1800 and 24 in 1804. [D]

Latham, William, Sheffield, Yorks., cm (1821–28). At Whitehouse Lane in 1821 and 32 Fargate in 1828. [D]

Latimar, D., Brampton, Cumb., cm (1811). See also James Lattimer trading as a joiner and cm in Brampton in 1828. [D]

Latleff, John, 30 Bacon St, Spitalfields, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Latta, Robert, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Latten, James, London, u (1799–30). Freeman of Norwich. [Norwich poll bks]

Latter, James, Culverden Gate, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Tunbridge-ware maker (c. 1795). Trade card in the Sprange Coll., Tunbridge Wells Museum.

Lattimer, James, Brampton, Cumb., joiner and cm (1828). Probably related to the D. Latimar trading in Brampton as a cm in 1811. [D]

Lattimore, —, Lane End, Staffs., joiner and cm (d. 1807). [Staffordshire Advertiser, 22 August 1807]

Latton, James, Norwich, upholder (1786). Son of James Latton, pattern maker. Free 28 October 1786. [Freemen admission reg.]

Latus, William, 3 Bridge St, Preston, Lancs., chairmaker (1818). [D]

Lauder, David, New St, Soho, London, cm (1774). [Westminster poll bk]

Lauder, John, London, cm and upholder (1774–86). In 1774 at 48 Chandos St. His trade card [Heal Coll., BM] displays fashionable Rococo furniture and announces that he also conducted funerals. In 1786 at 20 King St, St Ann's. Here he took out insurance cover for £400 but only £90 of this was in respect of utensils, stock and goods in trust. [Westminster poll bk; GL, Sun MS vol. 338, p. 580]

Lauder, John, Rotton Row, Derby, cm and u (1835). [D]

Laughton, Henry, King St, St Ann's Soho, London, carver, gilder and frame maker (1759–64). In August 1759 supplied to John, 4th Duke of Bedford ‘a rich carved pier frame & gilt in burnished gold’ for which £11 11s was charged. This was probably for Woburn Abbey, Beds. which had recently been rebuilt by Henry Flitcroft. In 1764 frames were supplied by this maker to Sir Lawrence Dundas for his London house, 19 Arlington St. [Bedford Office, London; N. Yorks. RO, ZNK X1/7/74]

Laughton, Henry, Nottingham, chairmaker (1834). [Freemen rolls]

Laughton, Saunders, Stamford, Lincs., cm and joiner (1743). In 1743 took L. Rayner as app. [Stamford Town Hall bk 2A/1/3]

Launder, William, Groombridge, Kent, turner and chairmaker (1761). In February 1761 advertised for four journeymen, a chairmaker, a pail maker, a shovelmaker and a hollow turner. [Sussex Weekly Advertiser, 16 February 1761]

Laurance, Thomas, Dunholme, Lincs., cm (1760). In 1760 took app. named Priestley. [S of G, app. index]

Laurence, Alexander, Macclesfield, Cheshire, chairmaker (1761). In 1761 took app. named Allen. [S of G, app. index]

Laurence, Samuel, ‘The Crown & Coffee Mill’, Fenchurch St, London, turner (1730). In July 1730 supplied Sir Gilbert Heathcote with a large pair of backgammon tables and dice boxes at £1 3s. [Lincoln RO, 2 ANC 12/0/12]

Laurikens(?), Mark Anthony, 37 Greenhill Rents, Smithfield, London, shagreen case maker (1810). Insured his household goods for £300 in December 1810. [GL, Sun MS vol. 449, ref. 852162]

Lavallin, John, Goldsmith's St, Exeter, Devon, cm and u (1770). In May 1770 announced the establishment of his shop in Goldsmith's St where he traded as a ‘working’ cm. He sold mahogany ‘solid Chests of Drawers, with or without Sliding Desks; Commode Chests of Drawers, Tables, Desks, Book-Cases, and Wardrobes; Writing Tables of all Sorts, with Spring Tops; Mahogany Chairs of the newest Patterns, &c. &c. all which he sells at Fifteen per Cent. cheaper than the usual Prices for Ready Money’. He also undertook upholstery work and featured in his advertisement ‘BED and WINDOW CURTAINS, In the True Festoon Manner’. He stocked pier glasses. The advertisement ended with an appeal for workmen in the cabinet and chair branches to assist in the business. [Exeter Evening Post, 18–25 May 1770]

Lavallin, Michael, High St, Colchester, Essex, cm and u (1805– 08). [D]

Lave, Edward, 5 Bedford St, Commercial Rd, London, u (1839). [D]

Lavender, James, Portsmouth, Hants., cm (1717). In 1717 took app. named Knight. [S of G, app. index]

Lavender, William, 15 Old Cavendish St, Cavendish Sq., London, japanner, chair and cabinet maker (1807–11). In 1808–09 the trade was listed as japanner and chairmaker but from 1809–11 it was japanner and cm. [D]

Laverock, James, London, cm and u (1826–29). At 53 Paddington St, Marylebone, 1826–27, but in 1829 at Bedford St, Bedford Row. [D]

Law, John, 10 Derby St, Liverpool, cm (1796). [D]

Law, Joseph, Sedgeley, Staffs., cm (1761). In 1761 took app. named Taylor. [S of G, app. index]

Law, Magnus, Duke's Ct, St Martin's Lane, London, cm (1790–93). [D]

Law, Robert, Wooler, Northumb., cm, u and joiner (1827–34). [D]

Law, Stephen, London, cm and u (1809–39). At 66 Gt Titchfield St, Cavendish Sq. in 1809 and 102 Gt Portland St, 1812–39. [D]

Law, William, Sedgeley, Staffs., cm (1759–61). In 1759 took app. named Clark and in 1761, Bowyer. Law's address in 1761 was stated to be ‘Tedby’, Staffs. [S of G, app. index]

Law, William, 28 Upper King St, Bloomsbury, London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Law, William, Ulverston, Lancs., cm and u (1828–34). In 1828 in Market St; in 1829 in King St; and in 1834 in Brook St. [D]

Law, William Henry, London, cm and u (1822–39). In October 1822 at 38 King St, Holborn. He took out insurance cover for £650 of which £500 was for utensils, stock and goods in trust. His workshop was in Upper King St over a cowhouse and he appears to have been living at this date in the house of a man called Holland, a coachmaker. By February 1824 he had moved to 48 Devonshire St, Queen Sq. which he was to occupy until 1839. In February 1824 his insurance cover was increased to £750. He still retained the workshop in Upper King St, but this was now rented out to a maker of pianos and was covered for £250. His main place of work was now Devonshire St which had a warehouse behind valued at £100. Utensils and goods were valued at £175 with an additional £30 for glass plates and smaller sums for prints and pictures, china and glass. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 489, ref. 997188; vol. 495, ref. 1014388]

Lawcock, John, Pontefract, Yorks., cm (1754). In 1754 took app. named Reynold. [S of G, app. index]

Lawder, Andrew, London, u (1807–39). Shown at 3 James St, Grosvenor Sq. in an 1808 directory, with the number changed to 4 in the following year. Insurance records however show him at 4 Grosvenor St as early as 20 November 1807 when he took out cover for £600. At 3 King St, Portman Sq. in 1835 and two years later the business changed its style to Andrew Lawder & Son. A further move was made to 105 High St, Marylebone. [D]

Lawdor, David, New St, London, cm (1784). [Westminster poll bk]

Lawes, Samuel, St Clement's, Norwich, cm (1786). [Poll bk]

Lawes, (or Laws), William, Dover, Kent, cm (1826–28). [Poll bks]

Lawford, William, 13 Marchmont St, Brunswick Sq., London, u (1839). [D]

Lawkland, Thomas, Lancaster, cm (1779–84). Free 1779–80 when stated ‘of London’. Almost certainly the cm with the same name at 126 Wardour St, London in 1781. In this year he took out insurance cover for £100. He is included in the 1784 Lancaster poll bk when his address is listed as London. [GL, Sun MS vol. 297, p. 114; Lancaster freemen rolls]

Lawledge, Mathias, London, cm and u (1820–39). Probably the son of Thomas Lawlidge who was trading from 76 Harley St, Cavendish Sq. as an upholder and appraiser in 1817. Mathias Lawledge traded from this address 1820–35 and from 26 Weymouth St, Portland Sq., 1837–39. [D]

Lawler, William, Cirencester, Glos., cm (1828–29). [PR (bapt.)]

Lawless, J., Henrietta Pl., Bath, Som., cm (1833). [D]

Lawley, John, 18 Redlion Ct, Spitalfields, London, bedstead maker (1839). [D]

Lawley, Thomas jnr, Sandford St, Lichfield, Staffs., cm (1830– 35). [Poll bks]

Lawlidge, Thomas, 76 Harley St, Cavendish Sq., London, upholder and appraiser (1817). Succeeded at this address in 1820 by Mathias Lawledge. [D]

Lawrance, Samuel, St Andrew's Pl., Norwich, cm and appraiser (1808). [D]

Lawrance, William, Boar Lane, Leeds, Yorks., joiner and cm (1798–1807). In 1807 he sold his business and advertised his intention of trading as an ‘Architect & Valuer of Buildings’ and also carried on the business of a ‘Raff-Merchant’. [Furn. Hist., 1974]

Lawrence, —, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, u (1796). [Freemen rolls]

Lawrence, Ann, 258 Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm and u (1827). Probably the widow of Charles Lawrence who traded from this address up to 1826 in the same trade. [D]

Lawrence, Charles, 258 Tottenham Ct Rd, St Giles, London, cm, u and undertaker (1817–26). Succeeded by Ann Lawrence in 1827. [D]

Lawrence, Christopher, Barker Lane, York, cm (1778–84). Son of Thomas Lawrence, glover, and free 1778. [Freemen rolls; poll bk]

Lawrence, D. W., 9 Upper Castle St, Leicester Sq., London, carver and gilder (1813–16). [D]

Lawrence, David, 13 New St, Cloth Fair, London, cm (1802). Freeman of Oxford. [Oxford poll bk]

Lawrence, George, 9 New Bond St, pocket book, dressing case and desk maker (1822–39). Nephew and successor to Mrs Elvey. Claimed to be maker to the Royal Family, the King of Prussia and the Prince of Orange. In 1822 supplied an inlaid kingwood writing desk to George IV at a cost of £3 13s 6d. The account was not settled until May 1826. Other patronage came from the Rt Hon. Lord G. Hervey, an invoice existing in the Suffolk RO at Bury St Edmunds. Lawrence is also recorded carrying out repairs from 1833–34 amounting to £13 6s for the Earl of Hopetoun at Hopetoun House, Lothian, Scotland. [D; Windsor Royal Archives, RA25415, 35604; Suffolk RO, 941/73/16; Scottish RO, Hopetoun, bundle 250]

Lawrence, George, Union St, Tottenham Ct Rd, St Pancras, London, chairmaker (1823–24). On 16 October 1823 took app. named James Wood, but the apprenticeship was cancelled from 18 August 1824 by the magistrate at the Marylebone St Office on the grounds of ill treatment. [GL, P83/MRY1/876/152]

Lawrence, James, Fossgate, York, cm (1780–1816). Son of Thomas Lawrence, cm and free 1780. In April 1801 took his son Thomas as app. Thomas and his brother Edward were sworn free as cm in 1812, and a further son Christopher was free as a cm 1816. [Poll bk; freemen rolls]

Lawrence, James, Gloucester Pl., Southwark, London, bedstead maker (1826). [D]

Lawrence, James, Arches St, Newport, Isle of Wight, Hants., u (1839). [D]

Lawrence, John, Bloomsbury, London, carver (1761). In 1761 discharged from Debtors’ Prison. His address was stated to be formerly of Bloomsbury, St Giles, Middlx. [London Gazette, 22 August 1761]

Lawrence, John, 150 Bishopsgate St Without, London, u (1765–73). His trade card [Heal Coll., BM] indicates that he was also an undertaker and appraiser. He also sold cabinet goods, and a tallboy, a bureau and two tables are illustrated on his trade card. [D]

Lawrence, John, 29 Litchfield St, Soho, London, carver and gilder (1820). [D]

Lawrence, John, Commercial Rd, Cheltenham, Glos., cm and u (1830). [D]

Lawrence, Joseph, Shrewsbury, Salop, u (1776). In 1776 insured his shop, utensils and stock for £600. In 1796 a Lawrence, u, was trading at an address in Wyle Cop. [GL, Sun MS vol. 247, p. 285]

Lawrence, Joseph, Market Pl., Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., cm and u (1823). [D] See Lawrence & Owthwaite

Lawrence, Matthew, London, carver and gilder (1835–39). In 1835 at 77 Whitelion St, Pentonville and in 1839 at 7 Well St, Oxford St. [D]

Lawrence, R. Thomas, 31 Hercules Buildings, Lambeth, London, carver and gilder (1826–27). [D]

Lawrence, Richard, Chester and Bristol, u (1732). Son of Richard Lawrence of Chester, tailor. Freeman of Chester, 12 October 1732. [Freemen rolls]

Lawrence, Richard, address unknown, carver (1732–37). In connection with Cley, the Duke of Montrose's house in Norfolk, he is recorded supplying marble tables ‘& glasses for the tabernacles’ at a cost of £71. These were paid for in 1732. [Scottish RO, GD 220/6/31, p. 640] Lawrence also worked with James Richards, Master Sculptor and Carver to the Crown, in 1737 on the Queen's Library, St James's Palace. [H. M. Colvin, ed., History of the King's Works, vol. 5 p. 243, fn. 1]

Lawrence, Richard, Wardour St, Soho, London, carver (1732–95). App. to Sefferin Alken in 1746, and presumably son of Richard Lawrence above. Working for the Crown by 1760 at Windsor, where he was given care of Grinling Gibbons's carved woodwork, much to the disgust of George Murray (d. 1761), who had been appointed Master Sculptor and Carver to the Crown in February 1760. Lawrence undertook a considerable amount of carving in stone at Greenwich Hospital, including the restoration of the Chapel following the fire of 1779. Worked at Somerset House, Strand, 1777–91, in both stone and wood. Also worked at Strawberry Hill, Westminster Hall, Milton Manor, Berks., Inveraray Castle, the Duke of Buckingham's London house in Pall Mall, and Shardeloes, Bucks. [D; Beard, Craftsmen and Interior Decoration, 1981; Gunnis; Bucks. RO, Tyrwhitt Drake MS 5/27]

Lawrence, Thomas, Chester, upholder (1747). [Poll bk]

Lawrence, Thomas, Leeds and York, cm (1758–84). Freeman of York. In Leeds in December 1758 but by 1774 had returned to York and lived in Walmgate, 1774–84. His son James was free as a cm in 1780. [York poll bks; freemen rolls]

Lawrence, Thomas, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (1796). An u named Lawrence is also shown in this street in the same year. [Freemen rolls]

Lawrence, Thomas, York cm (1801–12). Son of James Lawrence, cm of York, and app. to him on 13 April 1801. Free 1812. [Freemen rolls]

Lawrence, Thomas, Bristol, carver and gilder (1817–20). At 3 Barra St, 1817–18, and 6 Syms's Alley, 1819–20. [D]

Lawrence, William, Bristol, cabinet and chair carver (1826–35). At 3 Maudlin Buildings, Upper Maudlin St in 1826, and 12 Horse Fair, 1828–35. [D]

Lawrence, William, Deal, Kent, u (1826). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury poll bk]

Lawrence, William, 10 Gt Quebec St, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Lawrence & Owthwaite, Market Pl., Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., cm and u (1830). [D] See Joseph Lawrence.

Lawrenson, John, Ormskirk St, St Helens, Lancs., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Lawson, —, Listergate, Nottingham, fancy chairmaker (1814). Elizabeth Lawson, chairmaker, was at this address in 1832. See James Lawson and Matthew Lawson. [D]

Lawson, Benjamin, 29 New St, Cloth Fair, London, chairmaker (1808). [D]

Lawson, Charles, London, cm and u (1809–27). At 12 Maiden lane, Covent Gdn in 1809 and 4 Wild Passage, Drury Lane in 1827. [D]

Lawson, Elizabeth, Listergate, Nottingham, chairmaker (1822–32). A person named Lawson was working in Listergate as a fancy chairmaker in 1814. [D] See James Lawson and Matthew Lawson

Lawson, George, Coppergate, York, cm (1774–84). [Poll bks]

Lawson, George, Marlborough St, Liverpool, chairmaker (1827–39). The number in Marlborough St is given as 23 in 1827 and 1837, 24 in 1829, 43 in 1834 and 45 in 1839. [D]

Lawson, Gilbert, London, victualler and cm (1777–84). In 1777 at the Chequers, Abingdon St, Westminster where he took out insurance cover of £500 of which £300 was for utensils and stock. In 1784 in Park St, Westminster. [GL, Sun MS vol. 254, p. 331; poll bk]

Lawson, J., 33 Wilks St, Spitalfields, London, chairmaker (1820). [D]

Lawson, James, 4 Chandos St, Covent Gdn, London, cm (1763–78). In the period 1763–65 recorded in directories as James & Peter Lawson but after 1767 solely as James Lawson. Carried out extensive commissions for Sir Lawrence Dundas for Moor Park, Herts., Aske Hall, Yorks. and his London house at 19 Arlington St. Between June 1763 and April 1764 goods to the value of £399 6s 9½d were supplied and from April 1764 to October of the same year bills from this maker totalled £359 9s 7½d. After this amounts became less, and from December 1764, to September 1765 only £68 18s 3d was due. A document of c. 1770 exists, in which Sir Lawrence totalled the sums paid to craftsmen in connection with his houses in England and against Lawson's name the sum is listed as ‘about £1,100’. Detailed invoices survive for the furniture supplied in 1763 and 1764. A great quantity of Lawson's furniture for Sir Lawrence was useful rather than highly decorative, for this patron was also emloying Samuel Norman, France & Bradburn, Thomas Chippendale and Fell & Turton to provide furniture for him at this time. He did however buy from Lawson one expensive suite of giltwood furniture. A hall chair, one of a set of five originally supplied, a pair of mahogany serving tables and a mahogany clothes press, all now at Aske Hall have been identified as items supplied on these invoices in 1764. Another house in which Lawson's name is recorded in the accounts is Burton Constable, Yorks. Here an account survives for a mahogany writing table ‘with a top to rise’ which was invoiced on 10 August 1771 at £7 10s. In 1778 he was paid £11 8s by Sir Edward Knatchbull of Mersham-le-Hatch, Kent for ‘putting up, cleaning the walls & for brown paper’. [D; Apollo, September 1967; N. Yorks. RO, ZNK X 1/7/26–30, 72; Kent RO, U951 A19/2]

Lawson, James, London, cm and chairmaker (1801–08). Bankruptcy announced, Liverpool Advertiser, 7 December 1801. Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803, and in 1808 trading from 17 Montague St, Spitalfields. [D]

Lawson, James, Keswick, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811). [D]

Lawson, James jnr, 21 Princes Sq., Ratcliffe Highway, London, chair and sofa maker (1820–37). [D]

Lawson, James, Stratford, Essex, cm (1823). [D]

Lawson, James, Burscough St, Ormskirk, Lancs., chairmaker (1825). [D]

Lawson, James, Nottingham, chairmaker (1825–35). Recorded at Listergate, 1825–28, and Leen Side in 1835. [D] See Lawson, —, Elizabeth Lawson and Matthew Lawson.

Lawson, James, Lancaster, turner (1827–28). Named in the Gillow records in connection with chair manufacture. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/102, p. 3647]

Lawson, James, 16 Worship St, Finsbury, London, cm (1835). [D]

Lawson, John, Pall Mall, London, upholder (1718–22). The location in Pall Mall is given as ‘Against Pall Mall Court’ in 1720, ‘next door to the Royal Oak’ in 1721 and on the north side in 1722. His dwelling house here was insured for £300 in 1722. Recorded working for Judith, Countess of Jersey, 1718–20. The largest amount paid was £21 1s for chairs and window curtains. A number of picture frames were made, a picture cleaned, a bed set up, a large glass sconce, a ‘pair of stairs’ and some ‘walnut drawers for a bureau to stand on’ supplied. [Heal; GL, Sun MS vol. 10, ref. 16461; vol. 26, p. 351; PRO, C111/54]

Lawson, John, Cambridge, cm, u and joiner (1763–66). John Lawson is first recorded when on 4 June 1763 he advertised in the Cambridge Chronicle, saying that ‘he has taken a SHOP next Door to the Black-Bear in Bridge-Street’. On 24 September of the same year he advertised that he would have a Booth ‘with a very great Choice of Goods’ at the annual Sturbridge Fair, held just outside Cambridge. He advertised again on 7 April 1764, when moving to a shop on the corner of Shoemaker Row, Cambridge, describing himself as an ‘Upholsterer and Cabinet Maker from London’. On 7 June 1766 a two-day auction was advertised of all ‘the Shop Goods of John Lawson, Upholsterer and Cabinet maker … leaving off those Branches of Business except bespoke Goods … The Carpenters and Joiners Work carried on … as before’.

R. W.

Lawson, John, Lancaster (1789–1840). Named in the Gillow records in 1789, 1814, 1819–20, 1822–26, 1830, 1833, 1840. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lawson, John, Lancaster, cm (1803–12). App. to William Blackburn 1803 and free 1811–12. [App. Reg.]

Lawson, John, Blaydon, Co. Durham, joiner/carpenter/cm (1834). [D]

Lawson, Joshua, Main St, Cockermouth, Cumb., chairmaker (1829). [D]

Lawson, Matthew, Listergate, Nottingham, chairmaker (1835–40). [D] See Lawson, —, Elizabeth Lawson and James Lawson.

Lawson, Richard, Coppergate, York, cm (1774). [Poll bk]

Lawson, Richard, London, cm (before 1785). In July 1785 working in the state of Maryland in the USA and had been resident there for a time. He claimed to have been employed for thirteen years in ‘Mr Seddon's warehouse, in London’. [Maryland Journal, 29 July 1785]

Lawson, Robert, Lancaster, cm (1805–33). App. to J. Hodgson 1805 and free, 1811–12. Named in the Gillow records 1818, 1820–27, 1830 and 1832–33. [App. reg.; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lawson, Stephen, Rotherhithe, London, carver (1780–86). Operated 1780–83 as Lawson & Hopkins from near Prince's Stairs but in 1786 Stephen Lawson was declared bankrupt. Trading once more on his own account from 36 Rotherhithe in 1788. Most of his emloyment appears to have been ship carving. [D; Gents Mag., June 1786]

Lawson, Thomas, Huntriss Row, Scarborough, Yorks., cm (1823). [D]

Lawson, Thomas, Red St, Nottingham, chairmaker (1825). [D]

Lawson, William, Holme, Notts., chairmaker and turner (1719). In 1719 took app. named Pratt. [S of G, app. index]

Lawson, William, High St, Oldham, Lancs., cm (1834). [D]

Lawson, William, Parliament St, York, cm etc. (1840). [D]

Lawther, Matthew, 16 Bride Lane, Bridge St, London, cm (1823). In January 1823 took out insurance cover of £150 which included £30 for a chest of tools in William Baynes's workshop in Wheatsheaf Yd, Fleet Mkt. [GL, Sun MS vol. 489, ref. 999880]

Lawton, John, Manchester, cm (1772–81). In 1772 at Long Millgate, in 1773 at Deansgate and in 1781 at High St. [D]

Lawton, John, 35 Cow Lane, West Smithfield, London, glass grinder and plated frame maker (1811). In March 1811 took out insurance cover of £2,800. His premises included a workshop and a warehouse and his utensils and stock were covered for £1,600 and his stock of glass for £800. [GL, Sun MS vol. 449, ref. 854956]

Lawton, John, 75 Oldham St, Manchester, cm and u (1819). [D]

Lawton, Joseph, Drighlington, near Bradford, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Lawton, Joseph, Warrington, Lancs., cm (1825–28). At 1 Church St in 1825 and Sandy Lane in 1828. [D]

Lawton, Samuel, Deansgate, Manchester, cm (1755–72). In 1755 took app. named Boardman. In 1773 a John Lawton, cm was trading in this street and may have been his successor. [D; S of G, app. index]

Lawton, William, Hart St, Manchester, cm (1794). [D]

Lay, E., 39 Dean St, Soho, London, carver, gilder and print seller (1790–93). [D]

Lay, Henry, Dean St, Soho, London, carver, gilder (1772–80). A bill of c. 1772 exists for goods supplied by Henry Lay to a club in Arlington St run by Cullen, a former furniture maker. This was for £77. Bankruptcy announced June 1778, but reestablished his business in Dean St, near St Ann's Church, and in 1780 took out insurance cover for £700, which included £530 for his workshop. The Eleanor Lay trading at 38 Dean St in 1790 was probably his wife. She gilded 5 circular frames for the Navy Board Room at Somerset House in 1789, charging £2 5s 0d each. [Gents Mag., June 1778; GL, Sun MS vol. 281, p. 290; PRO, C104/146, pt 1; RIBA Library, Somerset House accounts, 3]

Lay, William, Norwich, cm (1774). Son of William Lay. Free 19 February 1774. [Freemen admission reg.]

Laycock, Daniel, Burnley, Lancs., cm (b. 1785–41). At Yorkshire St in 1818 but by 1841 had moved to Hargreaves St. [D; census]

Laycock, G. H., 17 St James's Churchyard, Bristol, chair carver and grainer (1822–40). From 1831 advertised himself as a cane worker and dealer in rattan cane. [D]

Laycock, John, York St, Covent Gdn, London, leather box maker (1783). Declared bankrupt, Gents Mag., February 1783.

Laycock, Thomas, parish of St Ann, Blackfriars, London, cm (1691). [Heal]

Laycock, William, Silsden, near Keighley, Yorks., chairmaker (1822–37). [D]

Laydeman, T., Keswick, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811). [D]

Layfield, Richard, 24 Gt Pulteney St, Golden Sq., London, cm (1829–39). [D]

Layfield, Robert, Darlington, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1827–34). At Dun Cow Yd, High Row in 1827, Post Office Wynd in 1828 and Skinnergate in 1834. [D]

Layton, Edward, High St, Poole, Dorset, u and paper hanger (1823). [D]

Layton, Frederick, Sunbury, Middlx, u (1838). [D]

Layton, Samuel, Putney, London, upholder (1808). [D]

Layton, Thomas, 37 Bury St, St James's, London, u (1826). [D]

Layton, Thomas, 3 Ogleforth, York, cm (1838). [D]

Layton, William, 52 Cheapside, Dale St, Liverpool, chairmaker (1796). [D]

Layton, William, High St, Staines, Middlx, cm (1823–26). [D]

Lazenby, Thomas, London, carver, gilder, frame maker and print seller (1780–93). In 1780 at 227 Strand where he took out insurance cover of £300 but only £80 of this was in respect of utensils, stock and goods. Bankrupt in 1789, but from 1790–93 in business again at Gt Surrey St, Blackfriars. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 284, p. 462; Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Lea, J., 19 Poppins Ct, Fleet St, London, case maker (1826). [D]

Lea, James, 417 Oxford St, St Giles, London, upholder and undertaker (1817–19). [D]

Lea, John, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Lea, Thomas, 1 Northumberland St, Strand, London, cm and upholder (1820–28). [D]

Lea, William, Kidderminster, Worcs., cm (1760). In 1760 took app. named Weston. [S of G, app. index]

Leace, Catherine, Liverpool, u (1827–29). At 32 Wood St in 1827 and 14 Grafton St, Harrington in 1829. [D]

Leach, Charles, Oxford, carpenter, joiner and cm (1798). [D]

Leach, George, Lambeth, London, cm (1830). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury poll bk]

Leach, George, 102 High St, Southampton, Hants., cm, u and chairmaker (1839). [D]

Leach, Henry jnr, 63 Falkner St, Manchester, cm (1829). [D]

Leach, James, Lancaster (1831–33). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Leach, Martha, Bristol, chairmaker (1821–30). At Redcliffe back, 1821–26 and 1828–30 when the number was 4. In 1827 however shown at 44 Mardyke, Hotwell Rd. [D]

Leach, Robert, Canterbury, Kent, u (1830–38). In the parish of St George in June 1830 but in 1838 at 16 Palace St. [D; poll bk]

Leach, William, Liverpool, cm (1730). In 1730 took app. named Bevins. [S of G, app. index]

Leach, William, Plymouth, Devon, upholder and cm (1784–98). [D]

Leadbeater, John, 14 Piccadilly, Manchester, cm and u (1824– 32). In partnership with a J. Barlow in September 1832 when their bankruptcy was announced in Chester Courant, 4 September 1832. [D]

Leadbeater, Thomas, 8 Cobourg Pl., Borough Rd, London, chairmaker (1835–39). [D]

Leadbeater, William, Chapelgate, Retford, Notts., cm (1832). [D]

Leadbeater & Barlow, 31 King St, Manchester, cm and u (1832–33). [D]

Leadbetter, Thomas, Liverpool, u (1767–d. by 1772). Free 24 November 1767 but did not trade for long. In December 1772 an auction sale of the remaining stock of the late Thomas Leadbetter was announced. This consisted of ‘Morines, Chineys & Checks for Bed Furniture; Counterpanes, coverlets, quilts, Wilton & Scotch carpeting; hair cloth for chair seats, royal matting; great variety of papers for hanging rooms; buckram, bed laces, fringe, tassels, line, curtain rings etc: Together with several Bedsteads & Hangings, good Feather Beds, Chests of Drawers, Mahogany Chairs & Tables, Looking Glasses, some China etc.’. [Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 25 December 1772; freemen reg.]

