A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Olave (St.) Mogwell Street, de Mugwellestrate
See Olave (St.) Silver Street.
Olave (St.) near Martelane
See Olave (St.) Hart Street.
Olave (St.) next Dowgate
Eight tenements in the parishes of St. Olave and All Saints next Dowgate, 35 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. D.S. XVIII. (2), p. 61).
It is difficult to know what this means, for the plural "parishes" would not be required if it were merely an instance of a double dedication of the church of All Hallows the Great to All Hallows and St. Olave's. There is no existing parish of St. Olave near Dowgate. Perhaps the expression next Dowgate" is only intended to apply to All Saints, in which case the particular parish of St. Olave, in which certain of these tenements were situated, is not indicated.
Olave (St.) Old Jewry
On the west side of Old Jewry, in Coleman Street Ward, on the boundary of Coleman Street and Cheap Wards (O.S.).
The parish extends into Cheap Ward.
Earliest mention found in records: " St. Olave in the Jewry." In an Inquisition relating to the church in 1181 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.68).
St. Olave's is mentioned in a MS. c. 1130 relating to lands of the church of St. Paul amongst the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter. From the context it appears to be the Church of St. Olave, Old Jewry.
Other names and forms: "S. Olave in Colchirchiane," 1293-4 (Ct. H.W. I. 113). St. Olave Upwelle in the Jewry," 16 Ed. II. 1323 (Cal. P.R. Ed. II. 1321-4, p.302). "S. Olave en la Oldeiuwerie, 1327-8 (Ct. H.W. I. 329). " S. Olave Eldiurie," 1381 (Ct. H.W. I. p.225).
The Chapel of St. Stephen was annexed to St. Olave 1399 and a new aisle added to the church by T. Morsted, 1436 (S. 283).
Repaired in 1608 and again 1628.
Burnt in the Fire 1666 and rebuilt of freestone 1673-6, with churchyard adjoining on the south side.
Restored 1874 (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 57).
A Rectory and afterwards a Vicarage. Patron: The Canons of St. Paul's and afterwards the Priory of Butley. After the dissolution of the monasteries the patronage passed to the Crown, in whose hands it remained.
After the Fire the parishes of St. Martin Ironmonger Lane, St. Mary Colechurch and St. Mildred Poultry were united to it.
Removed 1888-9, and the parish united to St. Margaret Lothbury under the Bishop of London's Union of Benefices Act.
Strype says there was a well under the east end of the church lately turned to a pump but decayed 1320 (ib.). Perhaps this was the origin of the name" Upwelle." The Jewry was of course the Jewish quarter in early times.
The remains of a Roman pavement, vases, etc., were found in the course of demolishing this church.
Olave (St.) Silver Street
On the south side of Silver Street at its junction with Noble Street and Falcon Square. In Cripplegate Ward Withir, (Leake, 1666).
The parish extends into Aldersgate Ward and Farringdon Ward Within (detached).
First mention : " St. Olave de Mukewellestrate," 12th century (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. 23).
Other forms : " St. Olave in Syrnerstrete " (ib. 48). Sancti Olavi de Cripelesgate," 13 cent. (Anc. Deeds, A. 7933). " St. Olave near London Wall," 1294 (Ct. H.W. I. 114). "Sancti Olani de Mocwelle" or" Mokwelle," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. 230, 233). " St. Olave de Mugwellestrate," 1306-7 (Ct. H.W. I. 183). " St. Olave in Moggewellestrete," 1310 (ib. 216). "St. Olave apud Crepulgate," 9 Ed. II. (West. Abbey MS. 44, 12). "St. Olave in Silvernestret," 12 Ed. II. (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 101). " St. Olave Selverstrete," 17 Ed. III. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2103). " St. Olave the King in Silverstrete," 1341 (Ct. H.W. I. 449). "St Olave de Sylverstrete," 1368 (ib. 11.109). "Mary Olaf in Silverstrete," 37 Ed. III. (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1361-4, p.412). St. Olave oommonly called St. Towles parish in Silverstrete," 37 H. VIII. (Lond. I. p.m. I. 162).
New built and enlarged 1609 and again 1619. Gallery erected 1632.
Burnt in the Fire 1666. Not rebuilt.
Parish united to St. Alban Wood Street (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 92, 99, 121).
A Rectory. Patrons: Canons of St. Paul's, afterwards the Dean and Chapter.
Dedication to the Norwegian king Olaf, d. 1030. The various distinctive appellations denote locality.
Olave (St.) Silver Street Churchyard
On the south side of Silver Street at its junction with Monkwell Street (Rocque, 1746).
It still occupies this site.
Olave (St.) towards Alegate
See Olave (St.) Hart Street.
Olave (St.) without Bishopsgate
Anc. Deeds, C. 410, 13 Ed. IV.
Qy-=Olave (St.) Bradestrat.
Old Artillery Ground
Extends from Middlesex Street south to Spital Square north, east of Bishopsgate Street, outside the eastern boundary of Bishopsgate Ward Without (O.S. 1880).
The bounds are set out in Letters Patent, Jas. II. , transcribed in Bayley's History of the Tower, II. App. p. cxxi. , and in O. and M. map, 1677, it is shown as an open space called" Old Artillery Garden" and included within the City boundary.
