Mary (St.) Without Aldersgate - Matthew's (St.) Alley, Court

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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Mary (St.) Without Aldersgate

Various bequests to the new chapel of St. Mary the Virgin without Aldresgate, or to the new work of the Church of St. Mary without Aldersgate, 1349-61 (Ct. H. Wills, I. 558, 646, 665, 688, and II. 27).

This would seem to be the chapel of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary without Aldersgate, founded by Sir Walter Manny in 1349, in the "Newchirchehaw" or churchyard purchased by him for the burial of those who died from the plague, and acquired from him in 1361 to carry out the desire of Michael de Northburgh, Bishop of London, for the foundation of a House of the Carthusian order.

See Charterhouse (The).

Mary (St.) without Aldgate

See Mary (St.) Whitechapel.

Mary (St.) without Bishopsgate, Hospital of

See Old Bethlehem Hospital and Mary (St.) Spital.

Mary (St.) Wolmaricherch

See Mary (St.) Woolchurch.

Mary (St.) Woolchurch

On the south side of the Stocks Market, at the junction of the Poultry and Cornhill (S. 227). In Walbrook Ward. The parish extends into Broad Street, Cornhill and Langbourn Wards.

Earliest mention : "St. Mary of Woollechurche-hawe," 1260 (Cal. Charter Rolls, II. 33).

Other names and forms : "Wlcherchehawe," 3 Ed. I. (Rot. Hund. I. 403) (See below).

"S. Mary Wolmaricherch," 1280-1 (Ct. H.W. I. 51). "Parish of Wolchurich," 10 Ed. I. (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-92, p. 24). "Wolcherch," 1279-80 (Ct. H.W. I. 46). "S. Mary Wolcherhawe," 1282 (ib. 58). "Wlchurch," 1283-4 (Ct. H.W. I. 68). "S. Mary de Wolcherchawe," 1297-8 (ib. 133). "S. Mary de Wollechirchawe," 1302-3 (ib. 157). "S. Mary atte Stokkes," 1342 (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1340-3, p. 477). "St. Mary Newechirche otherwise called Wolchirchehawe," 11 H. IV. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1958).

In the 10 Ed. I. the King issued Letters Patent to the Mayor and Citizens empowering them to build on a vacant plot of land near the wall of the church of Wollecherche "ex parte Boreali de Wollecherche" (Lib. Cust. I. 274).

On this vacant plot Henry le Wales erected the Stocks Market, the rents of which were to be applied to the maintenance and repair of London Bridge, 17 Ed. II. (ib. 275).

In 1346 the Church acquired by grant of the Mayor a plot of land at the east end of the church extending from "les Stokkes" to the gate of the churchyard (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 157).

In 1422 the church had become so "old and feble" that it was necessary to rebuild it, and ordinances were issued directing the arrangements to be made, so as to avoid any chance of the light of the City's house of "le Stokkys" being obstructed (Cal. L. Bk. K. p. 267). The Vestry of the church was to be pulled down and a new north wall erected at a distance of 15 feet from the Stokkes so as not to obstruct the light of the market, while, in return, a footway was granted from the east end of the Stokkes under the parsonage to the "Pultrie" and a sum of money towards the rebuilding of the church out of the revenues of London Bridge (Cal. L. Bk. K. p. 272).

John Wingar, who was Mayor 1504, assisted greatly in the building of the Church and Richard Shore gave £20 to make a porch at the western end (S. 228).

Church repaired and beautified 1629 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 195).

Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Mary Woolnoth (ib. 199).

A Rectory. Patrons : Monks of St. John Colchester until the dissolution of the monasteries, when it passed to the Crown.

The site of the church is now occupied by the Mansion House.

With reference to the patronage of the church See Mary (St.) de Westcheping.

Under this heading is related the gift by Eudo dapifer of the church of St. Mary de Westcheping "quae vocatur Niewecherche" to the Abbey of Colchester about 1104.