Leadbitter, Jno., 32 Marshall St, Golden Sq., London, cm and u (1826–29). [D]

Leader, George, Oxford St, London, carver and gilder (1784– 1819). From 1792 advertised himself as Carver to His Majesty. Also made moulds for cooks and confectioners and from c. 1809 dealt in turnery and toys both wholesale and retail. Shown at 218 Oxford St in 1784, but from 1792 the number was 188. His trade card survives. [Banks Coll., BM] In November 1796 charged £10 18s for carving and gilding a Royal coat of arms for Totterridge Church, Herts. He also carved a coat of arms and other figures for John, 6th Duke of Bedford in March 1806 for which £3 12s was charged. [D; Hatfield House bills 597; Bedford Office, London]

Leader, George, Bridge St, Nottingham, carver and gilder, mould and block maker (1832). [D]

Leadman, John, Stepney, London, carver (d. 1685). [PCC Wills, vol. X]

Leak, George, 5 Upper Union St, Hull, Yorks., u and cm (1834– 39). Shown as a working u, 1834–35, and as a cm, 1837–38. [D]

Leak, William, Eastgate, Louth, Lincs., cm and joiner (1826–35). Recorded as William T. in 1835. In 1841 an Edward Leak was trading as a cm and joiner in this street. [D]

Leake, A., 59 Greek St, Soho, London, chairmaker (1826). [D]

Leake, Eileen, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (1786). A person by the name of Leake is also shown in a directory of 1798 and may be Eileen or her successor. [D]

Leake, Eslem, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (c. 1796). [D]

Leake, George Edward, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, u (1835). [Freemen rolls]

Leake, James, Wyle Cop, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (1839). [Freemen rolls]

Leake, William, Parliament St, Nottingham, cm (1814). [D]

Leake, William, Trenchard St, Bristol, cabinet, coach and ivory turner (1837–40). At 16 Trenchard St, 1837, but from the following year the number was 29. [D]

Leaman, Samuel, Ixworth, Suffolk, cm and auctioneer (1839). [D]

Lean, —, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Leaper, Daniel, East St, Coggeshall, Essex, cm (1823–39). [D]

Lear, Henry, Arundel, Sussex, cm and auctioneer (1784–93). [D]

Lear, James, High St, Arundel, Sussex, cm and u (1811–40). After 1832 the business is styled Lear & Sons though in 1839 Lear & Co. and James Lear & Son are both used. In 1845 the business was being run by Henry Lear who was probably one of James's sons. The Earl of Surrey's Littlehampton account book records a payment of 10s to James Lear in January 1830. [D; Arundel Castle records, A 2077]

Learner, Henry, London, cm (1835–37). In 1835 at 59 Gt Titchfield St and in 1837 at 59 Wells St, Oxford St. [D]

Leath, Isaac, 9 Commercial Rd, London, broker and cm (1821). In February 1821 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £300 was for utensils, stock and goods in trust. [GL, Sun MS vol. 485, ref. 976984]

Leath, Samuel, Norwich and London, cm (1799–1830). Son of Simon Leath, worsted weaver and free 14 September 1799. Still working in Norwich, July 1802, but by November 1806 was in London where he was to stay. In 1806 and 1818 declared his trade as chairmaker but in 1830 as cm. [Norwich poll bks]

Leatham, S., 12 Cow Cross St, London, carver and gilder (1809). [D]

Leathead, William, Alnwick, Northumb., cm and house carpenter (1793). [D]

Leather, John, Johnson St, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1790). [D]

Leather, W. U., 30 Curtain Rd, London, cm (1829–32). [D; Shoreditch archives, Rose Lipman Lib., MS M3545, p. 39]

Leatherbarrow, William, Liverpool, cm (1751–59). Free 4 July 1751. His app. Thomas Lyon petitioned freedom in 1759. [Freemen reg.; committee bk]

Leavers, James, 13 Newington Causeway, London, u and auctioneer (1800–09). [D]

Lecand, Benjamin Louis, London, carver and gilder (1809–39). At 38 Gt Prescot St, Goodman's Fields, 1809–25, and then after a gap at 246 Tottenham Ct Rd, 1835–39. A number of Regency convex mirrors with eagle surmounts are known bearing the trade label of this maker. A pair of these mirrors are in the collection of the Norsk Folkemuseum, Oslo, Norway, and other examples are known there, suggesting a flourishing export business. His trade embraced picture frame manufacture, the restoration of paintings, the sale of stationery and the hanging of wall paper. His insurance in 1820 totalled £1,000. This covered his house in Prescot St, and a workshop with dwelling rooms over in the yard behind. Stock, including pictures and glass, was valued at £300 with an additional £200 for his stock as a stationer and paper hanger. In 1824 the cover had fallen in £750 of which stock and utensils accounted for £325. Items covered included a silvering table. [D; Apollo, May 1955, p. 144; Conn. Year Book, 1959; Conn., September 1968, p. 18; Wills, Looking-Glasses; GL, Sun MS vol. 484, ref. 968797; vol. 487, ref. 983615; vol. 497, ref. 1012424]

Le Caron, Philip, Long Acre, London, u (1716–28). Supplied furniture to the Methuen family at Corsham Court, Wilts. On 8 March 1716/17 an invoice was issued for six servant's bedsteads with curtains and half testers at £2 12s each. These with other items totalled £37. Four further beds were supplied in 1720 at a cost of £14. The last recorded transaction was on 20 November 1728 when a receipt was issued for the sum of £9 paid by Sir Paul Methuen. [V & A archives]

Le Cerf, James, Canterbury, Kent, and London, cm (1767–96). Freeman of Canterbury in 1767 but by January 1790 was living at ‘Western-park’ London. In 1796 his address in London was given as Drury Lane. [Freemen rolls; Canterbury poll bks]

Le Clercq, John Francis, 10 Mary Bone St, Haymarket, London, billiard table maker (1785). [GL, Sun MS vol. 329, p. 505]

Lecount, Richard, 12 Lambeth Walk, London, cm and Tunbridge-ware maker (1812). On 14 December 1812 took out insurance cover of £300, half of which was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 455, ref. 877337]

Ledger, Richard, Moorfields, London, cm (1783). [Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Ledger, Richard, Liverpool, u and cm (1818–39). In the period 1818–21 at 40 and 42 Circus St, but by 1823 had moved to Byrom St. The number in this street was 46 from 1823–29. In December 1829 however a fire broke out which destroyed his workshops and part of his house. While re-building was taking place he moved to 24 Byrom St. The number 48 appears in directories in 1827 and 1835; 17 in 1834 and 1837; and 97 in 1839. In November 1832 the death of his second son Richard at the age of 11 was announced. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 18 December 1829, 23 November 1832]

Ledger, Richard, Kirkby South, near Barnsley, Yorks., cm etc. (1822). [D]

Ledgerwood, —, ‘Greenlaw’, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lediard, Thomas, Macclesfield, Cheshire, cm (1759). In 1759 took app. named Bowman. [S of G, app. index]

Ledsham, John, Gorst Stacks, Chester, cm (1812–37). Free 6 October 1812. [Freemen rolls; poll bks]

Ledsham, Richard, Chester, joiner and cm (1751). Shown as master to Charles Thompson in 1751. A Richard Ledsham was Sheriff, 1753–54 and 1774–75, but his occupation is not known. [App. bks]

Lee, —, address unknown, cm(?) (1690). In July 1690 provided locks and keys to a cabinet and its drawers for Mrs Elizabeth Howland of the Manor House, Streatham, London. At the same time supplied two black japanned stands at £2 10s. The total invoice was £9 5s 6d. [Bedford Office, London]

Lee, —, address unknown, u (1743). In 1743 supplied to Holkham Hall, Norfolk 24 yds of ‘dimithy for glasses’, £2 8s, and ‘For 4 looking glasses’, 17s. [V & A archives]

Lee, —, Sunderland, Co. Durham, u (1771). Mentioned in an advertisement for James Davenport's paper hanging manufactory. [Newcastle Courant, 18 May 1771]

Lee, — jnr, Shrewsbury, Salop, carver and gilder (1798). [D]

Lee, Abraham, 2 Court, Little Hampton St, Birmingham, cm (1835). [D]

Lee, Charles, 23 Fleet St, London, carver and gilder (1822). In May 1822 took out insurance cover of £450 but stock and utensils amounted to a mere £40. [GL, Sun MS vol. 491, ref. 993166]

Lee, David K., Hyde Hill, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumb., cm (1827). [D]

Lee, George, St Martin-le-Grand, London, frame maker, carver and gilder (1792–1825). The number was 49 in 1792, 39 1807–19 and 59 in 1825. Listed as George Lee & Co. at 49 Little Britain in 1820. [D]

Lee, George, Marylebone, London, chairmaker (1822). [Suffolk RO, FAA: 50/2/120, p. 98]

Lee, George, Castle St, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm and u (1828–35). [D]

Lee, Giles, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Lee, Harman, York, cm and joiner (1830). Shown in one directory of this year at 47 Tanner Row and in another at 27 St Andrewgate. [D]

Lee, Henry, 29 Castle St East, Oxford Mkt and Ogle Mews, London, chair and sofa maker and undertaker (1827). [D]

Lee, Henry, Back St, Exeter, Devon, cm (1839). Daughter bapt. at the Church of St Mary Major, 2 June 1839. [PR(bapt.)]

Lee, Isaac, Allendale, Northumb., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lee, J., Frodsham, Cheshire, cm and u (1822–34). [D]

Lee, J., South St, Torrington, Devon, cm and u (1838). [D]

Lee, James William, Crossall St, Liverpool, u (1790–94). In 1790 at no. 5, and in 1794 at no. 6. [D]

Lee, James, Nottingham, joiner and cm (1819–22). In 1819 took William Asling as app. and in 1822, Sam Booth Ireland. [Notts. RO, app. list]

Lee, James, 33 Sims Croft, Sheffield, Yorks., carver and gilder (1822). [D]

Lee, James, 9 Coldbath Sq., Clerkenwell, London, cm and buhl manufacturer (1829). [D]

Lee, James, Scarborough, Yorks., cm (1828–40). At Long Westgate 1828 but at 13 St Sepulchre St, 1831–40. [D]

Lee, James, 40 New Church St, Birmingham, cabinet case maker (1835). [D]

Lee, James, Broad St, Lyme Regis, Dorset, cm (1840). [D]

Lee, James, 13 St Sepulchre St, Scarborough, Yorks., cm (1840). [D]

Lee, John, 6 Poplar Lane, Stanley St, Liverpool, cm (1790). [D]

Lee, John, Westminster, London, cm and u (1790–94). At 1 Bridge St, 1790–93 and 30 Parliament St in 1794. [D]

Lee, John, opposite ‘The Crown’, St George's St, Southwark, London, cm (1792). Took out insurance cover of £300 on his dwelling house in November 1792. [GL, Sun MS vol. 391, p. 486]

Lee, John, 36 Castle St, Oxford St, London, chairmaker (1809). [D]

Lee, John, Werburgh's Lane, Chester, cm (1814). [D]

Lee, Jno., 23 Circus St, New Rd, London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Lee, John, Edgar Ct, Edgar St, Liverpool, chairmaker (1830). Free 15 November 1830. [Freemen reg.]

Lee, John jnr, Manchester, cm u and furniture broker (1814– 40). At 9 Thomas St and 61 King St, 1814–28. One directory of 1816 adds also 248 Deansgate. Recorded at 61 King St, 1821–29 and no. 24, 1832–33. From 1825 also had premises in Brazenose St and these are in 1836 coupled with 11 Ridgefield, in 1838 with no. 12, and in 1839 with 12 Bridge St. In 1840 at 27 Brazenose St and 31 King St. The business was a substantial one, and in April 1825, apart from advertising for journeymen, he also sought a foreman to manage his workshops in King St. Here he claimed 20 or 30 benches were employed. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 8 April 1825]

Lee, John, Malton, Yorks., cm and u (1823–40). At Greengate in 1823 but in Wheelgate, 1828–40. [D]

Lee, John, Frodsham, Cheshire, cm/joiner (1828). [D]

Lee, John, High St, Bideford, Devon, cm and u (1830–38). On 28 March 1838 married at Torrington, Devon, Mrs Randle, the daughter of Mr Bartlett of Bideford, ironmonger. [D; Exeter Flying Post, 5 April 1838]

Lee, John, New St, Wem, Salop, joiner and cm (1840). [D]

Lee, John, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (b. c. 1821–41). Married 1840. Age 20 at the time of the 1841 Census. [PR (marriage)]

Lee, Joseph Richard, London, upholder (1729). Son of Samuel Lee of Westminster, Gent. App. to Charles Jones in August 1709 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 6 November 1729. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lee, Nathaniel, Silver St, Uttoxeter, Staffs., cm (1828). [D]

Lee, Nicholson, Liverpool, cm (1767–77). At Poplary Wient 1767 and 1772–77 but in 1769 shown at 11 Cumberland St. In 1777 his trade was listed as planemaker and cm. [D]

Lee, Richard, Chester, u (1720). Free 12 October 1720. [Freemen rolls]

Lee, Richard, 39 St Martin-le-Grand, London, carver and gilder (1808). This address was also occupied by George Lee following the same trade between 1807 and 1819. [D]

Lee, Robert, Wakefield, Yorks., joiner and cm (1798). [D]

Lee, Robert, St Mary St, Weymouth, Dorset, cm, u and auctioneer (1803–40). At 76 St Mary St, 1823–30, but in 1840 the number was 79. In 1803 subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary. [D]

Lee, Samuel, Mill St, Bideford, Devon, cm (1830). [D]

Lee, Samuel, Bridgwater, Som., cm and u (1830–40). Addresses given at High St in 1830, Cattlemarket in 1839 and Mary St in 1840. [D]

Lee, Thomas, Hull, Yorks., cm (1768). [Poll bk]

Lee, Thomas, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm and chairmaker (1776–77). Married on 22 July 1776. In 1777 insured a house in Eastgate St, Bury St Edmunds for £100. [Suffolk RO, FAA: 50/2/94– 104; GL, Sun MS vol. 255, p. 249]

Lee, Thomas, Lymington, Hants., chairmaker (1792–93). [D]

Lee, Thomas, 42 Upper Rathbone Pl., London, chairmaker (1809). [D]

Lee, Thomas, 8 Aytoun St, Manchester, cm (1829). [D]

Lee, Timothy, Heckmondwike, near Dewsbury, Yorks., cm (1822–30). [D]

Lee, William, Fargate, Sheffield, Yorks., chairmaker (1814). [D]

Lee, William, 31 Prince's St, Soho, London, cm and u (1822). [D]

Lee, William, Wheelgate, Malton, Yorks., cm and u (1823). [D]

Lee, William, Bearward St, Northampton, cm (1826–30). [Poll bk]

Lee, William, 62 Cable St, Wellclose Sq., London, cm and appraiser (1827). [D]

Lee, William, 10 Cleveland St, Fitzroy Sq., London, cm and furniture broker (1835–39). [D]

Lee, William, Princess St, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm and u (1840). [D]

Leech, James, Oxford Rd, Newtown, Bilston, Staffs., cm and u (1828–38). [D]

Leech, John, Bristol, cm (1825–27). At 15 Lower Castle St, 1825–26, and 4 Broadmead 1827. [D]

Leech, Joseph, Tipton, Staffs., joiner/cm (1818). [D]

Leech, Robert, 13 Schoolhouse Yd, St James Walk, Clerkenwell, London, cm (1781). In 1781 insured his utensils and stock for £400. [GL, Sun MS vol. 290, p. 450]

Leech, William, Liverpool, cm (d. by 1759). Took as apps Thomas Bouvrier (free 1759) and Thomas Lloyd and Jonathan Brownhill (free 1761). William Leech had however died before 1759 when Bouvrier petitioned for his freedom. [Freemen's committee bk]

Leech, William W., Castle St, Framlingham, Suffolk, cm and u (1839). [D]

Leedel, John, Duke St, Doncaster, Yorks., turner and chairmaker (1837). [D]

Leedel, William, Wisbech, Cambs., turner and chairmaker (1798). [D]

Leeder, Besome (or Begoni), Market Pl., Fakenham, Norfolk, cm (1822–39). [D]

Leeds, Levi, Marylebone St, London, upholder (1749–53). Declared bankrupt, Gents Mag., May 1753. [Westminster poll bk]

Leek, William, Waterworks St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1803–10). [D]

Leemin, Robert, London, cm (1740–d. 1750). In April 1740 at ‘The Golden Chair’ in St Martin's Lane where he took out insurance cover for £700. In May of the following year however his bankruptcy was announced. The business was established once more and at the time of his death in 1750 he was trading from his dwelling house at Lee St, Red Lion Sq., Holborn. Here in July his stock in trade and household effects were sold by auction. On offer were ‘several Sets of Chairs, Tables, Buroes, Cameras, a Japan Chest of Drawers … a Travelling Coach, a curious inlaid Cabinet, an Ebony and Ivory Desk and Bookcase, and a Silvering Stone and Frame’. [GL, Sun MS vol. 54, p. 518; Daily Post, 6 May 1741; General Advertiser, 2 July 1750]

Leeming, John, Lancaster, cm (1817–30). Free 1817–18. Named in the Gillow records, 1821, 1825–26 and 1829–30. [Freemen rolls; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Leeming, Richard, Lancaster (1793–99). Named in the Gillow records 1793–95 and 1797–99. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Leeming, Robert, Windy Bank, Colne, Lancs., cm/joiner (1814–34). [D]

Leeming, Thomas, Preston, Lancs., cm (1799–1802). Named in the Preston Cabinet Makers’ and Chair Makers’ Book of Prices in the editions of 1799 and 1802 as one of the masters assenting.

Leeming, William, Lancaster (1790–1829). App. to Gillows of Lancaster 1786 and named in the Gillow records in 1790–1803, 1807, 1809, 1813–16, 1818–27 and 1829. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Leeming, William jnr, Lancaster, cm (1799–1809). Free 1799– 1800. In 1799 recorded in a directory as a letter case maker. Bankrupt by January 1809 at which time his trade was stated to be cm. [D; freemen rolls: Lancaster Gazette, 14 January 1809] Possibly:

Leeming, William jnr, Lancaster (1821–28). Named in the Gillow records 1821–22 and 1825–28. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Leeremans, James, Fleet Mkt, London, u and cm (before 1761). Discharged from Debtors’ Prison, April 1761. He was stated to be ‘late of Fleet Market, London’. [London Gazette, 2 April 1761]

Lees, —, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Lees, Benjamin, Rye Mkt, Stourbridge, Worcs., cm and u (1835). [D]

Lees, George, Nottingham, joiner, builder and cm (1831–33). In 1831 took app. named Henry Barrows Smith and in 1833 another named Charles Wright. [App. reg.]

Lees, James snr, Nottingham, cm, carpenter and joiner (1778– d. 1788). In 1778 insured his house for £500. His will dated 29 March 1787 was proved 4 October 1788. [GL, Sun MS vol. 262, p. 418; Notts. RO, probate records]

Lees, James jnr, Nottingham, joiner and cm (1798–1832). Signed the Nottingham Cabinet and Chair Makers’ Book of Prices 1791 on the behalf of the masters. His will dated 12 November 1808 was proved, 20 August 1832. [D; Notts. RO, probate records]

Lees, James, Worcester Rd, Stourbridge, Worcs., cm and u (1828–35). [D]

Lees, John, Birmingham, inlayer and gilder (1717). In 1717 took app. named Cave. [S of G, app. index]

Lees, John, Nottingham, cm (1791–99). In 1791 signed the Nottingham Cabinet and Chair Makers’ Book of Prices on the behalf of the masters. [D]

Lees, John, Union Buildings, The Potteries, Staffs., cm (1818). [D]

Lees, John, 6 Lord St, Preston, Lancs., cm (1825). [D]

Lees, John, Nottingham, joiner, cm and u (1828–41). Listed at Glasshouse St in 1828; Newcastle St, 1832–40, and by 1841 had moved to St Peter's Sq. Recorded in partnership with James Lees in 1835. [D]

Lees, Joseph, 127 Gt Portland St, London, cm (1812). In January 1812 was associated with Israel Kilvington in taking £500 insurance cover on their stock, utensils and goods in trust. In the policy was specified a stove for drying feathers. [GL, Sun MS vol. 459, ref. 864768]

Lees, Philip, Nottingham, joiner and cm (1791–99). Signed the Nottingham Cabinet and Chair Makers’ Book of Prices, 1791. [D]

Lees, Robert, 9 Kirkham Pl., Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm (1798). In 1798 took app. named Mary Gould. [Westminster Ref. Lib., MS B1267]

Lees, Robert,, Nicholas St, Chester, cm (1816–28). [D]

Lees, Thomas, 5 Green St, Gartside St, Manchester, chairmaker (1828). [D]

Lees, Thomas Taylor, Willenhall, Staffs., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lees, Thomas Taylor, Wednesfield, Staffs., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lees, Thomas, Mount St, Nottingham, cm (1835). [D]

Lees & Redgate, Clumber St, Nottingham, carvers and gilders (1835). [D]

Leese, Richard, 35 Paul St, Finsbury, London, picture and looking-glass frame maker (1839). [D]

Leeson, William, Leicester, cm (1788–d. 1811). In May 1788 advertised for a cm and chairmaker. In 1790 moved from Town Hall Lane to High St. His trade card is in the Heal Coll., BM. Died on 20 January 1811. [D; Leicester Journal, 24 May 1788; Gents Mag., January 1811]

Leftwich, Thomas, Manchester, u and cm (1784–1825). In 1794 at 7 Ann's Sq.; in 1816–18 at 47 King St; and in 1825 at 26 Union Pl. [D]

Le Gaigneur, Louis Constantin, buhl manufactory, 19 Queen St, Edgware Rd, London, cm (1815–1816). Very little is known about Le Gaigneur, a Frenchman who apparently transferred his workshop to London. On 14 November 1815 he received £500 advance payment for two library tables for Carlton House [RA 25351] and also supplied some inkstands. The writing tables are now at Windsor Castle, one being inscribed ‘Le Gaigneur / IXX Queen St./ Fecit’, the other ‘Le Gaigneur’. There is a similar table in the Wallace collection [Cat. No. F.4791] signed twice. A Boulle desk recently acquired for Brighton Pavilion is incised ‘L. L. Gag’ (No. 340–322] and a handsome mahogany cylinder desk and cabinet sold by Jeremy, Ltd in 1986 is inscribed ‘Le Gaigneur No 19 Queen St., Edgware Road, London, 1816’. Unsigned Boulle furniture of closely similar design is recorded. [G. F. Laking, The Furniture of Windsor Castle, 1905, p. 114, repr.: Burlington, June 1980, p. 416; Jourdain & Rose, English Furniture: the Georgian Period, 1750–1830, p. 150]

Legg, Robert, ‘The Leg’, near Southampton St, Holborn, London, upholder and undertaker (c. 1760). Son of the late Robert Legg. His mother Elizabeth Legg traded from the same address as a haberdasher and undertaker in 1723. [Heal]

Legg, Samuel, London, u (1776–1819). Son of John Legg of Reading, carpenter. App. to Samuel Walker, draper, 28 September 1768 and then to Thomas Savill, draper and u of Aldgate, 27 March 1771. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 4 September 1776. From 1776–78 in Fleet St, but by 1781 had moved to 51 Snow Hill where he set up business. In both 1781 and 1782 his total insurance cover was £700 but in 1781 utensils and stock were covered for £350 and this was increased to £500 in 1782. From 1790–93 shown at Johnson's Ct, Fleet St, and from 1794 at 71 Fleet St. From 1812 the business is referred to as Legg & Son. Included in the list of master cabinet makers in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 295, p. 134; vol. 304, p. 270]

Legg, Thomas, 37 Windmill St, Tottenham Ct Rd, carver and gilder (1820–37). [D]

Legg, William, Bristol, cm (1774–81). In 1774 living in the parish of SS Philip and Jacob and in 1781 in the parish of St Nicholas. [Poll bks]

Leggat, Andrew, Little Edward St, Seven Dials, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Leggat, James, Mercery Lane, Canterbury, Kent, u (1713–34). In 1713 took app. named Parker. Leggat's insurance cover in 1726 amounted to £500. A James Leggat is shown sworn as a freeman 1734 and this might be a son. [S of G, app. index; GL, Sun MS vol. 23, p. 156; freemen rolls]

Leggat, Alexander, Windsor, Berks., u (1806). [Poll bk]

Legge, Samuel, St Paul's, Canterbury, Kent, cm (1839). [D]

Legge, Thomas, Cambridge, cm (1822–41). App. to Thomas and John Chandler, turners in Cambridge, 4 February 1822 and free 16 August 1829. In 1832 at Union St, 1834 in St Peter St, 1835 Mount Pleasant and in 1837 in White Hart Yd. In 1841 Thomas Legge was trading from King St, James Legge from New Sq., and Samuel Legge from Bridge St. On 1 April 1834 took John Evans as app. [App. bk; freemen rolls; poll bks]

Legget, D., 35 Tavistock St, Covent Gdn, London, cm (1835). [D]

Legget, David, 16 King St, Covent Gdn, London, cm and furniture broker (1835–39). [D]

Leggett, John, Bungay, Suffolk, cm and u (1824). [D]

Leggett, Josiah, Canterbury, Kent, u (1734–40). Free 1734. In 1740 took app. named Watson. [Freemen rolls; S of G, app. index]

Leggett, Samuel, Bridewell Alley, Norwich, upholder, cm, carpenter and appraiser (1783–84). A mahogany chair on turned reeded legs and with a padded back at Felbrigg Hall, Norfolk is stamped ‘Leggett’, twice, and may be by this maker. [D; poll bk]

Leggott (or Leggitt), David, Butchery, Brigg, Lincs., cm and u (1819–35). [D]

Leggott (or Legget), Thomas, Scot(t) Lane, Doncaster, Yorks., cm (1818–37). [D]

Le (or La) Grange, —, London, u (1674–75). Upholsterer to the Royal Household in the reign of Charles II. In 1674 supplied for Windsor Castle a bed of ‘crimson ffringed velvet for the Queenes Bedchamber.’ He also delivered in this year six folding stools, two elbow chairs and a couch frame. On 18 December 1674 he charged £1 for ‘a Folding stoole of Walnuttre twisted, with fine feathers’, 15s for matching footstool’ and £1 for a little Chaire’. He also charged for travelling to Windsor to set up the bed and furniture for the Queen's Chapel. Further commissions included ‘crimson Taffety hangings’ for the Queen's Oratory at the Whitehall Palace and ornaments for the Somerset House Chapel. On 5 June 1675 charged £299 18s 8d for a yellow damask bed for the Queen's Bedchamber at Whitehall Palace. [PRO, LC9/261; LC9/274/224–29; Conn., 1934, p. 86]

Legrant, Peter, London, joiner (1709–22). Member of the French Church in London. In July 1722 paid 19s by the Earl of Rockingham for an oak box. [Lincoln RO, Monson 10A/1]

Le Gros, Thomas, ‘The Cross Keys’, corner of Harp Alley in Shoe Lane, London, upholder (1713–14). In 1714 insured his house for £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 2, p. 199; Hand in Hand MS vol. 13, p. 369]

Legune, Thomas, High St, Southampton, Hants., cm and u (1783–84). [D]

Leicester, Charles, Macclesfield, Cheshire, chairmaker (1810–40). Recorded at Chestergate, 1816–28, no. 18 in 1816 and no. 120 in 1828. On 17 October 1810 supplied twelve chairs for Sir John Fleming for Tabley House, Cheshire. The chairs cost 7s each and the bill for £4 4s was settled on 9 November. Stamped a number of his chairs and three exist at Temple Newsam House, Leeds, marked ‘C. LEICESTER’. This maker produced a distinctive type of rush seated ladder-back chair with a turned top rail and barrel terminals. Other chairs are known with impressed marks ‘LEICESTER’ ‘MACCLESFIELD’ and ‘W LEICESTER’. [D; Chester RO, Tabley House vouchers DLT; Antique Collecting, October 1976, pp. 4–5]

Leicester, John, Peterborough, Northants., cm (1762). In 1762 took app. named Black. [S of G, app. index]

Leicester, Thomas, Lancaster, cm (1768). [Poll bk]

Leicester, William, Raven St, Shrewsbury, Salop, carver (c. 1796). [D]

Leicester, William, 42 Baldwin's Gdns, Gray's Inn Rd, London, cm and carpenter (1808). [D]

Leigh, Alexander, 2 Maxwell St, Canal, Liverpool, u (1796). [D]

Leigh, James, Chester, u (1747). Son of John Leigh and app. to John Kirkes of Chester, u. Free 14 July 1747. [Freemen rolls; poll bk]

Leigh, James, Chester, cm (1820–37). Free 17 April 1820. At Watergate St, 1818–26, and St Anne's St, 1837. [Freemen rolls; poll bks]

Leigh, John, Shrewsbury, Salop, upholder (1744). In 1744 took app. named Longford. [S of G, app. index]

Leigh, John, Deansgate, Bolton, Lancs., chairmaker (1814–18). [D]

Leigh, Ralph, Water St, Salford, Lancs., chairmaker (1794). [D]

Leigh, Richard, 159 Deansgate, Bolton, Lancs., chairmaker, baker and flour dealer (1818–28). [D]

Leigh, Robert, Bedford St, Covent Gdn, London, cm (1726–27). On 13 May 1727 the 1st Earl of Bristol recorded in his diary that he had paid this maker for ‘putting in new glasses to ye silver sconces, & India cutt jappan frame & for a dumb waiter £10 10s’. [Heal; Wills, Looking-Glasses; Apollo, LXII, p. 137; Conn., December 1946, pp. 71–78]

Leigh, Thomas, Warrington, Lancs., cm (1816–22). In 1816 at Bewsey St and from 1818–22 at Riding St. [D]

Leigh, Thomas, 17 Cooke St, Chorlton Row, Manchester, cm and shopkeeper (1825). [D]

Leigh, Thomas, Duke's Alley, Bolton, Lancs., chairmaker (1834). [D]

Leigh, William, Bolton, Lancs., chairmaker and cm (1814–34). At 33 Deansgate but in 1834 shown at both Oxford St and Knowsley St. In 1828 his trade was listed as chairmaker but from this date also cm. [D]

Leighton, —, Lancaster, carver (1818–22). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Leighton, Alexander, Liverpool, u (1766–1805). In 1766 at Water St; in 1781–84 at 55 Whitechapel; in 1787 at Gibraltar St, Canal; in 1796 at 2 Maxwell St, Canal; but from 1803 at Gibraltar Rd, Gt Howard St. The number here was 7 in 1803 and 2 from 1804. [D]

Leighton, Thomas, Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk, cm (1818–40). [Poll bks]

Leike, Thomas, Windsor, Berks., u (1784). [D]

Leinaje, Charles, 26 Robert St, Hoxton, London, chair and sofa maker (1827). [D]

Leister, Robert, Lancaster (1826). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Leitch, William, 2 Hatfields Pl., Apollo Rd, London, carpenter, cm and broker (1821). Took out insurance cover for £1,000 in November 1821. This covered his own house and one adjoining. [GL, Sun MS vol. 486, ref. 972790]

Leith, Isaac, 9 King's Pl., Commercial Rd, London, cm and u (1820–29). [D]

Leith, James, London, carver and gilder (1809–37). At 8 Gt Chapel St, Soho, 1809–20; 40 Upper Thornaugh St in 1826; and 33 Judd St, Brunswick Sq., 1835–37. [D]

