Dowgate Dock - Drawbridge (The)

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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Dowgate Dock

South out of Upper Thames Street at No. 83 at Dowgate Hill to the Thames. In Dowgate Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Other name : "Dowgate wharf" (Rocque, 1746).

See Dowgate.

Dowgate Hill

South out of Cannon Street at No. 76 to No.167 Upper Thames Street (P.O. Directory). In Dowgate and Walbrook Wards.

First mention : Leake, 1666.

Former names : "vicum Regium de Douegat," 1244 (Harl. Ch. 50, A. 13).

Street called "Duuegate," 28 Ed. I. 1300 (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1292-1301, p. 507).

Street of "Douuegate," 1318 (Ct. H.W. I. 276). "Vico de Douuegate," 19 Ed. II. (Ch. I. p.m. 19 Ed. II.). " Street called Dowgate," 4 Ed. VI. (Lond. I. p.m. I. 81).

In these days it seems to have extended south to the Thames at Dowgate.

Named after the gate.

Dowgate Stairs

See Cousin Lane Stairs

Dowgate Ward

One of the twenty-six wards of the City, lying between Walbrook Ward north, Candlewick and Bridge Within Wards east, and Vintry Ward west, and extending south down to the river.

First mention : "Warda de Douegate," 3 Ed. I. (Rot. Hund. I. 421).

Named after the gate of Dowgate (q.v.).

In 1320 it was the richest ward in the City, as appears from the amounts levied in each ward for the twelfth to be collected that year (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 124), but in 1368-9 it had given way in this respect to Cheap and Cordwainer Wards (Cal. L. Bk. G. p. 251).

In Stow's time it contained the two parish churches of All Hallows the Great and All Hallows the Less, besides five halls of companies : Tallow Chandlers' ; Skinners' ; Innholders' ; Joiners' and Dyers' Halls, and the Steelyard.

The appearance of a considerable portion of the ward has been materially altered in recent times by the erection of Cannon Street Station, and the extension of the railway lines in place of the ancient steelyard, etc. (q.v.). The churches have disappeared, having been united to St. Martin Vintry, and St. Michael Paternoster Royal, so that there is now no parish church in the ward. The three halls of the Tallow Chandlers, the Skinners and the Innholders are still in existence.

See Brocesgange (Warda) and Wards.

Dowgate Wharf

At No. 83 Upper Thames Street (P.O. Directory).

Between Greenwich Street and the Thames on the western boundary of Dowgate Ward, west of Dowgate Dock (O.S. 1880).

In Horwood, 1799 and the earlier maps Dowgate Wharf is further east, adjoining Dowgate Dock.

Dowse Key

Near Dice Key (W. Stow, 1722-Strype, ed. 1755).

Not named in the maps.

Dr. Fryer's Alley, Rents

West out of Little Britain, in Aldersgate Ward Without (Strype, 1720 and 1755-Boyle, 1799).

"Doctor Fryers Alley" in Boyle. "Doctor Fryers Entry" in P.C. 1732.

Dr. Johnson's Buildings

In Inner Temple Lane, within the Temple Precincts (P.O. Directory).

Erected 1859, on the site of Dr. Johnson's house in the Temple.

Drake's Rents

In St. Catherine's precinct (P.C. 1732).

Not named in the maps.

Drapers' Alley

West out of Woodroffe Lane, north of the Drapers' Almshouses (q.v.) (Rocque, 1746; and L. Guide, 1758). In Aldgate Ward.

Named after the Drapers' Company, whose almshouses it adjoined.

Site now covered by the railway lines.

Drapers' Almshouses

On the west side of Cooper's Row (Elmes, 1831).

Founded by Sir John Milborne, Draper, who was Mayor in 1521 (S. 150), and by him entrusted to the Drapers' Company.

The date over the gate towards the street is 1535 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 78).

Stow says they adjoined the east end of the conventual church of the Friars of the Holy Cross (S. 150), and Strype gives the dimensions (ib.).

Shown on Rocque's map, 1746, as "Milborne's Almshouses."

Removed to Tottenham about 1862, and the site in Cooper's Row now occupied by warehouses (Povah, p. 292).

An interesting account of the almshouses is given in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. III. 138.

Drapers' Almshouses

On the north side of Beech Lane, towards White Cross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (S. 304).

