Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
This free content was born digital. All rights reserved.
In the late 12th and early 13th centuries 105/13-15 and 95/1-2 were a single property at the corner of Cheapside and Ironmonger Lane, bounded by 81/C and 105/11-12 on the W. and by 95/3 on the N. By the second half of the 13th century the separate parts of this property are recorded individually: 13 occupied the W. part of the Cheapside frontage and extended N. as far as 95/1-2; 14 occupied the corner between 13 on the W. and 15 on the N.; 15 was bounded by 95/1-2 on the N.; and 95/1-2 was bounded by 105/11-12 (subsequently 81/C) on the W. and 95/3 on the N.
After the Great Fire part of the site was taken for making King Street. The remainder corresponded to nos. 91-2 Cheapside and nos. 1-3 King Street in 1858.
Twelfth and early thirteenth centuries (105/13-15 and 95/1-2)
Canterbury Cathedral Priory had a rent of 11s. from this property. In the late 12th century this was due at Christmas from Abraham the Jew for the land of William son of Riculf. In another, perhaps slightly later, text of the rental the rent was due in equal portions at Easter and Michaelmas. (fn. 1) In 1214-15 Abraham son of Muriel of London sold, granted, and quitclaimed to Geoffrey de Mandeville, earl of Essex and Gloucester, and his heirs and assigns all his right and claim in a house of Abraham son of Raby (probably the Abraham of the Canterbury rentals) in foro de Westchep in the parish of St. Mary Colechurch between the house of John the Welshman (Wallensis), Ysmongherelane, and, on the N., the land (95/3) of the fee of Hugh de Nevill which Peter de Ely held; de Mandeville gave £23. 6s. 8d. for the grant and was to pay rents of 11s. to Canterbury Cathedral Priory at Christmas and 7s. to St. Alban's Abbey at the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. John the Welshman is subsequently recorded as a holder of this property; he is not otherwise recorded as tenant of 105/11-12, and so it is possible that the reference to his house as an abutment is an error or concerns the W. part of this property (perhaps approximately the site of 13) rather than 11-12. In 1214- 15 Geoffrey de Mandeville granted this property, described as land with houses between virtually the same abutments as in Abraham's deed, to Gilbert de Waletun for his homage and service, paying the above-mentioned rents of 11s. and 7s. and to the grantor a tercel at the feast of St. Margaret or 4 bezants; Gilbert gave £13. 6s. 8d. for the grant. It seems likely that these 2 transactions in 1214- 15 represent a direct transfer of the property from Abraham son of Muriel to Gilbert de Waletun, in which Geoffrey de Mandeville, son of the recently-deceased chief justiciar, was acting as no more than an intermediary, probably with the intent that Gilbert's title should thereby be strengthened. If this was so, the purchase price for the property was perhaps the sum of the two recorded payments, namely £36. 13. 4d.; de Mandeville's reward for participating in the transaction would then have been the rent of 4 bezants now charged on the property. In 1220-1 Gilbert de Waletun granted and sold the property to Master Alexander de Dorcestr' and his heirs and assigns in return for a payment of £53. 6s. 8d. In the same year Boneme son of Samuel Muton quitclaimed to Alexander de Dorsete in the house, which was said to have belonged to Boneme's uncle, Abraham son of Raby, to have belonged to Geoffrey FitzPeter, earl of Essex, and then to have been held by Gilbert de Waleton by the gift of Geoffrey de Mandevill son and heir of Geoffrey FitzPeter; in return for this quitclaim Alexander gave £13. 13s. 4d. (fn. 2)
About 1220 the 11s. rent was due to Canterbury Cathedral Priory at the Nativity of St. John the Baptist from land which John le Waleis held of William son of Benedict between 105/11-12 on the one side and 95/16-18 on the other, vico parvo (Ironmonger Lane) mediante. William son of Benedict was presumably tenant of Abraham the Jew, Geoffrey de Mandeville, Gilbert de Waletun, or Alexander de Dorsete. In 1232-3 Alexander de Doreset granted the land and houses on this site in free alms to the priory of Holy Trinity Aldgate as the endowment for a priest to celebrate for his soul and for a daily dole to be given to 7 poor men; the priory was to pay the rents to Canterbury, St. Albans, and the heirs of Geoffrey de Mandeville. Alexander reaffirmed the gift in his will, drawn up between 1232 and 1244. (fn. 3)