If, as seems probable, it is the church of St. Mary Woolchurch that is here indicated we should have an early date suggested for its erection, nor would this be the only occasion on which it was designated "Newchurch." For in the Charter Rolls, H. III. 1252, the lands of Thomas de Exeport are described as in the parish of St. Mary de Neucherch near the street running to Longebrod north, while in 1260 his lands are described as in the parish of St. Mary of Wollechurchehawe (Cal. Ch. Rolls, 1.407, II. 33).

And even as late as the reign of H. IV. prior to its rebuilding, it is described as "St. Mary Newechirche" otherwise called "Wolchirchehawe" (Anc. Deeds, A. 1958).

See Mary (St.) de Newechirche.

Stow says the church received its name "Woolchurch" or "Woolchurch Haw" from a beam placed in the churchyard for the tronage or weighing of wool there (S. 227), and in support of this statement we find the customs on wool levied at Woichirchaw set out in Liber Albus, I. 246.

The word "haw" is of course the O. English word "haza"= hedge or encompassing fence, a piece of ground enclosed or fenced in ; "church haw"=churchyard.

Mr. Round has suggested that Woolchurchhaw is a corruption of Wolnoth maricherch-haw, or the "churchyard of St. Mary Woolnoth," St. Mary Woolchurch having been erected in the churchyard of St. Mary Woolnoth as a daughter church.

Mary (St.) Woolnoth

On the south side of Lombard Street at its junction with King William Street (P.O. Directory). In Langbourn Ward. The parish extends into Walbrook, Candlewick and Cornhill Wards.

Earliest mention : "Parish of WInodmariecherch," c. 1198-9 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1614).

Other names and forms : "St. Mary Wulnothe Mariecherche," c 1200-1224 (ib. A. 2461). "St. Mary Wolnoth," 1273-4 (Ct. H.W. I. 18). "St. Mary de Welnoth," 1275 (ib. 24). "St. Mary de Wlnoth," 1285 (ib. 73). "Parish de WInorh Marichirche," 1285 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. 93). "S. Mary de Wolnod," 1291 (Ct. H.W. I. 99). "S. Mary de Wulnoth," 22 Ed. I. (Ch. I. p.m. (136)). "S. Mary Wolnore," 1445-6 (Ct. H.W. II. p. 506). "Blessed Mary Wolmer," 30 H. VIII. (L. and M. Ft. of Fines, II. 49). "S. Mary Wenlok," 5 Ed. I. 1277 (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1272-81, p. 244). (In the Index to the Calendar this is identified with St. Mary Woolnoth.)

Church rebuilt 1438 (Newcourt, I. 461).

St. George's Chapel in the Church built by George Lufken (S. 206). Church lately new built by Sir Hugh Brice, Mayor, 1 H. VII., a chapel called the charnel, part of the body of the church and of the steeple (S. 205-6).

Damaged in the Great Fire and restored 1677 ; when the church was rebuilt in 1716 beneath the foundations 15 to 20 ft. deep were found ancient Roman earthen vessels, medals, bones and tusks (Strype, ed. 1755, I. 163 and 484).

Church designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor. Restored again 1876 and the interior remodelled.

A Rectory. Patrons : Nuns of St. Helens until the dissolution of the monasteries, after which time in 31 H. VIII. that King granted the advowson to Sir Martin Bowes, Goldsmith (Newcourt, I. 462).

In same family (P.C. 1732). Since in various private hands (Newcourt, I. 462, and Hennessey, 316). Wheatley says it now belongs to the Goldsmiths' Company, but gives no authority for the statement.

St. Mary Woolchurch parish united to it after the Fire.

Stow says it was called St. Marie Woolnoth of the Nativity, why, he does not know (S. 205-6), but Strype suggests that it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus in her arms (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 160).

"Woolnoth," in early records frequently written "Wlnoth," is probably the name "Wulfnoth," which was a Saxon name in very general use, and which frequently appears in the form "Wl" for "Wulf." It may well have been the name of the original founder of the church. Kingsford suggests Wulfnoth de Walebroc mentioned 1114-33 in Chron. Ramsey, p. 248. Cart. of Ramsey, I. 139 (ed. Stow, II. p. 309, note).