Stow says that it was used by the Gunners of the Tower every week for artillery practice (S. Ed. 1603, 167-8), and Strype tells us that the ground was let out for this purpose on a long lease by William, the last Prior of St. Mary Spital (Ed. 1720, I. ii. 96).
According to Stow it was formerly called Tasell close and Tasels planted there for the use of Clothworkers, but afterwards used for archery practice (S. 167-8).
Archers were forbidden to shoot there 1677 (L. and P. Chas. II. Dom. S. XVIII. p.533).
The site is now covered with streets and courts.
Old Bailey (The)
South from Newgate Street, at No.2, to 46 Ludgate Hill (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.
First mention " Old baily," 23 H. VI. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2176).
Former names and forms: " In ballio," c. 1241-8 (ib. A. 7499). " The Baillie," 35 H. III. (ib. A. 2585). " la Ballie," Is Ed. I. (ib. A. 2699). " The baily," 1276 (Ct H.W. I. 26). " Le Bayl," 1290 (Cal. Ch. Rolls, II. 345). "le Baly," 1305-6 (Ct. H.W. I. 175). " The Baily without Newegate," 1307 (ib. 193). " le Baille without Ludegate," 1311 (ib. 221). " Great Old Bailey," (Rocque, 1746).
Strype also speaks of the Great and the Little Old Bailey (Ed. 1720, I. iii. 281).
Stow says he does not know the origin of the name, but suggests that it may have been so called as containing the court of the Chamberlaine of the City (S. 374), and as Newgate seems to have been at one time called "Chamberlain Gate" the suggestion is not an improbable one.
The northern end was widened towards the end of the 18th century by the removal of the middle row of old tenements, the western side of which had been known as "Little Old Bailey" (q.v.).
A portion of the old wall of London was found here in the rear of No.8 adjoining the Sessions House, in 1900, 8 ft. high and 8 ft. 3 in. thick, about 18 in. below the street level, 99 ft. 6 in. from the centre of the roadway (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. I. (4), p.351).
Old Bedlam Court
In Old Bethlehem (Dodsley, 1761).
No further reference.
Not named in the maps.
Old Bedlam Lane
See Old Bethlem (Street).
Old Bell Inn
. -On the north side of Holborn at No.123 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention : Horwood, 1799.
Former name: "Bell Inn" (O. and M. 1677, and Rocque, 1746).
The inn is mentioned in 1538 in a deed of conveyance of the property, and it seems at one time, with the houses on each side of it, to have formed one large messuage called the" Bell" or" Blew Bell" Inn. It adjoined Ely Place on the north. It was one of the old galleried inns, and with its sale for purposes of rebuilding in 1897 the last of these inns existing on the Middlesex side of the river passed away.
Old Bethlehem Hospital
On the east side of Bishopsgate Street, in Bishopsgate Ward Without. Founded by Simon Fitz Mary, Sheriff in 1247, as a Priory of Canons, with brethren and sisters (S. 166) of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlehem.
In 1257 Henry III. granted a protection to the brethren of St. Mary of New Bethlehem to dwell in London without Bishopsgate, 41 H. III. 1257 (Cal. P.R. H. III. 1247-58, p.555).
Nearly a century later, viz. in 1346, Letters Patent were issued under the Common Seal of the City whereby the House and Order of the Knights (fratrum milicie) of the Blessed Mary of Bethleem without Bisshopesgate were, on the petition of Brother John Matheu, called "de Nortone" taken under the patronage and protection of the Mayor and Aldermen of the City (Cal. L. Bk. F. p.154).
From the original deed of grant of Simon Fitz Mary set out in Stow, 1633, p.173, we find that the foundation was made subject to the Bishop of Bethlehem, and that the site extended from Bishopsgate Street to the Deep Ditch west and to the land of St. Botolph's Church south.
The house seems to have been repaired or enlarged in 1361, as it received a bequest under the will of John Nasing to the new work of the church of St. Mary de Bethlem (Ct. H.W. II. 50).
The first reference to it as the Hospital of St. Mary Bethleem is in 1329, 3 Ed. III. (Cal. P.R. Ed. III.1327-30, p.446), and Stow tells us that it was used as an Hospital for distracted people (p.166), but when it was first so used does not appear, except that it was some time prior to 1403 (See Victoria County Hist. I. p.496). Sometimes referred to as the "New Hospital without Bishopsgate,"
After the dissolution of the religious houses, viz. in 1547, the king granted the custody and government of the hospital to the mayor and citizens, 38 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII XXI. Pt. 2, p.416).
After this grant in 1569 Sir Thomas Roe, the Mayor, caused about an acre of land on the bank of the Deep Ditch belonging to the hospital to be enclosed to make a burial ground for such parishes in London as were in want of a burial ground (S. 166).
In 5 Ed. VI. the Court of Aldermen ordered that the inhabitants of the precincts should be united to the Parish Church of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. ii. 95), and in the reign of Elizabeth the church and chapel were taken down and houses built on the site (ib.) forming the street of "Old Bethlem" or " Old Bethlehem," etc., in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The hospital being old and decayed and too closely surrounded by houses was taken down and a new one erected in Moorfields, near London Wall, completed soon after the Fire of 1666 (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. ii. 107-8).
The gate or entry to the house was next to the White Hart north, the site of which is now occupied by the present Court of that name (q.v.).
The hospital was removed to Southwark, 1814.
The site of the Old Hospital is now occupied by Liverpool Street Station, New Broad Street, etc,