Leith, James, 9 Commercial Rd, Whitechapel, London, cm and u (1822). [D]

Leith, John, St Margaret's Bank, Rochester, Kent, u and cm (1784–1801). In 1784 took out insurance cover of £1,500 of which £660 was for utensils, stock and his workshop. A directory of the same year gives his address as Chatham. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 324, p. 184; Rochester poll bk]

Leith, John, 13 Crescent St, Euston Sq., London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Leithhead, William jnr, Narrowgate, Alnwick, Northumb., joiner, cm and u (1804–34). Advertised vacancies for cabinet and chair makers in Newcastle Courant, 18 August 1804. [D]

Leivers, William, address unknown, u (1755). Submitted an account for fitting up the South-west end rooms in the Alcove appartment at Wimpole, Cambs., for the 2nd Countess of Oxford. The bill totalled £73 1s 11d. [Notts. RO, DD.5P. 14/2]

Lejeune, Edward, East St, Southampton, Hants., joiner and cm (1744–74). In 1744 took app. named Ray. [S of G, app. index; Southamtpon Corp. leases, SC4/4/471; poll bk]

Lejeune, Thomas, Romsey, Hants., cm (1756–62). In 1756 took app. named Filldew and in 1762 another named Rawlins. [S of G, app. index]

Lejeune, Thomas, Southampton, Hants., cm (1774–81). In 1781 insured a house in York for £400. [Poll bk; GL, Sun MS vol. 294, p. 101]

Leler, Philip, Holborn, London, cm (d. 1749). [London Evening Post, 14 October 1749]

Lellan, William M., near the Market Pl., Mansfield, Notts., joiner, upholder, cm and undertaker (1780). In 1780 took out insurance cover of £400 and of this £120 was in respect of utensils, stock and goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 280, p. 208]

Lemage, Charles Samuel, 45 Exmouth St, Spa Fields, London, cm (1823). In 1823 took out insurance cover of £400 of which half was for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 497, ref. 1008076]

Lemaigne, Peter, Mercers St, Long Acre, London, cm (1749). [Westminster poll bk]

Le Nain, Ivon, London, cm (1776–93). Initially at 2 Swedeland Ct, Bishopsgate St Without but later the address became Widegate St, Bishopsgate St Without and from 1787, 154 Bishopsgate St. In both 1776 and 1778 took out insurance cover for £400, but in 1776 only half of this sum was specified for utensils and stock, whereas in 1778 the full sum was used to cover these items in a shop in Bell Lane, Whites Row, Spitalfields. Total insurance cover in 1781 rose to £1,200 falling to £500 in 1783 and rising again to £1,500 in 1787. Of these totals the amount of cover in respect of utensils and stock was £850 and £250 respectively in 1781 and 1783, while in 1787 the total covered both household goods and trade goods in his workshop. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 245, p. 257; vol. 273, p. 387; vol. 289, p. 308; vol. 313, p. 527; vol. 346, p. 289]

Lenard, James, Monday, Market St, Devizes, Wilts., cm (1839). [D]

Lenden, William, London, cm and upholder (1749). App. to Thomas Landall, cm and upholder of St James's, Westminster, under the Sons of the Clergy scheme, in 1749. [General Advertiser, 17 April 1749]

Leng, Robert, Hull, Yorks., cm (1754). [Poll bk]

Lenham, Thomas, Hull, Yorks., turner and carver (1831–40). At 46 Blackfriargate with a residence at 6 Chapel St in 1831 and thereafter from 1834 at Old Dock. From 1834 listed only as an ivory and wood turner. [D]

Lenn, Andrew, Gt Marlborough St, corner of Poland St, St James's, London, upholder (1717–24). Freeman of the Upholders’ Co. Father of John Lenn free, 3 February 1724. [GL, Sun MS vol. 6, p. 148, 4 February 1717; Upholders’ Co. records]

Lenn, John, ‘The Crown & Cushion’, Conduit St, London, u (1724). Son of Andrew Lenn, freeman and upholder of London. John Lenn was free of the Upholders’ Co by patrimony, 3 February 1724. On 25 March of the same year he took out insurance cover of £500 on goods and merchandise in his dwelling house. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 16, ref. 31424])

Lennard, —, 17 Wilde St, Liverpool, cm (1837). [D]

Lennard, Elizabeth, Little Russell Ct, Drury Lane, London, upholder (1778). In 1778 took out insurance cover of £100 of which £20 was in respect of utensils, stocks and goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 264, p. 383]

Lenoir, Peter, Northampton, looking-glass maker (1688). In January 1688 supplied two coach glasses, one of 21″ and the other of 27″. The smaller cost £1 5s and the larger £115. The patron was Lord Leigh of Stoneleigh Abbey, Warks. [Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Leigh receipts, DR 18/5/930]

Lenols, James, 5 Rood Lane, Fenchurch St, London, u (1777– 81). Associated with Charles Greenwood at this address. In 1777 and 1781 took out insurance cover jointly. In 1781 the stock was valued at £900. In 1777 Lenols insured on his own behalf a house valued at £1,000 and in 1779 the cover was raised to £1,500. [GL, Sun MS vol. 259, p. 256; vol. 260, p. 289; vol. 277, p. 638; vol. 290, p. 610] Probably James Senols

Lensel, George, 138 Old St, London, cm (1808). [D]

Lent, George, Bridgegate, Rotherham, Yorks., turner and Windsor chairmaker (1833–37). [D]

Lenthall, Francis, Wigan, Lancs., u (1781–84). [D]

Lenthall, James, Wigan, Lancs., u (1798). [D]

Lenton, John, Horncastle, Lincs., chairmaker (1819–22). Trading at St Lawrence Lane in 1819 and Market Pl. in 1822. [D]

Lenton, John, Brighouse, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Lenton, John, 8 Mansfield St, Liverpool, cm (1834). [D]

Leonard, Peter, London, upholder (1706–19). App. to William Meakins and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 3 May 1706. Took as app. Thomas Sutton, 1706–19. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lepine, Charles jnr, Canterbury, Kent, u and cm (1790–1811). Shown living in the parish of All Saints, 1790–96 when his trade was u. From 1805–09 in St Peter's St with the trade stated as cm. [D; poll bks]

Lepine, John, Best Lane, Canterbury, Kent, cm (1818). [Poll bk]

Lepine, Stephen, High St, Canterbury, Kent, cm (1818). [Poll bk]

Lepsay, William, 21 Aldborough St, Hull, Yorks., chairmaker (1838–39). [D]

Lervis, William, Gt Newport St, London, carver and gilder (1785). In 1785 took out insurance cover of £600 of which £350 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 328, p. 597]

Le Sage, John, St James's, London carver (1685–1706). A craftsman probably of Huguenot extraction, who attracted Royal and aristocratic patronage. In 1699 he was working on the decoration of the Presence Chamber at Hampton Court. His account for £70 11s 7½d included £28 for ‘carving 2 pieces of Limetree on the sides of the picture frame over the Chimney being 9 ft long 17 inches wide with flowers & Fruit’. Earlier, in 1690, he had worked at Kensington Palace. In 1685 he had supplied picture frames for Sir Giles Isham of Lamport, Northants. In February 1690 Le Sage was paid by the 1st Earl of Bristol for two carved and gilt frames for half lengths £815s and bought four small pictures in gilt frames additionally for £11 15s. By 1706 however Le Sage was bankrupt. A Huguenot silversmith, John le Sage, registered his mark at London, 1708. [H. Hayward, Huguenot Silver in Engand, 1959, p. 10; V & A archives; London Gazette, 14 November 1706; Wren Soc., vol. IV, p. 60]

Lesley, William. 4 Peter St, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Leslie, John. Church St, Wells, Norfolk, cm (1822–39). [D]

Leslie, R.. 194 Mile End Rd, London, u and cm (c. 1820). His trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] declares his trade to be ‘Cabinet, Chair, Sofa & Bedstead Manufacturer’.

Leslie, Robert, 8 Church Lane, Commercial Rd, London, bedstead, mattress and cornice maker (1817–28). From 1822 listed as a cm and u. In 1827 in addition to the Church Lane address he is also recorded at Devonshire Pl. [D]

Leslie, Robert, London, cm (1820–35). At 12 Northumberland St, Commercial Rd, 1820–29, but in 1835 at 194 Whitechapel Rd. [D]

Lessley, James, Wells, Norfolk, joiner and cm (1798).[D]

Lester, George, 16 Clarendon Sq., London, cm (1826). [D]

Lester, John, St Paul & Bradninch, Exeter, Devon, carver (1803). [Militia Census]

Lester, John, Leeming St, Mansfield, Notts., chairmaker (1832). [D]

Lester, Joseph, 6 Crosbie St, Liverpool, cm (1839). [D]

Lester, Thomas, Bispham St, Liverpool, chair manufacturer (1811–14). At 13 Bispham St in 1811 but at 14 in 1813–14. [D]

Letchemond, Francis, St Martin's Lane, York, cm (1828). [D]

Letchworth, Joseph, London, carver (1784). Freeman of Colchester, Essex. [Colchester poll bk]

Leuchars, Lucy, 38 Piccadilly, London, writing desk and dressing case maker (1829–37). [D]

Leuty, Charles Emanuel, 44 Garden St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1826). In 1831–34 listed as a victualler at the Juno Tavern, 33 Church Lane. [D]

Levell, John, Debenham, Suffolk, cooper and chairmaker (1724). In 1724 took app. named Hunt. [S of G, app. index]

Levens, John, West St, Warwick, chairmaker (1831–35). Polled of West St in 1831 and listed and Brook St in 1835. [D; poll bk]

Lever, —, Charles St, Westminster, London, cm (1741). On 7 August 1741 a fire broke out at his house but it was extinguished by firemen who prevented it from spreading. [Daily Post, 7 August 1741]

Lever, Mary, Davenport Ct, 125 Deansgate, Manchester, u (1808). [D]

Leverett, Henry, Westgate St, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm and u (1824–39). [D]

Leverett, J., Elm St on the Mount, Ipswich, Suffolk, cabinet and chairmaker (1839). [D]

Leverett, Robert, St Matthew's St, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm (1830– 39). [D]

Leverett, William, Market St, Saffron Walden, Essex, cm and u (1823). [D]

Leverett, William, Harwich, Essex, cm (1826–32). Recorded at Church St in 1832. [D]

Leveridge, Samuel, London, upholder (1799). Son of William Leveridge of Pall Mall, London, auctioneer. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by redemption, 6 September 1799. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Leveridge, William, 234 Shoreditch, London, broker and cm (1802–04). In 1802 took out insurance cover of £600 of which £400 was for utensils and stock. In the following year the corresponding figures were £850 and £650, but in 1804 these were reduced to £300 and £150. In 1804 reference was made to stock in open yards and open sheds in Worship St. [GL, Sun MS vol. 436, ref. 735244; vol. 426, ref. 743220; vol. 430, ref. 764868]

Leversage, Thomas, Nantwich, Cheshire, u (1724–d. 1731). In 1725 took app. named Scheviz. Bapt. of six children recorded, 1724–30. Thomas Leversage died in 1731, and was buried on 18 March. [S of G, app. index; PR (bapt. and burial)]

Leverton, John, 13 Jubilee St, Plymouth, Devon, carver and gilder (1836–38). [D]

Levet, Joseph, Churchgate St, Soham, Cambs., cm and u (1839). [D]

Levett, George Alms, 2 Bishop St, Portsea, Portsmouth, Hants., cm and u (1830). [D]

Levett, John, Hull, Yorks., cm (1793–1831). At Hodgson St in 1818 and 2 Garden Sq., Princess St in 1831. Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793. In 1817 took over the apprenticeship of William Gibson from John Clark, cm of Witham to whom he had been indentured in 1815. In October 1828 the Duke of St Albans paid £3,849 5s 5d for the furnishing of Bradbourne Hall to a Hull craftsman named Levitt who was described as a u. This may have been John Levett or William Day Levitt, both of Hull. [D; Hull app. reg.; Lincoln RO, 2 RED 4/4/14]

Levett, Mathew, 62 Edgar St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1823). [D] See M. Levitt.

Levett, Robert, London and Hull, Yorks., cm and u (1793–1805). Employed in London for seven years. At 53 Lowgate in Hull 1793 but by 1803 had moved to 42 Whitefriargate. [D; Hull Packet, 1793]

Levett, William Day, Junction Dock Rd, Hull, Yorks., cm and u (1828–40). In 1828 the address is given as Old Dock End but this may be the same location as Junction Dock Rd. The number in this road was 16 in 1831–34 and 14 after this date. [D] See William Levitt.

Levi, Emanuel, Wells, Norfolk, cm and furniture broker (1822). [D]

Levi, Moses, Westgate Without, Canterbury, Kent, cm and broker (1824). [D]

Levi, Samuel, 4 Back Russell St, Liverpool, cm (1837–39). [D]

Levien, J. M., 10 Davies St, Grosvenor Sq., London, cm (c. 1790). [Heal]

Levin, Jno. Thomas, 6 Albion Pl., Kennington Lane, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Levington, Henry, 54 Greek St, Soho, London, carver and gilder (1817). [D]

Levis, William, 5 Gt Newport St, London, carver and gilder, dealer in prints and pictures (1805). In 1805 took out insurance cover of £700 of which £600 was for his dwelling house and only £50 for utensils, stock and goods in trust. [GL, Sun MS vol. 434, ref. 777199]

Levison, William, 2 Carburton St, London, carver and gilder (1826). [D]

Levitt (or Levett), John, Belvoirgate, Nottingham, cm (1828). [D]

Levitt, M., 7 Aldborough St, Hull, Yorks., chairmaker (1838– 39). [D] See Mathew Levett.

Levitt, Richard, Hull, Yorks., cm (1831–40). At 4 Agnes Pl., Myton St in 1831 and 11 Ann St, Osborne St, 1839–40. [D]

Levitt (or Levett), Thomas, Junction Dock Rd, Hull, Yorks., cm (1831–40). In 1834 listed as a cm and u. The number in Junction Dock Rd is given as 7 in 1831, 8, 9 and 11 in 1834 and 7 and 11 in 1835. Recorded as Levett at nos 7 and 11 in 1840. [D]

Levitt, William, 12 Chapel St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1840). [D] See William Day Levett.

Levy, Joseph, 7 Lower College St, Bristol, cm (1835). [D]

Levy, Joseph, 286 High Holborn, London, glass and cabinet warehouse (1835). [D]

Lewell, William, High St, Loughborough, Leics., joiner/cm (1822). [D]

Lewes, Edward Tyler, Norwich, cm (1768–84). In 1780 was living in Cocket Lane but in 1784 at Magdalen St. [D; poll bks; Norfolk Chronicle, 3 June 1790]

Lewes & Co., 213 Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm (1825). [D]

Lewin, John, Leicester, joiner and cm (1779). App. to Joseph Johnson, 11 February 1768, a premium of £10 10s being paid. Free 20 April 1779. [Furn. Hist., 1976]

Lewin, John Field, Watford, Herts., cm (1832). [D]

Lewin, John Thomas, 117 Curtain Rd, Shoreditch, London, u (1826–35). In 1826 listed as Thomas Lewin jnr. In 1827 also cm. [D]

Lewis, Adam, 35 Walcot St, Bath, Som., cm (1833). [D]

Lewis, Benjamin, Salisbury, Wilts., cm and u (1777–80). In 1777 took out insurance cover for £300 of which £250 was for stock in a warehouse. In 1780 the total insurance had risen to £1,200 of which £665 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 258, p. 602; vol. 290, p. 516]

Lewis, C., 64 High Holborn, London, work box etc. manufacturer (1820). [D]

Lewis, George, Castle Hill, Lincoln, u (1770–73). Opened his shop in Castle Hill in February 1770. He claimed to be from London. The business was however short-lived for by March 1773 he was bankrupt. [Cambridge Chronicle, 24 February 1770; Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 12 March 1773, 12 August 1774]

Lewis, George, 13 Jewin St, Cripplegate, London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Lewis, Isaac, St James, Bristol, carver (1754). [Poll bk]

Lewis, Israel, 151 Fleet St, London, cm and u (1769–83). Son of Israel Lewis of Maidstone, clerk. App. to William Marston, 5 August 1762 and free of the London Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 6 December 1769. In 1771 took out patent 1142 and in the following year patent 1162 for window curtains. In addition to the Fleet St premises he owned at least from 1776 a house at Hampstead which he insured in that year for £700 out of a total cover of £1,300. There are no further directory entries after 1783 and the records of the Upholders’ Co. from this date show him at Hampstead. He may thus have retired from the trade. He continued his interest however and in 1793 subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book. Shown at Hampstead until 1802 which may be the year of his death. An entry in the accounts of the Dunne family of Gatley Park near Leominster, Herefs. of a payment to ‘MR LEWIS, Upholsterer’ dated 8 March 1783 may refer to this maker. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 249, p. 126; Herefs. RO, Gatley F76/III/40]

Lewis, J. A., 4 St Vincent Row, City Rd, London, carver and gilder (1808). [D]

Lewis, James, London, chairmaker (1818). Freeman of Hereford. [Hereford poll bk]

Lewis, John, Fleet St, London, upholder (1763). [D]

Lewis, John, Bristol, carver (1774–84). Living in the parishes of St Nicholas, 1774, St James, 1781, and St Michael, 1784. [Poll bks]

Lewis, John, 43 Baldwin St, Bristol, bed joiner (1775). [D]

Lewis, John, 4 Little Distaff Lane, London, carver and gilder (1779). In 1779 took out insurance cover for £200 of which £50 was for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 273, p. 531]

Lewis, John, Horse Fair, Bristol, cm and broker (1799–1801). [D]

Lewis, John, Bridge St Row, Chester, cm (1816–18). [D]

Lewis, John, London, carver, gilder and frame maker (1817–26). At 19 Bridgewater Sq., Barbican in 1817, but from 1823–26 at 20 Charterhouse Sq. In 1823 took out insurance cover of £500 of which £230 was in respect of utensils and stock. A workshop in a yard valued at £20 was referred to. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 495, ref. 1006857]

Lewis, John, Hereford or London, chairmaker (before 1818). In 1818 Joseph Lewis of London, eldest son of John Lewis, chairmaker, deceased, was admitted a freeman of Hereford by patrimony. [Freemen rolls]

Lewis, John, Church St, Calne, Wilts., cm and u (1822–30). [D]

Lewis, John, St James St, Manchester with residence at 43 Bloom St, cm (1825–39). In 1825 at 66 St James St but from 1836–39 the number was 2. [D]

Lewis, Jno., 4 Denmark St, Soho, London, chair and sofa maker (1835). [D]

Lewis, John, address unknown, u (1839). In 1839 insured a house in Broad St, Ludlow, Salop in the tenure of Ceasar Cole, surgeon apothecary, for £600. [GL, Sun MS vol. 376, p. 114]

Lewis, John, 44 Newman St, Oxford St, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Lewis, Joseph, 5 Hollen St, Wardour St, London, cm (1818–26). Son of John Lewis, chairmaker who was already dead by 1818 when Joseph was declared a freeman of Hereford by patrimony. [Hereford freemen rolls; Hereford poll bk]

Lewis, Jos. Ekins jnr, Union St, Northampton, cm (1826). [Poll bk]

Lewis, Joshua, ‘The Three Tents’, by Fleet Ditch (later Fleet St), London, u (1724–63). Trading as early as March 1724 when insurance cover of £500 was taken out on goods and merchandise in his house. He also acted as an auctioneer and in October 1740 advertised (following her death) the furniture of Mrs Chichley, widow of Dr Chichley, Secretary to the late Archbishop of Canterbury. Her house in Gt Marlborough St contained such rich items as ‘Genoa and other Silk Damask Furniture in Beds and Window Curtains’, Turkey carpets and ‘Antique Cabinets embellished with silver’. Joshua Lewis was Questman and Collector for the Poor for the parish of St Bride in 1732 and a Sidesman in 1737. The business traded as Joshua Lewis & Son from 1753–63. Took Thomas Morrison as app. in 1749 under the Sons of the Clergy Scheme at a premium of £20. [General Advertiser, 17 April 1749] Joshua Lewis was patronised by the Hoare family, 1751–62. The earliest payment known was in June 1751 and amounted to £32 12s. In February of the following year funeral expenses were met costing £37 14s, but this was small compared with Lewis's account for the funeral of Lady Hoare also in 1752, which came to £152. Other amounts settled in 1753 came to £315 19s. After this however the amounts are less. Another customer was J. Buller of Morval, Cornwall who in January 1759 was invoiced for a mahogany ‘Beauroe Bedstead’ at £4. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 19, ref. 34973; MS 6561, p. 52; London Daily Post, 31 October 1740; Daily Advertiser, 28 May 1748; V & A archives, Hoare's Bank, private accounts; Cornwall RO, DDBU 337]

Lewis, Josiah, the corner of Barnaby St, Tooley St, Southwark, London and later at Smarden, Kent, upholder (1772). [Heal]

Lewis, Newton, parish of St Nicholas, Bristol, bed joiner (1774). [Poll bk]

Lewis, Obadiah, parish of St Lawrence, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm (1823). Married 1823. [Suffolk RO, FAA: 50/2/120, p. 102]

Lewis, Richard, London, cane chairmaker (1710). Born in Shropshire. App. to a maker at ‘The Crown’ in St Paul's Churchyard. May not have completed his apprenticeship before he joined the First Regiment of Foot-Guards. By January 1710 he had deserted, and an advertisement was placed seeking his apprehension. At that time he was 21 years of age. [London Gazette, 25–31 January 1709–10]

Lewis, Richard, Brentford, Middlx, upholder and cm (1789). Party to an assignment concerning a property in Goring, Oxon. [Oxford RO, F IX/258]

Lewis, Richard, Bromley-St-Leonards, London, upholder (1791). Son of Benjamin Lewis of Bromley, millwright and engineer. App. to John Mears, 5 July 1780, and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 4 May 1791. [GL Upholders’ Co. records]

Lewis, Robert, Charles Ct, Charles St, St James's, London, cm and broker (1794). In 1794 took out insurance cover of £200 on his house, goods and utensils. [GL, Sun MS vol. 401, ref. 628558]

Lewis, Robert, King St, Soho, London, cornice and chair manufacturer (1817–22). At 54 King St in 1817 and no. 56, 1820–22. [D]

Lewis,, Samuel, Abingdon, Berks., brazier and upholder (1734). [Poll bk]

Lewis, Samuel, Fleet St, London, upholder (1758). In 1758 fined for declining parochial office, parish of St Bride. [GL, MS 6561, p. 94]

Lewis, Samuel George, 87 Drury Lane, London, cabinet inlayer (1808–39). In 1808 one directory described him as a manufacturer of ornamental stringing. [D]

Lewis, Samuel, Bell Lane, Ludlow, Salop, cm and u (1822–28). [D]

Lewis, Thomas, Sidbury, Worcester, chairmaker (1788). [D]

Lewis, Thomas, 14 New St, Dock Head, London, upholder (1795–1802). Son of Samuel Lewis of New St, Dock Head, pipe maker. App. to Isaac Vizard, 1 July 1795, and subsequently to his widow. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 4 August 1802. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lewis, Thomas, Vauxhall, London, japanned chair manufacturer (1808). [D]

Lewis, Thomas, Horfield Rd, Bristol, carver and gilder (1818– 21). At 26 Horfield Rd in 1818 and 20 in 1819–21. [D]

Lewis, Thomas, 10 Warren St, Fitzroy Sq., London, u (1819). [D]

Lewis, Thomas, Soutergate, Ulverston, Lancs., cm (1828). [D]

Lewis, Thomas, Liverpool, cm (1835–39). At 23 St Vincent St, St James’, 1835–37, and 1 Hardy St in 1839. [D]

Lewis, William, London, carver and gilder (1778–93). At 15 Gt Newport St, Long Acre, 1778–89 and then 81 Newport St, Long Acre 1790–93. In 1778 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £150 was for utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 264, p. 629]

Lewis, William, 25 Gt Ormond St, London, japanned chair manufacturer (1808–13). [D]

Lewis, William, Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, London, u and cm (1813). In 1813 took out insurance cover of £3,000. Of this very substantial sum £1,800 was in respect of his dwelling house, £200 for a workshop and £800 for stock and utensils in the dwelling house. [GL, Sun MS vol. 461, ref. 885459]

Lewis, William, 31 Gloucester St, Queen Sq., London, u (1816). [D]

Lewis, William, Shoplatch, Shrewsbury, Salop, carver and gilder (1822–28). [D]

Lewis, William, Shaw's Brow, Kendal, Westmld, chairmaker/ turner (1829). [D]

Lewis, William, Highworth, Wilts., u and cm (1839). [D]

Lewtas, Edward, Breck St, Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancs., joiner and cm (1828–34). [D]

Lewtas, John, Manchester u (1817–18). At 7 Ancoat's Pl. in 1817 and 75 Oldham St in 1818. [D]

Ley, George, 52 High St, Birmingham, upholder (1777–80). [D]

Ley, Sarah, High St, Birmingham, u (1767). [D]

Leycock, Thomas, near ‘The Black Bull’, New Gravel Lane, Wapping, London, carpenter and cm (1775). In 1775 took out insurance cover of £300 of which £110 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 236, p. 544]

Leyland, Samuel, Fazakerley St, Preston, Lancs., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Libbey, Henry, 67 Sawney Pope St, Liverpool, cm (1823). [D]

Libbey, John, 3 Sawney Pope St, Liverpool, cm (1827). [D]

Libbey, Richard, Barrs St, Bristol, cm (1792–94). [D]

Libbey, Richard, Liverpool, cm (b. 1788–d. 1827). In 1816 had a shop at 18 Richmond St but in 1824 shown as Richard Libbey & Son with a shop at 67 Sawney Pope St and a house at 22 Stockdale St. As a Henry Libbey is also shown at the Sawney Pope St in a directory of 1823 this man is probably Richard's son. Richard Libbey died on 25 February 1827 ‘after a long and severe illness’, at the age of 39. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 16 March 1827]

Libbis, George, 5 Quickset Row, New Rd, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Liddell, Gilbert, Newcastle, u (1774). App. to William Hudson and free, 8 October 1774. [Freemen reg.]

Liddiard, Thomas, Macclesfield, Cheshire, cm (1755). In 1755 took app. named Wilkson. [S of G, app. index]

Liddle, George, Haltwhistle, Northumb., joiner and cm (1827– 28). [D]

Liddle, Matthew, Cart Yd, Drury Lane, London, cm (1775). In 1775 insured his house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 243, p. 578]

Lidgett, Elizabeth, 9 Myton Sq., Hull, Yorks., u (1831). [D]

Lidgett, Miss Esther, Hull, Yorks., u (1834–39). At 8 Upper Union St, 1834–35, and Adelaide St, 1838–39. In 1835 the trade is named as ‘bedmaker’. [D]

Lidgier, Henry, ‘King's Arms’, near Symonde Lane, Chancery Lane, London, cm and upholder (1780). In 1780 took out insurance cover of £2,500 of which utensils, stock and goods were £1,400. [GL Sun MS vol. 285, p. 21]

Light, David, London, cm (1803–09). In 1803, when he took an app., he was trading at North Green, Shoreditch, but in 1808–09 he was listed at Paul St, Finsbury Sq. [D; Rose Lipman Lib., Shoreditch archives, MS M3494]

Light, John, Worship St, Moorfields, London, cm (1779). Bankruptcy announced, Gents Mag., November 1779 and Bailey's list of bankrupts.

