Memorials: 1327

Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.

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'Memorials: 1327', in Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, ed. H T Riley( London, 1868), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp153-169 [accessed 24 July 2024].

'Memorials: 1327', in Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Edited by H T Riley( London, 1868), British History Online, accessed July 24, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp153-169.

"Memorials: 1327". Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Ed. H T Riley(London, 1868), , British History Online. Web. 24 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp153-169.

In this section

Edward III. A.D. 1327–77.

Charter granted to the Pellipers, or Skinners, of London.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book E.fol. clxxxiii. (Latin.)

"Edward, by the grace of God, etc., to all persons to whom these present letters shall come, greeting. Our well-beloved men of our city of London, called the 'Pellipers, (fn. 1) ' have entreated us by their petition, before us and our Council set forth, that whereas by the advice and assent of all men of the trade afore"said in the said City dwelling, for the common advantage of the commonalty of our realm to the same city resorting, it was of late ordained that every fur (fn. 2) in itself should contain a certain mea"sure;—namely, that every fur of minever of 8 tiers should con"tain 120 bellies; a fur of minever of 7 tiers, 100 bellies; a fur of bisshes of 8 tiers, (fn. 3) 72 beasts; a fur of bisshes of 7 tiers, 60 beasts; a fur of popelle of 7 tiers, (fn. 4) 60 beasts; a fur of popelle of 6 tiers, 52 beasts; a fur of stradlynge of 6 tiers, (fn. 5) 52 beasts; a fur of small stradlynge, 52 beasts; a fur of scurelle, (fn. 6) 60 beasts; hoods of cleaned minever, 40 bellies; hoods of half-cleaned minever, (fn. 7) 32 bellies; hoods of minever of 4 tiers, 24 bellies; hoods of minever of 3 tiers, 18 bellies. And that a fur of beaveret, or lambskin, should be 1¼ ells in length, and in breadth 1½ ells beneath in one part, and one ell in breadth in the middle of the fur. And that every fur of this kind should be well and purely made, without mixture of other furs. And that no pelliper or pheliper (fn. 8) should sell old furs in other form than as they are taken off the garments, that is to say, with the collars and the linings, and old hoods with the necks thereof; seeing that with old furs and hoods as well the great as others of the community aforesaid are oftentimes deceived by such phelipers, believing them to be new furs, "whereas they are old. And that no pelliper or pheliper, for the reason aforesaid, should carry any other furs than old ones, through the streets and lanes, or into the market, of the said city for sale;—we would approve of the said Ordinance, and confirm the same unto the men of the trade aforesaid, to be held for ever by them and their successors, men of the said trade;—We, assenting to their entreaty in this behalf, and seeing that the premises are for the advantage of the people of our realm, as aforesaid, ordained, do by the tenor of these presents accept the same Ordinance, and approve thereof; and, to the end that the same Ordinance, in all and singular its articles in future times may be the more strictly observed, do will and do grant, for us and our heirs, that certain good and trusty men of that trade of the City aforesaid, by the assent of the men of such trade, shall be chosen and assigned to make scrutiny as to the premises in the said city, and the suburbs thereof, so often as need shall be; so that the Mayor of the said city for the time being, upon the testimony of the persons so the be chosen and assigned, shall punish and chastise, according to their demerits, those whom he shall have found offending in this behalf. And nevertheless, the furs which shall chance to be found to have been made against this Ordinance shall unto the Mayor and Commonalty of the same city remain forfeited. And that the men of the city aforesaid belonging to that trade, who frequent the different Fairs, namely, of St. Botolph, (fn. 9) Winchester, St. Ives, Staunford, (fn. 10) and St. Edmund's, and other fairs within our realm, shall exercise such scrutiny in those fairs, for the common advantage of the men unto such fairs resorting; so that those offending in this behalf shall be punished and chastised upon their testimony before the stewards of those fairs. And the furs that are found in the hands of pellipers or phelipers at the same fairs, made against the Ordinance aforesaid, shall in like manner remain as forfeited, in the possession of the lords of those fairs. Witness myself, at Westminster, the first day of March, in the first year of our reign."

Charter granted to the Girdlers of London.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book F. fol. lxxxviii. (Norman French.)

