Baynard's Castle - Bear Alley, London Wall

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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'Baynard's Castle - Bear Alley, London Wall', in A Dictionary of London, (London, 1918) pp. . British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

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Baynard's Castle

On the Thames, opposite Addle Hill (O. and M. 1677), now Nos. 12 and 13 Upper Thames Street (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward.

This was not the site of the original Castle, which lay further west, within what was afterwards the precinct of Blackfriars.

Earliest mention : Stow tells us that the Castle was originally built by Baynard, a Nobleman who came over with William the Conqueror and died in the reign of William Rufus (S. 61 and 366). Possibly the Bainiard mentioned in Domesday Book as holding 3 hides of land in the Vill of St. Peter, of the Abbot of Westminster.

The Castle seems to be alluded to by Fitz Stephen in 1170.

Forfeited by Wm. Baynard 1111 and then given to Robert Fitz Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, who was succeeded by Walter. Walter was succeeded by Robert Fitz Walter, and, according to Stow, the Castle remained in the same family for more than a century.

In the "Annales Londoniensis," it is said to have been destroyed by King John, 1212 (p.9).

In 1275 licence was granted to Robert Fitz Walter to sell Castle Baynard with the appurtenances in dykes, etc. (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1272-81, p. 98), and in 6 Ed. I. it was in the hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury (Ch. I. p.m.) and was granted by him to the King, 1278 (Cal. Fine Rolls, p. 95). In the same year the Friars Preachers obtained a grant of the site for the erection of their church, cloisters, etc. (Cal. Chart. Rolls. II. 211).

After this time a second tower of Castle Baynard seems to have been erected further east, but by whom it is not easy to ascertain. In 1338 a grant was made to Wm. de Ros, of Hamelak, of a tower on the Thames by the place called "Chastel Baynard", which Edward II. caused to be built (Cal. P.R. 1338-40, p. 6). But no name is given to this tower. The site of this second Baynard's Castle is ascertained from a grant 31 H. VI. made to Edmund, Earl of Richemond of a house in London called " Baynardescastell" by Pollesquarfe, with all appurtenances, gardens and houses (Cal. P.R. H. VI. I452-61, p. 79).

In 1461 the inn or tenement called "Baynardescastell" was granted to Cicely, duchess of York, the king's mother (ib. Ed. IV. 1461-7, p. 131).

In 1536 the Castle was assured to the Duke of Richmond, 28 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. X. 460), and in 1540 the mansion or castle of Baynard, called Baynardes Castell, was granted to Anne of Cleeves in consideration of marriage (ib. XV. p. 52).

In Stow's time (1603) it belonged to the Earl of Pembroke, and was supplied with water from the conduit in Blackfriars (H. MSS. Com. 7th Rep. 613, etc.).

It was burnt down in the Fire of London and the remains converted into buildings and wharfs (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 220).

In 1670 one moiety of the site of the "mannar" of Baynard's Castle was demised to Henry and Edmund Pollexfen. The site was described as in the parishes of St. Andrew Wardrobe and St. Bennetts Paule's wharfe, and contained in length 205 ft. and in breadth on the north side 42 ft. and on the south side 40 ft., bounded on the west by a new street leading from Thames Street to Baynard's Castle Bridge, one half of the new street being included in the demise (L.C.C. deeds, Harben bequest, 1600-1700, No.195).

Baynard's Castle Bridge=Baynard's Castle Wharf (q.v.).

During excavations made in 1890, oaken piles were found, said to be Roman, and to have formed part of the Arx Palatina, which terminated the southern wall at this point (Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvi. 173-81).

Baynard's Castle Lane

In Upper Thames Street (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799). Probably leading to the Wharf.

Not named in the maps.

Named after the Castle.

Baynard's Castle Stairs

See Baynard's Castle Wharf.

Baynard's Castle Wharf

South out of Thames Street at Baynard's Castle, in Castle Baynard Ward (W. Stow, 1722). In the parish of St. Andrew Wardrobe and St. Bennetts, Paul's Wharf, part of and belonging to a place called Baynard's Castle, containing on the north side 40 ft., on the west side fronting a new street leading from Thames Street to the river, and on the south side extending to the river, in length from north to south 106 ft. and in breadth along the south side from near Mr. Barwell's Tower to Baynard Castle Staires, 45 ft. 32 Chas. II. 1680 (L.C.C. Deeds, Harben Bequest, 1600-1700, No. 11).

The site is easily identified, as being on the boundary of the two parishes, and lies west of the present Castle Baynard Wharf, at the southern end of Addle Hill. The site is occupied by a Timber Wharf and Yard in Rocque. The Staires seem to have lain to the west of the wharf. The new street may have been Anchor Lane, afterwards Anchor Wharf (q.v.).

Called "Baynard's Castle Bridge," in 1670 (See Baynard's Castle).

Possibly occupied the same site as "Castle Baynard Dock," mentioned 1275-6 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 257).

Site now occupied by "Anchor Wharf" (q.v.).

Bayne (The)

Messuages called "the Bayne" and a tennis court belonging thereto near Paul's Chain. Temp. Q. Elizabeth (Proc. in Chanc. II. 148).