Light, Thomas, Salisbury St, Mere, Wilts., cm (1839). [D]

Light, William, London, upholder (1725). Son of John Light of Goudhurst, Kent, timber merchant. App. to Henry Heasman, 21 August 1718, and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 6 October 1725. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lightfoot, —, 24 Lant St, Southwark, London, cm (1826). [D]

Lightfoot, Joshua, Exeter, Devon, cm and u (1823–30). In 1823–25 at 73 South St. In an advertisement of 1823 he directed the public to ‘his designs for CHAIRS, COUCHES etc which he flatters himself are not surpassed, if equalled by any in the West of England’. On 11 December 1827 an auction of his stock in trade was advertised. Amongst the items offered were ‘Mahogany & other four-post bedsteads & furniture; dining, pembroke & other tables; dining & drawing room chairs; handsome pedestal sideboard; bed steps; wash stands; dressing glasses, butlers’ trays; tea caddies; ladies’ work boxes; mahogany sofas’. Despite this announcement he advertised only thirteen days later that he intended to continue his business at 74 Bell Hill, South St. He also stated that he had ‘several dozen of handsome Drawingroom chairs at a great reduction in price’. The Bell Hill address features in directories, 1827–28, but in 1830 South St is recorded as the address. [D; The Alfred, 15 April 1823, 11 December 1827, 24 December 1827]

Lightfoot, Luke, Mile End and Southwark, London, carver (b. c. 1722–d. 1789). A man whose career embraced the trades of wood and stone carver, cm, architect and surveyor and victualler. Son of Theophilus Lightfoot of the parish of St Giles-in-the-Fields, Gent., Luke Lightfoot was free of the Drapers’ Co. by patrimony, 16 November 1743 and was described as a carver of Mile End, Old Town. Took as apps Abraham Jennings (1749), William Lovell (1754), Theophilus Williams (1757), John Birdseye (1760), James Lewis Pajon and T. Finch (1766), and Richard Matthews (1767). From 1757 extensively employed by Ralph, 2nd Earl Verney at Claydon, Bucks. not only as a mason and carver but also as a master builder, surveyor and architect to this, and other properties. This involved work at Verney's London house in Mayfair, and on property and building sites in London bought as speculations. Most of Luke Lightfoot's efforts were however expended on a grandiose extension and re-decoration of Claydon House from 1757–69. The exceptional Rococo carved woodwork of this house, some in the prevailing Gothick and Chinese taste, together with the inlaid staircase, are major achievements and show well the quality of the work that was produced under his direction. Relations with his patron deteriorated, especially after the appointment of Sir Thomas Robinson as architect in 1767. Lightfoot was accused of falsely accounting for money advanced by Verney and misappropriation of materials. The dispute ended with an action brought in the court of chancery in 1771 by Verney. During the period that work at Claydon was progressing Lightfoot had his works in Gravel Lane, Southwark, and in 1766 was living in Blackman St in the same part of London. In 1769 however he moved to Denmark Hall near Dulwich and here set up as a victualler. He died on 1 March 1789. [Furn. Hist., 1966; V & A Museum, Rococo exhib. cat. 1984, refs cited]

Lightfoot, Robert, Bawtry, Yorks., cm (1753–d. 1788). In 1753 took app. named Senior. Probate given September 1788. Still listed in a directory of 1793 which raises the possibility of a son of the same name continuing the business. [D; S of G, app. index; Notts. RO, probate records]

Lightfoot, William, Gilesgate, Durham, cm (1828–34). [D]

Like, Thomas & Turner, Henry, 47 Frith St, Soho, London cm, u, auctioneers and appraisers (1777–87). Henry Turner was the foreman of John Cobb, the noted u, and this partnership appears to have been established a year before Cobb's death. From the commencement the partnership was a business of substantial proportions. In 1778 total insurance cover amounted to £3,100 with utensils and stock valued at £2,030. Thomas Like was additionally operating a business in Thames St, Windsor, Berks., 1779–84, and in 1779 an insurance cover of £700 including £600 for utensils and stock, was maintained on this part of the business in addition. Like was a freeman of Windsor and probably maintained a house there. The business there is recorded in his name only, but the insurance cover is in the name of the partnership. In 1785 the partners also took out insurance cover on a house at 45 Queen Anne St. They may have ceased trading soon after 1787, as that is the last year they are recorded in trade directories. An invoice for a mahogany sofa supplied to Lord Howard of Audley End, Essex at a cost of £7 12s 6d including carriage in 1787 is issued in the name of Thomas Like only. In the following year Like is shown in a Westminster poll bk at St James’ St, but in 1798 he was at Soho Sq., In 1780–81 he appears to have morgaged the Frith St premises to a William Allam, a watchmaker of Bond St. Allam's widow entered an action in the court of chancery against Little but it was not heard until after her death in 1798 when it was pressed by the executors. They claimed £1,400 and interest. [D; Apollo, February 1960, p. 35; GL Sun MS vol. 260, p. 525; vol. 265, p. 171; vol. 271, p. 524; vol. 277, p. 479; vol. 331, p. 195; poll bk; Essex RO, D/DBy/AU5/9; PRO, C13/447]

Liley, Joseph, Maltby's Yd, Mill St, Leeds, Yorks., cm and joiner (1837–40). [D]

Liller, John, Churchgate, Retford, Notts., cm, joiner and appraiser (1822–40). The business is listed as Liller & Marshall in 1822 and Liller & Son in 1841. [D]

Lilley, William, Doncaster, Yorks., cm (1793–1806). Supplied furniture to Doncaster Mansion House, 1802–06. This consisted of a set of mahogany dining chairs, of which twenty-six survive in situ, supplied in 1802. These chairs have the impressed mark ‘W LILLEY’ on the back rails, and have also been crudely stamped with the date 1802. Payment was made for these on 21 November 1804, the amount being £66 14s. Payments were made for window blinds on 21 August 1801, and on 7 October 1806 for three sideboard tables made at a cost of £49 8s 6d. These tables are also still in the Mansion House. [D; Doncaster Borough archives, ledger]

Lillie, George & Tucker, Thomas, 315 High Holborn, London, u and cm (1789–94). A substantial business which took out insurance cover on their house and warehouses in 1789 and 1791 of £1,000. In 1791 £750 of this sum was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 362, p. 336; vol. 374, ref. 578565]

Lillie & Copeman, address unknown, cm and joiners (1739–57). Known only in connection with work undertaken and furniture supplied to Holkham Hall, Norfolk. In 1739 and 1741 work at the ‘old house’ consisting of furniture repairs and joinery was paid for. At the same period furniture was being supplied for the new house. In 1739 this consisted of two bed heads, three chairs, a settee, a table and a chest of drawers. These were charged in total at £19 2s 9d. In 1741 tables and picture frames were charged at £12 5s 5d, tables and a chest of drawers at £15 5s and picture frames at £9 11s. After 1743 work was on a less regular basis with a payment in 1747 for two oval frames and four palm branches for the dining room, and in 1752 £9 6s 6d for ‘setting up scaffold for the painter’. A later account of 1757 was submitted in the name of Lillie only. This was for framing three small looking glasses, four walnut chairs and a sofa for the Saloon and picture frames, the total cost being £17 6s 6d. [V & A archives; C. Life, 14 February 1980, p. 427]

Lilly, John, Falmouth, Cornwall, cm, carpenter and joiner (1754–77). In 1754, took app. named Gellard. Insurance cover in 1777 amounted to £700 of which £260 was in respect of utensils and stock. [S of G, app. index; GL, Sun MS vol. 258, p. 3]

Lilly, Richard, London, cm (1807–20). In 1807 at King John Ct, Holywell Lane, Shoreditch. At this address he took out insurance cover for £350 of which £150 was specified for stock and utensils. By 1818 the address had changed to 6 Batemans Row, Shoreditch which was specified as being ‘his new workshop and dwelling house’. Total insurance cover at this adddress was £300. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 441, ref. 812232; vol. 480, ref. 948920]

Lilly, Robert, ‘The George’, Market Pl., Hoxton, London, victualler and cm (1775). In 1775 took out insurance cover of £500 of which £350 was specified as utensils, stock and goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 238, p. 484]

Lily, John, 6 Crown St, Hoxton, London, cm (1808). [D]

Limpus, John, Bishops Waltham, Hants., cm and auctioneer (1792–93). [D]

Lincett, Ash, Malton, Yorks., cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lincoln, Robert, parish of St John Sepulchre, Norwich, cm (1801–02). Free 24 January 1801. [Poll bk; freemen reg.]

Linderbusch, H., Marylebone, London, cm (1787). [Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Lindley, William, 4 Beer St, Leicester Sq., London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Lindon, Joseph, High St, Bilston, Staffs., chairmaker (1828). [D]

Lindon, Malachi, London and Worcester, carver (1749–79). At Dufour's Ct, London in 1749 but declared bankrupt, Gents Mag., December 1750. In 1779 living in Worcester, and in that year insured some tenements there for £300. [Westminster poll bk; GL, Sun MS vol. 279, p. 161]

Lindop, Richard, Liverpool, cm (1809–27). In 1809 married in Liverpool Miss Alice Appleton of that town. Not listed in directories until 1821 when he was living at Rawlinson Ct, Craven St with a shop at 2 Feather St. By 1824 his house was numbered 5 Craven St, and in 1827 it was listed as Craven Ct, Craven St. [D; Liverpool Courier, 20 September 1809]

Lindsay, Benjamin & Sons, 4 and 16 Broker Row, Finsbury, London, u (1806–11). One directory of 1808 gives the address as 4 and 16 Lower Moorfields. [D]

Lindsay, Benjamin, 48 Shoreditch, London, u (1819–26). [D]

Lindsay, George, Chester, cm (1768). In 1768 took as app. Thomas Newns. [App. bk]

Lindsay, J., Bridge St, Sunderland, Co. Durham, carver and gilder (c. 1820–30). His trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] indicates that he made picture and looking-glass frames, and offered ‘Gold & other Bordering for Rooms & Bed & Window Cornices’. Pictures could also be cleaned and revarnished. It is highly likely that this craftsman was either James or John Lindsay, both of whom were active in the trade in Sunderland at this period.

Lindsay, James, Nile St, Bishop Wearmouth, Sunderland, Co. Durham, carver, gilder and ship's carver (1827). [D]

Lindsay, John, London, cm and chairmaker (before 1785). In December 1785 at Norfolk, Virginia, USA. He advertised that he had ‘just arrived from London’. [Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser, 6 December 1785]

Lindsay, John, Back High St, Bishop Wearmouth, Sunderland, Co. Durham, carver and gilder (1820–27). Worked at Wynyard Park, Co. Durham, for the Marquess of Londonderry in 1820. [D; Durham RO, D/LO/E 484, vol. 1829–41]

Lindsay, John, West Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (b. c. 1790–1841). Aged 51 at the time of the 1841 Census.

Lindsay, Joseph, Lancaster, joiner (1784–88). [Westminster Ref. Lib. Gillow records, vol. 344/94, p. 459]

Lindsay, Thomas, Lancaster (1784–87). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Lindsay, William, Elm Hill, Norwich, u and paper hanger (1830). [D]

Lindsey, John, 82 Paul St, Finsbury, London, cabinet and feather warehouse (1814). [D]

Lindsey, Robert, 25 Cateaton St, London, upholder (1773). [D]

Lindsey, Robert, Couiscliffe, Darlington, Co. Durham, cm/joiner (1834). [D]

Lindsey, Robert, Battle Hill, Hexham, Northumb., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Lindsey, Sarah, Elm Hill, Norwich, working u (1836). Probably the successor and widow of William Lindsay. [D]

Lindsley, John, Mabgate, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1817). [D]

Line, William, Market Pl., Reading, Berks., journeyman cm (b. 1735–d. 1809). At the time of his death in 1809 aged 74 he was said to have been employed in the business of Higgs & Ford of Market Pl., Reading for sixty years. He had never in this time lost a day's work, had a holiday or ‘been disguised in liquor’. [Gents Mag., June 1809]

Line, William jnr, High St, Taunton, Som., cm and u (1822). [D]

Line, William, Coventry, Warks., cm and u (1828–35). Trading in High St, 1828 and Earl St in 1835. [D]

Line & Johnson, High St, Coventry, Warks., cm (1818–28). [D]

Line, William, Wilden St, Amersham, Bucks., chairmaker (1830). [D]

Liney, —, 29 Gresse St, Rathbone Pl., London, u, appraiser and undertaker (1808). [D]

Linfey, William, 59 Frederick St, Liverpool, cm (1781). [D]

Linfoot, Mark, 17 St Andrewgate, York, cm (1838). [D]

Linfoot, Ralph, Strenshall, near York, joiner and cm (1823). [D]

Linfoot, Thomas, London, u and cm (1754–71). Subscribed to Chippendale's Director, 1754, and subsequently undertook work for Thomas Chippendale. In 1771 he was paid 10s 6d by Chippendale for repairing a folding iron bedstead which he had earlier supplied to the Earl of Shelburne, (later 1st Marquess of Lansdowne). It is in connection with the furnishing of the Earl of Shelburne's properties that Linfoot's name is known. In February and June 1767 he supplied bedding for Bowood House, Wilts. and from November 1767 to September 1768 was responsible for furnishings including tables, chairs and bedsteads for Lansdowne House, London, costing £178 10s 7d. Work continued here and at other properties until 1771 and a total of £508 was paid to Linfoot by the Earl. [Bolton, Architecture of Robert and James Adam, 2, p. 314; Bowood MS, Bundle 11 B.3.7]

Linford, William, West Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1798). [Militia Census]

Ling, Mrs Elizabeth, Bridewell, Alley, Norwich, cm and u (1830–40). [D]

Ling, John T., Bridewell Alley, Norwich, cm and u (1818–36). Took as app. Thomas Bennett, free as an u, 30 May 1819, and John Chapman, free as a cm, 21 September 1829. His trade card in the Norwich Local Hist. Lib. indicates that he also carried on the business of appraiser and auctioneer. Undertook carpentry and paper hanging and offered to supply the trade with mahogany and upholstery goods. [D; freemen admission reg.] Trade card of J. Ling, Bridewell Alley, states: ‘Manufacturer of Improved Cabinet & Upholstery Furniture … Appraiser & Auctioneer.’ [Grosvenor House Antiques Fair, 1985]

Ling & Son, Bridewell Alley and Petergate, St Andrews, Norwich, u, cm, carpet and paper warehouse (1839). [D]

Lingard, I., York St, Commercial Rd, Whitechapel, London, bedstead maker (1835). [D]

Lingard, John, 32 Queen St, Manchester, chair bottomer (1817). [D]

Linger, James, Rampant Horse St, Norwich, cm and u (1830). [D]

Lingon, Henry, Worcester, u (1719–27). In 1719 took as app. Harry Nash who was free, 24 August 1727. [S of G, app. index; freemen rolls]

Lingwood, George, Diss, Norfolk, cm (1784–d. 1816). In 1785 took out insurance cover on a dwelling house for £130. Will proved at Norwich, 1816. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 333, p. 567; Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Lingwood, Isaac, St Botolph St, Colchester, Essex, carver and gilder (1832–39). Recorded also as a picture dealer in 1832. [D]

Lining, Thomas, London, cm, chairmaker, carpenter and joiner (before 1748). In May 1748 in South Carolina, USA. He stated that he had ‘lately arrived from London’. [South Carolina Gazette, 11 May 1748]

Linnell, J., 34 Hart St, Bloomsbury, London, carver and gilder (1835). [D]

Linnell, James, St Martin's Lane, London, wood carver (1720). [Heal]

Linnell, James, London, carver, gilder, picture frame maker and print seller (1790–93). At 14 Craven Buildings in 1790 and also recorded at 2 Streatham St, Bloomsbury. Father of John Linnell, the artist. A looking-glass of Neo-classical design in a carved and gilt frame at 10 Downing St, London bears a hand-written label with the Bloomsbury address. [Wills, Looking-Glasses]

Linnell, John, London, cm, u and carver (1729–d. 1796). John Linnell was the eldest son of William Linnell and his wife, Mary Butler. He was probably trained as a furniture maker in his father's workshop although he was not formally app. to his father nor has any record of his apprenticeship come to light. However, he became free of the Joiners’ Co. by patrimony in 1758 and entered the Livery in 1781 where the records describe him as a carver.

As a young boy John Linnell's talent as an artist must have been evident to his father who sent him to study at St Martin's Lane Academy, founded by William Hogarth in 1735. There he found himself among an international group of students and teachers and in studying Rococo design, particularly by French exponents of the style, he was able to equip himself to become the firm's designer both of interiors and furniture and to enjoy painting in water-colour for his own pleasure. By 1749 he was already helping his father in running the firm. The business was rapidly growing and after a short period at 8 Long Acre, to which the family moved in the year after John joined his father, an important step was taken in 1754 in transferring the business to the West End and establishing a new and larger workshop, with a dwelling house, at 28 Berkeley Sq. Father and son worked here together for nine years, building up a distinguished clientèle and covering a wide range of activities as carvers, furniture makers and upholsterers. At William's death in 1763 John found himself in sole charge of a firm employing some forty or fifty people of which the stock-in-trade had been valued at £1,052 19s 8d. Many of the firm's clients continued to patronise John Linnell, including William Drake of Shardeloes, Bucks., Lord Scarsdale and Francis Child, all of whom also employed Robert Adam. The preservation in the V & A of a large number of original designs drawn by John Linnell and his draughtsmen for the firm's clients are of the utmost importance in tracing the development of his style, in understanding the range of his work and in identifying some of his customers. [Print Room, E.59–414 1929] Many are in pen and ink and colour wash, providing the customer with an attractively presented design, sometimes offering alternative proposals from which he could make his choice. Those executed between about 1750 and 1760 reveal John Linnell's mastery of Rococo, using idioms adapted from contemporary French engraved designs. Some introduce Chinoiserie and Gothick features. It was during this period of his life that he found time to issue a set of engraved designs for silver. A small publication consisting of a title-page and four sheets with ten designs for coffee-pots, vases, jugs and sugar castors appeared in 1760. He probably also intended to issue a set of engraved designs for carved girandoles in 1761 as a drawing for a draft title page survives. [V & A, E. 217 1929] But this plan, if it existed, does not apear to have materialized. It was a time of varied opportunities. With his uncle, Samuel Butler, a wellknown coach builder, he prepared a design for a new State coach for the coronation of George III. Although this was not accepted, an engraving of his design was published in 1761, dedicated to his patron, Lord Scarsdale. This proved to be an appropriate dedication for in that same year Lord Scarsdale was considering the furnishing of his state drawing-room at Kedleston Hall, Derbs. He commissioned two pairs of sofas of exceptional size and magnificence which were intended to be the only items of seat furniture in the room and were to take up the entire wall space with the exception of the window wall. These were duly designed by John Linnell and made by the firm, the main decorative features consisting of carved and gilt merfolk and dolphins based upon ideas which he had already expressed in his design for the coronation coach. The sofas survive at Kedleston. Gradually, between 1760–65, Linnell's creative ideas were adapting themselves to the growing interest in antiquity. William Kent seems to have been a source of inspiration and he may have come across ‘Athenian’ Stuart's abortive designs for Kedleston. By 1765 he had certainly mastered Neo-classical form and ornament, partly on account of his familiarity with French designs, such as those by Delafosse, and partly as a result of his contact with Robert Adam. His links with another Neo-classical architect, Sir William Chambers, may also have been instrumental in promoting his understanding and adoption of forms and decorative features inspired by the work of French Neoclassical cm. Some drawings of about 1765 and also items of furniture, such as a pair of marquetry card-tables delivered in that year to Kedleston Hall, Derbs. for Lord Scarsdale, owe much to French example. An even closer connection with contemporary French taste arose with the arrival in London and the probable employment at 28 Berkeley Sq. in 1767–68 of two Swedish cm, Georg Haupt and Christopher Fuhrlohg who had both been working in France. A drawing for a commode in the French taste, perhaps by Fuhrlohg himself is among those by John Linnell in the V & A [E 292 1929] while the piece, executed after the design for the 5th Earl of Carlisle and still at Castle Howard, Yorks., is signed by Christopher Fuhrlohg on the carcase in pencil. It would seem very likely that the two Swedes were still working with John Linnell when the library furniture for Robert Child at Osterley Park was provided. The pedestal desk, two library tables and set of eight chairs which survive in the library at Osterley all came from the Berkeley Sq. workshop and include decorative features previously used by John Linnell as well as FrancoSwedish characteristics.
While business seems to have been going well in the 1760s, John Linnell's friendship with a group of artists involved him in business affairs which almost drove him to bankruptcy in the early 1770s. In addition to these problems he was taken to Court by Lord Conyngham on a charge of fraudulency in which Linnell's mistress was involved and the affair was not settled until the end of 1771. While commissions continued to come to the firm from as far afield as Inveraray Castle in Scotland and Castle Howard, Yorks., lack of money on account of his unfortunate business adventures was a constant cause of worry. Nevertheless, he continued to search for new outlets and in 1773 took steps to sell furniture to the Empress of Russia and her Court through his friend Pierre Etienne Falconet. A late commission brought him into contact with the architect, John Vardy the Younger, when he was designing interior features for the 1st Earl of Uxbridge at Uxbridge House, Burlington Gdns, London. Subsequently, between 1791–94 he was preparing designs for the decoration of the boxes at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, under the direction of Henry Holland. He appears to have stopped working in the furniture trade shortly after 1793. His health was not good and to alleviate his gout he rented a house in Bath in 1794. He died in 1796 without issue although he appears to have married in the last years of his life. The firm then came to an end. Thomas Tatham, younger brother of the architect, Charles Heathcote Tatham, who was the son of one of John Linnell's cousins and had been trained by John Linnell at Berkeley Sq., took on the burden of sorting out his kinsman's estate, and a few years later is known to have founded his own firm, Tatham & Bailey at 13–14 Mount St, London. [G. Eland, (ed.), Shardeloes Papers of the 17th and 18th Centuries, 1947; J. Hardy and H. Hayward, ‘Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire’, C. Life, 26 January, 2 and 9 Feburary 1978; H. Hayward, ‘Some English Rococo Designs for Silversmiths’, Proceedings of the Society of Silver Collectors, 1969–70, pp. 60–62; H. Hayward, ‘The Drawings of John Linnell in the Victoria & Albert Museum’, Furn. Hist., 1969; H. Hayward, ‘Ordered from Berkeley Square, Inveraray and the furniture of John Linnell’, C. Life, 5 June 1975, pp. 1485–88; H. Hayward, ‘A Pair of Mirrors and Consoles by John Linnell’, Conn., January 1976, pp. 12–13; H. Hayward, ‘A Fine Pair of Commodes by John Linnell’, Catalogue, Summer Exhibition, 1985, Partridge Fine Arts Ltd, London; J. F. Hayward, ‘A Newly discovered commode signed by Christopher Furlohg’, Burlington, CXIV, 1972, 704–12; H. Hayward, and P. Kirkham, William and John Linnell Eighteenth Century London Furniture Makers, London, 1980. (Reproduces all bills, correspondence and the Inventory of the Berkeley Sq. workshop, 1763); C. Hussey, ‘Ammerdown House, Somerset — I’, C. Life, 16 February 1929, pp. 226–36; P. Kirkham, ‘The careers of William and John Linnell’, Furn. Hist., 1967, pp. 29–40; G.W.W., ‘A set of Cornishes by J. Linnell’, The Antique Collector, October 1959, pp. 42–43]
SHARDELOES, Bucks. (William Drake). 1749–75: William Linnell had been employed by Drake to work at his London house. Between 1765–68 John Linnell appears to have been in sole charge of furnishing Shardeloes and his bills, totalling over £1,000 reveal the details and comprehensive nature of the commission. [Bucks. RO]
KEDLESTON HALL, Derbs. (1st Baron Scarsdale). 1758–96: William Linnell was patronized by Nathaniel Curzon before his client was ennobled. John Linnell continued to be employed at Kedleston and worked side by side with the architect, Robert Adam. Ledgers recording expenditure on the building and on the furnishings of the house show that regular payments were made to the Linnell firm between 1759 (before William's death) and 1796 (when John Linnell died) totalling nearly £3,000. No details are given of the furniture supplied. However, John Linnell's designs for the two pairs of sofas for the state drawing-room survive in the V & A Museum. [Print Dept, E 131, 138, 140, 1929] while the executed pieces remain at Kedleston. Marquetry card-tables for this room were delivered in 1765 and are also still in the house. Twelve carved gilt and painted stools were provided by John Linnell for the Great Hall shortly after 1775 and there are two further sets of seat furniture preserved at Kedleston which can be attributed to the firm on stylistic grounds. [Kedleston Hall, Scarsdale archives]
OSTERLEY PARK, Middlx (Robert Child). c. 1760–84: Robert Child's brother, Francis Child, who had inherited Osterley Park, died in the same year as William Linnell, who he had employed. Robert, on taking over the house in 1763, continued to use the Linnell firm where John was to work side by side with Robert Adam. Adam's design for the sideboard and accompanying pair of pedestals and urns for the diningroom were executed by the Berkeley Sq. workshop in 1767. A design for the chimney piece and overmantel for Mrs Child's dressing room by John Linnell is among the drawings in the V & A Museum. [Print Room, E 281 1929] The chimney piece after this design survives in the house, as, indeed, does much of the original furniture, including the seat furniture for the drawing-room provided after Linnell's design. [V & A, E 93 1929] Other sets of seat furniture can be attributed to Linnell on stylistic grounds including eight armchairs en suite with a pedestal desk and two library tables made for the library in 1768 or 1769. Later commissions of 1779–82 probably included the execution of a bed, designed by Adam, with accompanying furniture, for the ‘yellow taffaty bed chamber’ at Osterley. Robert Child died in 1782 but his widow continued to employ John Linnell. The only bill which has been traced describing work carried out over all the years in which the firm was employed dates from 1783 (receipted 1784) and covered cleaning and repair work at Mrs Child's London house in Berkeley Sq.
SYON PARK, Middlx and ALNWICK CASTLE, Northumb. (18th Earl of Northumberland, created 1st Duke in 1766). 1762–72: Among the names of outstanding debtors to William Linnell at his death was that of the Earl of Northumberland and it may be that carving work at Syon Park, where Robert Adam was working on the reconstruction of the house, had already been commissioned from the Linnell firm. John Linnell was employed after his father's death and payments to the firm amounted to over £1,000 between 1763–72. [Northumberland account, Ledger C, folio 122, 1763, folio 326, 1765, ledger D, folio 194, 1966, ledger E, folio 164, 1771, folio 397, 1772. Hoare's Bank, Fleet St, London] No details are given but the regular nature of some of the early payments suggest that they were for carving work in the house. At Alnwick, Adam was providing designs for ‘Gothick’ interiors after the Northumberlands began to convert the castle into a residence in about 1755. The Duchess commissioned a set of fourteen carved and gilt armchairs from John Linnell for her saloon of the same design as those provided for the drawing room at Osterley. Thirteen survive at Alnwick although they no longer have their original Gobelins upholstery. Two card-tables and two Pembroke tables still preserved at Alnwick can also be attributed to Linnell on stylistic grounds. The ledger entries quoting payments in 1771 and 1772 referred to above, amounting to a total of £250 probably relate to these furnishings for Alnwick. The Duchess died in 1776.
BOWOOD HOUSE, Wilts. and LANDSDOWNE HOUSE, Berkeley Sq., London. (2nd Earl of Shelburne, created 1st Marquis of Lansdowne 1784). 1763–96: The 2nd Earl of Shelburne succeeded to the title and to Bowood House, as yet unfinished, in 1761. He employed Robert Adam to alter the interior and finish the house. William Linnell seems to have carried out work for Lady Shelburne before he died and may have been recommended by Adam. John Linnell was commissioned in 1763 to carry out major carving work at Bowood and payments made to him between 1763–66 totalled £1,013 9s 5d. [Building accounts, Henry Holland, Lansdowne archives, Bowood] The house was being furnished between 1763–68 and Linnell provided a set of hall stools after Adam's design, probably at the end of 1768. A bill survives at Bowood containing an item dated 28 July 1768 ‘To making and carving 5 hall stools like them at Bowood and painting the same £21.5.0.’. In the following November ‘3 hall stools to match the above’ were provided. All these pieces were ordered for the new London property Shelburne House, Berkeley Sq. later to become Lansdowne House, but the wording of the bill makes it clear that Linnell had previously supplied identical stools to Bowood. The stools from the London House were sold in 1806 but those at Bowood remain there. The furnishing of Shelburne House was proceeding in 1768–69 and on 4 February 1769 John Linnell charged £19 for ‘making and carving a large sideboard table after Mr. Adam's design and painting the same with large brass handles complete’. [Tradesmen's accounts, Lansdowne archives, Bowood] The dining room is now in the MMA, NY. The sideboard has not been traced.
INVERARAY CASTLE, Argyll (5th Duke of Argyll). 1773–81: The 5th Duke of Argyll was buying furniture in London for his castle in Scotland in 1773 and subsequent years. Payments were made to John Linnell totalling nearly £900 between 1774–81. [5th Duke's bank account, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Charing Cross, London] No details are given. Six carved and gilt armchairs and two confidantes can be attributed to the firm as they closely follow a Linnell drawing in the V & A. [Print Room. E.22 1929] Other items surviving at Inverarary Castle which also probably came from the Linnell workshop include a further set of carved and gilt oval-backed chairs and three marquetry tables.
SANDON HALL, Staffs. (Nathaniel Ryder, created 1st Lord Harrowby in 1776). 1762–77: Nathaniel Ryder had employed William Linnell in 1762–63. After his father's death, John Linnell was employed as a cm for which payments were made to him annually from 1764–67, 1770–71, 1773– 75. These payments do not give details but they were probably for furniture needed for a London house since Sandon Hall was not acquired by Lord Harrowby until 1777. Two sums of £400 each were paid to Linnell on account in August 1777 and these payments could well be part settlements for furniture ordered for Sandon. [Harrowby MS Trust, Notebooks, Sandon Hall, vols 330, 334, 337, 338]
HILLS PLACE, near Horsham, Sussex (9th Viscount Irwin). 1772–73: A bill totalling £55 9s 7d for eight cabriole elbow chairs, carved and painted white and green and two French elbow chairs en suite and also a sideboard is dated 26 August 1772. Another of May—July 1773 amounting to £43 7s 2d lists further sets of seat furniture and tables.
HEATON HALL, Manchester (Sir Thomas Egerton, Bt, created 1st Earl of Wilton in 1801). 1775–77: John Linnell was employed by Sir Thomas Egerton in the furnishing of Heaton Hall. A total payment of £57 for furniture is recorded in Sir Thomas's bank account book for 6 November 1775. In addition, an invoice for £37 0s 4d, for items delivered between 24 August 1776 and 18 June 1777 refers to ‘A neat Dressing table made of Sattin Wood with a Glass and bottles … a neat wash hand stand made of Sattin Wood the top hing'd to lift up, 2 Glass cups, 2 cut Glassbottles, 2 Water bottles and Tumblers and a Spring lock to Do. The front with Foulding doors Compleat’ and ‘a neat Cloaths press made of Sattin Wood and Cross banded with rose wood and the bottom with foulding doors and sliding shelves lined with marble paper and green baize falls and 2 Drawers at top handles locks and key Compleat…’. [Egerton documents, Preston RO, DD Eg 41 (1)]
WOODHOUSE, Salop (William Mostyn Owen). 1774: A workshop drawing in the V & A Museum [Print Room E.3495 1911] is inscribed with the name of ‘Mr. Mostyn Owen’ and dated March 1774. The mirror survives in the house.
UXBRIDGE HOUSE, Burlington Gdns, London (1st Earl of Uxbridge). 1789–93: Designs for an organ [V & A, E.391, 392, 1929] and for chimney-pieces [V & A, E. 319, 382, 1929] document Linnell's employment by the Earl of Uxbridge while his patron's bank account records payments to John Linnell of nearly £6,000 up to June 1793. [Drummonds, Royal Bank of Scotland, Charing Cross, London]
AMMERDOWN HOUSE, near Frome, Som. (Thomas Samuel Joliffe). 1795: Three unpublished bills of 1795 refer to 2 large frames with ornaments in therm'd legs and gollosses in the rails gilt in burnished gold … for your slabs £18.18.0’, ‘8 satinwood tablet back'd elbow chairs with mouldings gilt in burnished gold round the painted tablets, the elbow carved, the legs turned … £44.0.0.’, ‘2 large sofas to match’ and ‘A pair of satin wood fire screens, the ovals covered with green silk’. These pieces survive at Ammerdown House. [Accounts, Lord Hylton, Ammerdown House]
UNSPECIFIED WORK.— The names of many clients of John Linnell are known although no details of the commissions are recorded. [See Kirkham (1967), Hayward (1969) and Hayward and Kirkham (1980)] H.H.