Lately built by the Drapers for 8 poor widows of their own Company by the gift of the Lady Askew, widow of Sir Christopher Askew, Draper and Mayor, 1533 (ib.).

Occupied nearly the whole of the north side of the Lane (Lockie, 1816).

Taken down 1862, and new ones erected at Tottenham.

Drapers' Buildings

South out of London Wall, in Broad Street Ward, at No. 62 (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

Former name : "Three Tun Alley" (O. and M. 1677-London Guide, 1758).

The site is now occupied by offices and business houses.

Drapers' Company

One of the twelve Great Livery Companies.

Obtained charter 1364, incorporated, 17 H. VI.

Elections to the Mistery of Drapers mentioned in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232).

Many of the Drapers lived in Birchin Lane and Cornhill in Stow's time (p. 200).

Also called Clothiers. "Pannarius"= Clothier. So translated in grant of their Hall in Throgmorton Street (See Drapers' Hall).

Herbert suggests that the term "drapers" was applied to those who made and sold cloth in or near London, and "clothiers" to those who brought it for sale from the country (I. 394).

Drapers' Court

West out of Princes Street and north into Lothbury. In Coleman Street and Broad Street Wards (O. and M. 1677-Horwood, 1799).

The site is now covered by Well Court and the Bank of England.

Drapers' Gardens

West out of Throgmorton Avenue at No. 10 (P.O. Directory). In Broad Street Ward.

First mention : In the description of the property granted to the Marquis of Winchester within the precincts of the Austin Friars, a garden therein is said to be divided from Drapers' Gardens by one house only, 19 Eliz. (Lond. I. p.m. II. 215).

In O.S. 1880 the site is shown laid out as gardens, but it is now entirely built over and the present street commemorates the site of the former gardens.

Drapers' Hall

On the north side of Throgmorton Street at No. 28 (P.O. Directory). In Broad Street Ward.

Grant to master and keepers and brethren and sisters of the guild or fraternity of the Blessed Mary of the clothiers of London of chief messuage with two gardens and tenements in the parish of "St. Peter le Pooer" ward of "Bradstrete" and of St. Stephen of Colmanstrete abutting on "Bradstrete" south and extending eastward from the messuage of the Grocers to the messuage formerly of the Austin Friars, 35 H. VIII. 1543 (L. and P H. VIII. Dom. S. XVIII. Pt. 1, p. 527-8). Further details and dimensions given, which correspond with the site of Drapers' Hall and Gardens as shown in O.S., 1880, and the adjacent land extending to Austinfriars.

From this passage it appears that Throgmorton Street was then called Broad Street.

Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1667. Architect, Jarman. Again partly burnt and rebuilt 1772-4 (Herbert, I. 476). Rebuilt 1866-70.

Prior to 1543 the Hall was in St. Swithin's Lane (Herbert, I. 462), mentioned in an I. p.m. 24 H. VI., and in a will of 1483-4 certain tenements in Candelwykstrete and Shirbournelane in parish of St. Mary Abechirche are described as situate near the place called "Drapers Hall" (Ct. H.W. II. 588).

This Hall was given to the Drapers by Henry Eburton, draper, having formerly belonged to Robert Auguylem knight, said to have been originally the house of Henry Fitzeylwine (ib. 601).

Draper's Key

See Gibson's Key.

Drapery (The)

In Westchepe, being that portion in which the Drapers had their selds.

First mention : Seld of Wm. Bukerell in "Draperia," 1278 (Ct. H.W. I. 36).

Other names or forms : Seld of John de Tolesan in the "Drapery," 1279-80 (ib. 43). "The Drapery," Westchepe, 1315 (ib. 256).

Drawbridge (The)

Occupied one of the twenty arches of the Old London Bridge, erected in 1176. It had to be raised for the passage of ships, and it was this fact that led to the gradual decline in the prosperity of Queenhithe and the growth in importance of Billingsgate, which, as standing below the bridge, was more readily accessible for trade purposes.

Mentioned in 1416. "le Drawebrigge"(Cal. L. Bk. I. p. 166).

The passage of the drawbridge having been found so narrow as to obstruct the increasing commercial traffic of the river, it was reconstructed in 1426, over the seventh opening or lock from the Surrey shore with a tower on its north side (S. 25 and 209).

Traitors' heads were set up over the drawbridge at one period.