Mid thirteenth century and quit-rent (105/13-15)
Holy Trinity Priory sold the N. part of the property acquired from Alexander de Doreset in or before 1246 (see 95/1-2). The S. part (105/13-15) appears to have been retained in demesne and in 1246 the priory was reported for having built a pentice there in Cheapside. In a Canterbury rental of about this date the land of Holy Trinity Priory was said to contain a tall house (domus alta), and in a Holy Trinity Priory source 13-15 was described as 2 selds and 5 shops in Cheapside with a stone house in Ironmonger Lane. In 1246 the priory granted 13- 15, described as land with shops, selds, and solars built on it, to William de Wylihale in return for a rent of £6. 13s. 4d. and a gersuma of £66. 13s. 4d.; should William, his heirs, or his assigns wish to dispose of the property the priory was to have a preference of 2s. By 1264-5, and possibly by 1263-4, the property was again in the possession of the priory (see below). This was probably the result of a grant by the executors of William de Wilehale senior, citizen, who before 1278-9 granted the rent, houses, shops, solars, and cellars on the site, to the priory as an endowment for 3 chaplains. William's son and heir John in 1278-9 granted and quitclaimed in this property to the priory. (fn. 4)
The rent of 4 bezants, or 8s., reserved by Geoffrey de Mandeville descended to Roger de Clifford senior, who in 1280 granted it with other properties to the mayor, citizens, and commonalty of London. Early in the 14th century the rent was due from 13. The city chamber continued to receive the rent until 1421, when it was exchanged for another rent due to Holy Trinity Priory from a city property in the parish of St. Swithin. (fn. 5)
Thirteenth to fifteenth century (105/13-15)
In 1264-5 Holy Trinity Priory granted to William de Wylehale, son of Robert de Eston, citizen, land with 3 shops, a seld, and houses built on it between 105/11-12 on the W., 105/15 on the E., and 95/1-2 on the N. in return for rent of £6. 13s. 4d. This was probably the house in Cheapside which by his will, enrolled in 1280, William de Wylehale left to his wife Agnes for life and then to be sold. By a deed enrolled in July 1280, but presumably recording a transaction earlier than January, Agnes and William de Corduan', as executors of William de Wilehale, sold the land with a seld and houses built on it to Adam of St. Albans junior, citizen and ironmonger, in return for a payment of £7. 13s. 4d. Agnes then married William de Reygate, clerk, with whom, by a deed enrolled in January 1280, she quitclaimed to Adam of St. Alban's in the property. Adam of St. Albans lived in the house on this site, which by his will, enrolled in 1289, he left to his wife Isabel, with reversion to his son Richard. Isabel was later living in the property, probably with her husband, Ralph Balle, and in 1306 Richer de Refham, who held 2 adjacent properties (12 and 14) complained that they had constructed a gutter which caused water to run through his house. (fn. 6)
Isabel was dead by 1315, when Adam's son, Richard of St. Alban's, clerk, granted and quitclaimed in 13 to John de Ditton, citizen and cornmonger (bladarius). The property was now described as a brewhouse (bracina) with cellars, solars and a plot of ground, and was bounded by Richer de Refham's tenements (12 and 14) to the E. and W., 95/1 to the N., and Cheapside to the S. By his will, enrolled in 1316, John de Ditton left this tenement to his daughter Isabel and her heirs. Isabel apparently died without heirs and, according to the terms of John's will, his executors sold the property to John Lok, citizen and cornmonger (bladarius), who in 1322 granted it to William de Bourgh, clerk, and his wife Margery and their heirs and assigns. The tenement was now said to be bounded by both 95/1 and 95/2 to the N. Adam de Salle, cofferer and son of John de Salle, citizen and mercer, had an interest in the tenement, which in 1323 he quitclaimed to de Bourgh and his wife. The tenement was now said to be bounded by 81/C and 95/1 on the N. Alice wife of Richard le Pursere, aged 80 or more, was living in a solar in this property in 1325 when she died as a result of a fall downstairs. (fn. 7)