Linnell, William, London, carver, cm and u (b. c. 1703–d. 1763). William Linnell was the son of a yeoman, John Linnell of Hemel Hempstead, Herts. He went to London in 1717 to serve his apprenticeship with Michael Savage, a member of the Joiners’ Co. In 1719 he was turned over to John Townshend with whom he completed his apprenticeship in 1724. A few years later he set up his own carving workshop in Long Acre and, in 1729, became free of the Joiners’ Co. After only four years he was already a member of the Livery. In the meantime he had married Mary Butler, daughter of a leading coachmaker, Samuel Butler. Their first son, John, was born in July 1729. There were five further children of the marriage. A second son, Richard, was app. to an artist but died as a young man. Of a third son, William, nothing is known. Mary, the elder of three daughters, married one of her father's apps, William Bond, by whom she had a son, John Linnell Bond, named after her own brother who was the child's godfather. William Linnell Bond grew up to be a successful architect.
No records survive of the clients who employed William Linnell in the first ten years of the life of his workshop but he evidently concentrated upon carving. His early documented commissions, the first dating from 1739, refer mainly to the provision of architectural elements and mouldings and items such as picture-and mirror-frames, consoles, pedestals and cornices. An unpublished bill dated January 1749 rendered to the 4th Duke of Bedford for work at Woburn Abbey refers to ‘Carving the cupola eight large trusses and eight key stones … £17.10.0.’, ‘Carving two stone pediments by model … £80.0.0.’ and ‘Carving one Ditto with your arms by model… £4.16.0.’. [Bedford Office, London] Other, previously published accounts rendered to the Duke are for carving mouldings, cornices, chimney-pieces and frames at Woburn Abbey under the direction of Henry Flitcroft. Tables and seat furniture, however, the latter stuffed and upholstered, also figure in the early surviving bills, notably those rendered to Richard Hoare of Barn Elms between 1739–54. Over this period the workshop was flourishing and growing and, far from being confined to carving, William Linnell was increasing his range and is referred to in Richard Hoare's bank account of 1747 as ‘carver and cabinet-maker’. A splendid mahogany card-table, carved with lion masks at the knees and a bacchanalian mask festooned with grapes on the rail was supplied to Richard Hoare in October 1740 for £11 11s and survives at Stourhead, Wilts. along with a mahogany sofa and ten armchairs. William was joined by his son as early as 1749. This is documented by the presence of two hitherto unpublished vouchers for carver's work at Woburn Abbey receipted in October and November 1749 by John Linnell. [Bedford Office, London] Father and son then worked together until William Linnell's death.

In 1750 the family moved to a larger establishment at 8 Long Acre. It was shortly after this move that William Linnell received a commission from the 4th Duke of Beaufort to provide a suite of Chinoiserie furniture for a bedroom in the Chinese taste at Badminton House, Glos. Many pieces from this famous commission survive, notably the bed, japanned commode and shelves in the V & A Museum and another set of shelves in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight. Increased business led to a further move in 1754 to 28 Berkeley Sq. in the fashionable West End of London where there was spacious family living accommodation and a large workshop, complete with ware room or show room. A full inventory of the contents of the dwelling house and of the stock-in-trade in the workshops at Berkeley Sq., taken at William Linnell's death in 1763, survives and has been published, revealing that the firm employed at that time some forty to fifty people and had a stock-in-trade worth £1,052 19s 8d. The workshops themselves consisted of a yard with saw-pit, a joiners’ shop, a cabinet shop, a chair room, a carving shop, a gilding shop, three upholstery shops and a feather garret, a glass room, a store room and a packing and transport room. There were also two ware-rooms for display. At the time of his death, William Linnell had built up an important business and had demonstrated his sense of enterprise in moving to the West End. His clients included William Drake of Shardeloes, the 6th Earl of Coventry; Nathaniel Curzon, later 1st Earl of Scarsdale; the bankers, Francis and his brother Robert Child; and Hugh Smithson, 18th Earl and subsequently 1st Duke of Northumberland. All these patrons also employed Robert Adam as their architect. The way was open for William's son, John Linnell, on taking over the firm, to exploit the opportunities created by his father's good management and to benefit from collaboration with one of the greatest Neo-classical architects of the late 18th century. [Beard, Georgian Craftsmen; GCM; H. Hayward and P. Kirkham, William and John Linnell, 18th Century London Furniture Makers, 1980 (reproduces bills and correspondence); P. Kirkham, ‘The careers of William and John Linnell’, Furn. Hist., 1967]
BARN ELMS, Surrey and London (Richard Hoare Esq., Knighted after 1745). 1739–54: Various bills for carving and providing tables and seat furniture (a carved whist table, a sofa and ten chairs survive at Stourhead), upholstery and repair work. [V & A Lib., 86.N.N.3]
RADCLIFFE CAMERA, Oxford (Trustees of the Radcliffe Camera). 1745–48: Accounts, describing the carving work carried out by William Linnell, published by Stanley George Gillam, ‘The Building Accounts of the Radcliffe Camera’, Oxford Hist. Soc., new series, xiii, 1958.
THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, London (Trustees of the Foundling Hospital). 1747–52: Description of the decision to commission William Linnell to provide a frame for the chapel altar picture published in The Foundling Hospital General Committee Minutes, vols i-iv, 1739–55, Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, 40 Brunswick Sq., London.
WILLIAM DRAKE'S LONDON HOUSE. 1749–75: Eight bills rendered between 1749–62 refer to furniture and repair and cleaning work carried out at Drake's London houses. Linnell appears to have been in sole charge of every aspect of furnishing and maintenance. From 1763 bills were rendered to John Linnell and from 1765 these refer to work at Shardeloes. [Bucks. RO, Drake archive]
WOBURN ABBEY, Beds. and London (4th Duke of Bedford). 1749–51: Bill amounting to £133 for carving at Woburn, including the carving of models for the pediment designed by Flitcroft in July and November 1749. Between January-April 1751, £324 15s 3d was paid to Linnell for carving chimneypieces in the Duke's Dressing room, the Venetian room, the Duchess's Dressing room and three other rooms on the ground floor. Work also included the carving of door architraves, window architraves and the mouldings on shutters and doors. Two vouchers for carving work (unspecified) were receipted in October and November 1749 by John Linnell. There is also correspondence in 1749–50 between Henry Flitcroft and the Duke's agent concerning the appointment of William Linnell as the Duke's carver at Woburn. [Bedford Office, London]
ALSCOT PARK, Warks. (James West Esq.). 1750–51: Bill of 1750 for £19 11s 9d, including ‘To a six-legged table by a design of Kents with a mahogany top … the frame gilt in parts and painted of a wainscot colour’ and another for £33 11s 9d of 1751 which includes an item for the repair and restoration of a 17th-century Flemish cabinet with verre eglomisé panels which survives in the house. [Alscot Park MS, West papers]
CROOME COURT, Worcs. and London (6th Earl of Coventry). 1751–61: The first account dating from August 1751, is of small importance. It includes a clothes-press and was probably for the London house at 29 Piccadilly. The rebuilding of Croome Court under ‘Capability’ Brown necessitated carving work on a considerable scale for which William Linnell was partly responsible together with James Lovell. Three bills of 1758–59 list carving work, including ‘carving a chimney-frame very handsome by drawing and gilt in burnished gold for Lady Coventry's Dressing Room’. A further bill of 1761 for £52 16s 9d refers to the provision and making of curtains and carpets for Croome. [Croome Estate Trust, High Green, Severn Stoke, Worcs., Coventry papers]
BADMINTON HOUSE, Glos. (4th Duke of Beaufort). 1752–55: Payments made to William Linnell between October 1751 and December 1755 amounting to a total of £800 are recorded in the 4th Duke of Beaufort's bank account (Ledger N, folios 329, 448, Ledger X, folios 142, 143, Ledger Y, folio 133, Hoare's Bank, Fleet St, London] These payments were very probably for the furniture made for the Chinese bedroom at Badminton known to have been completed by 1754 when Dr Richard Pococke visited the house. No inventory exists for the room but the furniture provided included a bed, eight armchairs, a dressing-commode and two pairs of standing shelves. The bed and dressing-commode are now in the V & A Museum while one pair of shelves belongs to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, Cheshire (one of this pair being at present on loan to the V & A) and a second pair is in the MMA, MY. A pen and ink and water-colour design for the chairs by John Linnell is in the V & A Museum (E.71 1929).
HILL ST, Mayfair, London (Mrs Elizabeth Montagu). 1752: A letter from Mrs Montagu to Gilbert West, 16 November 1752, contains complaints over William Linnell's high prices. (Elizabeth Montagu, Her Correspondence from 1720–61, ed. Emily V. Climenson, 11, 1906, 17] A japanned secretaire commode and cabinet-on-stand believed to have been made for Hill St are in the possession of Mrs Montagu's descendants at Came House, Dorset.
KEDLESTON HALL, Derbs. and London (Sir Nathaniel Curzon, Bt, created 1st Baron Scarsdale, April 1761). 1758– 96: Lord Scarsdale employed the Linnell firm for nearly forty years. Household ledgers record payments for unspecified items, made regularly from 1759–96. [Scarsdale archives, Kedleston Hall] There is also one bill, dated 27 March 1759 for items supplied to the London house in Audley Sq. including ‘six neat gothick chairs covered with Spanish leather, two large sofas with stuffed backs and seats’ and a ‘four post bedstead’. [Scarsdale archives] These items have not been identified. It is probable that the sum of £49 16s 2d paid to William Linnell in 1761, as recorded in the ledgers, was for the provision of a bookcase, designed by Robert Adam, for Lady Scarsdale's Dressing-room. This piece survives in the house. It was delivered in 1761. In that same year Lord Scarsdale was considering the provision of seat furniture for Kedleston and a chair design by John Linnell inscribed with his patron's name survives in the V & A Museum (E.81 1929). It does not appear to have been executed. On the other hand three finished drawings by John Linnell for two pairs of sofas for the drawing-room, prepared in 1761–62 were used as a basis for the two pairs made by the firm and delivered in 1765 after William Linnell's death. [V&A, E.131, 138, 140, 1929] For subsequent deliveries to Kedleston, see John Linnell.
OSTERLEY PARK, Middlx (Francis Child, d. 1763 and Robert Child). c. 1760–84: The name ‘Mr. Child’ occurs among the debtors to William Linnell at his death. [See P. Kirkham, op. cit. 1967] It is not known to what this refers. Only one late bill survives and evidence concerning the furnishing of Osterley Park by Robert Child after his brother's death and after the death of William Linnell rests largely on stylistic judgement. (See John Linnell.)
STOWE, Bucks. (Lord Temple). 1760: Bill 14 January 1760 ‘To 6 mahogany french elbow chairs on castors stuffed and covered with your own morrino and brass nailed all complete £15.15.0, To 12 open backed mahogany chairs carved and covered with Spanish leather welted and quilted and the best princes metal nails all complete at 1–10–0…. £18.0.0., To 2 mahogany french elbow chairs on castors covered with Spanish leather welted and quilted all complete £7.0.0.’ This bill, for a total of £40 15s was receipted on behalf of his father on 30 May 1760 by John Linnell. It is unclear whether the items were purchased by Lord Temple for Stowe or for his London house in Pall Mall. [Huntingdon Lib., California, Stowe Coll., Grenville accounts, household accounts; Stowe 1749–62. STG Accounts Box 144 (in bundle marked ‘1760’)]
NATHANIEL RYDER, created 1st Lord Harrowby in 1776. 1762–77: Payments are recorded to the firm (all but one unspecified) over the period 1762–77. Two of these payments were made during William Linnell's lifetime: (1) 29 July 1762 ‘for a mahogany bottle stand and dumb waiter £4.0.0.’ and (2) unspecified, 22 July 1763 £1 13s 6d. It is not known for which house the items purchased were intended as Nathaniel Ryder only bought Sandon Hall in 1777 at which date he purchased furniture for the house from John Linnell. [Harrowby MS Trust, Notebooks, vols 330, 334, 337, 338] UNSPECIFIED. At the death of William Linnell, the list of the debtors to his estate included three hundred and eighty-four names many of whom must have been his clients but no details about their various commissions are known. [See P. Kirkham, op. cit., 1967] H.H.

Linney, George, Chester, cm (1763). App. to Richard Cottingham cm of Chester and free, 5 November 1763. [Freemen rolls]

Linney, John, Chester, cm (1764). App. to Philip Presbury cm of Chester and free, 18 February 1764. [Freemen rolls]

Linney, John, Market St Lane, Manchester, cm (1772–88). [D]

Linney, John Peter, Chester, cm and u (1840). Free 30 July 1840. [Freemen rolls]

Linney, Joseph, Half Moon Ct, Westminster, London, cm (1774). [Poll bk]

Linney, Roger, London, upholder (1709). Free of the Upholders’ Co., 7 December 1709. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Linning, Johan Christian, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, inlayer (1769–76). A Swede who worked as an inlayer in London for his half-brother, the cm Christopher Fuhrlohg, 1769–76. He exhibited panels of marquetry at the Exhibition of the Free Society of Artists of Great Britain, 1775–76. Sold marquetry panels to furniture makers and musical instrument makers. [Burlington, July 1977, June 1980]

Linscott, John, parish of St Sidwell, Exeter, Devon, cm (1824– 29). Married Miss Mary Harris, November 1824. Two sons bapt., 1826 and 1829. [PR (bapt.); Exeter Flying Post, 18 November 1824]

Linsell, George, Oxford and London, cm (1779–1802). In October 1779 announced that he had taken over the shop in High St, Oxford near All Saints Church, which had previously been maintained by a person named Edmonds, joiner, cm and chairmaker. The business must have been of a modest nature for in the following year cover of only £100 was maintained on utensils and stock. In 1802 was living at St Luke's, Old St, London. [GL, Sun MS vol. 281, p. 149; Oxford poll bk]

Linsell, William, 1 Clerkenwell Green, London, japanner and gilder (1812–19). [D]

Linsey, B. & Son, 54 Paul St, Finsbury, London, cabinet and feather warehouse (1808–11). [D]

Linsey, William, 59 Frederick St, Liverpool, cm (1784). [D]

Linsley, William, 55 Mill St, Hull, Yorks., cm and u (1823–31). Listed as cm in 1823 but from 1826 as u. [D]

Lintel, —, ‘The Cabinet’, Stonecutter St, near Fleet Ditch, London, cm (1727). [Heal]

Linter, R., Teignmouth, Devon, cm (1815). In March 1815 married Miss Paddock of Teignmouth. [Western Luminary, 21 March 1815]

Linton, Arthur, East Reach, Taunton, Som., cm (1830). [D]

Linton, Arthur, North Curry, Som., cm (1840). [D]

Linton, John, Bullring, Horncastle, Lincs., chairmaker (1826). [D]

Linton, Richard, New Riverside, Limehouse, London, cm (1809). [D]

Linton, Robert, Upper High St, Taunton, Som., cm and u (1839). [D]

Linwood, Matthew, Birmingham, fancy box maker (c. 1813). Tea caddy so marked. [Sotheby's, 15 January 1971, lot 99]

Liot, G., 17 York St, Bryanston Sq., London, u (1835). [D]

Lipskin, Joseph, West Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1798). [Militia Census]

Liret, —, address unknown (1832). Named in the accounts of Sir Charles Blois of Cockfield Hall, Yoxford, Suffolk as the supplier of furniture to the value of £185 18s. [Suffolk RO, HA30: 312/418]

Lisle, Devergy snr, Newcastle, cm and u (1778–1808). First recorded in directories in 1778 at Manors. In January 1780 advertised his business which was then at the ‘Commode and Cabriole’ at the foot of Pilgrim St. He offered his services to the customers of his former master George Lowes who had retired from the trade. He remained at this address until April 1786 when he announced a move to ‘a large and commodious Ware-house behind the New Buildings in Mosley St. His business was initially that of a joiner and cm but he now expanded the range of items produced and sold. In February 1788 he indicated that he had recently entered the glassgrinding business and was able to offer looking- and coachglasses. From 1803 he added an upholstery branch. He was a subscriber to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793. His only known patron was Cuthbert Ellison of Hebburn Hall, Gateshead, Co. Durham. The invoice [Ellison papers, Gateshead Ref. Lib.] dated 1808, is for £9. One interesting feature of the invoice is the terms of trade which were six months credit, or a 3% discount for payment within a month. [D; Newcastle Courant, 8 January 1780, 22 April 1786, 9 February 1788, 16 February 1788, 1 March 1788, 7 May 1803; Furn. Hist., 1976]

Lisle, Devergy jnr, Newcastle, u and cm (1808–17). Son of Devergy Lisle snr. On 16 January 1808 advertised that he had commenced business on his own behalf from an address at 4 Mosley St where he maintained upholstery ware rooms. He seems to have taken over at least some of his father's former customers and in 1808 and 1812 supplied Cuthbert Ellison of Hebburn Hall. He obtained supplies of materials from London and both in April 1808 and May 1809 advertised his recent return with goods ‘from the First houses in London’. By 1811 he had moved the location of his business to 15 Pilgrim St where he maintained upholstery and cabinet ware rooms. By October 1815 however he was in financial difficulties and an auction sale of his remaining stock was advertised. Only a month later however he was once more back in business declaring that ‘the indulgence of his creditors having enable him to surmount his late difficulties by granting him a certificate under his bankruptcy, he has resumed the business of an upholsterer’. His new premises were also in Pilgrim St a little above his late situation’. Here he claimed to have an entirely new stock. A notice in Durham County Advertiser, 14 June 1817 advised debtors of Devergy Lisle to pay their accounts to Amor Spoor, cm of Newcastle. [D; Newcastle Courant, 16 January 1808, 2 April 1808, 6 May 1809, 30 May 1812; Newcastle Chronicle, 6 June 1812, 7 October 1815; Durham County Advertier, 11 November 1815]

Lisle, John, Newcastle, joiner and cm (1778–79). At Fleshmarket in 1778 but in September 1779 announced his move to Postern. [D; Newcastle Courant, 4 September 1779]

Lisle, John, Close, Newcastle, joiner and cm (1824). [D]

Lisle, William, 55 Gee St, Goswell St, London, chairmaker (1809). [D]

Lisney, James, High Wycombe, Bucks., u (1790–93). In 1791 insurance cover was £400 and in 1793, £700. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 375, p. 521; vol. 395, p. 250]

List, —, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lister, George, Hebden Bridge, Yorks., timber merchant and cm (1830–34). [D]

Lister, Jacob, Newcastle, u (1738). [Freemen reg.]

Lister, John, Lancaster, cm (1793–1807). Named in the Gillow records, 1793–1807. Free of Lancaster, 1806–07, when stated ‘of London’. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow; Lancaster freemen rolls]

Lister, John, Sheffield, Yorks., cm (1834). [D]

Lister, John, Halifax, Yorks. cm (1834). [D]

Lister, John, Brick House, Keighley, Yorks., joiner/cm (1837). [D]

Lister, Joseph, John St, Chester, cm (1817–26). Son of Joseph Lister of Chester, coachmaker. App. to Richard Gorst, cm, 23 September 1817 and free by servitude, 20 October 1824. [App. indenture; freemen rolls; poll bks]

Lister, Robert, Lancaster, cm (1768–1806). Son of Thomas Lister and app. to him in 1768. Free, 1779–80. Named in the Gillow records 1793–94, 1796–97, 1801–02, 1806. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow; poll bk; app. reg.; freemen rolls]

Lister, Robert, Skipton, Yorks., cm (1828). [PR (bapt.)]

Lister, Thomas, Lancaster, cm (1754–1812). Two apps with this name were indentured to Richard Gillow, one in 1754 and the other in 1761. The 1754 app. was free, 1763–64 and subsequently took thirteen apps between February 1768 and August 1812. The Gillow records show a Thomas Lister employed c. 1785 and 1787–96. [App. reg.; freemen reg.; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lister, Thomas jnr, Lancaster (1797). Named in the Gillow records in connection with making a table. [Westminster Ref. Lib., vol. 344/97, p. 1394]

Lister, William, Church Lane, Gainsborough, Lincs., cm and u (1822). [D]

Lister, William, High Bridge, Knaresborough, Yorks., joiner, cm and builder (1828–37). [D]

Lister, William, Workhouse Croft, 18 Union St, Sheffield, Yorks., cm and broker (1828–37). [D]

Lister, William, Dewsbury, Yorks., cm (1830–37). In 1830 at Daw Green and in 1837 at Webster Hill. [D]

Litchfield, Jonathan, 4 Grindle St, Manchester, cm (1817). [D]

Litchfield, William, parish of St Peter, Oxford, cm (1768). [Poll bk; Frowde, Survey of Oxford, 1912]

Litchfield, William, 12 Barretts Ct, Henrietta St, Cavendish Sq., London, cm (1776). In 1776 took out insurance cover of £200 but only £20 of this was for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 248, p. 408]

Litchfield & Graham, 72 St Martin's Lane, London, u and cm (1779–1808). The premises occupied by this partnership were on the corner of St Martin's Lane and Long Acre and the address is sometimes given as 1 Long Acre. Some directories also state 1 St Martin's Lane, but this would appear to be a misunderstanding based on the Long Acre number. From its commencement the partnership was of a substantial nature. They claimed to be successors to the renowned u, John Cobb, who died in 1778, and they undoubtedly took over many of his wealthy and influential patrons as well as his former business premises. In 1779 their insurance cover was £5,000 with £4,200 allocated to utensils and stock. By 1783 these figures had fallen to £4,000 and £3,000 respectively but even at these levels indicated that this was amongst the largest enterprises in this field in London.

A number of their clients are known. For the 6th Earl of Coventry at Croome Court, Worcs., substantial amounts of furniture were supplied in the period 1779–95. Much appears to have been bedroom furniture. In February 1785, £76 17s 5d was paid for a four-post bed, bedding, dressing tables, a wine cistern and curtains, and in August of that year a further substantial bill for £68 1s 2d covered a further bedstead and bedding, a night table, firescreen, curtains, and carving a pier glass frame. The largest single amount paid, for goods supplied in the year from June 1793, amounted to £137 19s 4d and was for similar items. The Hon. Mrs Leigh of Stoneleigh Abbey, Warks. was in December 1781 invoiced for a satinwood tea caddy and workbox costing £4 9s, while in the following year William Constable of Burton Constable, Yorks., was supplied with a mahogany wheel chair costing £7 10s which is still in the house. Constable also bought from Litchfield & Graham a set of six japanned chairs with a pair of matching arms chairs and caned stools. Alexander Wedderburn paid the partners £26 16s 6d in 1784 and Baron de Grey of Heaton Hall, Manchester £7 in 1786 for a writing table. The accounts of Lord Monson show payments to the firm of £300 in June 1785, £200 in April 1787 and £133 12s in May 1789, while the 2nd Lord Palmerston used their services in connection with the furnishing of Broadlands, Hants.

From 1809 the business was carried on solely by John Graham. A payment to Litchfield, Morel & Co. is stated to exist for 1798 in the Southill, Beds, accounts. Nothing further is however recorded under this trading style and the subsequent patronage of Graham in 1808 might suggest an error in the household accounts at Southill, rather than an intriguing connection between Nicholas Morel and the house of Litchfield & Graham. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 276, p. 650; vol. 306, p. 613; V & A archives; Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Leigh receipts, DR 18/5; Scottish RO, GD 164/Box 20/177/2–3; Preston, RO, DD Eg. bank deposit and account bk; Lincoln RO, Monson 10/1/A/6; C. Life, 29 January 1981, p. 290]

Litherland, William, Liverpool, u (b. 1735–d. 1807). App. to Robinson Cooke and free by servitude, 13 March 1761. By July of the following year he was trading from a ‘warehouse joining Mrs Fleetwood's in Tythebarn-Street’. He offered to sell on both retail and wholesale terms a selection of blankets and indicated that he also stocked mattresses and ‘sea beds’. By 1765 he had a shop near the Old Shambles in the High St which he was to occupy for a number of years. Here he kept an assortment of ‘all Sorts of Upholstery Goods’. He also advertised for an app. The app. that he took was Matthew Gregson who trained under him, 1765–72, and was later to establish an important business himself. He also acted as executor at the time of Litherland's death in 1807. Earlier, Litherland had taken another app. named Hart in 1762, soon after the commencement of his business. At the time of his death Litherland was aged 72. [D; freemen's committee bk; freemen reg.; S of G, app. index; Liverpool RO, 920 GRE 3/1 45; Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 16 July 1762, 22 March 1765; Liverpool Chronicle, 8 April 1807]

Lithgo, Robert, Market Pl., Darlington, Co. Durham, cm/joiner (1834). [D]

Littell, Thomas, 39 Baelzephon St, Bermondsey, London, carver and gilder (1835–39). [D]

Litten, James, Highworth, Wilts., cm (1830). [D]

Little, George, Parton, Whitehaven, Cumb., cm/joiner (1834). [D]

Little, James, 47 Mortimer St, Cavendish Sq., London, u, cm and paper hanger (1802–39). Included in the list of master cabinet makers in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. Initially Little appears to have had a workshop at 126 Gt Portland St in addition to the Mortimer St address. In November 1806 this workshop was valued for insurance at £200 and an additional £500 of cover was taken on utensils, stock and goods in trust. In 1810 the cover was raised to £300 and £700 respectively, but by January 1812 this workshop, now numbered 127, was in the tenure of Joseph Lees, cm, and Little was only paying for insurance cover on the building. His trade appears to have been conducted from the Mortimer St address and at some time before 1821 he appears to have taken his son into partnership and the trading style is sometimes listed as James Little & Son. The business being undertaken was substantial and insurance on utensils, stock and goods was £1,000 in January 1821. James Little also appears to have owned a house, stables, coach houses and offices at 35 Wimpole St which were in the tenure of Robert Hibbert in December 1804 and insured for £3,000. His only known commission was for J. J. C. Bullock of Faulkbourne Hall near Witham, Essex, and Harley St, London. Upholstery work to the value of £7 13s was undertaken for him, 1829–30. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 431, ref. 769170; vol. 437, ref. 795959; vol. 453, ref. 839442; vol. 459, ref. 864776; vol. 488, ref. 976045; vol. 498, ref. 1005324; Essex RO, D/DVv 46]

Little, John, Bridgegate, Howden, Yorks., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Little, Joseph, Front St, Brampton, Cumb., joiner etc. (1834). [D]

Little, Robert, Back St, Brampton, Cumb., joiner/cm (1829–34). [D]

Little, Thomas, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Little, Thomas, Liverpool, u (1810–39). App. to Bartholomew Tyrer in 1810 and free, 11 June 1818. In 1821 at 4 Stockdale St; in 1824 at Rainsford Gdns and 1 Mercer Pl., Sawney Pope St; in 1827 at 44 Sawney Pope St; in 1829 at 49 Sawney Pope St; and in 1834 at 33 Combermere St. From 1835 the addresses are in Park St, Toxteth Park and the numbers were 36 in 1835, 47 in 1837 and 51 in 1839. In 1829 took app. named John Connell. [D; freemen's committee bk; app. bk]

Little, Thomas, Lowther St, Carlisle, Cumb., chairmaker (1829–34). [D]

Little, Thomas, Askrigg, Wensleydale, Yorks., joiner and cm (1840). [D]

Little, William, Lowther St, Carlisle, Cumb., joiner/cm (1829). [D]

Littledale, Joseph, Whitehaven, Cumb., u (1826). The only evidence regarding this maker is a bill submitted in 1826 for furniture supplied and work undertaken in connection with Rydal Hall for Lady Le Fleming. The furnishing scheme seems a very ambitious one for a local craftsman. In total the bill came to £349 4s 10d and included such items as ‘A Suit of Crimson Silk Damask Bed Curtains with Draperies Silk Fringe &c. &c.’ for which £119 was charged, and ‘three Crimson Damask Silk Window Curtains with pole, Cornices, Ornaments etc’ which cost £59 10s. Most of the account was for fabrics but a ‘Mahogany Couch in Linen’ was also supplied at £7 7s. [V & A archives]

Littledale, Mary, Whitehaven, Cumb., cm and u (1834). Probably successor to Joseph Littledale. [D]

Littleton, John, Liskeard, Cornwall, cm (1778). Advertised in 1778 for ‘a couple of experienced journeymen cabinetmakers’. [Exeter Flying Post, 25 September 1778]

Littlewood, Joseph, 170 Briggate, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1837). [D]

Littlewood, Thomas, see Hartley & Littlewood

Littlewood, Thomas, York St, Kirkgate, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Littlewood & Smith, 22 Boar Lane, Leeds, Yorks., cm and u (1828–30). [D]

Litton, Richard, Northgate, Canterbury, Kent, chairmaker (1826). [Poll bk]

Liverelt, Jno., 26 John St, Fitzroy Sq., London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Livermore & Son, 23 Little Carter Lane, St Paul's, London, bed and mattress manufacturer (1820–22). [D]

Liversedge, Richard, Honley, near Huddersfield, Yorks., cm (1822–34). [D]

Livesay, John, Church Row, Limehouse, London, cm, u and undertaker (1803). In January 1803 took out insurance cover for £1,400 of which £305 was for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 427, ref. 743360]

Livesay, Samuel, Walsall, Staffs., cm (1773). Bankruptcy announced, Gents Mag., January 1773.

Livesey, John, 69 Friargate, Preston, Lancs., cm (1825). [D]

Livesey, William, 154 Friargate, Preston, Lancs., cm (1818). [D]

Livett, Richard, 3 High St, Marylebone, London, u and house agent (1819). [D]

Living, George & Charles, 2 Gt Union St, Borough Rd, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Livingston, John, Manchester, cm and u (1828–40). In 1828 at 5 Little Bennett St, Lever St; in 1829 at 229 Gt Ancoats St; in 1834 at no. 60 and from 1836–38 at no. 68. In 1840 at 35 Portland St. [D]

Livingstone, James, by Pulteney St, Westminster, London, carver (1749). [Poll bk]

Livingstone, James, 38 Gt Pulteney St, London, cm and u (1754–79). An enterprise of modest size with an insurance cover of £900 in 1779 of which £630 was for utensils and stock. In 1754 it was reported that a dovetail saw had been stolen from his workshop bearing the maker's name ‘W. Squires’. In July 1761 supplied furniture to Robert Dundas, Lord Arniston for Arniston House, Midlothian, Scotland. This included four chairs, a four post bedstead, cornices and festoon window curtains and amounted in cost to £51 9s 4½d. An additional £1 17s was asked in September 1765 for ‘patterns in water colours for Embroiderer’. [Poll bks; GL, Sun MS vol. 274, p. 238; Public Advertiser, 16 November 1754; Arniston House accounts]

Livsey, George, High St, Knaresborough, Yorks., joiner/cm (1828–34). [D]

Llewellyn, William, 38 Cornwall Buildings, Bath, Som., cm and broker (1833). [D]

Lloyd, David, Bartholomew St, Exeter, Devon, cm (1820–40). Two sons and three daughters bapt., 1820–30 at St Mary Arches. [D; PR (bapt.)]