Round thinks it may have been the mother church of St. Mary Woolchurch, Woolchurchhawe, or Newchurch (q.v.).

Mary (St.), King's Chapel of

The king had caused it to be made out of a synagogue of the Jews, and granted to the chaplain Simon de Bassinshag to receive yearly at the Exchequer 60s. by the hand of Ralph bishop of Cycestre, 1232 (Cal. Charter Rolls, I. p. 166).

Perhaps this chapel was included in the grant of land to the Friars of the Sac and became their chapel.

See Penitentia (Fratres de).

Mary and Nicholas (SS.) Chapel by the Tower of London

Chapel of St. Mary and St. Nicholas in the Torella of the city wall by the Tower of London, H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1653).

Bequests to the fraternity of the chapel of St. Nicholas de Berkyngchirche near the rower, 1380 (Ct. H.W. II. p. 226).

There is a detached portion of the parish of All Hallows Barking adjoining a portion of the site of the City wall north of the postern, and the chapel may well have been built n a bastion of the City wall here.

Mary, Priorie of Elsing Spital

See Elsing Spital.

Mary's (St.) Chapel in the New Churchyard near Smethefeld

Bequest to work of new Chapel of St. Mary near Westsmythfeld, 1372 (Ct. H.W. II. 148).

See Charterhouse.

Mary's (St.) Chapel, Moorfields

On the east side of Finsbury Circus, at No. 3 Eldon Street. In Coleman Street Ward.

Erected early in the 19th century.

Masons' Alley

See Masons' Avenue and Sprinckle Alley.

Masons' Avenue

East out of Basinghall Street, at No. 14, to Coleman Street (P.O. Directory). In Coleman Street and Bassishaw Wards.

First mention : O.S. 1875.

Former names : The western portion was called "Masons Alley" (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1755), and the eastern portion "White Rose Court" (ib.).

In Horwood, 1799, the whole named "White Rose Court." In O.S. 1848-51 whole named "Masons' Alley."

So named as leading to Masons' Hall.

Masons' Court

East out of George and Katherine Wheel Alley. Partly in Bishops-gate Ward Without, partly outside the City boundary (Bacon, 1912).

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

Rebuilt for business purposes.

Masons' Hall

In Basinghall Street, on the north side of Masons' Alley. In Bassishaw Ward (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1848-51).

The site is now occupied by Masons' Hall Tavern adjoining Nos. 9,10, and 11 Masons' Avenue.

Masons incorporated 1677.

Massey's Court

See Mercers' Court.

Matthew (St.) Friday Street

On the east side of Friday Street in Bread Street Ward and Farringdon Ward Within (O.S. 1880).

First mention found in records : "St. Matthew in Fridaistret," 45 H. III. (Cal. Ch. R. II. 33).

Other forms : "St. Matthew de Frideestrete," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I. 26). "St Matthew apud Frideestrete," 9 Ed. I. (West. MSS. Parcel 44 (12)). "St. Matthew in Chepe," 1381-2 (Ct. H.W. II. 227).

Repaired and beautified 1632-3.

Burnt in the Fire enlarged when rebuilt 1685. he parish of St. Peter Westcheap united to it (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 139-40 and 196).

Restored 1861-2.

Taken down 1886 and parish united to St. Vedast, Foster Lane.

A Rectory. Patrons : Abbot and Convent of Westminster. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the Bishop of London.

An interesting account of the parish is given in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. III. 332.

Matthew (St.) Silver Street

Mentioned in Fabyan's Chronicle.

See Olave (St.) Silver Street.

Matthew's (St.) Alley

In Westcheap in the parish of St. Matthew in Friday Street, 1416 and 1559 (Ct. H.W. II. 410 and 671).

Probably identical with St. Matthew's Court (q.v.) leading south out of Cheapside by the church to Friday Street.

Matthew's (St.) Alley, Court

See Fountain Court.