"Edward, by the grace of God, King, of England, etc., to all those to whom these present letters shall come, greeting. The Girdlers of our city of London have shown unto us by their peti tion, put before us at our Council in our Parliament held at Westminster after the Feast of the Purification [2 February] last past, that heretofore it was ordained, and the custom in the said city, that no man of the said trade should cause any girdle of silk, of wool, of leather, or of linen thread, to be garnished with any inferior metal than with latten, copper, (fn. 11) iron, and steel; and that if any work should be found garnished with inferior metal, the same should be burnt; and that now the said trade in the said city is much impaired and defamed, by reason that some persons of the said trade, dwelling without the City, and there making and garnishing girdles, do garnish the same with false work, such as lead, pewter, and tin, and other false things; whereby the people of the said city, and of the realm, are deceived, to the great loss of themselves, and the scandal of the good folks of the trade. And the said girdlers have requested us that we would approve the said Ordinance and usage, and would grant that from henceforth in the said city, and elsewhere throughout all our realm, the same for ever shall be strictly kept. We therefore, such deceits and losses to avoid, and, for the common profit of our people, willing to agree to this request, and to authorize the aforesaid Ordinance and usage, do by the tenor of these letters accept and approve thereof, and do will and grant, for ourselves and for our heirs, that the same Ordinance and usage in the said city, and elsewhere throughout the whole of our realm, shall be from henceforth for ever kept and maintained. And that in the said city, and in every other city, burgh, and good town, of the realm, where such workmen are, or shall be, there shall be chosen by the folks of the trade there dwelling, one man or two, good and lawful persons of the same trade, for maintaining the same, and making search thereon, at all times that they shall see that there is need for them so to do. And if any work of the girdlers shall be garnished with lead, pewter, or tin, or other false thing, the same is to be presented by the said persons so chosen before the Mayor of the said city, and before the mayors or chief wardens of other cities, burghs, and towns, of the said realm, in the places where such false work shall be found; and by award of the said mayors and chief wardens the same shall be burnt, and at their discretion the workmen punished for their false work; and the amercements that shall arise from such punishments shall remain with the same mayors and chief wardens, and the commonalty of the places where such false work shall be so found. And that the folks of the said trade, who shall be chosen in the said city of London, there to make search, at such time as they shall come into other cities, burghs, or towns, in our realm, where the same trade is carried on, may, with the folks of the same trade who are chosen so to do in the places to which they shall have so come, make search for such work; and present the defaults therein unto the mayor and chief wardens of the same places, as aforsaid. In witness whereof, we have caused these our letters patent to be made. Given at Westminster, the 10th day of May, in the first year of our reign."

Agreement made between the men of the trade of the Saddlers of London, of the one part, and the men of the trades of the Joiners, Painters, and Lorimers in copper and iron, of the same city, of the other part.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book E.fol. clxxvi. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 12) Be it remembered, that whereas a certain affray lately took place between the men of the trade of the saddlers of the City of London, of the one part, and the men of the trades of the joiners, painters, and lorimers, (fn. 13) as well in copper as in iron, of the same city, of the other part, by reason of a certain rancour and dissension which had lately arisen between them, namely, on Thursday the Feast of our Lord's Ascension [20 May] last past; upon which day, certain of them, on either side, strongly provided with an armed force, exchanged blows and manfully began to fight, as well in Chepe as in the street of Crepelgate, and elsewhere in the same city; on which occasion certain among them were wickedly, and against the peace of our Lord the King, killed, and many others mortally wounded; by reason of which dissension and exchange of blows, the greater part of the City was in alarm, to the great disgrace and scandal of the whole city, and the manifest peril thereof: and which dissension and exchange of blows became so serious and so outrageous, as hardly to be appeased through the intervention of the Mayor, Sheriffs, and officers of the City: such contention being however at last, so well as it might be, allayed by the Mayor, Sheriffs, and other officers of the City, the said Mayor and Sheriffs appointed a day for the men of the trades aforesaid to appear before them at the Guildhall, namely, the Friday following, being the morrow of Our Lord's Ascension, to the end that they might set forth their reasons on either side.—

Upon the said day, there came accordingly to the Guildhall the men of the said trades, and, in presence of the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, did set forth their grievances in writing. Whereupon, a certain Petition was presented to the Mayor by the joiners, painters, and lorimers; the tenor of which is as follows.—