There was some disagreement over the rent of £6. 13s. 4d. due to Holy Trinity Priory, and in 1327 de Bourgh and his wife Margery agreed that the rent was due and that the priory could distrain. In 1326 de Bourgh was also engaged in disputes concerning nuisances with the neighbouring landlords. to E. and W. The disputes appear to have been occasioned by a programme of rebuilding undertaken on de Bourgh's behalf. De Bourgh claimed possession of a stone wall between his tenement and that of John de Refham (14) extending from the street to 95/1 at the rear. The timber work of de Bourgh's house rested on this wall, but de Refham had also placed a beam there supporting his house, and in addition had 4 lead pipes leading the rainwater from his house into de Bourgh's gutter. There was another stone wall, 4 ft. (1.22 m.) wide between de Bourgh's house and that of Richer de Refham (12) and extending 78 ft. (23.77 m.) in length from the street to the tenement of Katharine de Staunford (81/C) on the N. De Bourgh had been compelled to rebuild and build on this wall since the roof of his house was ruinous; de Refham claimed that the wall was common to both houses, but it was found that the wall belonged to de Bourgh's house. In 1327 William de Bourgh was again in dispute with John de Refham, who claimed that William had encroached 2 1/2 ft. (762 mm.) on to his land, thus cutting away part of his shop; it was found that William had built foundations and a wall but that there was no longer any part of de Refham's building remaining on which a judgement could be based. (fn. 8)
In 1333 de Bourgh's widow, Margery, granted the tenement with houses and shops representing 13 to Simon de Mereworth, citizen and draper of Candlewick Street, and his wife Margery. Simon died in 1340-1, leaving his tenements to be sold, and in 1341 his executors sold 13 to Thomas de Cavendissh, citizen and mercer. Thomas acquired for a term of years the £6. 13s. 4d. rent due to Holy Trinity Priory and by his will, dated 1348 and enrolled in 1349, left both the tenement and the rent to his wife Agnes, with remainder to his son John. By his will, dated 1349 and enrolled in 1350, John left the reversion of the property after his mother's death to his wife Margery for life with successive remainders to his son Thomas and Thomas's heirs, to his daughter Margaret, and to his wife's daughter Alice for life; John's executor's were then to sell the property. (fn. 9)
John de Cavendish's widow Margery married Thomas Brown, who paid the rent due to Holy Trinity Priory in 1356. Brown died, and in October 1357 Margery, as his widow, paid the arrears of rent due. Margery subsequently married a husband called Simon, whom she survived. In her will, dated 1376 and enrolled in 1387, she stipulated that 13 was to descend according to the provisions of her husband John's will (except that John's son Thomas was not mentioned), with the additional provision, which she was presumably able to impose as John's executor, that after Alice's death the tenement was to remain to the abbey of Evesham. The abbey seems not to have acquired an interest in 13, which at about the time of Margery's death and in 1393-4 was held by Thomas Bron or Brown, from whom the 11s. rent belonging to Canterbury Cathedral Priory was due. This Thomas Brown was perhaps identical with the Thomas son of John de Cavendish who was a minor at the time of his father's death in 1349-50, and may therefore have adopted his stepfather's surname. He was succeeded in the property by his widow, who paid the rent to Holy Trinity Priory in 1399-1400, but had no heirs, for in 1412 13 was in the possession of Margaret daughter of John son of Thomas de Cavendissh and her husband, John Asshton of London. (fn. 10)
In 1412 John Asshton and his wife Margaret granted the tenements representing 13 to William Skrene, Thomas Hewster, Philip Strecey, John Arblaster and John Pole, who presumably were to hold on the grantors' behalf. Arblaster died and Skrene and Strecey quitclaimed to their surviving co-grantees, who in 1418 granted the property to Asshton and Margaret for the term of Margaret's life, with remainder to William Holgrave, tailor, Roger Amoregy, mercer, John Thetford, brewer, Martin Aleyn, leatherseller, John Pope, shearman, and Richard Osbarn, all citizens. A few days later Asshton and his wife granted the property at farm to John Colbroke, tailor, Richard Grove, armourer, William Edrich, brewer, and John Page, ironmonger, all citizens, for the term of Margaret's life at £3. 6s. 8d. rent, the tenants being responsible for repair. Edrich probably occupied part of the property and perhaps even used part of it as a brewery. He may also have been tenant of 95/1 in Ironmonger Lane and about 1420 caused a nuisance by throwing ordure into the lane. By February 1423 Margaret was dead and 105/13 was in the possession of the remainder men in the grant of 1418, of whom John Thetford had died; in February 1423 three of the survivors quitclaimed in the property to the fourth, Martin Aleyn. Aleyn was said to own the tenement in 1426. (fn. 11)