Lloyd, Edward, Manchester, u (1822–40). At 5 Tib Lane, 1822–29, but from 1832–34 the number was 15. In 1836 at 28 Pool St and 1838–40 at 79 Piccadilly. [D]

Lloyd, George, Shipyard, London, carver (1774). [Westminster poll bk]

Lloyd, George, Chester cm (1797). Free 15 July 1797. Son of G. Lloyd, victualler of Chester, deceased. [Freemen rolls]

Lloyd, George, 51 Featherstone St, City Rd, London, cm, chair and sofa manufacturer (1826–29). [D]

Lloyd, Henry, Clifton Pl., Bristol, carpenter, builder, undertaker, cm and u (1831). [D]

Lloyd, James, 116 London Rd, Brighton, Sussex, cm and u (1839–40). [D]

Lloyd, John, Dean's Pl., Westminster, London, cm (1749). [Poll bk]

Lloyd, John, New St, St James's, London, u (1768). Bankruptcy announced Gents Mag., March 1768; and granting of certificate given in General Advertiser, 27 June 1768.

Lloyd, John, Lumley Ct, Strand, London, firescreen maker (1776). In 1776 took John Ferguson as app. [Westminster Ref. Lib., MS F 4309 p. 22]

Lloyd, John & William, Atherstone, Warks., cm (1835). [D]

Lloyd, John, Ironbridge, Salop, cm (1835–36). [D]

Lloyd, Joseph William, Market St, Hinckley, Leics., cm (1840). [D]

Lloyd, Luke, London, upholder (1739–49). Son of Luke Lloyd of St Katherine's near the Tower, butcher. App. to James Robinson on 2 February 1739 and William Garnham, freeman haberdasher, 31 July 1746. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 8 December 1749. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lloyd, Richard, 129 Strand, London, upholder (1779). In 1779 took out insurance cover of £200 of which £50 was in respect of utensils, goods and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 278, p. 332]

Lloyd, Samuel, Ebenezer Pl., Commercial Rd, Limehouse, London, carver and gilder (1835–39). [D]

Lloyd, Thomas, 2 Queen St, Liverpool, cm and joiner (1761– 1802). App. to William Leech and free 1761. Took as app. John Ward Turner in 1789 and he petitioned freedom in 1802. [D; freemen's committee bk]

Lloyd, Thomas, Stratford, Essex, cm, u and auctioneer (1791– 1808). In 1791 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £290 was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 379, p. 433]

Lloyd, Thomas, 74 Islington Rd, Birmingham, cm (1835). [D]

Lloyd, Thomas, 8 White Mill St, with shop at 13 Vincent St, Liverpool, carver (1837). [D]

Lloyd, William, High St, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm and u (1808– 35). Listed in the Shrewsbury freemen rolls in 1808. [D]

Lloyd, William, 2 Foregate St, Chester, cm and chairmaker (1814–40). In 1827 was employing a Thomas Turner at his works. A summons against him for assult on a Joseph McCluskey was dismissed. [D; Chester Chronicle, 8 June 1827]

Lloyd, William, 16 Pitt St, Fitzroy Sq., London, u (1822–23). In 1822 insured houses 9 and 10 James St, Camden Town, London, that he was renting out for £500. [GL, Sun MS vol. 493, ref. 995058; vol. 498, ref. 1006300]

Lloyd, William, 18 Bedford Pl., Commercial Rd, London, cm (1826–28). [D]

Lloyd, William, Okehampton St, Exeter, Devon, cm (1832–36). [D; poll bk]

Lloyd, William, High St, Shrewsbury, Salop, u (1835). [D]

Lloyd, William, Sidney St, Mile End Rd, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Loader, Edward snr & jun, London, cm (1790–1823). At 5 Broker's Row, Moorfields, 1790–1806. Edward Loader jnr is first mentioned in 1803 when, like his father, he was listed in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary in the directory of master cabinet makers. The son's address was however given as 14 Broker's Row and in a directory of 1806 this division between Edward snr, at 5 and jnr at 14 is also given. After 1806 however all entries are for Edward jnr, and the address at 14 Broker's Row used. In 1821 the business moved to 55 Crown St, Finsbury Sq. but from the following year the number is given as 65. Although in most cases the trade is given as cm, in 1802 one directory describes the business as a upholstery warehouse. [D; Heal]

Loader, Edward, 64 Tabernacle Walk, Finsbury, London, cm, u and looking-glass manufacturer (1820–29). In 1820 referred to as a cabinet and looking-glass manufacturer and wholesale u. [D]

Loader, George, 41 High St, Mile End Rd, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Loader, John, London and Richmond, Surrey, upholder (1774–1802). Son of Thomas Loader of Richmond, Surrey, brewer. App. to Francis Pyner, 4 May 1774 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 5 December 1781. In 1782 foreman to Francis Pyner whose address was 37 Lombard St. By 1794 at Richmond Surrey and so recorded in a directory of 1798. Still in this town in 1802. [D; GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Loader, Obadiah, parish of St Swithin, Norwich, cm (1830). [Poll bk]

Loader, Richard, 14 Broker Row, Finsbury, London, u (1815). This is the same address as that occupied by Edward Loader jnr, 1803–23. [D]

Loader, Richard, London, cm, u and looking-glass manufacturer (1822–35). At 27 Noble St, Cheapside, 1822–28, but from 1826 also occupied 28. The business is named as Richard Loader & Son in 1827. From 1829–35 at 85 Newgate St. Also advertised themselves as appraisers and undertakers in 1823. Initially the business was small with insurance cover in January 1822 being only £450 of which £130 was for stock and utensils. By July 1822 however these figures were raised to £650 and £330 respectively. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 490, ref. 987620; vol. 489, ref. 993964]

Loader, Richard, 23 Finsbury Pavement, London, cm, chairmaker and looking-glass manufacturer (1837–40). At a later date manufactured papier mâché furniture. A table in this material on end supports, painted with bouquets of flowers and gilt detail was sold by Sotheby's Belgravia, 5 August 1981. It was stamped ‘R Loader Manufacturer 23 & 24 Pavement Finsbury London’. [D; Antiques Trade Gazette, 19 September 1981]

Loader & Atkinson, 39 Ludgate Hill, London, cm, u, appraisers and auctioneers (1816–20). In April 1816 the partners advertised the opening of their ‘extensive premises’ on Ludgate Hill and stated that they had there a ‘display of elegant and fashionable furniture of every description manufactured by superior workmen under their own supervision’. The quality of their work can be judged for they appear to have applied trade labels to the items that they manufactured. A dining chair, card table and a pedestal table are recorded bearing the labels of this firm. Their trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] indicates that they also acted as undertakers as well as paper hangers and decorators. From 1820–24 the business was continued by Thomas Atkinson using both 38 and 39 Ludgate Hill. [D; Times, 2 April 1816; Furn. Hist., 1978]

Lobb, Henry, London, joiner (1689–91). Possibly brother of Joel Lobb (below). Employed at Kensington Palace. Apart from working on wall panelling and other joiner's work, he manufactured in partnership with Alexander Fort picture frames, shelves, presses, tables, forms etc. A further Henry Lobb, son of Joel (below), was app. to Wm Hickman, carver, in 1714. [Winterthur, Delaware, Symonds papers 75×69.27; GL, MS 8052, 4, p. 41]

Lobb, Joel, White Lion St, St Giles-in-the-Fields, London, carver (1688–1715). Had an extensive patronage, including, in 1688–89 working at Hampton Court where he was paid £19 3s 6d for carving a very rich chimney-piece. He also worked at Chatsworth, and Castle Howard. At White Lion St, 1707–15. [Wren Soc., XX, refs cited; Hand in Hand MS vol. 5, ref. 597; vol. 15, p. 11 F. Thompson, History of Chatsworth, pp. 36–37; Survey of London, XXIX. p. 36]

Loben, Mary, see John Jackson, Drury Lane, London.

Lock, Daniel, Aldersgate St, London, carver (1765). Freeman of London and member of the Joiners’ Co. In 1765 licenced to employ three non-freemen for three months. [GL, City Licence bk, vol. 4]

Lock, George, Mill St, Bideford, Devon, cm (1823–38). [D]

Lock, George, Ringwood, Hants., cm (1839). [D]

Lock, James, London, upholder (1700). Free of the Upholders’ Co. on 18 July 1700. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lock, James, High St, Maidenhead, Berks., cm and u (1823–40). [D]

Lock, Joseph, 24 King St, Covent Gdn, London, u (1825–39). [D]

Lock, Matthias, Castle St, Long Acre, London, carver (b. c. 1710–d. 1765). Matthias Lock was the first Englishman to publish designs in the fully-developed Rococo style. He is one of a number of joiners or carvers, spanning three or more generations, of the same name. In 1724 he is recorded, variously, as having been app. to his father Matthias, a joiner in the parish of St Paul's, Shadwell [GL, Joiners’ Co. app. bindings, vol. 4, p. 141] and to Richard Goldsaddle, carver in the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields. [GL, MS 8052 (3), p. 87] Among the elder Lock's other apps were his sons Edward (1701), James (1722), and John (1729), and a James Cavitt (1717). [Ibid., pp. 41, 44, 141, 145] Since apprenticeships customarily began at age fourteen and ran for seven years, Lock must have been born about 1710 and became a journeyman carver about 1731. In July 1734 he married Mary Lee at St Paul's, Covent Gdn. We know nothing of Lock's professional life during this decade, but in the 1740s he emerged as a masterful designer and carver of the French Rococo. The first indication of his activities are some memoranda of charges for minor carving commissions between 1742–44, included in the collection of drawings that descended in the Lock family until acquired by the V & A. In the same collection are seven small sheets with rough sketches of carved furniture. Next to each sketch are recorded the names of the artisans (Messrs Lock, Lomar, Mill, Wood, and Loo) who made the piece and the number of days spent on it. In each case Lock's name leads the list. These pieces were made for the 2nd Earl Poulett of Hinton House, Hinton St George, Somerset, probably shortly after he succeeded to the title in 1734. A pier glass and pier table (now at the V & A) and two stands, all furnishings for the Hinton House ‘Tapestry Room’, survive; they are of superlative quality and stylistically combine Rococo decoration with Baroque scale.

At about the same time Lock undertook an ambitious programme to publish carvers’ ornament in the new French taste. The first dated suite of plates, Six Sconces, appeared in 1744. It was followed two years later by Six Tables, a large cartouche on a single sheet, and Lock's own trade card. On the latter two pieces his address is given as ‘Nottingham Court, Castle Street, near Long Acre’. He lived at 9 Nottingham Court until 1750. A Book of Ornaments (later reissued as A Book of Shields) appeared in 1747. Although the illustrations of 1744 have a certain massive quality not found in the later ones, all the designs exhibit a consistent and fully developed Rococo style. Even more distinctive is the style of engraving. Lock, who did his own, used etching almost exclusively, enabling him to produce informal, sketch-like prints. Two other suites, A New Drawing Book of Ornaments, Shields, Compartments, Masks, &c., and The Principles of Ornament, or the Youth's Guide to Drawing of Foliage, although undated, are stylistically similar to his work of 1746/47. In 1752, in collaboration with H. Copland, Lock published A New Book of Ornaments with his address given as ‘near ye Swan Tottenham Court Road’. Comprising twelve leaves, each with multiple motifs, it was the most ambitious book of Rococo ornament prior to Chippendale's Director. Of a similar style is Lock's A New Book of Ornaments for Looking Glass Frames, Chimney Pieces &c in the Chinese Taste.

Meanwhile, Lock continued to work with wood. The second state of his trade card, bearing his later address, described him as ‘Carver’. And in the Lock Collection at the V & A, on sheets of paper from a 1752 diary, are his notations about furniture carved for Lord Holderness, Lord (presumably the 2nd Earl, and later 1st Duke of) Northumberland, and a Mr Bradshaw. Also in that collection is the drawing for an armchair c. 1755 which is now in the V & A. The chair was acquired by the painter Richard Cosway for use in his studio. The existence of drawings by Chippendale in the Lock Collection suggests a working relationship: Lock probably did piece-work carving for him. Lock is conspicuously absent from the list of master craftsmen in Mortimer's Universal Directory, 1763. By that time, presumably, he had left the trade. He died in 1765 and was buried at St Paul's, Covent Gdn, on 22 December.

Almost all of Lock's engravings were re-issued posthumously in 1768 by the publisher Roger Sayer, at which time he was described as ‘the famous Mr Matt Lock recently deceased who was reputed the best Draftsman in that way that had ever been in England’. In 1769 a Matthias Lock executed A New Book of Foliage for the Instruction of Young Artists and A New Book of Pier Frame's, Oval's, Gerandole's, Table's &c, two suites of Neo-classic carvers’ ornament; and between 1788–97 a carver of the same name is recorded at Clerkenwell Green. This Matthias Lock must be a son; and it would be his descendent George Lock from whom the V & A purchased the Lock collection in 1862–63: 78 loose sheets of drawings (Nos 2547–2624), and 168 drawings in a folio scrapbook entitled Original Designs by Matts. Lock Carver 1740–1765 (Nos 2848/1–168). [F. Kimball and E. Donnell, ‘The Creators of the Chippendale Style’, Met. Museum Studies, 1, Pt 11, 1929, 115–54; P. Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the 18th century, 1958, pp. 38–40; J.F. Hayward, ‘Furniture designed and carved by Matthias Lock for Hinton House, Somerset’, Conn., January 1961, pp. 284–86; G. Wills, English Furniture 1550–1760, pp. 241–53; H. Hayward, ‘A Unique Rococo Chair by Matthias Lock’, Apollo, October 1973, pp. 268–71; M. Heckscher, ‘Lock and Copland: A Catalogue of the Engraved Ornament’, Furn. Hist., 1979, pp. 1–23; pls 1–67; Rococo: Art and Design in Hogarth's England, V & A (exhib. cat.), 1984, nos L4, 10–14, 17]

M.H.H.

Lock, Philip, 33 Lambert St, Goodman's Fields, London, chair and cabinet maker (1808). [D]

Lock, Robert, 32 Brownlow St, Long Acre, London, carver (1781). Took out insurance cover of £100 on his house in 1781. [GL, Sun MS vol. 293, p. 254]

Lock, Robert, 27 Cirencester Rd, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, carver and gilder (1825–39). [D]

Lock, S., 215 Oxford St, London, u (1813–14). An invoice for chair covers and cushions and upholstery to a value of £2 1s 3d dated 4 August 1813 was made out to Robert Clavering Savage of Gloucester Pl., Portman Sq., London and Elmley Castle, Worcs. This was receipted on 18 January 1814 by James Lock. [Worcs. RO, 4600/705:550/763/3]

Lock, Thomas, North St, Portsea, Portsmouth, Hants., cm and u (1823). [D]

Lock, William Cook, Angel Row, Nottingham, cm, furniture broker and u (1832–40). [D]

Lock & Richards, 3 Silver St, Clerkenwell, London, japanners and varnish makers (1790–93). [D]

Locke, William, Forest Pl., Radford, Notts., cm (1832). [D]

Locker, Joseph, London, upholder (1754). Son of Joseph Locker freeman and member of the Merchants Tailors’ Co. App. to Samuel Luck, freeman shipwright, 3 June 1749, and free of the Upholders’ Co. under the terms of the 1750 Upholders’ Act, 3 October 1754. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Locker, William, Leicester, cm and u (1828–40). At Wharf St, 1828–35, but by 1842 had moved to Brook St. [D]

Locket(t), John, Mill St, Congleton, Cheshire, u and cm (1816– 22). [D]

Lockett, John, Horninglow St, Burton-on-Trent, Staffs., cm (1818). [D]

Lockey, John, York, u (1818). Son of William Lockey, coachman. App. to William Smith u and cm, 21 October 1811, and free as a cm, 1818. [Freemen rolls]

Lockhart, Andrew, 7 Wood St, Liverpool, u (1834). [D]

Lockhart, James, 125 Fetter Lane, London, billiard table and backgammon board maker (1822). [D]

Lockier, James, 45 Wine St, Bristol, u (1775–93). Shown in 1781 living in Christ Church parish and in 1784 in the parish of St James. In 1791 supplied a leather cover for the altar at Christ Church. Bankrupt 1793. [D; poll bks; Furn. Hist., 1976; Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Locking, William, St Swithin's, Lincoln, cm (1790). [Poll bk]

Lockley, F. R. & W., Goat St, Wolverhampton, Staffs., carvers and gilders (1816). [D]

Lockley, Francis, Wolverhampton, Staffs., frame maker (1818–27). Trading at North St as a carver and gilder in 1822. In 1820 advertised himself as a ‘Manufacturer of Looking Glass, Picture & Miniature Frames’. He offered to regild old frames, and manufacture gilt cornices, mouldings and borders. Engravings were bleached, paintings cleaned and varnished and mahogany dressing and swing glasses sold. [D] See T. Lockley & Co, and William Lockley.

Lockley, George, 14 Fossgate, York, joiner and cm (1816–34). The surname is recorded in some directories as Lockey. [D]

Lockley, Richard, Newcastle, carver and gilder (1761–90). In 1778 at Nungate but from 1782 at Postern. On 2 April 1761 paid 14s 9d for gilding fifteen small picture frames for Gibside, Co. Durham. [D; Durham RO, D/St/V.994]

Lockley, T. & Co., North St, Wolverhampton, Staffs., carver and gilder (1818). [D] See Francis Lockley

Lockley, William, North St, Wolverhampton, Staffs., carver and gilder (1828). [D]

Lockley & Cartwright, North St, Wolverhampton, Staffs., carvers and gilders (1835). [D]

Lockly, Benjamin, 10 North St, Fitzroy Sq., London, carver and gilder (1808). [D]

Lockwood, J., 8 Stephen St, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm and chairmaker (1817–25). [D]

Lockwood, John, Hull, Yorks., cm and joiner (1741–74). Freeman of York. Cm in 1741 and 1774 but joiner in 1758. [York poll bks]

Lockwood, John, Streatham, London, cm and u (1832–39). In 1839 his address was given as Streatham Spa, Streatham. [D]

Lockwood, John, Denby near Penistone, Yorks., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lockwood, John, Rowley, Kirkburton, near Huddersfield, Yorks., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Lockwood, Samuel, next door to ‘The Rose Inn’, parish of St Peter, Ipswich, Suffolk, u and joiner (1739). Bankruptcy declared June 1739 when the sale of his stock was advertised. The items offered included ‘Standing Beds of divers Sorts … Mahogany and Walnut-tree Screen Tables, Oval Tables, Looking-Glasses, Corner Cupboards, with great Variety of Chairs’. Some stock that still remained was advertised for sale in Sempteber of the same year. [Ipswich Journal, 30 June 1739, 15 September 1739]

Lockwood, Stephen, 8 Stephen St, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm and chairmaker (1817). See also J. Lockwood at this address, 1817–25. [Heal]

Lockwood, William, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm (1725). In June 1725 insured his house, brewhouse and outhouse for £500. [GL, Sun MS vol. 21, ref. 36116]

Lockyer, —, address unknown, carver and gilder (1732). On 17 October 1732 paid £1 10s for a gilt picture frame by John Dutton of Sherborne House, Glos. [Glos. RO, Sherborne D 678 accounts 1790]

Lockyer, Joseph, London, u (1754). Free of the Upholders’ Co. in 1754, in which year he subscribed to Chippendale's Director.

Lockyer & Reynold, Bedford St, Exeter, Devon, cm etc. (1839). [D]

Locock, W. R., Bristol, cm (1823–32). At foot of Durdham Down 1823–25, Sedan Chair Passage, Quay, 1826–31, and Love St, Hotwells in 1832. Also listed as a grocer 1823–25. [D]

Loder, E., Wilson St, Finsbury Sq., London, u (1824). Bankruptcy announced, Brighton Gazette, 12 February 1824.

Loder, Thomas, Dorchester, Dorset, u(?) (1734). Free 1734. [Mayo & Gould, Municipal Records, 1908, p. 431]

Lodge, Edward, Stone Well, Lancaster, cm, u and paper hanger (1795–1831). Initially may have worked in London for at the time that his son James was made free in 1823–24, Edward was described as ‘late of Bateman's Buildings, Soho, London’. In May 1795 Edward Lodge married Miss Lawley, a Lancaster milliner. Between July 1802 and January 1831 took five app. cm and five app. u. Some of these apps were taken jointly with Robert Battersby who from c. 1820 to May 1826 was his partner. By 1831 his son James was active in the business and in January took an app. jointly with his father. [D; app. reg.; freemen rolls; Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser, 25 May 1795; Lancaster Gazette, 13 May 1826, 20 May 1826]

Lodge, Edward, Lancaster, u (1808–18). Addresses given at George St in 1808 and Gt John St, 1816–18. [D]

Lodge, Henry, London and Colchester, Essex, u (1731–84). Son of William Lodge snr, of Colchester, sadler. App. in London to Roger Tomlyn, 16 November 1724 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 1 December 1731. His stay in London was probably short for by 1738 he had returned to Colchester and in that year supplied Peter Creffield of Ardleigh with furniture. This included ‘a bedstead with a double sacking and castors a set of cornishes a moulding teaster a frame headcloth carvd headboard and base moulding’ for which £2 5s was charged and ‘for making the green bed and three pairs of window curtains and fixing them up complete’ £1 14s. He took app. named Halburn in 1743 and another named Barlow in 1755. In 1779 he took out insurance cover of £700 but of this only £150 was in respect of utensils and stock. His business premises in 1784 were in the High St. [D; poll bk; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 277, p. 390; vol. 319, p. 189; S of G, app. index; Essex RO, D/DRc F 33]

Lodge, James, Lancaster u (1823–34). Son of Edward Lodge in whose business he worked. Free 1823–24 and in January 1831 took an app. jointly with his father. [Freemen rolls; app. reg.] Listed as a chairmaker at St Nicholas St in 1834. [D]

Lodge, John, Lancaster, u (1817–30). Son of Edward Lodge. Free 1817–18, and in August 1826 took an app. Married Miss Jane Proctor of Lancaster on 27 June 1830. [Freemen rolls; app. reg.; Liverpool Mercury, 9 July 1830]

Lodge, Robert, 26 Kirkgate, Leeds, Yorks., cm and joiner (1837–40). [D]

Lodge & Battersby, Penny St, Lancaster, cm (1818–22). [D]

Lodge & Bittlestone, 128 Strand, London, u (1825). [D]

Lodsley, Nottingham, see Weston & Lodsley

Lodwick, Jeremiah, ‘The White Lyon’, Houndsditch, London, u (d. 1731). [Heal]

Loerhuick, Anthony, address unknown, carver (late 17th century). Carried out carving at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall. [Wren Soc., VII, p. 131]

Loft, Matthew, ‘The Golden Spectacles’, the Backside of the Royal Exchange, London, cm (early 18th century). [Winterthur, Delaware, Symonds papers]

Loft, William, Toll Gavel, Beverley, Yorks., cm (1840). [D]

Lofthouse, George, 4 New Bayley St, Manchester, painter, gilder and japanner (1808–09). [D]

Lofthouse, William, Lancaster, cm (1837). App. to John Battersby and free, 1837–38. [App. reg.]

Logan, Hugh, Liverpool, carver and gilder (1835–37). In 1835 at East Side, Queen's Dock as a carver and gilder. In 1837 listed as a ship's carver at 31 Rathbone St in a directory which also lists in a similar trade Logan & Venn at 2 Eastside, Queen's Dock. [D]

Logan, James, Grosvenor St, Liverpool, veneer sawyer (1824). [D]

Loggin, Robert, Hull, Yorks., working u (1826–35). At 3 Old Post Office Entry in 1826 and 123 High St in 1835. [D]

Lohr, John, 1 Fountain Ct, Strand, London, carver and gilder (1808–17). [D]

Lolli, John, Ormskirk, Lancs., cm (1822–34). Recorded as a cm and timber merchant in 1822, and trading at Church St, 1825–34. [D]

Lollie, William, King St, Liverpool, cm (1774–90). At 14 King St, 1774–81, but in 1790 at 17. In 1790 his trade was stated to be chairmaker. [D]

Lomas, —, Derby, joiner and cm (1790). Daughter married October 1790. [Derby Mercury, 14 October 1790]

Lomas, Jos., Bellargate, Nottingham, cm (1791–99). Signed the Nottingham Cabinet and Chair Makers’ Book of Prices on behalf of the masters. [D]

Lomas, William, Manchester, u (1813–22). Recorded at 2 Back of Queen St in 1813 and 8 King St, 1821–22. [D]

Lomax, Francis, Mardol, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm and u (c. 1730–c. 1750). App. to Joseph Thomas of Shrewsbury, cm and joiner 1723. His son George, later to follow his father's trade, was born 10 July 1733. A George II walnut dressing glass is known bearing his trade label which is probably the earliest usage of this method of publicity in the provincial cabinet trade. The label states that he sold ‘all maner of Cabinet Work and fine Compass Seat Chairs with Upholster'd Seats both in Mohogany and fine Walnut after the newest and best fashion, all sorts of India Back Chairs either with Upholster'd Seats or fine Dutch or matted Bottoms, Cane Chairs and Dutch Chairs both Course and fine, all manner of wood-Work for Beds, Easy Chairs Dressing Chairs and Writing Chairs, Settee Beds, Card, Backgamen and Writing Tables, Buroe Tables, Mohogany work of all Sorts, the best Dineing Tables Dressing Tables Drinking Tables and Handboards both Scollopt and round, Salvers Corner Cupboards and Clock cases both arch'd and plain, Dumb waiters, walnut Bellows with Brushes, the best Dutch Tables, Looking Glasses of all Sizes Sconces both Gilt in Gold and walnut Frames, Chimney Glasses Dressing Glasses Piere Glasses Dressing Glasses with union Sutes, Coach Glasses of all sizes, all manner of Gilt and Stain'd Frames to Pictures, Gilt Balls for Clock Cases with friezes, all sort of Varnish and all other Goods in the Cabinet-makers and Joyners way at Reasonable Rates. N.B. Old Looking Glasses, New Silvered Fram'd Cabinet-work and Glass work Neatly mended and made fashionable’. [Furn. Hist., 1973]

Lomax, Frederick, 5 Circus St, Marylebone, London, u (1835– 39). [D]

Lomax, George, Dog Lane, Shrewsbury, Salop, cm (b. 1733–98). Son of Francis Lomax of Shrewsbury, cm and u and born 10 July 1733. Free 1771. In 1780 took out insurance cover of £1,000 but of this only £100 was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; PR (bapt.); freemen rolls; GL, Sun MS vol. 286, p. 224]

Lomax, William, Bolton-le-Moors, Lancs., cm and auctioneer (1793). [D]

Lomax (or Lomas), William, New St, Birmingham, cabinet, case and portable desk maker (1830–39). Recorded at nos 43 and 44 in 1830, and nos 33 and 34 in 1835. [D]

Lomax & Nightingale, 11 St Ann's St, Manchester, u (1818– 19). [D]

Lombardini, John, Market Pl., Huddersfield, Yorks., carver and gilder (1830–37). Trading at no. 2 in 1830. [D]

Lombardini, S., 3 Lower Castle St, Bristol, looking-glass and picture frame maker (1833–40). [D]

London, C. P., 15 Wardour St., Soho, London, u and cm (1825–39). His trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] indicates that he also was responsible for interior decoration, paper hanging and funeral arrangements. Trading on his own behalf in 1825 but 1826–29 in partnership, trading as London & Craymer. In June 1827 the partners invoiced to Lord Gwydir ‘a mahogany French bedstead’ for £15 and an ‘ornamental table with purple band etc’ at £5. By 1839 London was once more trading on his own behalf. [D; Lincoln RO, 2 ANC 6/202/71]

London, James, Bristol, cm and u (1827–40). In Upper Maudlin St, 1827–39, the number being 23 in the period 1830–39. In 1840 shown at 81 Stoke's Croft. [D]

London, William, Worcester, u and cm (1802). App. to John Timmings and free 21 June 1802. [Freemen reg.]

Loney, James, 5 Blake St with a shop at 2 Newington, Liverpool, cm (1837). [D]

Long, —, address unknown, u (c. 1775). Supplied Brockenhurst Park, Hants. c. 1775. [Antique Collector, vol. 25, p. 134]

Long, Charles, London, upholder (1762–70). Son of Thomas Long of Malden, Essex. Thomas Long was by trade a surgeon but was already dead at the time of his son's apprenticeship. Charles Long was app. to John Baron, 15 April 1755, and then to James Woodroffe, tiler and bricklayer, 6 May 1757. He was free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 6 May 1762. Charles Long took as app. Charles Elliott but in 1770 he was transferred to Paul Saunders. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Furn. Hist., 1973]

Long, Charles, The Close, Salisbury, Wilts., cm (1792–98). In 1792 renting a house and workshop form a Henry Edwards of The Close, Salisbury. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 391, p. 316]

Long, George, 13 Gt Newport St, London, u, cm, auctioneer and undertaker (1800–23). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. An invoice dated 9 April 1805 amounting to £3 10s covered furniture supplied to Mr Colfax of Bridport, Dorset. [D; Dorset RO, D43/F4]

Long, George, Liverpool, cm (1817). In 1817 married Miss Jane Soloman of Liverpool. [Liverpool Mercury, 2 May 1817]

Long, John, 7 Little Compton St, Soho, London, cm, turner and dealer in glass and ceramics (1779–86). In 1779 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £130 was in respect of utensils and stock. Probably the John Long, living in London, recorded in Norwich poll bks, 1784–86. [GL, Sun MS vol. 274, p. 191; Norwich poll bks]

Long, John, Beaufort Pl., Chelsea, London, cm and u (1823). [D]

Long, Peter, Host St, Bristol, cm (1795). [D]

Long, Sarah, Foregate St, Chester, cm (1834). [D]

Long, Sarah, West St, Bridgwater, Som., u (1840). [D]

Long, Thomas, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Long, Thomas, London, cm (1826–37). At 44 Goodge St, Tottenham Ct Rd, 1826–27, 17 Blenheim St in 1835 and 49 Castle St East, Oxford Mkt in 1837. [D]

Long, William, London, carver (1748–63). In 1748 took app. named Gettings. Long's address at this period was recorded as the parish of St Giles-in-the-Fields. In 1763 in Long Acre. Undertook work for Norman & Whittle. [D; S of G, app. index; Burlington, August 1969]

Long, William, Long Acre, London, upholder (1774). [Westminster poll bk]

Long, William, London, cm and carver (before 1785). From 1785 trading at an address in Union St, Philadelphia, USA. Claimed to be ‘Late of London’. Specialised in invalid chairs one of which was said to have been approved of by the Royal Society in London. [Penn'a Packet, 10 September 1785]

Longbotham, —, address unknown, frame maker (1701). Paid £1 15s on 31 July 1701 by Sir John Newton of Barr's Court, Gloucester, for some frames. [Lincoln RO, Cragg 2/17/2]

Longbotham, Henry, Snow Fields, London, carver and gilder (1790–93). [D]

Longbottom, J., 23 St George's St, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1817). [D]

Longden, Thomas, 24 Rawstone St, Goswell St, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Longdon, T., 44 Upper St, Islington, London, u (1820). [D]

Longford, John, Northgate, Bridgnorth, Salop, chairmaker (1840). [D]

Longhurst, —, address unknown, cm (1758). In March 1758 supplied three library bookcases at a cost of £8 7s 8d for Chevening, Kent. [Kent RO, U1590 A61/5]

Longlands, Joseph, Sutton Bridge, Long Sutton, Lincs., cm and builder (1835). [D]

Longley, Edward, 4 Dorvill Row, Hammersmith, London, furniture broker and bedstead maker (1839). [D]

Longley & Sutton, King St, Hammersmith, London, Windsor, rustic and garden chairmakers (1832–38). [D]

Longmore, Thomas, St Mary's Row, Birmingham, brass founder and picture frame maker (1812). [D]

Longshaw, John, 1 Thurlo St, Liverpool, cm (1837). [D]

Longworth, John, Whitefield, near Prestwich, Lancs., cm (1834). [D]

Longworth, Richard, Liverpool, cm (1754). Free 12 April 1754. [Freemen reg.]