(fn. 14) "To the Mayor, and to the Aldermen, and to the good Commonalty of London, shew and make plaint the joiners, painters, lorimers in copper, and lorimers in iron;—that whereas they have always been free of the City, in bearing their charge of tallages and other contributions, as equals and as commoners, according to their power; the saddlers of the City, against the franchise of the same, by conspiracy and collusion among themselves, have ordained and established, and thereunto among themselves have made oath, that no one of the trades aforesaid shall be so daring as to sell any manner of merchandize that unto their own trade pertains, either to freemen of the City, or to other persons, but only to themselves, in the business of saddlery: the which thing is notoriously against all the commonalty of the said city, and all the realm. And because that the trades aforesaid would not assent to this thing, against their oath to the City made, the saddlers, against the peace of our Lord the King, maliciously and by force of arms have assailed the trades aforesaid, as well in their own houses as in the high streets; some persons whereof have been killed, some maimed, and many wounded and maltreated.—They therefore do pray the Mayor and all the commonalty, that redress for this thing may be made to them, in such due and good manner that they may be enabled to live in peace, and to follow their trades as they have done heretofore.

"And further, the trades aforesaid make plaint;—that whereas after the saddlers have received from them certain goods pertaining unto their trades, and have become possessed of the said goods in their own houses, if the good folks of the said trades come there to ask for their payment, they are bandied about among the said saddlers with offensive words, and sometimes beaten, and in other ways maltreated; by reason whereof they have not the daring to demand payment of their debts, and therefore the said saddlers now are in their debt; that is to say, they owe to the painters 100l. and 35s.; to the lorimers in copper, 84l. 15s., and to the lorimers in iron, 100l. 8s.; and to the joiners, 10l. 11s. 4d.; the total of which amounts to 297l. 9s. 4d.: to the great damage and impoverishment of the said trades, and as to the which they pray for favour and redress.

"And further, whereas the great lords of the realm do give their old saddles to their palfreymen, these persons sell them to the said saddlers, who then try to harness them afresh, and to sell them for new, to the loss of all the commonalty of the realm."

Answer made to the Petition.—

"As to the first point in this Petition,—the saddlers say that they never did so, and never will do so. As to the second point,—they have their recovery before the Sheriff, by plea of debt. As to the third point,—they concede that from henceforth no old saddles shall be harnessed for resale as new ones, and that if any such be found, the same shall be adjudged upon before the Mayor and Aldermen.

"And also, the saddlers aforesaid have conceded, for themselves and for all their trade, that among them no confederacy or alliance shall be made, either against the City, or against the aforesaid joiners, lorimers, and others of their companionship, at any time to come, on pain of paying 10 tuns of wine to the commonalty of London, whosoever shall be convicted thereof. And that in the same manner, the joiners, lorimers, in copper and in iron, and painters, shall [be answerable] for themselves and for their trades."

And a certain Petition was also presented to the Mayor and Aldermen, the tenor of which is as follows.—

"To the Mayor and to the Commonalty of the City of London, shew and make plaint the saddlers of the said city;—that whereas contumelious words had arisen between William de Karletone, saddler, and William de Stokwelle, painter, and by reason of such words, six good folks of the one trade and six of the other did interfere therein, and appoint a day of love at St. Paul's Church, (fn. 15) as between the aforesaid William and William, namely, Wednesday, the Feast of St. Dunstan; (fn. 16) the aforesaid William de Stokwelle, compassing mischief, did cause all the painters, joiners, lorimers, [and] gelders to be collected, (fn. 17) together with other workmen, in order to act by force of arms, and in affray of the said City; and then took counsel to make the saddlers afore said concede, by compulsion, that if any man of the one trade shall have cause of offence as against any one of the other trade, then in such case, all the painters, together with all the [other] trades, shall no longer be bound to work, but shall close their selds; and that if any offence shall be found to have been committed on the one side or the other, the parties shall not be reconciled without two of each trade [intervening therein]. (fn. 18)

"And further, the aforesaid copresmethes (fn. 19) have made an ordinance among themselves, out of their own heads, that if any strange workman of the same trade shall come to the said city, he shall not be received on any terms, until he shall have made oath to conceal their misdeeds. (fn. 20) And whereas the said painters and joiners do set every point of their trade at a fixed price, at no time has there been any certainty as to the aforesaid points in practice established: by reason whereof, they are making themselves kings of the land, to the destruction of all the people of the land, and to the annihilation of the saddlers aforesaid. As to the which, they pray for redress."