13-15, granted by Holy Trinity Priory in 1246 to William de Wylihale, was by 1264-5 and possibly by 1263-4 again in the possession of the priory (see above, ii). 14 was then let and granted out in several parts. In 1263-4 the N. part of 14, adjacent to 15, was described as a house held of the priory by Eymeric Bruning. This N. part of 14 seems subsequently to have come into the possession of William de Willehale, citizen, presumably the son of Robert de Eston whose will was enrolled in 1280 (see above, 13). William granted this property in return for a rent of 13s. 4d. In or before 1280 William's executors sold this rent, along with 13, to Adam of St. Albans, citizen and ironmonger; the rent was said to be due from a cellar belonging to 13 with its entrance towards Ironmonger Lane and held by William de Manhall, junior, and John de Chesle, chandlers (unctores). In 1280 Adam succeeded in recovering the rent against William de Manhall. Subsequently this property was a shop which John de Chelse said that William de Willehale had granted him. In 1288 John granted to Holy Trinity Priory a little part of the shop measuring 3 1/2 ells (10 ft. 6 in.; 3.2 m.) square between the remainder of the shop on the E., 13 on the W., 15 on the N., and the shops belonging to the priory (the S. part of 14) on the S. In addition John granted the priory a place (locus) in the N.E. corner of the shop in order to support a stair (degradus) for use by the priory's tenants going to the solar above (ultra) the shop. This place measured in length from Ironmonger Lane along the stone wall of the shop 1 1/4 ells 4 1/2 in. (4 ft. 1 1/2 in.; 1.26 m.) and in width from the lattice of the whitewashed or daubed wall (a lattis de dalbata' pariete) on the N., 1 ell 2 in. (3 ft. 2 in.; 965 mm.); the total length of the stair, presumably on the horizontal at first floor level, was said to be 4 ells 2 1/2 in. (12 ft. 2 1/2 in.; 3.72 m.) towards the W. John reserved a rent of 13s. 4d., presumably in order to acquit himself against Adam of St. Albans. John's shop evidently included a cellar. The priory intended to use the part of the cellar which it had acquired as a latrine, and covenanted to enclose the latrine on its E. and W. sides with stone walls extending a fodeo usque ad cistas molariorum nostrorum. This last phrase seems to mean that the wall was to be in stone from the foundation of the cellar up to ground floor level, where the priory had at least one pair of mill-stones with chests for receiving the meal. The priory subsequently conveyed this property along with two of the shops on the Cheapside frontage (see below). (fn. 12)
In 1283 Holy Trinity Priory appears to have had 5 shops on the Cheapside frontage of 14, all held by chandlers (unctarii): Walter de Waldegrave, Richard de Kent, and Peter de Lamhethe each held one, and Stephen le Chaundler held 2. In 1292 the priory granted 2 of these shops, together with the cellar acquired from John de Chelse (see above) which was now said to measure 3 1/2 ells less 3 in. (10 ft. 3 in.; 3.12 m.) in height, to Richer le Botoner, citizen and mercer (mercenarius), in return for a rent of £2, the grantor being responsible for maintaining the property against wind and rain. The 2 shops lay between a shop of Walter de Waldegrave on the E. and a shop of Peter de Hildresham on the W. and John de Chelse's tenement on the N. They measured 4 3/4 ells (14 ft. 3 in.; 4.34 m.) from N. to S. and 3 ells 2 in. (9 ft. 2 in.; 2.79 m.) in width. (fn. 13)
