Warton Court - Water Supply of London

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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Warton Court

See Wharton's Court, Holborn.

Warwick Court

See Warwick Square.

Warwick Inn

A tenement so called belonging to Eleanor, late Duchess of Somerset, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. Heir: Edmund, lord Roos, 7 Ed. IV. 1467 (Lond. I. p.m. I. 21).

The position of the inn is indicated in the following boundaries of property: Six tenements in parish of St. Sepulchre in ward of Faryngdon Within, 2 abutting on the highway leading from Newgate north and the inne called' " Warwyckes Inne "south and the gate of Newgate west, 3 in Newgate Alley and the sixth in Modell Alley, 35 H. VIII (L. and P. H. VIII. XVIII. (1), p.449).

Gave its name to Warwick Lane (q.v.).

Warwick Lane

South out of Newgate Street, at No.9, to Paternoster Row (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within. First mention: I Eliz. 1559, "Warwyck Lane" (Lond. I. p.m. I. 173).

Former name : " Eldenese lane," now called "Warwicke Lane" (S. 344). " Old Dean's Lane" (q.v.) (Lond. I. p.m. ib.).

"Warwick Inne" stood there, in which Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick, lodged, 36 H. VI. (MS. Rob. Fabian, S. 88).

On the house at the corner of Newgate Street is a stone effigy of Guy Earl of Warwick, with the date ,668.

So called of Warwicke Inne (S. 344).

Warwick Square

West out of Warwick Lane at No. 7 1/2 (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : O.S. 1848-50.

Former name: "Warwick Court" (O. and M. 1677-Elmes, 1831).

Named after Warwick Lane.

Strype describes it as a very handsome, spacious, and airy Court (ed. 1720, I. iii. 194).

Roman remains found under the premises of Messrs. Tylor, at a depth of about 19 ft., portions of a wall, a well, pavements, etc. (Arch. XLVIII. 221, XXXVII. 88). The natural gravel was found here at a depth of 19 ft. 8 in.

Watch House

At the south-east corner of St. Sepulchre's Church Yard on the north side of Snow Hill (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 245).

Site now covered by Holborn Viaduct.

Watch House, Barbican

At the northern end of Red Cross Street at its junction with the Barbican (Rocque, 1746).

Removed in the 19th century

Watch House, Bishopsgate

See Old Watch House.

Watch House, Minories

Removed 1830, when the system of parochial watching was superseded by the establishment of the police force (Tomlinson's Hist. of the Minories, p.320).

Water Bearers

A Brotherhood of St. Christopher of the Water Bearers founded in the Augustine Friars. Confirmed 1496. Ordinances set out in L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. IV. 55-58.

Ordinances of the Company made 1497 (Overall, p.219).

Water House Wharf

London Bridge (Strype, ed. 1755-Dodsley, 1761).

Not named in the maps.

Water House, London Bridge

See Waterworks.

Water Lane

South out of Great Tower Street, at No.27, to Lower Thames Street at No. 61. In Tower Ward (P.O. Directory).

Earliest mention : " Waterlane," 1461 (Ct. H.W. II. 547).

Former names : " Sporiereslane," 1295 (ib. I. 122). " Sporyerslane," 1461 (ib. II. 547). "Waterlane " sometime called " Sporyerslane " (Ct. H.W. II. 547). " Water gate," 6 Rich. II. (Cal. P.R. 1381-5, p.149). " Spurrier lane, now Water Lane" (Howel 1657, p.49). "Sporiar lane" (S. 135).

Derivation of name: "Water lane because it runneth down to the Water gate (S. 135). " Sporiereslane," from the Spurriers or Spurmakers.

Remains of pottery have been found here, Ganiish ware of the 1st century, etc.

Water Lane

South out of Upper Thames Street to the Thames immediately west of London Bridge (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. II. (2), p.198).

It seems to have led to the water works and to have been identical with Oysterhill Gully Hole (q.v.).

Site now occupied by London Bridge.

Water Lane

See Whitefriars Street.

Water Lane, Blackfriars

South from Broadway to Queen Victoria Street at No.172 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention: 32 H. VIII. 1540 (L. and P.H. VIII. XV. 478).

Called : " Water Street " (Rocque, 1746, and Strype). " Black fryers " (O. and M 1677). "Blackfriars Lane" (Leake, 1666).

A portion of the Roman wall was seen here in 1882.

Water Side

East out of All Hallows Lane, in Dowgate Ward, to Red Bull Yard and Angel Passage (L.C.C. Streets, 1912).

First mention : O.S. 1848-51.

Water Street

See Water Lane, Blackfriars.

Water Street

South out of Tudor Street within the precinct of Bridewell, in Farringdon Ward Without (P.O. Directory).

First mention.:" Watter Street " (O. and M. 1677).

Water Supply of London

Until the 13th century the inhabitants of the City were dependent for their water supply on the natural wells and streams that existed in and about the City.

These wells seem to have been very numerous, at least so far as the northern districts were concerned.

Clerkenwell possessed, besides its own Clerk's well, Skinners-well, Fagswell, Goswell, all mentioned in early records, while Everard's well was in the Cripplegate area, and other wells, such as Dame Agnes le clair" and " Holywell" were to be found further east.

Besides the wells there were the streams of Holborn, the Fleet, and Walbrook within the City area flowing down to the Thames.

As the City increased in size, however, the tendency was for these streams to become filled up and polluted, so that in course of time it became necessary to seek for other sources of supply. To the north and west of the City other streams were available, and the Tyburn, receiving the waters from the high lands of Hampstead and Highgate, promised a pure and abundant supply.

In 1235 the City acquired land at Tyburn with liberty to make pipes to convey the water from Tyburn to fixed places in. the City for the use of the citizens. For this purpose a conduit head or receipt house was erected over, or as near as possible to the natural -spring or springs forming the sources of supply, and water was led into it, filling a cistern or tank, and passing on through the pipes to the distributing base one or more miles distant. Numerous conduits (q.v.) were erected in the City to receive the water, which was stored in them and drawn from cocks or taps by the citizens as required.

These conduits continued in use until the 16th century, when a scheme was initiated by Peter Morice, a Dutchman, for bringing water from the Thames into London by means of pumps and forciers. It was for this purpose that the water works at London Bridge were constructed.

In the 17th century a further supply was assured by the formation of the New River Company by Hugh Myddleton to bring water from Hertfordshire and from the Lea into the City.