"As to the first point in this Petition,—the lorimers and others of their companionship have made answer, that they never have done so, and they never will do so. To the second point they have made answer,—that no strange workman of their trade ought to work among them, if he be not admitted and sworn among them, and have not done that, in presence of the Mayor and Aldermen, which unto the franchise of the City pertains. And as regards that they have set up certain prices in their trades,—they altogether deny the same."

(fn. 21) And hereupon, for avoiding still greater peril, and for making and reestablishing concord and peace among the men of the said trades, it was ordered and agreed that six Aldermen should be chosen, to be present at a certain day and place; and that the men of the trades aforesaid should appear before them; for the purpose of treating of peace and concord among all. And the following Aldermen were chosen;—namely, Nicholas de Farndone, Hamon de Chigwelle, Reynald de Conduit, Henry de Seccheford, Thomas de Leyre, and John de Caustone; who, upon being so chosen, named a day for the men of the trades aforesaid to appear before them, the same Aldermen, at St. Martin's le Grand in London, the following Sunday, namely, there to treat of peace and concord, as before mentioned.

Upon which day there met at the place aforesaid, as well the Aldermen before-mentioned, as the men of the said trades, in great multitudes on either side. And after they had begun to treat of the business aforesaid, by reason of the multitude of people present, they were not able to expedite the business, or to bring it to a conclusion; whereupon, it was ordered by the said Aldermen, and agreed to by the men of the trades aforesaid, that certain persons of the trade of the saddlers, and, in like manner, certain persons of the trades of the painters, joiners, and lorimers, should be chosen to treat in behalf of each such trade, for reestablishing peace between them.

And hereupon, there were chosen, by assent of the whole commonalty,—of the trade of saddlers, Ralph de Blithe, Richard Bukskyn, Alan de Frechebeke, Gilbert de Balsham, John de Champaigne, and Robert de Bristolle. And of the trades of joiners, lorimers in copper and in iron, and painters, there were chosen, by assent of all of such trades, Robert de Suttone, and Walter le Keu, copresmythes, Ralph le Gilder and Richard de Bernham, irensmythes, Robert de Donemowe and Richard le Whyte, joiners, Henry de Denecombe, and Geoffrey le Purtreour, (fn. 22) painters. Who being so chosen, together with the Aldermen aforesaid, they began to treat of peace, as before stated. But on that day they could not bring the said matter to an end; by reason whereof, they named a future day, that is to say, the Tuesday following, then to meet again, in order to treat more at length of peace and concord, as beforementioned.

Upon which day they met, and there they did ordain and establish final peace and concord; which in a certain schedule, delivered to the Mayor and Aldermen, is more fully set forth; the tenor of which is as follows.—

(fn. 23) "Whereas dissensions and strifes have been moved between the folks who are saddlers of London, of the one part, and the folks who are joiners, lorimers in iron, lorimers in copper, and painters, of the same city, of the other part; thereupon, by ordinance of common friends, that is to say, of Thomas Rys, Richard Denys, Walter le Mazerer, Hugh de Brandone, John de Castelacre, Nicholas Crane, and Thomas de Berkyng, the which have been chosen and thereunto ordained by the saddlers before-mentioned; and of Henry Moncoy, John Saleman, Adam Pykeman, Thomas de Havering, John le Kynge, and John Coterel, the which have been chosen and thereunto ordained by the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid; the which ordainers, with one consent and one will, have made agreement and peace in this form between the parties aforesaid; [it was thus agreed], that is to say.—

"That if the saddlers aforesaid, or any one of them, or any of their successors, shall at any time to come, after this present time, offend against the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid, or shall maintain any one of their household, or any other person whatsoever, in so doing, and shall thereof by good and lawful persons be convicted, and will not in due form make amends; then in such case, the saddlers aforesaid do will and do grant, for themselves and for their successors, that they shall be bound to pay unto the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid, ten tuns of good wine, and to render the same within one month next ensuing after the offence of which conviction shall have been so made; and also, other ten tuns of good wine unto the Mayor and the Commonalty of London, at the same time to be paid and rendered. And in all the ways in which the saddlers aforesaid, for themselves, and for their vadlets and their successors, have bound themselves as towards the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid, in the same manner have the ordainers aforesaid ordained that the joiners, lorimers, and painters before-mentioned, for themselves, for their vadlets, and for their successors, shall be bound as towards the saddlers before-mentioned.