Richer le Botoner was identical with the Richer de Refham, mercer, who was in possession of the whole of 14 and 15 in 1304, when he came to an agreement with Holy Trinity Priory over the rents due to the priory from the property. At this time the parts of 14 held by Richer and from which the priory had rent were a solar on the corner between 13 and 15, from which £1. 13s. was due, and 3 shops on the Cheapside frontage. Richer held 2 of these shops directly from the priory (see above), and held the third, for which he paid £1. 4s. rent to the priory, by the grant of Peter de Hildresham. The rents due to the priory from 14-15 totalled £7. 14s. 4d. and it was agreed that Richer would be pardoned the arrears due, and in future would pay no more than £7. In return for this Richer granted the priory the 13s. 4d. rent from 14 which he seems recently to have acquired from the widow of Adam of St. Albans by means of a plea of naam. In 1324, however, Adam de Salle, who had recently quitclaimed in 13, quitclaimed to Richer de Refham and his son John de Refham in the 13s. 4d. rent which they had by the grant of Richard of St. Albans, son of Adam of St. Albans, and which was due from Richer's shop in Ironmonger Lane. In 1307 Richer granted his interest in 14-15 and other properties to his son John de Refham for rent, and in 1322-3 John's tenement was said to adjoin the E. side of 13. At his death in 1328 Richer left his interest in 14- 15 to his wife Joan for life, with remainder to his son John. The property then passed through the same succession of owners as 12 (q.v.), coming into the possession of Adam Fraunceys and then of the Carleton family, whose estate passed into the hands of the Crown in 1485. (fn. 14)
In 1338 14-15 was probably the rent of Joan (sic) de Refham in St. Mary Colechurch parish where William Lauleye of Luton (Beds.) died as a result of a knife wound inflicted by William de Kestevene, tailor, near the Conduit in Cheapside. (fn. 15)
Holy Trinity Priory did not alienate the property on the corner of Ironmonger Lane. It may have been represented by 2 of the 5 shops listed in 1283, and both then and in 1292 it presumably included the shop of Walter de Waldegrave. There was one shop on the site, held by Henry atte Roche, chandler (candelar') in 1336, when John de Ewell of London quitclaimed to Holy Trinity Priory in the property. In 1384 the priory let the shop to John Salle, citizen and cutler, and his wife Margaret at £3 rent for life, the tenants being liable for repairs. John Salle died in 1407 and there is no later record of this shop. (fn. 16)
In 1263-4 Holy Trinity Priory granted to Roger le Seriaunt land with houses in St. Mary Colechurch parish between 95/1-2 on the N. and 14 on the S. in return for a gersuma of £1. 6s. 8d. and a rent of £2. 17s. 4d. The land measured 15 ells (45 ft.; 13.72 m.) in length from N. to S. and 8 1/2 ells (25 ft. 6 in.; 7.77 m.) in width between Ironmonger Lane and the seld belonging to the priory (13). The property evidently included stone walls and in 1288 was described as the cellar of John Hardel, who in 1290-1 granted it to Richer de Refham. In 1292 Richer, as Richer le Botoner, bound this property for distraint for the £2 rent which he owed the priory for 2 shops in 14. Richer's interest in 15 is subsequently indistinguishable from that in 14 (q.v.). (fn. 17)
Fifteenth to late sixteenth century (13-15; including 95/1 from early sixteenth century)
In this period 13-15 came to be occupied as one property. 14-15 were apparently in a derelict state by 1423, when the house at the corner of Ironmonger Lane in Cheapside was said to be ruinous and about to fall down; the presentation was probably referring to the same property when it stated that the cellar windows of the rent which had belonged to Adam Fraunceys in Ironmonger Lane stood too much on the common ground. In 1440 Thomas Charleton, knight, his wife Elizabeth, Thomas Turnowe, William Philip, Geoffrey Paddon, and Geoffrey Caroun granted to Thomas Gloucestre, esquire, and John Souman, citizen and leatherseller, the toft or void plot of land representing 14-15 for ever in return for a rent of £1. The property on the W. side of the plot (13) was a tenement known as le Crowne, which in 1444 was in the possession of the Thomas Gloucestre and William Cantelowe, who bound it for distraint in respect of the £1 rent due from the plot, should there be insufficient to distrain there. The Crown (13) and the void plot (14-15) were later in the possession of Walter Walker, citizen and grocer. Thomas Bernard, scrivener, granted this property to Ralph Verney, knight and alderman, Thomas Bledlow, alderman, John Savery, ironmonger, John Heyworth, gentleman of Wheathampstead, Richard Gardyner (alderman in 1481), John Shelley, mercer, John Clerk, grocer, and John Bate, ironmonger, who were feoffees to perform the last will of Walter Walker. Verney, Bledlow, Savery, and Heyworth died, and in 1481 the surviving feoffees granted the Crown and the vacant plot to Mark Walker, son of Walter, and his heirs, with remainder to Walter's other son Thomas Walker and his heirs. In 1486 Mark Walker, citizen and grocer, granted this property, together with 95/1 which adjoined it to the N., to William Bracebrigge, Richard Batte, Lawrence Aylemere, all drapers and citizens, and John Parker, scrivener and citizen. Parker, a resident of this parish and possibly of this property died in 1494. (fn. 18)
