Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
This free content was born digital. All rights reserved.
Before the late 13th century this was part of the same property as 105/11 (q.v.), which adjoined it on the N. and W. sides. To the E. the property was bounded by 105/13. After the Great Fire the site of the property was taken for making King Street.
In the late 13th century two parts of 12 can be identified: both belonged to John son of Peter, who also owned 11. One of these was a shop bounded by 11 on the W. and by the other part of 12 on the N. and E. By his will, enrolled in 1290, John son of Peter left this shop, which was held by Agnes la Regratere for a rent of £1. 13s. 4d., to his wife Eleanor for life with remainder to his son John. In 1306 Eleanor with her new husband, Pentecost Russel, granted the shop for the term of her life to Richer de Refham, citizen and mercer, in return for a sum of money. The other part of 12 was a seld with a shop in Cheapside held by William de Hereford, citizen, which John son of Peter left to his son Ralph. In 1305-6 Ralph granted the seld, which John Gentil now held for a term of years, to Richer de Refham in return for a sum of money and a rent of a clove. In 1306-7 John son of John son of Peter ratified the grants made by Eleanor, Pentecost Russel, and Ralph in return for a payment of £26. 13s. 4d. made to him by Richer de Refham. In spite of this, the claim of the heirs of John son of Peter appears not to have been extinguished and in 1320 John son of John son of Peter and his brother Philip sought to recover possession from Richer de Refham of a shop and a seld which they claimed that John son of Peter had left to his son Ralph and his heirs, with remainder to John and Philip. John's claim failed on account of his quitclaim to Richer, but in 1323, in return for a payment, Philip son of John son of Peter quitclaimed to Richer de Refham, now a knight, in the two properties, stating that Ralph son of John son of Peter had granted the seld to Ralph de sicca villa who had then granted it to Richer de Refham. In 1315 Richer's tenement adjoined the W. side of 95/1, implying that at that time 12 extended further N. than in the 17th century. (fn. 1)
12 was subsequently the seld known as Whitawyeresselde with two shops on either side of the doorway (introitus hostii) to the seld, which by his will, dated and enrolled in 1328, Sir Richer de Refham left to his wife Joan for life with remainder to his son John. By 1333 John de Refham was in possession of the property and in 1348 John, son and heir of John de Refham, citizen, granted to John Botiller, citizen and apothecary, and John de Baunton of Devon the messuage called Whittawieresselde with its solars and cellars. In the following year these feoffees granted the property back to John and his wife Maud and their heirs, with remainder to John's right heirs. (fn. 2)
This John may have been the John de Refham, fishmonger, who died in 1359, as the widower of a wife called Sarah. Whether or not this was the case, it seems that no heirs of the bodies of John son of John de Refham and of his wife Maud survived, and that by 1352 the property had passed to Roger de Refham, as brother and heir of John de Refham son of Richer de Refham. Roger's properties were inherited by his daughter Margaret, who appears to have been in possession of them by 1363 when she was the wife of Thomas de Tudenham, a mercer; she survived Thomas, who died in December 1371 (see 105/26). 12 is next recorded in 1375 as the tenement of Adam de Fraunceys (a mercer) and his wife Margaret. It is implicit in this record that the tenement was Margaret's and it becomes clear from later sources that the property was entailed on Margaret and her heirs. To judge from the life-span of her daughters by Adam, his wife Margaret cannot have been the widow of Thomas de Tudenham; she may, however, have been the daughter of Thomas and his wife Margaret and thus the heir to the de Refham inheritance. On the death of Adam Fraunceys, knight, in 1417 the tenement was presumably one of those which he was said in an inquisition to have held by the law of England of the inheritance of Agnes and Elizabeth, the daughters and next heirs of his late wife Margaret. Agnes and Elizabeth were the wives of William Porter, knight, and Thomas Charleton, respectively. (fn. 3)
In 1417 the property represented by 12 came into the possession of Agnes and Elizabeth and their husbands. Agnes may have died without heirs or the estate may have been partitioned between the 2 heirs, for Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Charleton, was subsequently in sole possession of the inheritance. Elizabeth died in 1451 seised of numerous properties including messuages in St. Mary Colechurch parish. This estate descended to her son, Thomas Charleton, who died in 1465, leaving a son and heir Richard Charleton, then aged 15. Richard was attainted for his support of Richard III, and in 1485 the property passed to the Crown, under the description of a tenement in Cheapside called the Sterre where Anthony Malyard lived. In 1511 the king granted the Star for life to Thomas Belle, yeoman for the king's mouth in the cellar, and in 1514 granted the same property in survivorship to John Pate, groom of the Wardrobe and George Duckworth, groom for the king's mouth in the cellar. Pate and Duckworth may not have been able to assert their claim to the property, which reverted to the king's possession, since at about this time Peter Curteis, a Frenchman, acquired it from Humphrey Grey without licence. In 1518 the king renewed the grant in survivorship to Pate and Duckworth and in 1532 granted the property in fee to Pate. (fn. 4)
In 1536 Pate's widow and executrix, Anne Pate, in fulfilment of her husband's will, sold the messuage called the Star with its shops, cellar and solar(s) to William Cowyk, gentleman, and his wife Joan. After Cowyk's death, John Broke, citizen and grocer, held the property on lease for the term of the life of Cowyk's widow Joan. The messuage then came into the possession of Evan Luce, citizen and leatherseller, who in March 1551 with his wife Joan, who may have been Cowyk's widow, granted it and quitclaimed to John Broke in return for a payment of £115. Broke probably lived here in 1541 and 1544 and at his death in August-October 1551, left to his wife Anne the Star where he then dwelled, together with the reversion of the same on the death of Joan Cowyk, who was then wife of Robert Stevyns, woolpacker, and the lease which he and Anne had for the term of Joan's life. In 1566 a tenement on the E. side of 11 was said to belong to John Broke, thus identifying the Star with 12. In 1558 George Johnson probably inhabited the house, which was valued for tithing purposes at £6 a year. The property descended to John Broke's son, Anthony Broke, citizen and grocer, against whom Thomas Pierson, scrivener, and John Smyth, grocer, recovered possession in 1564. The recovery was for the benefit of Anthony Broke, possibly in order to break an entail created under the grant of 1551, for in 1565 he acquired a licence from the Crown to alienate the Star, which had been lately held by George Dyamond, to Rose Trott of London, widow. Rose Trott died in 1575 and by her will, drawn up the previous year, left the Star to her son Martin Trott; the messuage was inhabited by Rose's son, John Trott, and in 1575 was said to be worth £10 a year clear. John Trott is recorded as a tithe payer for this property between 1571 and 1574, and in 1574 his household included his wife and 6 other communicants in addition to himself. (fn. 5)
According to the parish assessment lists Mr. Brooke inhabited the house in 1602, John Lansden in 1612, William Jacob in 1619, and Hugh Ingram between 1622 and 1624. In 1638 Mr. Pitchford inhabited the house, which was valued at £10 a year. (fn. 6)
In 1662-3 Richard Haddilow (also Hadelow and Hoddiloe) occupied a house of 7 hearths on this site. His house had 6 hearths in 1666, and in 1668 he was paid £600 for ground taken into King Street. This land was said to measure 38 ft. 9 in. (11.81 m.) from N. to S. and the sum paid was probably intended also to cover the purchase of that part of 13 which was taken into the street. A drawn survey of 105/12 records it as measuring 40 ft. (12.19 m.) by 15 ft. (4.57 m.). (fn. 7)