"And further, by the said ordainers it is ordained, that if the saddlers aforesaid shall receive or take back, or any one of them shall receive or take, the persons of their trade hereinafter named, or any one of them, who have withdrawn themselves for the offences which they have committed against the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid, such names being here specified and set forth, namely,—Nicholas Bonere, John Bonere, William de Carletone, Alexander de Oundle, Roger de Wyndesore, John de Houghtone, Roger le Clerke, his vadlet, John de York, saddler, and John de Coventre, saddler,—or from their goods and chattels in any manner shall maintain or sustain them, or maintain and sustain any one of them, before they shall have given satisfaction, and made peace, and agreed, with the joiners, lorimers, and painters aforesaid, and shall by good and lawful persons be convicted of so doing; then in such case they shall be bound to pay twenty tuns of good wine; that is to say, ten tuns of wine to the same trades of the joiners, lorimers, and painters, within the month next ensuing after they shall have been so convicted; and the other ten tuns of wine to the Mayor and to the Commonalty of the said city. And that these ordinances and grants shall hold good and be valid, as well against the saddlers aforesaid, as the joiners, lorimers, and painters before-mentioned, they shall be enrolled in the Husting at London, for ever to endure; and also in the paper of the Chamber of the Guildhall aforesaid."

And further, the men of the trades of joiners, painters, and lorimers in copper and in iron, presented to the Mayor and Aldermen a petition, the tenor of which was as follows.—

"To the Mayor, to the Aldermen, and to all the Commonalty of London, make prayer the painters, joiners, and lorimers in iron and in copper, dwelling in the City of London; that no stranger, of whatsoever condition he may be, shall be admitted to, or suffered to follow, any of the said trades in the same city, before he shall have been received at the Husting in presence of the Mayor and the Aldermen, by assent of eight reputable men who shall be chosen to keep and oversee the same trades; and shall have found for the Commonalty sufficient surety among persons of the same trades, as he is bound to do. And that if any person shall be found to contravene the ordinance aforesaid, he may be amerced in the sum of one mark, in manner below stated.

"And also, they pray that no manner of work belonging to the same trades that has once been used, shall be afterwards repaired for resale thereof: and if it shall so happen that any such repaired work shall be found on resale, that it shall be forfeited to the Mayor and to the Commonalty.

"And further, they pray that every time that any freeman shall be found to contravene the points aforesaid, or any one of them, he shall be amerced in the sum of one mark at the Chamber of the Guildhall, without having release or pardon thereof." (fn. 24)

Stealing dough by making holes in the Bakers' moulding-boards.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. (Latin.)

(fn. 25) A congregation of Richard de Betoigne, Mayor, John de Grantham, John de Caustone, Henry de Combemartyn, Reynald de Conduit, John de Prestone, and Hugh de Gartone, Aldermen, and Roger Chauntecler, one of the Sheriffs of London, holden at the Guildhall, on Thursday in the week of Pentecost, that is, on the 4th day of June, A.D. 1327, and in the first year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third.—

John Brid, baker, was attached to make answer as to certain falsehood, malice, and deceit, by him committed, to the nuisance of the common people; as to which, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs of the City, were given to understand that the same John, for falsely and maliciously obtaining his own private advantage, did skilfully and artfully cause a certain hole to be made upon a table of his, called a "moldingborde, (fn. 26) " pertaining to his bakehouse, after the manner of a mouse-trap, in which mice are caught; there being a certain wicket warily provided for closing and opening such hole.

And when his neighbours and others, who were wont to bake their bread at his oven, came with their dough or material for making bread, the said John used to put such dough or other material upon the said table, called a "moldingborde" as aforesaid, and over the hole before-mentioned, for the purpose of making loaves therefrom, for baking; and such dough or material being so placed upon the table aforesaid, the same John had one of his household, ready provided for the same, sitting in secret beneath such table; which servant of his, so seated beneath the hole, and carefully opening it, piecemeal and bit by bit craftily withdrew some of the dough aforesaid, frequently collecting great quantities from such dough, falsely, wickedly, and maliciously; to the great loss of all his neighbours and persons living near, and of others, who had come to him with such dough to bake, and to the scandal and disgrace of the whole City, and, in especial, of the Mayor and Bailiffs for the safe-keeping of the assizes of the City assigned. Which hole, so found in his table aforesaid, was made of afcrethought; and in like manner, a great quantity of such dough that had been drawn through the said hole, was found beneath the hole, and was by William de Hertynge, serjeant-at-mace, and Thomas de Morle, clerk of Richard de Rothinge, one of the Sheriffs of the City aforesaid, who had found such material or dough in the suspected place before-mentioned, upon oath brought here into Court.