Lonie, Douglas, 83 High St, Sunderland, Co. Durham, cm (1832). [D]

Lonrie, William, 6 Elizabeth Pl., St George's Field, London, cm (1794). In May 1794 insured four houses for £1,000. [GL, Sun MS vol. 401, ref. 628292]

Lonsdale, Edward, 12 Princes St, Cavendish Sq., London, cm (1784–93). [D]

Lonsdale, Joseph, Richmond, Yorks., cm, joiner and carpenter (1752–d. by 1794). In 1752 took app. named Arundale. Joseph Lonsdale was dead by October 1794 when his premises were offered for rent. They consisted of a ‘modernbuilt sashed dwelling-house … a saw-house and ware-house … large convenient work-shop and a small room for goods over the Saw-house and ware-house, and proper Out-offices’. [S of G, app. index; Newcastle Courant, 4 October 1794]

Lonsdale, Matthew, Salford and Manchester, cm (1800–33). In 1800 at Catcliffe St, Salford, Lancs. and in 1832–33 at 11 Water St, Manchester. [D]

Lonsdale, Robert, Coney St, York, carpenter, joiner and cm (1787–91). In November 1791 took out insurance cover of £800. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 381, p. 606]

Lonsdale, Thomas, Lancaster, (1792–1800). Named in the Gillow records 1792, 1794, 1796–97, 1799–1800. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lonsdale, William, Hull and Bridlington, Yorks., cm (1784–90). Freeman of Beverley, Yorks. In Hull in 1784 and Bridlington in 1790. [Beverley poll bks]

Lonsdale, William, 7 Bread St, Soho, London, cm and upholder (1795–1815). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793, and included in the list of master cabinet makers in his Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. In June 1807 took out insurance cover of £1,000 of which £850 was for utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 440, ref. 804265]

Looker, Francis, 163 Union St, Southwark, London, chair and sofa manufacturer (1829). Successor to John Looker at this address. [D]

Looker, John, 163 Union St, Southwark, London, chair and sofa maker (1826). Succeeded by Francis Looker at this address by 1829. [D]

Lord, Aaron, St John's Madder Market, Norwich, cm and u (1830–40). [D]

Lord, Ann, St Ann's Terr., St Ann's, Liverpool, u (1835–37). In 1835 the number in St Ann's Terr. is given variously as 18 or 16 and in 1837 as 17. [D]

Lord, Isaac, Birstall, Yorks., joiner and cm (1830). [D]

Lord, James, Adwalton, near Morley, Birstall, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Lord, John, London, carver and gilder (before 1766 and after 1775). By 1766 had established himself in South Carolina in the trade. He claimed to have received his training and skills ‘from the best shops in London’ and to have been employed ‘doing all the different parts of his Business at the Shop of Mr. Norman, Carver and Gilder to her Majesty’ — a reference to the important furniture maker, Samuel Norman. In May 1767 he announced the importation by the ship London of a ‘large assortment of Looking Glasses’. He left to return to London in March 1775. [South Carolina Gazette, 17 June 1766, 12 May 1767]

Lord, Jonathan, Leeds, Yorks., cm and joiner (1817–40). In 1817 at White-Cloth-Hall St, in 1830 at 4 East Row; and in 1834 at 20 Cheapside. [D]

Lord, Samuel, Market St, Bradford, Yorks., joiner and cm (1814–22). [D]

Lord, William, opposite ‘Ben Johnson's Head’, Shoe Lane, London, u (1783). In 1783 insured his house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 314, p. 228]

Lord, William, Church St, Whitby, Yorks., cm and u (1823–34). [D]

Lord, William & Son, 28 Newbro’ St, Scarborough, Yorks., cm (1840). [D]

Lorrimer, William, London, carver and gilder (1778). In 1778 insured a house jointly with John Cobham of Ware, Herts., malt factor. [GL, Sun MS vol. 265, p. 446]

Lorthwick, Samuel, Manchester, carver (1759). In 1759 took app. named Radcliff. [S of G, app. index]

Lortin, Thomas, Marybone, Liverpool, u (1796). [D]

Lotchfield, William, London, u (1802). Freeman of Oxford. [Oxford poll bk]

Lott, Ann, 18 Edgecumbe St, East Stonehouse, Plymouth, Devon, cm and u (1838). [D]

Lott, Timothy, Devizes, Wilts., chair and basket maker (1774). In November 1774 took out insurance cover on his two houses which adjoined one other for £150 and an additional £50 for stock kept in them. [GL, Sun MS vol. 235, ref. 346918]

Lott, Timothy, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs., chairmaker (1798). [D]

Lough, Francis, Tweedmouth, Northumb., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Lough, Robert, 66 Berwick St, Soho, London, cm (1821–22). In February 1821 took out insurance cover of £300 on household goods in his dwelling house and rooms behind. [GL, Sun MS vol. 488, ref. 9760093]

Lough, William, Percy St, Alnwick, Northumb., cm and joiner (1834). [D]

Louth, Daniel, London, upholder (1734). Son of Robert Louth of the parish of St Mary-le-Strand, London, Gent. App. to William Dunton, 11 May 1727, and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude in 1734. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Louth, Henry, London, upholder (1713). Freeman of London. On 17 October 1713 took an app. [S of G, app. index]

Lovat, Samuel, 43 Sadlergate, Derby, cm and u (1829). [D]

Lovat(t), James, Sad(d)lergate, Derby, u and cm, carver and gilder (1822–23). [D]

Lovatt, Robert, Kilwarby St, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leics., cm, builder and tea dealer (1822). [D]

Love, John, High St, Newport, Isle of Wight, cm and u (1802– 30). Trading at High St, 1802 and 1830 and in Quay St, 1823. Took out insurance cover in 1802 for £999. This included stock and utensils in his dwelling house valued at £150, an upholsterer's workshop and feather store with stock at £80 and a cabinetmaker's workshop with stock and utensils at £200. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 43, ref. 728427]

Love, John Alger, Beccles, Suffolk, cm and u (1824–39). At Northgate St in 1824 and one directory of 1839, and Saltgate St, 1830–39. [D]

Love, Knelm(?), 2 Seething Lane, London, chairmaker (1808). In August 1808 took out insurance cover of £100 of which £70 was in respect of household goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 447, ref. 819858]

Love, Kelah, 14 Duke's Row, New Rd, St Pancras, London, chair and sofa maker (1829). Still trading from this address in 1835 but trade then stated to be furniture broker. [D]

Love, Peter, London, carver and gilder (1784). Freeman of Colchester, Essex. [Colchester poll bk]

Lovegrave, James, 5 Kennington Green, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). Stated that the Gothic style was his speciality. [D]

Lovegrove, —, 9 Assembly Row, Mile End Rd, London, chair and sofa manufacturer (1829). [D]

Lovegrove, Henry, Slough, Bucks., chairmaker (1798). [D]

Lovegrove, Henry jnr, Slough, Bucks., Windsor and garden chairmaker (1823). [D]

Lovegrove, Richard, Egham, Surrey, Windsor, fancy and garden chairmaker (1822–39). Also furniture broker in 1822. [D]

Lovegrove, William, Prospect Pl., Kent Rd, London, chair and sofa maker (1826). [D]

Lovejoy, Peter, 3 St John St Rd, London, bedstead maker and broker (1804). In July 1804 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £300 was for his dwelling house, shop and warehouse. No stove for drying feathers was on the premises. [GL, Sun MS vol. 430, ref. 764503]

Lovel, Thomas, parish of St Sidwell, Exeter, Devon, cm (1818). In February 1818 convicted at Exeter of ‘wilfully and maliciously cutting down several young trees from the hedge of a field in the parish’. He was ordered to pay compensation of £5. [Exeter Flying Post, 19 February 1818]

Lovelace, —, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Lovelady, Edward, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1827–29). In 1827 at Paradise Ct, Paradise St but in 1829 in addition to this address which was said to be a shop, one at 25 Manesty Lane was given. In 1829 he was listed only as a cm. [D]

Lovelady, Edward, Liverpool, carver (1827–39). In 1827 at 31 Sir Thomas’ Buildings but in 1834 at St John's Pl., Old Haymarket. From 1835 in Derby St, the number being 9 in 1835, 8 in 1837 and 14 in 1839. [D]

Lovelady, Lawrence, Liverpool, carver (1810–24). At 15 Love Lane in 1810 and 5 Love Lane, 1811–18. In 1824 at 2 Dixon Ct, Lace St. [D]

Lovelady, Thomas, Liverpool, chairmaker (1796–1827). At back 20 Atherton St in 1796. From 1800 at the Old Ropery, Fenwick St, the number being 6, 1803–10, with the exception of 1807 when it was 10. In 1813 at Haughton's Pl., Water St and in 1827 at Brunswick St. [D]

Loveland, James, Ditch Side, St Bride's, London, upholder (1741–69). In 1741 fined for declining parish office, parish of St Bride, Fleet St. In 1756 was Collector for the Poor, in 1757 Sidesman and in 1769 Scavenger. [GL, MS 6561, p. 70]

Loveland, Richard, London, upholder (1717–33). Son of John Loveland of the parish of St Sepulchre, London. App. to Samuel Abbott 4 September 1717 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 3 October 1733. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lovell, Abraham, Plymouth, Devon, u (1776). Bankruptcy announced, Exeter Flying Post, 15 march 1776.

Lovell, George, Wells, Som., upholder (1784). Freeman of Bristol. [Bristol poll bk]

Lovell, George, High St, Towcester, Northants., cm/joiner (1823). [D]

Lovell, James, St Marylebone, London, carver (c. 1775). Insolvent, and dividend declared, Leicester Journal, 13 December 1777.

Lovell, James, 8 Margaret St, Cavendish Sq., London, carver and gilder (1809–19). [D]

Lovell, Michael, Gracechurch St, London, upholder (1712–31). On 13 June 1712 took out insurance cover of £200 jointly with a Samuel Arnolde on a house on the south side of Crown Court, Gracechurch St. The house was said to be rented. This may have been Lovell's house and business premises at this date as subsequently from 1724 Gracechurch St is always quoted as his address. Seven days earlier however he had taken out a policy for £200 in his own name only for a house of timber construction in Bishopsgate St Within, and it may have been here that he was living in 1712. On 5 March 1712/ 13 he took an app. named Lovell who was a freeman of London and a member of the Upholders’ Co. In 1731 his son William was declared free of this company by patrimony. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 10, refs 7420, 8201; Upholders’ Co. records; S of G, app. index; Daily Journal, 20 March 1724, 30 October 1727]

Lovell, Richard, London, broker and cm (1715–d. by 1742). In October 1715 took out insurance cover of £100 on a house in Hosier Lane, parish of St Sepulchre. He was stated to be a freeman joiner. By August 1723 he was living next to ‘The Boar's Head’ in the Barbican where he took out cover for £300. This insured goods and merchandise in his house for £100, similar items in the Carpenters’ Hall, London Wall for £100 and the same sum for timber in a yard near his house. He was living in Aldermanbury in 1725 when a claim was paid to him by the Union Fire Office. He was already dead by November 1742 when his stock was put up for auction. He was then living in Brooke St, Holborn. The stock consisted of ‘all Sorts of Bedding, Chairs, Cabinets, Desks, and Bookcases, Chests of Drawers, Dressing Tables, Dining Tables, Mahogany Claw Tables.’ [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 15, p. 314; Sun MS vol. 16, ref. 29609; V & A archives; Daily Advertiser, 11 November 1742]

Lovell, Samuel, London, cane chairmaker (1718–20). In 1718 his address was given as Ditch Side, parish of St Bridget. But by 1 October 1720 had moved to ‘The Double Chair’, corner of Stone Cutters St, near the Ditch Side. [GL, Sun MS vol. 8, ref. 11234]

Lovell, Thomas, Catherine St, Exeter, Devon, cm (1818–23). Daughter bapt. at St Sidwell's Church 23 August, 1818. In 1822 in partnership with Sugg as Lovell & Sugg. [D; PR (bapt.)]

Lovell, Thomas, High St, Towcester, Northants., cm/joiner (1823). [D]

Lovell, William, London, upholder (1731). Son of Michael Lovell, freeman and members of the Upholders’ Co. William was free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony, 4 March 1730/ 31. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lovelock, Henry, 3 Kingsland Rd, London, cm and u (1820– 39). [D]

Lovelock, Henry, 20 Crescent Pl., Margate, Kent, cm and u (1839). Successor to J. Lovelock at this address. [D]

Lovelock, J., 20 Crecent Pl., Margate, Kent, u (1838). Succeeded in 1839 by Henry Lovelock at this address. [D]

Loveridge, James, West St, Bridport, Dorset, cm (1839). Bankrupt 1839 but despite this still shown in a directory of 1840. [D; Exeter Flying Post, 4 July 1839]

Loves, William, Gt Yarmouth and Barney, Norfolk cm (1812– 20). Freeman of Gt Yarmouth and in the town October 1812. At Barney, 1818–20. [Gt Yarmouth poll bks]

Lovett, Edward, 65 St James’ St, Liverpool, cm and u (1835). [D]

Lovett, James, Liverpool, cm and broker (1827–39). In 1827 shown in one directory at 1 St Vincent St, and in another at 26 St James’ St. After 1827 all addresses are in St James’ St, the number being 23 in 1829, 68 in 1834, 69 in 1835, 67 in 1837 and 131 in 1839. In 1839 shown additionally at 4 Uphill St, Toxteth Pk. [D]

Lovett, Richard, Worcester, upholder (1780–88). Listed at Broad St, also as an auctionner in 1788. App. to Richard Meredith, upholder, and free by servitude, 7 February 1780. In the following year he took out insurance cover of £400 of which £300 was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; freemen admission reg.; GL, Sun MS vol. 290, p. 340]

Lovett, Samuel, 43 Sadlergate, Derby, cm and u (1828). [D]

Lovett, William, Castle St, Oxford Mkt, London, buhl and cabinet maker (1820s). [Burlington, June 1980, p. 416]

Lovewell, T. S., St Michael's Coslany, Norwich, cm and u (1822). [D]

Lovick, Samuel, Walsingham, Norfolk, cm (1807). Freeman of Norwich. [Norwich poll bk]

Loving, Thomas, London, cabinet and chairmaker (1803–23). In 1803 subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary. At 23 Well St, Oxford St, 1809, but by 1816 had moved to 102 Wardour St, Soho. In July 1823 he took out insurance cover on this address for £1,000 of which £300 was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 498, ref. 1006314]

Loving, Thomas, 10 Basnett St, Liverpool, cm and u (1834). [D]

Lovitt, John, 57 Whitefriargate, Hull, Yorks., cm and u (1826– 31). Shown with residence at 10 Parliament St from 1831–40. From 1834 the business was carried on in partnership with Thomas Lovitt. In October 1828 supplied furniture on a substantial scale to the Carter-Thewall family of Redbourne Hall, Lincs. The total furnishing bill came to £3,849 5s 5d. [D; Lincoln RO, 2 RED 4/4/14] Thomas Lovitt was living at 4 Baker St from 1835. [D]

Low, John, Richmond, Surrey, cm (1759). In 1759 took app. named Jackson. [S of G, app. index]

Low, Stephen, 102 Gt Portland St, St Marylebone, London, cm (1817). [D]

Lowcock, John, Skipton, Yorks., cm (1834). [PR]

Lowcock, Mary, Pontefract, Yorks., cm (1754). In 1754 took app. named Barbar. A business recorded as Lowcock & Wing cm was trading in this town in 1751. [S of G, app. index]

Lowcock, William, Mill Bridge, Skipton, Yorks., joiner/cm (1837).

Lowcock & Wing, Pontefract, Yorks., cm (1751). Also house joiners. Offered for sale ‘all Sorts of Tables, Chairs, Chests of Drawers, Bed-work, and all Kinds of Cabinet-work’. A Mary Locock was trading as a cm in this town in 1754. [York Courant, 4 June 1751]

Lowdell, —, 108 Blackman St, Southwark, London, cm (c. 1780). [Heal]

Lowe, Charles, 40 Queen St, Birmingham, cabinet and bedstead maker (1830). [D]

Lowe, Edward snr, Liverpool, cm (b. 1737–d. 1807). App. to Josiah Baxendale and free by servitude, 14 March 1761. At Pool Lane, 1766–67, 4 Red Cross St, 1769–90 and Suffolk St in 1796. The number of apps taken suggests a business of some importance. These were Thomas Basnett and John Alexander (free 1780), George Highfield (free 1784), Thomas Robinson and Edward Lowe jnr (free 1790), William Atkinson and Thomas Maddocks (1784–96), and John Chesters (1794–1806). Died in 1807 at the age of 70. [D; freemen reg.; freemen's committee bk]

Lowe, Edward jnr, Liverpool, cm (1790–1829). Son of Edward Lowe snr and app. to him. Free by servitude, 20 June 1790. At 5 Riley's Gdns, Tempest Hey, 1790–1803, and in 1796 shown additionally with a shop at 17 Cable St. In 1800 living in a new house at 1 Slater St, Duke St which he continued to occupy until at least 1805. This property was clearly of some value and in January 1801 was insured together with its household contents for £1,200. Although no manufacturing was carried on here it is the address given in several directories of this period. From 1804 he was in partnership with a person named Croft, probably Joseph Croft. Initially the business was in Feather St, Richmond Row, but from 1807 at Downes St, Richmond Row, a property leased from Mathew Gregson, u and cm. The partners undertook work for Gregson and in 1807 were paid £657 3s 1d, and in the following year £677 19s 4d. No further references are made to the partnership after December 1808, but Edward Lowe jnr carried out further work for Gregson, 1811–14. In some cases for this later work the amounts due were settled in the form of goods or work carried out in return. Lowe was using 39 Old Scotland Rd in 1810 and 6 Old Bush Rd in the following year. From 1813 addresses are in Bevington Bush, the number being 17 in 1813–14, 21 in 1818, 41 in 1821–23 and 33 in 1829. Additionally he appears to have retained the shop in Feather St, now numbered 1. Like his father he took a large number of apps. These were Thomas Lowe (1797–1806), Thomas Wilding (1800–12), Thomas Ingham and Joseph Holmes (1804–12), John Robbs (1797–1812), Samuel Whittaker (1802–12), Edward Lowe (1799–1812), Richard Williams (1801–12) and Robert Jones (1807–16). [D; freemen reg.; freemen's committee bk; GL, Sun MS vol. 37, ref. 714302; vol. 43, ref. 726845; Liverpool RO, 920 GRE 1/27]

Lowe, Edward, Liverpool, cm (1799–1812). The relationship of this Edward Lowe to to the other two cm of this name working in Liverpool is uncertain. He was app. to Edward Lowe jnr in 1799, only nine years after the latter had received his own freedom which would suggest that he was not the son of Edward jnr. After serving Edward Lowe jnr for seven years he petitioned for his freedom in 1806. This was however refused as the indenture had been lost and the application was postponed. It is possible that at this stage he left Liverpool and went to work in Shrewsbury. This is based on the assumption that he is the Lowe who was married in 1809 to a Miss Margaret Keen at St Peter's Church, Liverpool. He eventually became a freeman of Liverpool on 5 October 1812. [Freemen reg.; freemen's committee bk; Liverpool Courier, 1 February 1809]

Lowe, George, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs., cm and u (1818–28). In 1818 and 1828 shown at Ireland in the town and in 1822 at Deane Gate. [D]

Lowe, Isaac, 35 Beswick Row, Manchester cm (1836). [D]

Lowe, James, Taunton, Som., cm (1798). [D]

Lowe, James, 5 Craven St, Liverpool, cm (1839). [D]

Lowe, John, Sadlergate, Derby, chairmaker/turner (1829). [D]

Lowe, Jno., 52 Berwick St, Soho, London, cm and u (1835–39). [D]

Lowe, John, Leeds Rd, Bradford, Yorks., u (1837). [D]

Lowe, Musgrave, Wardour St, Soho, London, cm (1767). [Heal]

Lowe, Peter, Castle St, Long Acre, London, u and cm (1790–93). Successor to Richard Lowe at this address. [D]

Lowe, Richard, Castle St, Long Acre, London, bedstead maker (1784). Succeeded by Peter Lowe at this address by 1790. [D]

Lowe, Richard, Merry Vale, Worcester, chairmaker (1788). [D]

Lowe, Richard, 74 Turnmill St, Clerkenwell, London, buhl manufacturer (1829). [D]

Lowe, Robert, 39 Newman St, Oxford St, London, bedstead maker (1829–37). [D]

Lowe, Thomas, address unknown, carver (late 17th century). Carried out carving in three London City Wren churches. [Wren Soc., x, p. 124, pls 58, 60]

Lowe, Thomas, Stamford, Lincs., cm (1776). In 1776 took as app. William Lee for seven years at a premium of £20. [Stamford Town Hall bk, 2A/1/4]

Lowe, Thomas, Liverpool, cm (1806–21). App. to Edward Lowe jnr and free, 31 October 1806. He was probably the Mr Lowe, cm who was on 1 July 1811 married to Miss Brotherton of Liverpool. At 10 Gildart Gdn, 1813–14 and 55 Gerard St in 1821. In 1821 listed as a joiner and victualler. [D; freemen reg.; Liverpool Mercury, 12 July 1811]

Lowe, Thurston, Gainsborough, Lincs., cm (1803). Freeman of Nottingham. [Nottingham poll bk]

Lowe, William, Corn Market, Stamford, Lincs., cm and u (1753–70). In 1753 a William Lowe of Stamford, cm, took app. named Nodes. A marriage of a person of the same trade and name is recorded at Stamford in March 1769, but there is the possibility that this may be a son of the former one. In 1770 trading at Corn Mkt as a cm and u. [S of G, app. index; Cambridge Chronicle, 18 March 1769, 24 March 1770]

Lowe, William, 7 Bucklersbury, London, u and cm (1776–77). In 1776 took out insurance cover of £1,000 of which £600 was in respect of utensils and stock. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by redemption, 3 September 1777. [GL, Sun MS vol. 253, p. 613; Upholders’ Co. records]

Lowe, William, Liverpool, cm (1780–1835). Free 11 September 1780. Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793. In 1790 at 46 Peter St; in 1804 at 29 Cheapside, Dale St; but then moved to Lionel St. The number in Lionel St was 14 in 1805 and 16 in 1807–10. By 1818 he was at 34 Sawney Pope St; in 1823 at 8 Old Hall St; and in 1835 at 22 Richmond Fair. The length of the period of trading might suggest that there were a father and son of the same name involved. [D; freemen reg.]

Lowe, William, 25 Drury Lane, London, cm and broker (1808– 09). [D]

Lowe, William, 13 Bridge Rd, Lambeth, London, looking-glass maker (1826). [D]

Lowe & Croft, see Edward Lowe jnr

Lowe & Houghton, Lord St, Liverpool, cm (1805–09). At Barrack Yd in 1805 and Castle Yd in 1809. In May 1809 the partnership was dissolved and the stock sold off. Manufactured stock included ‘an elegant Sideboard, Wardrobes, set Dining Tables, Night Chairs, Pembroke Tables, Ladies’ Work Tables, Chairs, Bedsteads etc.’ Timber included ‘Mahogany in Logs, Boards & Veneers, Dry Oak & Deal Boards, Maple’ while ‘Brasswork, Hair Seatings, Benches, Utensils etc.’ were also on offer. [D; Liverpool Courier, 24 May 1809]

Lowe & Parry, Paradise St, Liverpool, cm (1800–03). The number in Paradise St was 10 in 1800 and 14 in 1803. [D]

Lowell, Robert, near ‘The Kings Head’, Mile End Rd, London, cm (1779). In 1779 took out insurance cover of £700 of which only £100 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 278, p. 634]

Lowen, John, 280 Whitechapel Rd, London, u (1829–39). One directory of 1835 lists Lowen & Son at 290 Whitechapel Rd. [D]

Lower & Sons, 79 St James's St, Brighton, Sussex, cm, u and paperhanger (1826). [D]

Lowes, George, the sign of ‘Robin Hood’, Pilgrim St, Newcastle, cm (1756–80). In 1756 took app. named Adear. Apart from his cabinetmaking business he also may have acted on occasions as agent for the disposal of property, and in 1776 is recorded advertising a number of freehold messuages for sale. By 1778 he had closed his business and in March of that year offered his stock for sale. An ‘elegant eight day clock with chimes’ was mentioned and trade stock included supplies of mahogany and ‘a number of Joiner and Cabinet-maker's benches, and several new attick sashes and other Windows’. He may possibly have recommenced business or failed to dispose of his stock, for a further advertisement in January 1780 once more announced that he had declined business. Devergy Lisle snr, a fellow cm, was concerned with the disposal of stock and announced that he was able to offer his services to Lowes’ customers. In the same month that this advertisement appeared he was trading from ‘The Commode and Cabriole’ in Pilgrim St, and may have taken over Lowes’ premises. Lowes had been his former master. Devergy Lisle sought tenders for Lowes’ stock which consisted of ‘Cabinet Goods, 350 feet of fine Veneer, 2419 feet and upwards of Mahogany in planks and boards, Wainscot ditto &c.’ Failing receipt of satisfactory offers for the entire stock, he indicated that he would lot the materials for sale in March. [D; S of G, app. index; Newcastle Courant, 15 June 1776, 11 March 1778, 8 January 1780]

Lowes, Richard, Newcastle, u (1741). [Freemen reg.]

Lowick, W., 36 Satchwell St, Leamington, Warks., cm and u (1837). [D]

Lowle, Peter, High St, above St Giles’ Church, London, broker and cm (1752). In March 1752 his stock in trade was offered for disposal as he was ‘going into another way of Business’. [Daily Advertiser, 18 March 1752]

Lowman, Philip, Honiton, Devon, cm (1752). In 1752 took app. named Bennet. [S of G, app. index]

Lowndes, J. & W., 18 Haymarket, London, military and camp equipage warehouse (1827). Trade card in Banks Coll., BM. Offered ‘Marquees, tents & all Sorts of Camp Furniture … Camp Bedsteads … Mahogany Writing Cases, Dressing do.’ [D]

Lowndes, James, 9 St John's St, Manchester, cm (1832–33). [D]

Lowndes, Joseph, 9 Cavendish St, Liverpool, cm (1810). [D]

Lowndes, William, 48 Oxford St, Manchester, furniture broker and cm (1839–40). [D]

Lowrie, Hugh, 9 Leicester St, Swallow St, London, cm (1786). In August 1786 insured household goods for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 338, p. 560]

Lowry, Henry & Anne, 7 Phoenix St, London, cm (1780). In 1780 insured their house for £500. [GL, Sun MS vol. 280, p. 314]

Lowry, Henry, 8 Gravel Lane, Southwark, London, cm and undertaker (1808). [D]

Lowry, John, Hull, Yorks., cm (1765–68). App. to Highams. Worked for William Constable at Burton Constable, Yorks. and London. In 1765 he supplied a library table and also ‘2 Large Dining Tables to fix together’ and for the latter £7 was charged. In 1767 four mahogany elbow chairs were made costing £10 10s and in the following year fourteen single chairs ‘with Backs & Front Carv'd Commode Seats Ship'd and Covered with Leather & Brass Nails for which £28 was charged. He also produced frames for scagliola tables. [Humberside RO, Burton Constable vouchers; C. Life, 3 June 1976]

Lowry, Sarah, London, u (1759–44). Associated with William Reason, u, in the supply of furniture. In 1739 they supplied two leather folding stools, twelve ‘pincushion seats for chairs’ and a Turkey carpet for the Lord Great Chamberlain's Room in the ‘House of Peers’. Supplied furnishings for various royal residences, 1742–44. [Winterthur, Delaware, Symonds papers, 75 X 69–15, p. 73; PRO, LC 9/290]

Lowth, Charles, London, upholder (1728–29). Son of Henry Lowth and brother of William Lowth. His father was already dead by 5 March 1728/29 when Charles was admitted a member of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony. His father had formerly been a freeman of the Company. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lowth, Henry, Little Alley leading from Cherry Tree Alley, parish of St Giles Without Cripplegate, London, upholder (1713–23). In both 1716 and 1723 took out insurance cover on his house, which was rented, of £50 only. He did however also insure six further properties. He took as app. John Locke, 1713–20. He was dead by 5 March 1728/29 when his son Charles was made free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony. A younger son William was also made free by patrimony, 16 December 1731. [GL, Hand in Hand vol. 16, p. 198; vol. 27, p. 322; Upholders’ Co. records]

Lowth, William, London, upholder (1731). Son of Henry Lowth, freeman and Upholder of London. William was free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony, 16 December 1731. His father Henry had died several years earlier. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lowther, Henry, York, cm (1756–74). Son of Luke Lowther, innkeeper. Free as a cm, 1756, and two years later living in Lendal. In 1774 in Monkgate. [Freemen rolls; poll bks]

Lowther, Isaac, Bird St, Westminster, London, carver (1749). [Poll bk]

Lowther, John, Lancaster, joiner and cm (1739–49). Free as a joiner, 1739–40. Took an app. joiner in March 1742 and app. joiners and cm in January 1746, January 1748 and March 1749. A mahogany fall-front bureau of good quality exists [Judges’ Lodging Museum, Lancaster] which bears the label of this maker, on the inside of the centre cupboard door in the interior. [Freemen rolls; app. reg.]