At about this time the rents due to Holy Trinity Priory (£6. 13s. 4d. from 13 and £7 from 14-15) fell into default. The priory recovered possession of 14-15 and in 1527 granted it to Richard Osborne, citizen and grocer, for a term of 99 years at 6s. 8d. rent; the property was described as a void plot of ground measuring 72 ft. 3 in. (22.01 m.) in length and 25 ft. 2 in. (7.67 m.) in width at both ends, and bounded by the tenement called the Crown or the Harp (13) on the W. The 6s. 8d. rent was in arrears over the period 1535-41, but from then on John Osborne paid it to the Crown. In 1545 the king granted the void plot to William Powton of Hunthull (Wilts.) and Thomas Hervy. (fn. 19)
Richard Osborne apparently came into the possession of the properties once held by Mark Walker (105/13-15 and 95/1). He was probably living there c. 1522-4 and in 1544. In June 1539 Richard Osborne recovered possession of the properties in Husting against John Vyllers, knight, and Dorothy Vyllers his daughter and heir by his late wife Elizabeth, who was the daughter and heir of John Wyngar, a deceased alderman. These properties lay in the parishes of St. Mary Colechurch and St. Martin Pomary and consisted of 3 messuages (105/13 and 95/1) and a toft (105/14-15). At the same time John Osborne, gentleman, recovered against Vyllers and his daughter 2 messuages (105/13) and a garden (105/14-15) in St. Mary Colechurch parish. The aim of these recoveries was probably to break an entail on 95/1 (q.v.). Two days before the recoveries were effected Roger Lokkesden, citizen and painter-stainer, son and heir of Mark Lokkesdon, quitclaimed to Dorothy Vyllers in a great messuage called the Crowne (105/13) and in another messuage adjacent (perhaps the rear part of 105/13) then in the tenure or occupation of Robert Lewes, citizen and girdler, a messuage called 'le ball' (95/1), a toft and vacant plot of land surrounded with stone walls (105/14- 15), and a shop or seld at the S. end of the stone wall. The shop presumably occupied the Cheapside frontage of 105/14-15 (possibly the exact site of 105/14) and had probably been erected since 1527. Robert Lewes, who is also described as a wireseller, had probably been living in part of 13 c. 1522-4 and in 1541, and at his death in 1542 left the messuage where he lived to his wife Joan. John Osborne of London, gentleman, was the son and heir of Richard Osborne, and in 1545 with his wife Denise granted to Peter Osborne of Lincoln's Inn, gentleman, the 3 messuages, toft, shops, solars and curtilage representing 105/13-15 and 95/1. One messuage (probably the main part of 105/13) was in the tenure of Elizabeth Osborne, widow (probably widow of Richard Osborne); another (probably part of 105/13) was in the tenure of Cuthbert Beyston, citizen and girdler; the third messuage, called the Ball (95/1) was formerly occupied by John Teyre; 105/14-15 was represented by a messuage or 'shedd' in the tenure of John Syrcok, citizen and leatherseller, with a garden enclosed by stone walls called 'brykwalles' and with buildings within the precinct of the walls. (fn. 20)
In 1558 105/13-15 and 95/1 were probably represented in the tithe list of St. Mary Colechurch parish by 3 houses, each valued at £3 a year, and occupied by John Blackeman (approximately 105/13), Cuthbert Beston (part 105/13), and Thomas Moffite. In 1571-4 Blackeman's former house (approximately 105/13) was occupied by James Munsey, whose household in 1574 included his wife and 3 other communicants in addition to himself. Beston's house in 1571-4 was occupied by Allen Downer, ironmonger, whose household included his wife and 2 servants as communicants in addition to himself. A man called Muffet occupied the third house in 1571-4, where in 1574 there were 7 communicants in addition to himself. These three houses should all have been in the parish of St. Mary Colechurch since they are listed in that parish's assessment list. They should, therefore, have