Not identified.

Bayning's Almshouse

In Gunpowder Alley, Crutched Friars. Erected in 1631 by Viscount Sudbury (Dodsley, 1761).

Not named in the maps.

Beachamp's Inn

A house in the parish of St. Martin Orgar in St. Martin Orgar lane, in Candlewick Ward, so called as pertaining unto them of that familie. Thos. Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, lodged there (S. 224).

The tenement of Robert Beauchamp in the parish of St. Martin Orgar is mentioned in 1361, near the tenter ground ("ubi tentoria pro pannis tendendis situantur"). (Cal. Letter Bk. G. p. 133).

Burnt in the Fire 1666.

Not further identified.

Beaders (The)

Elections to the Mistery of Beaders, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Beades (The)

Rent of house called the "Beades" in Birchen Lane for poor of parish of St. Edmond the King and Martyr (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 157). Perhaps originally a "beades" house, or almshouse, the inmates of which were to offer prayers for the soul of the founder.

Not further identified.

Beam (The King's or Great)

Used for weighing heavy goods, "avoirs du pois" (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 191), in contradistinction to the small beam for weighing light goods.

Foreign merchants were, by the customs of the City, bound to weigh their heavy goods at the King's beam or balance, and in 1269, it being discovered that they were evading this regulation and making use of their own balances, the enactment was enforced against them by fine and imprisonment (Lib. de Ant. Leg. p. 118).

In 1285 it was ordained that the King should have his weights in different places in the City and that goods over 25 lbs. in weight should be weighed there (Lib. Albus I. 285).

Further enactments, regulating the procedure to be observed, were made in 1305 and 1309 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 127, and D. p. 209).

The Great Beam was let out to ferm in the same way as the Small Beam (ib. G. p. 204).

See Weigh House (The), Eastcheap.

Beam (The Small)

Used for weighing small goods, those dealt in by the pound weight. It belonged to the Chamber of the City, and was let out by the citizens to ferm. at an annual rent, 1291 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 55, 1299-1300) (ib. C. p. 56).

In 1310 it was let out to Richard de Redynge at the King's request, but in 1313 he made complaint that the receipts had fallen off and that people would not bring woven and dyed silks to be weighed (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 227).

The small beam or balance was remade in 1344, and new provisions enacted as to the method of weighing, etc. (ib. F. p. 113).

See Weigh House (The), Eastcheap.

Beamondis Inne

Capital messuage so called in parish of St. Michall in Woodestrete in the ward of Crepulgate and two other messuages adjoining, one between the capital messuage west, and a tenement late of Gilbert Egleston, east, the other between the capital messuage east and a tenement called "le Haberdashers Rentis," west, and abutting on the highway south and on the capital messuage north. This property lately belonged. to Wm., late Viscount Beamonte, and Lord Bardolfe, 1531 (L. and P. H. VIII. Vol. V. p. 255).

If the Haberdashers' Rents here mentioned can be identified with Haberdashers' Hall, then Beamondis Inne must have occupied part of the site of what is now 31 to 45 Gresham Street, a carpet manufacturer's premises.

In 1677 in O. and M. part of the site is covered by Wooley's Court (q.v.).

Bear (The)

Tenement so called in Botolph Lane in 1544 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 172).

This tenement was devised by James Mounford in 1544 to the parson and churchwardens of St. George Botolph Lane and the churchwardens receive annually £10 10s. from the Treasurer of St. Thomas's Hospital for the poor of the parish, it being discovered after the Fire of 1666 that this sum had been paid to them for many years out of three messuages called the White Bear in Botolph Lane, at that time in the hands of the Corporation of London (End. Ch. 1903, p. 1), as Governors of the Hospital. The house was burnt in the Fire and rebuilt, 1671.

Bear (The)

At the corner of Crooked Lane next Miles' Lane, known as No. 11, purchased for the parish of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, 1639 (End. Ch. Rep. 1903, pp. 8 and 9).

Removed c. 1831, for the formation of the approaches to the new London Bridge (ib.).

Bear (The)

Messuage and tenement called the Bear in parish of St. Katherine Creechurch in Aldgate Ward (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 64).

No later mention.

Bear (The), West Smithfield

Messuage or inn called the Beare in street of West Smithfield in parish of St. Sepulchre, 32 Eliz. (Lond. I. p.m. III. 344).

Perhaps identical with the Bear Inn shown in O. and M., on the north side of West Smithfield.

Bear Alley

Out of Addle Hill (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Bear Alley, Farringdon Street

East out of Farringdon Street at No.28 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

First mention : Leake, 1666.

Called "Great Bear Alley" (O. and M. 1677-Hatton, 1708).

Extending to Seacoal Lane (P.C. 1732).

Bear Alley, Fleet Ditch

West from Fleet Ditch and south to Bride Lane, in Bridewell precinct, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

The site has been rebuilt, and the northern portion is occupied by Bride Court (q.v.).

The Market-house for meal stood there (W. Stow, 1722).

Bear Alley, London Wall

Out of London Wall, in parish of All Hallows, London Wall (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Called in P.C. Survey, 1732, "Cock or Bear Alley."

Not named in the maps.