Lowther, John, Liverpool, cm (1761). In 1761 took app. named Dodgson. [S of G, app. index]

Lowther, John, Crosbie St, Maryport, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811). [D]

Lowther, John, 3 Smeaton St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1837–40). [D]

Lowther, Thomas, 58 Red Lion St, Clerkenwell, London, clock case and cabinet makers (1820–40). In 1839 the business was listed as Lowther & Son. In 1839–40 clock case maker only. [D]

Lowthian, John, 41 Adam St West, Portman Sq., London, cm and u (1809). In 1809 took out insurance cover of £200. This included £50 in respect of a chest of tools in Gillow & Co.'s store in George St, Oxford St. [GL, Sun MS vol. 448, ref. 836807]

Lowthian, Richard, Lancaster, cm (1805–35). Named in the Gillow records 1805–07, 1809, 1811, 1814–15, 1822–23, 1832 and 1834–35. In 1823 named in connection with making a bookcase. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/ 101, p. 3303]

Lowthian, Thomas, Lancaster, cm (1817–23). App. to J. Hodgson and free, 1817–18. Named in the Gillow records, 1821–23, including the making of a table in 1821. [App. reg.; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/100, p. 3117]

Loxham, Edward, Liverpool, u (1761–80). Son of Edward Loxham, mariner and petitioned freedom by patrimony in 1761. By 1767 trading from an address in Castle St, and from 1769–77 at 9 Cleveland St. Took as app. John Williams, but in May 1767 he absconded and Loxham advertised his description in the hope that he might be apprehended. The business was probably small, for in 1777 he was combining his trade with the post of Overseer of the Poor. In 1773 he had been described as an u, dealer and chapman. Probably the business was not particularly profitable. He was declared bankrupt in 1772 and was again insolvent by 1780. [D; freemen's committee bk; Bailey's list of bankrupts; Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 8 May 1767, 17 December 1773, 25 May 180]

Lucas, —, Bath, Som., carver (d. 1806). [Gents Mag., February 1806]

Lucas, Mrs, 58 Campo Lane, Sheffield, Yorks., looking-glass manufacturer (1825). Probably successor to John Lucas. [D]

Lucas, Edmund, address unknown, (1769). On 11 April 1769 invoiced a japanned dressing-table and frame for the Dowager Princess of Wales at a cost of £15 15s. [RA 55582]

Lucas, Henry, London, u and paper hanger (1820–35). At 33 Newman St, Oxford St, 1820–25. In 1820 took out insurance cover for £400 of which £100 was in respect of utensils and stock. In 1821 the figures were raised to £500 and £200 and for 1822 were £350 and £250 respectively. His trade tools and stock were in his dwelling house but in 1822 for the first time a workshop is mentioned which contained stock and tools valued at £50 compared with those in the house at £200. By 1824 cover had reached £1,000 which included £500 for stock and utensils in his dwelling house though it was stated that no cabinet work was carried out there. Lucas also insured another dwelling house at 5 Seymour Row, Little Chelsea valued at £100. From 1821–24 he described himself additionally as a cm. In 1826 he was at 127 Long Acre and the same year saw him also at 1 Crown St, Walworth trading as a bedstead maker. He remained at this latter address until at least 1829, but in 1835 was at 7 Charles St, Hampstead Rd. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 483, ref. 962879; vol. 488, ref. 976409; vol. 493, ref. 995716; vol. 499, ref. 1014243]

Lucas, James, Hitchin Herts., u (1726). In October 1726 took out insurance cover of £600. [GL, Sun MS vol. 22, p. 374]

Lucas, James, London, u (1789–93). At 8 Warwick Ct, Newgate St in 1789 but by the following year was at 66 Chiswell St, where he was trading as an undertaker, cm and u. [D; Heal]

Lucas, John, 67 Campo Lane, Sheffield, Yorks., looking-glass manufacturer (1821). In 1825 the business was at 58 Campo Lane and under the direction of a Mrs Lucas. [D]

Lucas, Jno., 25 Thayer St, Manchester Sq., u (1826). [D]

Lucas, Richard, London, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lucas, Richard, Chorley, Lancs., joiner and cm (1822–24). Trading at Bolton St in 1822 and 3 Market St in 1824. [D]

Lucas, William, London, u (1741). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury poll bk]

Lucas, William, ‘Liesforme’, Som., chairmaker (1744). In 1744 took app. named Pointing. [S of G, app. index]

Lucas, William, 83 Bull St, Birmingham, cm (1777–80). [D]

Lucas, William & Beaumont, William, Middle Yd, Gt Queen St, London, cm (1788–89). Bankruptcy announced, January 1788, though not recorded in the Gents Mag. until May of the following year. [Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 21 January 1788]

Lucas, William, Pipemaker's Lane, Boston, Lincs., cm and joiner (1826). [D]

Lucas, William, Dudley St, Walsall, Staffs., cm and u (1828–30). [D]

Lucas, William, 1 Cambridge Rd, London, carver and gilder (1839).

Lucas & Beaumont, See William Lucas & William Beaumont.

Lucas & Leggett, 35 South Audley St, London, u (1839). [D]

Luccock, John, Garden St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1806). [D]

Luccock, Marmaduke, Hull, Yorks., cm (1784). [Poll bk]

Luccock, William, Hull, Yorks., cm (1774–1806). At Southend, High St, 1790–99, and Humber St, 1803–06. On 7 June 1774 supplied a wainscot Pembroke table to Burton Constable, Yorks. [D; poll bk; Humberside RO, Burton Constable vouchers]

Lucera, Anthony, address unknown, (1742). On 26 December 1742 paid £4 10s 6d for ‘a Chest of Florence’ purchased by Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter, for Moulsham Hall, Essex. [A. C. Edwards, The Accounts of Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter, p. 109]

Lucini, P. & F., Leather Lane, Holborn, London, carvers and gilders (1835–39). In 1835 at 16 Leather Lane, but by 1839 the business was in the sole hands of Paovino Lucini at 91 Leather Lane. He declared his trade to be a picture and looking-glass frame maker. [D]

Luck, Joseph, London, u (1779–1802). Son of Samuel Luck, freeman shipwright of London. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony on 7 July 1779. At Bread St, Cheapside, 1779–81, but in 1781 moved to Carpenters’ Hall, 65 London Wall where he entered into partnership with a man called Kent, probably Abbot Kent who had been app. to Samuel Luck from 4 September 1762 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 5 April 1769. In both 1781 and 1783 the business was described as that of u and carpet warehouse. The business was carried on under various trading styles such as Luck & Kent, Kent, Luck & Kent, Kent & Co. and Kent & Sons. The number in London Wall was also listed as 67 and 68 at various dates. Joseph Luck's name is not listed in the records of the Upholders’ Co. after 1802 and this may be the year of his death. The business relationship between the two families was however to survive and in 1839 the firm of Luck, Kent & Cumming was still trading from addresses at 4 Regent St and London Wall. [D; Heal; GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Luck, Samuel, Carpenters’ Hall, 67 London Wall, London, upholder (1750–c. 1779). Freeman of London and members of the Shipwrights’ Co. On 4 September 1762 took as app. Abbot Kent who was made free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 5 April 1769. His business is described as a carpet, upholstery and cabinet warehouse on a billhead dated 30 July 1761. [MMA, NY] The father of Joseph Luck who took over the business in 1779. [Heal]

Luck, William, Beavoir Town, Dalston, London, cm (1826). [D]

Luck, William, King St, Hammersmith, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D] See Luck & Co.

Luck, William, High St, Stoke Newington, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Luck & Co., King St, Hammersmith, London, carver and gilder (1838). [D] See William Luck

Luck, Kent & Cumming, 4 Regent St and London Wall, London, u (1839). See Joseph Luck. [D]

Lucker, Joseph, London, u (1761). When he was discharged from Debtors’ Prison in November 1761 his address was given as ‘formerly of Howford Court, Fenchurch Street, London, late a lodger in Lagett's Passage, Devonshire Square’. [London Gazette, 14 November 1761]

Luckett, William, George St, Richmond, Surrey, carver and gilder (1838–39). [D]

Lucking, William, 128 Jermyn St, London, carpenter and cm (1785). In August 1785 took out insurance cover which included £100 for his dwelling house and £50 for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 330, p. 453]

Lucraft, Benjamin, High St, Taunton, Som., cm (1830). [D]

Ludgater, Benjamin, address unknown, joiner, carver and chairmaker (1744–46). Recorded working for Robert & Ann Nugent at Gosfield Hall, Essex, and at their London house in Dover St. The earliest account was in June 1744 and included ‘an ovolo Intablature carved to ye Chimney Piece £3. 10s’. In August 1745, carving carried out in the Dressing Room and Great Antiroom came to £19 9s 3½d. The major amount of work appears to have been carried out at Gosfield in 1746 and the carpenters’ and joiners’ work undertaken amounted to well over £200. This involved the new Dressing Room, the Little and Great Antichambers, and the Bowling Green Parlour. Most of the payment was for carving and general joinery work, but also included the supply of twelve chairs at 10s each. [Essex RO, D/Du 502/2, pp. 149, 196, 241]

Ludgates, —, London, carver (1766–68). In September 1766 and February 1768 submitted accounts for carving picture frames, chimney-pieces etc. at Bowood, Wilts. [Bowood MS]

Ludlow, Thomas, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs., u (1777). In 1777 insured his house for £400. [GL, Sun MS vol. 259, p. 235]

Luff, —, London, u (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Luff, Charles, 96 Curtain Rd, Shoreditch, London, carver and gilder (1826). [D]

Luff, John, Marlborough, Wilts., cm (1779). Insured a house for £100 in 1779. [GL, Sun MS vol. 272, p. 492]

Luff, Joseph, 25 Coppice Row, Cold Bath Fields, London, upholder (1784). In 1784 insured a house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 324, p. 651]

Luff & M’kewan, 11 Ordnance Row, Portsea, Portsmouth, Hants., carver and gilder (1830). [D]

Lugg, Francis, Market Jew St, Penzance, Cornwall, cm etc. (1830). [D]

Luke, David, Barbican, London, jewel case maker (1801–29). At 3 Beech St in 1801, 59 Red Cross St in 1820 and 12 Beech St in 1829. [D]

Luke, Thomas, Glebe St, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs., cm and chairmaker (1834). [D]

Luke & Turner, 47 Frith St, Soho, London, upholders and tent makers (1785). [D]

Lukes, Joseph, Gravesend, Kent, cm (1794). [D]

Lulham, R., 28 Charles St, City Rd, London, cm and u (1827– 35). In 1835 the trade was listed as writing desk manufacturers. [D]

Lulham, Thomas, Brighton, Sussex, u (1760). In 1760 took app. named Farnes. [S of G, app. index]

Lumb, William & Thomas, Leeds, Yorks., joiners and cm (1804–12). In 1804 announced that they had moved from their premises at the bottom of Albion St to those formerly occupied by Johnson & Cullingworth at the back of Park Row. In 1809 they described their trade as builders and cm and stated that they had taken out a licence to practise as auctioneers and appraisers. A sale of several thousand feet of Honduras mahogany in planks and boards and a large quantity of ‘Norwegian deals’ was advertised in 1812. The sale took place in the yard of the late William Cookson in the Calls. [Leeds Mercury, nos 2006–07 2273–78, 2445]

Lumber, Charles, Chester, u (1790). Son of Charles Lumber, barber. Free 6 November 1790. [Freeman rolls]

Lumbley, John, 17 Scale Lane, Hull, Yorks., cm (1828). [D]

Lumbly, John, London, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lumby, John, Stanningley, Leeds, Yorks., cm and joiner (1830). [D]

Lumby, Thomas, address unknown, u (1756). In September 1756 charged Lord Monson £6 6s 11d for making four mattresses ‘for the nursery’. [Lincoln RO, Monson 12]

Lumley, J. T., 13 Lower Chapman St, St George's, London, cm, u and undertakers (1839). [D]

Lumley, John, North Bar St Without, Beverley, Yorks, cm and u (1790–1826). First recorded as an u as well as cm in 1826. [D]

Lumsden, George, Lisle St, Newcastle, cm (1790–95). [D]

Lumsdon, James, 14 Groat Mkt, Newcastle, cm, furniture broker and flour dealer (1827–34). [D]

Lumsdon, John, Hedworth St, Monkwearmouth, Sunderland, chairmaker (1827). [D]

Lund, John, 10 Marybone St, Golden Sq., London, u, warehousemen, haberdashers and manufacturers (1807–39). [D]

Lund, Richard, London (1744). In 1744 paid £125 7s for furniture by the Earl of Stair. [Scottish RO, 9D 135/Box 51/2/ 1–2]

Lund, Thomas, 56 and 57 Cornhill, London, portable desk manufacturer, cutler and dressing case maker (1819–39). In 1819 declared himself to be a cutler, manufacturer of portable desks, pens & quills, importer of filtering stones’. Two tortoise-shell tea caddies are known marked with this maker's stamp. One with a domed rectangular lid and ivory feet is marked ‘Lund, Maker, 57 Cornhill London’ and the other, an octagonal one, is stamped on the inside ivory rim ‘LUND CORNHILL ST’. [D]

Lund, Thomas, Whitby, Yorks., cm (1823–29). In Church St, 1823, but at St Ann's Staith in 1829. [D]

Lund, William, 24 Fleet St, London, dressing case maker and cutler (1835). A tobacco box is known with an inlaid brass strip stamped ‘LUND 24 Fleet St. LONDON’. [D]

Lundie, William, Minster Moor Gate, Beverley, Yorks., cm (1831–40). [D]

Lunn, Thomas, St Sepulchre St, Scarborough, Yorks., cm (1823). [D]

Lunsdale, —, Newcastle, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Lunson, George, 33 Devonshire St, Queen Sq., London, fancy cm (1835). [D]

Lunt, Luke, 9 Phythian St, Liverpool, cm (1812–14). Son of Luke Lunt, mason. Free by patrimony, 5 October 1812. [D; freemen reg.]

Lunton, John, Cambridge, u(?) (1690). In the records of Christ's College for 1690 there is a payment to W. Grub [William Grub] for eighteen chairs. After this entry is recorded ‘to Lunton for making £2 14s 4d’ and ‘for leather £2 17s’.

Luny, William, Lancaster, cm (1801–07). Named in the Gillow records in connection with the making of a blind frame in 1801 and a stand in 1802. Free 1806–07. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/98, pp. 1650, 1688; freemen rolls]

Lupton, —, address unknown, u (1768). Recorded as an u in the Massingberd account book with a payment of £2 19s. [Lincoln RO, MM 9/9]

Lupton, —, Lancaster, (1765–1817). App. to Gillows in 1765. Named in the Gillow records in 1788, 1806 and 1810–17. [App. reg; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lupton, Charles, Lancaster, (1794–1800). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Lupton, James, Killinghall, near Harrogate, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Lupton, John, Lancaster, glazier (1801–16). Named in the Gillow records, 1801–02, 1811 and 1816. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lupton, John, Jubbergate, York, cm and u (1816–23). [D]

Lupton, Thomas, Manor St, Chelsea, London, cm (1808–09). In 1808 at 13 Manor St and in the following year at 4. [D]

Lupton, Thomas, Avenham St, Preston, Lancs., cm (1828). [D]

Lupton, William, London, cm and chairmaker (before 1743). By September 1743 trading in South Carolina, USA, but stated that he was from London. [South Carolina Gazette, 26 September 1743]

Lupton, William, Lancaster (c. 1768–1807). App. to Richard Gillow, 1760–61, and named in the Gillow records in 1784– 88, 1792, 1796–99 and 1807. [App. reg.; S of G, app. index; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Lupton, William, Lytham, Lancs., joiner and cm (1825). [D]

Lurton, Joseph, Liverpool, u (1827). In March 1827 married Miss Frances Stephenson at St Nicholas's Church, Liverpool. [Liverpool Mercury, 30 March 1827]

Lurton, Thomas, 6 Queen's Head Ct, Gt Windmill St, London, upholder (1791). On 31 May 1791 insured his house for £150. [GL, Sun MS ref. 583788]

Lurton, Thomas, Liverpool, u (1803–11). Commenced business in Church St at number 33 but this was changed to 40 by 1805. This first venture was not a success and in October 1805 Lurton was obliged to assign all his property to meeting his debts. It is possible that the expense and disruption of a move to Whitechapel in this year may have occasioned this financial crisis. The sale by auction of his stock commenced from 11 November 1805 and consisted of ‘about 12 Pieces of Sattin Ground & Coloured Paper Hanging, with Rich Flock & Coloured Borders. Brussells & Kiderminster Carpets half ell & half yard Venetian ditto, Patent Lobby Cloths, Morine yard ell wide Furniture, Cottons, Hair Seating & Girth Webb, Pier & Dressing Glasses, handsome mirrors in rich Bronzed & Gilt Frames, Hair Mattresses, Bedticks, Fringes, Lines, Tassels, Carpet Binding etc’. As a result of this sale and other measures a first dividend of 7s 6d in the £ was declared on 20 November. By 1807 Lurton had recommenced trading from 115 Whitechapel, and from 1810–11 was at 20 Ranelagh St. [D; Liverpool Chronicle, 30 October 1805, 6 November 1805, 20 November 1805]

Lush, George, High St, Castle Carey, Som., cm (1840). [D]

Lush, William, 46 Ratcliffe Highway, London, cm (1825). [D]

Lusley, James, 24 Little Windmill St, Golden Sq., London, cm (1808). [D]

Luson, William, Queen St, Southwark, London, carver and gilder (1808). [D]

Lutherborough, William, Hull, Yorks., cm (1768–80). [Poll bks]

Luttich von, (‘Merlin’), Hanover Sq., London, inventor and patentee (1811). His best-known piece of furniture was a mechanical chair which was illustrated and described in Ackermann's Repository of the Arts, October 1811. His portrait, and an example of this form of chair are at Kenwood House, Hampstead, London.

Lutz, T., address unknown, cm (c. 1830). The name is recorded as stamped under the top of a rosewood worktable.

Luvate, Dominic, Friargate, Preston, Lancs., optician and looking-glass maker (1828–34). In 1828 at 43 Friargate and in 1834 at 27. [D]

Luxham, Edward, Liverpool, u (1779). By 1778 in financial difficulties and in January of the following year a dividend was paid to creditors. [Leicester Journal, 30 January 1779]

Luxmore, John, 20 Princess St, Devonport, Devon, cm (1838). [D]

Lyall, Charles, 17 Princes St, Red Lion Sq., London, carver and gilder (1820). An M. Lyall is recorded at this address in 1817 in the same trade. [D]

Lyall, George, London, cm (1803–23). In 1803 at 243 Holborn and subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary. In 1820–23 took out insurance cover at 7 Museum St. Although the cover was substantial reaching £1,100 in 1823, £800 of this was in respect of the dwelling house and in 1823 only £90 covered stock utensils and goods in trust. See also James Lyall. [Heal; GL, Sun MS vol. 483, ref. 966229; vol. 495, ref. 1003320]

Lyall, James, London, cm (1793–1835). In 1793 subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, In the period 1825–35 trading from 7 Museum St, an address occupied from 1820–23 by George Lyall, cm. James's trade was declared to be an u, cm and cabinet founder. [D]

Lyall, M., 17 Princes St, Red Lion Sq., London, carver and gilder (1817). In 1820 Charles Lyall was trading from this address. [D]

Lyall, Walter, 19 Wall St, Jewin St, London, cm (1793). In January 1793 took out insurance cover of £200 of which £20 was in respect of utensils in ‘Mr Seddon's Workshops adjoining in Aldersgate Street’. [GL, Sun MS vol. 392, p. 250]

Lyall, William, 34 Chiswell St, London, u and cm (1800–11). Named in the list of master cabinet makers in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. [D]

Lycett, Joseph, John St, Golden Sq., London, cm and u (1746– 54). In 1754 was paid £11 14s by Trinity College, Cambridge for ‘2 large mahogany Tables in the Lodge’. A large drop leaf, club foot mahogany table still survives in the Lodge and may be one of these. [Heal; Westminster poll bk; V & A archives]

Lycett, Sampson, Aldermanbury, London, cm (before 1761). Dischared from Debtors’ Prison, September 1761 and said to be ‘late of Aldermanbury’. [London Gazette, 29 September 1761]

Lyde, John, 3 Lower Northampton St, Clerkenwell, London, cm (1804). In November 1804 took out insurance cover of £180 but only £40 of this was in respect of stock and utensils in his workshop. [GL, Sun MS vol. 430, ref. 760620]

Lyden, John, 44 Sawney Pope St, Liverpool, trunk and chairmaker (1839). [D]

Lyel, Joseph, Schonswar's Sq., Dagger Lane, Hull, Yorks., cm (1806). [D]

Lyel, Miles, Hull, Yorks., cm (1831–40). At Red Lane with a residence at 2 Sykes St in 1831, but in 1834 at 3 Bridge St. From 1835 used the Sykes St address, but also recorded at 21 Bridge St in 1840. [D]

Lymont, John Francis, London(?), cm (before 1741). In 1742 his app. George Winterbottom was discharged ‘as his master (Lymont) had been in goal for nearly two years’. [GL, Middlx session bk 990, p. 57]

Lymposs, William, 8 Spital St, Guildford, Surrey, cm (1814–40). Described as a cm and broker, 1839–40. [D; Surrey RO (Guildford), BRT/T/982/5, BR/T/982/8]

Lyne, Francis, London, u and cm (1800–17). At 13 Vere St, Oxford St, 1800–04. Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803, and included in the list of master cabinet makers in it. In 1806 at 150 New Bond St, but from 1809 the number is shown as 158. [D]

Lyne, John, London, cm and chairmaker (1802–08). In 1802 at 34 Fashion St, Spitalfields where in July he took out insurance cover of £300, half of which was in respect of utensils and stock. By 1808 at 15 Tower St, St George's Fields. [D: GL, Sun MS vol. 423, ref. 735230]

Lyne, Joseph, Westgate, Grantham, Lincs., joiner, cm and ironmonger (1787). In January 1787 took out insurance cover of £600 on his house, warehouse, workshop and one other house and brewhouse. [GL, Sun MS vol. 341, p. 472]

Lynham, James, Berwick St, Westminster, London, frame maker (1749). [Poll bk]

Lynn, Andrew, Gt Marlborough St, London, u (1708). In June 1708 advertised a reward of a guinea for information about an app. Francis Proctor who had absconded. [Daily Courant, 28 June 1708]

Lyon, Alexander, Silver St, Westminster, London, cm (1784). [Poll bk]

Lyon, D., 17 Duke St, Manchester Sq., London, u (1802–08). [D]

Lyon, George, Duke St, Manchester Sq., London, u (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary and included in the list of master cabinet makers in it. Must be associated with the D. Lyon shown at 17 Duke St in directories, 1802–08.

Lyon, George, 1 Williamson Sq., Liverpool, u and cm (1805– 07). [D]

Lyon, George Philander, Tarleton St, Liverpool, u (1806–39). Son of George Lyon, book-keeper. Free by patrimony on 7 November 1806. Took as apps William Holdsworth (1809–18), Berkett Edmundson (1810–18), George Blinkhorn (1811–20), Moreton Thomas (1815–22); and George Hewitt (app. 1817), William Taylor (app. 1820), Richard Lewtas (app. 1824), Joseph Suddlow (app. 1827), John Houghton Christian (app. 1829) and Thomas Blamer (app. 1834). Shown at 17–18 Tarleton St in 1835 but in 1837 the number was 16–17 and in 1839 it was 32. [D; freemen reg.; freemen's committee bk; app. enrolment bk]

Lyon, George jnr, Tarleton St, Liverpool, u and cm (1810–34). The number in Tarleton St is given as 15, 1810–24; 16 and 17 in 1817–18; and 17 and 18 in 1834. [D]

Lyon, George Frederick, Liverpool, u (1837–39). At 7 Bold St in 1837 but in 1839 in addition to his shop which was now numbered 13 Bold St, an address at 43 Russell St is recorded. [D]

Lyon, George, St Peter's Pl., Canterbury, Kent, cm and u (1838). [D]

Lyon, George, High St, Godalming, Surrey, cm and u (1839). [D]

Lyon, James, 99 Duke St, Whitehaven, Cumb., cm (1811–34). [D]

Lyon, James, Liverpool, u (1816–39). At 21 Fontenoy St, 1816–18; 43 Christian St and 29 Edmund St in 1827; 8 Commucation Row in 1829; 3 Ranelegh Pl. in 1835; 6 Adelaide Buildings, Ranelegh Pl. in 1837; and 7 Adelaide Buildings in 1839. [D]

Lyon, John, the sign of ‘The Angel’, Old Change, parish of St Mary Magdalen, Old Fish St, London, cm (1727). In June 1727 took out insurance cover on household goods and stock in trade in his dwelling house amounting to £300. [GL, Sun MS vol. 25, ref. 41983]

Lyon, John, Liverpool, carver (1806–d. 1812). Son of George Lyon, book-keeper and brother of George Philander Lyon. Free by patrimony, 5 November 1806. Died on 10 September 1812. [Freemen reg.]

Lyon, John, Manchester, cm (1816–25). At 12 Dyche St in 1816, Oak St in 1819 and 18 George Leigh St and 4 Silk St in 1825. [D]

Lyon, Joseph, Myton Walls, Hull, Yorks., cm (1803–06). [D]

Lyon, Robert, 294–95 High Holborn, London, see Lyon, Hotson & Co.

Lyon, Thomas, Union St, Liverpool, cm (1761–96). App. to William Leatherbarrow and free by servitude, 27 February 1761. At Union St, 1766–73. Died February 1796. [D; freemen reg.]

Lyon, Hotson & Co., High Holborn, London, u and cm (1839– 40). At 293 High Holborn in 1839 and described as u. In 1840 a Robert Lyon took out insurance cover on 294–95 High Holborn declaring his trade as cm. [D; GL Sun MS ref. 1333645]

Lyons, —, Wardour St, Soho, London, cm (1803). A fire occurred at his workshop on 24 July 1803. [Gents Mag., July 1803]

Lyons, Charles, Bold St, Liverpool, cm (1823–39). In 1833 claimed to have been trading for ten years, though not recorded in Liverpool directories until 1829, when he is shown at 72 and 73 Bold St. These numbers were probably out of date at the time of the publication of the directory, for in October 1829 Lyons advertised that he had moved from 82 to 70 Bold St. He also indicated that he had a warehouse and manufactory in Fleet St ‘opposite Messrs. Salters’ Saw Mills’. He was still at 70 Bold St in September 1830 when he advertised an auction of surplus stock by Messrs. Taylor & Hime at 28 Bold St. On offer were ‘elegant Pedetal sideboards, Sets of Dining Tables on Telescope Frames, Loo, Card, Pembroke Sofa, Breakfast & Work Tables, Sets of Chairs, Sliding Fire Screens, Wardrobes, Chests of Drawers, Chiffoniers, Sofas, Lounging Chair, Sarcophagus Garduoines, Music Stands etc: a Superb Drawing-room Suite of REAL SOLID ROSEWOOD, consisting of a Couch, twelve Chairs, Fire-skreen, Loo, Sofa, Card & Work Tables, Chiffonier, & other valuable articles’. In June 1838 a similar type of sale was advertised, this time conducted by Winstanley & Sons, and Lyons may have held these on a regular basis to dispose of slow moving stock. A similar range of goods was included to those advertised in 1830 but also included were ‘sets of antique shaped and Trafalgar chairs, couches and sofas, Easy chairs with spring stuffed seats, Knee hole toilet tables and washstands and a variety of small articles’. Lyons was active in promoting sales by advertisement and in December 1833 was claiming that because of advantageous purchases of ‘the best Spanish Mahogany, also Rosewood of the finest growth’ he was able to offer a discount of 15% for cash sales. He claimed to stock furniture not only in the two timbers named but also in ‘Zebrawood, Oak, Painted, Stained & Japanned.’ He occupied 78 Bold St from 1835–38, though an 1837 directory shows 84 and one of 1839 shows 74. He also had showrooms at Newington Bridge the number being shown as 19 in 1835 and 23 in 1837. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 31 October 1828, 24 September 1830, 15 December 1833; Chester Courant, 12 June 1838]

Lyons, John, Bath, Som., u (1840). [GL, Sun MS ref. 1327511]

Lyons, Samuel, 82 Bold St with shop at 14 Wood St, Liverpool, silversmith and cm (1827). [D]

Lyth, George, Colliergate, York, cm (1758). [Freemen rolls; poll bk]

Lyth, John, Hull, Yorks., cm (1826–34). In 1826 at Fountain's Buildings, Leadenhall Sq. with a residence at Charles Sq., Wincolmlee, but in 1834 shown at Guildhall Passage. [D]

Lythe, George, Yorks., cm (1747–48). App. to John Busfield, cm of York, at a premium of £20 in 1747 under the Sons of the Clergy scheme. [General Advertiser, 29 April 1748]

Lythe, Robert, Hull, Yorks., cm (1780). [Poll bk]

Lyther, James, King's Lynn, Norfolk joiner and cm (1757–84). App. to Thomas Hill, joiner and cm, and free, 1757–58. Lyther took as apps George Jackson (free 1774–75), Thomas Harvey (free 1776–77) and Thomas Bouch (free 1777–78). By April 1784 living at Newmarket, Suffolk. [Freemen reg.; poll bk]

Lytholl, John, London, upholder (1706–23). Son of John Lytholl of Little Paxton, Hunts., tailor, deceased. John Lytholl was app. to Thomas Bowyer, 24 May 1706, and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 3 November 1714. He took as app. Richard Smith, 1716–23. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Lyus, John, 10 Tabernacle Walk, Finsbury, London, cm and undertaker (1820–37). In 1837 his trade was described as ‘coffin maker & furnishing undertaker’. [D]

Lyus, William, 14 Moor Lane, London, cm (1811–13). In May 1811 took out insurance cover of £800 on utensils and stock, £500 of which was in a workshop and lofts over and £300 in an open yard. Similar cover was renewed in May 1813. [GL, Sun MS vol. 452, ref. 858056; vol. 462; ref. 881889]