occupied the site of 105/13- 15 only, and, if this was the case, it would seem that the shed or shop described in 1545 had been converted into a dwelling by 1554. However, it seems more likely that the 3 houses in the parish assessments included one which stood partly on 105/15 and partly on ground (95/1) in St. Martin Pomary parish, for at his death in 1592 Peter Osborne, esquire, was seised of 3 tenements in the parishes of St. Mary Colechurch and St. Martin Pomary, of which one (approximately 105/13) had been occupied by John Blackman and was then held by Robert Cutte, another had been occupied by Thomas Muffet and was then occupied by William Lynacre, and the third had been occupied by Cuthbert Beeston and was held by Thomas Bacon. In 1588 Osborne had covenanted to stand seised of the tenements and other properties to the use of himself for life and then to the use of his son John Osborne and his heirs. In 1597 the 3 tenements were said to be worth £6 a year clear. (fn. 21)
Late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (105/13-15 and 95/1)
In this period there appear still to have been 3 messuages on the site, probably corresponding to 105/13, 105/14, and a house on the site of 105/15 and 95/1 respectively. 105/13 came into the possession of a separate landlord, but 105/14-15 and 95/1 continued in the same ownership. There were several intermixtures between the properties.
In 1591 this was known as the Frying Pan and was inhabited by Robert Cutt, citizen and ironmonger. Robert Cutt purchased the property from John Osborne, esquire, Treasurer's Remembrancer in the Exchequer, and was still dwelling there in 1602. At his death in 1610 Cutt left his dwelling house in Cheapside to his son Henry Cutt for a term of 21 years rent-free after the death of his wife Anne, who died in 1612. The house was inhabited in 1612 by Mrs. Agnes Cutt, who may have been Henry's widow. The property was later in the possession of Robert's son, William Cutt, citizen and goldsmith, who in 1618 leased it to James Foote and Nicholas Homewood for a term of 15 years at a rent of £6. 13s. and for a sum of £1063. 6s. 8d. payable in annual instalments of £73. 6s. 8d. (the sum would thus be paid in 14 1/2 years). Homewood and Foote were assessed jointly for parish contributions between 1619 and 1624 and perhaps shared the house between them. Homewood was dwelling in the house in 1624, when William Cutt sold the messuage formerly known as the Crown and now known as the Frying Pan with its shops, cellars, chambers, rooms, yards, warehouses, and garrets to Thomas Stead, citizen and girdler, for £980. Homewood, an ironmonger whose name is also given as Honiwood, died in 1633-4, when he may still have lived in this house; he left his leases to his son Nicholas Honywood, a minor. Excepted from the grant of 1624 was a cellar measuring 19 ft. (5.79 m.) in length towards the N. from the street and 12 ft. 7 in. (3.84 m.) in breadth; it lay beneath a shop occupied with the house to the E. (105/14-15). Included in the grant were the garrets formerly part of 95/1 and lying over the room in 105/13 called the 'Brushing Chamber', with the stool serving the house of office there; the landlords of 105/13 and 95/1 were each to be allowed access to the other's property for carrying out repairs. In 1638 this house, valued at £24 a year, was inhabited by Mr. Brome. (fn. 22)
Thomas Stead died in 1641-2, leaving the Frying Pan to his son, John Stead, later known as John Stead, gentleman. The property was inherited by John's daughter, Mary Stead of Teddington (Middx.), spinster, who in 1669 sold the toft where the Frying Pan had stood before the Great Fire to Thomas Canham of London, merchant. At the time of the Fire the messuage had been occupied by one Broome, presumably the Mrs. Katharine Broome who had a house of 6 hearths here in 1662-3 and 1666. It was proposed to take part of the site for the new street of King Street, and later in 1669 Canham and his wife Mary (who was identical with Mary Stead) sold the toft to a group of feoffees acting on behalf of the Corporation of London. The plan accompanying this deed records the boundaries both of the whole property and of the strip of ground to be laid into King Street.22 These boundaries have been adopted in the reconstruction, although another survey of about the same date shows a slightly different arrangement of the boundary between 105/13 and 95/1. (fn. 23)
In 1602 this house was occupied by Mr. Marshall, who was probably the Richard Marshall, painter-stainer, named in 1624 as a former tenant. The Mrs. Marshall dwelling there in 1612 was presumably his widow. The property may have been rebuilt in 1615 (see 95/15). Between 1619 and 1624 Thomas Reeve appears in parish assessment lists in the position suitable for the occupant of this property. In 1619 Edmund Chapman may have shared the property with him. In 1624, when the house included a shop once part of 13 (q.v.) and possibly the cellar beneath the shop, the property had formerly been known as the Brush and was now known as the Queen's Head and was held, presumably from John Osborne, by one Foster. In 1638 the house, occupied by Mr. Sheaphard, was valued at £38 a year. (fn. 24)
Osborne's property had passed to Theophilus Biddulph by 1646, when Biddulph began to pay the Corporation 4s. rent for 2 stalls or bulks on each side of his shop in Cheapside next to Ironmonger Lane which had presumably been erected on the street. Biddulph last paid this rent for the year 1667-8; he was probably living in a house on the site of 105/14-15 and 95/1 in 1654 and 1659, but by 1662-3 had been succeeded as resident by Peter Birkenhead (see below, 105/15). The rebuilding of the property after the Great Fire was undertaken for George FitzJefrey, for whom a foundation was surveyed on the corner of Cheapside and Ironmonger Lane. A strip of ground 3 ft. 4 in. (1.02 m.) wide by Cheapside and 2 ft. 6 in. (762 mm.) wide at the N. end was cut off in order to enlarge the lane. The foundation was shown to adjoin Canham's property (105/13) to the W., but evidently included structures fronting on to King Street and occupying the greater part of what remained of Canham's property after the street was laid out. From another survey it seems that the S.W. part of this property was immediately before the Fire in the tenure of Mr. Knight, evidently the John Knight who in 1666 occupied a house of 6 hearths here. In 1662-3 this house may have been represented by a house of 2 hearths occupied by Edmond Harvey and one of 5 hearths occupied by Richard Clay. At this time the remainder of 14 appears to have been part of the same house as 105/15 and 95/1 (see below). (fn. 25)
105/15 and 95/1
In 1602 this house was inhabited by Mr. Allen, presumably the Thomas Allen recorded as resident in 1612. Randal Maynwaring, citizen and grocer, held the property in 1615 under a lease for a term of 21 years recently granted him by John Osborne or by Sir George Fitzjefrey. The latter was presumably an heir or assign of Osborne. Under this lease Maynwaring acquired a shed and entry in Cheapside (probably extending over 105/15 and 95/1 but perhaps also including 105/14) which he was now in the process of rebuilding. A frame set up in the course of this work obstructed the light of Anthony Thayer's house (95/18B-C) on the opposite side of Ironmonger Lane. A dispute arose, the frame was pulled down, and it was agreed between Maynwaring and Thayer that only one frame or storey was to be erected on the site of the shed and entry and that it should measure 27 ft. 10in. (8.48 m.) from N. to S. and 7 ft. (2.13 m.) in height from the floor to the top of the 'rayseing piece', that there should be one half storey at the N. end measuring 9 ft. (2.74 m.) from N. to S. and 3 ft. (914 mm.) in height, and that in order to increase Thayer's light Maynwaring or his workmen should take down the rail and wall opposite Thayer's light and likewise replace the leaning rails at the top of Maynwaring's house with rails and banisters. Maynwaring inhabited the messuage on the site of 105/15 in 1624, and in the parish assessments for 1619 and 1622 his name is bracketed with that of Timothy Elwicke, who may have been his undertenant. Maynwaring still lived there in 1638, when the part of his house in St. Mary Colechurch parish (105/15) was valued at £24 a year and the part in St. Martin Pomary parish was valued at £8 a year. (fn. 26)
During this period the freehold of the property was in the same ownership as that of 105/14. In 1662-3 and 1666 a house of 14 hearths, which probably occupied the sites of 105/15, 95/1, and the greater part of 105/14, was inhabited by Peter Birkenhead, presumably a tenant of Theophilus Biddulph. Birkenhead, a mercer, died at about the time of the Great Fire. (fn. 27) After the Fire the site was included in the same foundation survey as the other part of 105/14 (see above).