And the same John, here present in Court, being asked how he will acquit himself of the fraud, malice, and deceit aforesaid, personally in Court says that of such fraud, malice, and deceit, he is in no way guilty; and puts himself upon the country thereon, etc.

Therefore, let inquisition as to the truth of the matter be made by the country, etc.

William atte Sele, John atte Barnette, Robert de Bertone, John de Polberowe, Robert de Brokesbourne, Roger de Miltone, and Richard de Honesdone, bakers, and Alice de Brightenoch, and Lucy de Pykeringe, bakeresses, in whose houses also, like tables, called "moldingbordes," were found, with like holes, and with like dough beneath, as aforesaid, fraudulently and maliciously collected, were attached to make answer as to the fraud, malice, and deceit aforesaid, in like manner as above mentioned concerning the said John, etc. Who appeared; and each of them being singly arraigned as to the matters aforesaid, they say that they are in no way guilty, and put themselves upon the country, etc. Therefore let inquisition as to the truth of the matter be made, etc.

And hereupon, Richard le Mitere, Richard de Bitterle, William de Keyle, Adam de Bokelonde, Roger le Bere, Elyas Dycun, Geoffrey de Holewelle, William Pope, Richard Frere, John Thedmar, John atte Wodehouse, and Adam de Walpole, upon whom [as jurors] the said John and all the others had put themselves, being sworn, and having held converse and counsel hereon, appeared; and they say upon their oath, that the aforesaid John and all the others are guilty of all, as well as to the hole so suspected, and the dough drawn through such hole, as the other things charged against them; and that for long they have been wont to commit the said falsehood and deceit. Therefore it was adjudged that the said John and all the others should be committed to the Gaol of Neugate, etc.; and because, for lack of Aldermen, the Court was then unprepared further to give judgment thereon, a day was given, being the Saturday then next ensuing, etc.; and in the meantime, all the Aldermen, with twelve, eight, or six, of each Ward, according as the Ward was great or small, were to be summoned to be here present upon that day; to the end that then might be done what of right, and according to the custom of the City, ought to be done.

Afterwards, on the said Saturday, there came Richard, the Mayor aforesaid, Hamon de Chigwelle, Nicholas de Farndone, Reynald de Conduit, Hamon Godchepe, John de Prestone, John Priour, Thomas de Leyre, Richard Costantyn, John de Oxenford, Anketin de Gisorz, Henry de Combemartyn, Richard de Hakeney, John de Caustone, Hugh de Gartone, John Poyntel, and Adam de Salisbury, Aldermen, Roger Chauntecler and Richard de Rothynge, Sheriffs, and in like manner certain men summoned from each Ward, as set forth in the panel by the Sheriffs returned; and after counsel and treaty had been held among the Mayor and Aldermen, as to passing judgment upon the falsehood, malice, and deceit aforesaid; seeing that, although there is no one who prosecutes them, or any one of them, the said deed is, as it were, a certain species of theft, and that it is neither consonant with right nor pleasing to God that such falsehood, deceit, and malice, shall go unpunished; the more especially as all those who have come to the said bakers, to bake their bread, have been falsely, wickedly, and maliciously deceived, they themselves being wholly ignorant thereof, and have suffered no little loss thereby; it was agreed and ordained, that all those of the bakers aforesaid, beneath whose tables with holes dough had been found, should be put upon the pillory, with a certain quantity of such dough hung from their necks; and that those bakers in whose houses dough was not found beneath the tables aforesaid, should be put upon the pillory, but without dough hung from their necks; and that they should so remain upon the pillory until Vespers at St. Paul's in London should be ended.

And as to the two women aforesaid, because that they allege that they have husbands, namely, Alice William de Brechenoke (fn. 27) for her husband, and Lucy aforesaid Hugh de Pykerynge for her husband, and this same has by their neighbours been attested; seeing too that the same Alice and Lucy allege that the said deed was not their deed;—it was agreed and ordained that they should be sent back to the Prison of Neugate, there to remain until as to them it should have been otherwise ordained; and that all such tables with holes, as aforesaid, should be thrown down and utterly destroyed, and from thenceforth not allowed to be made; and that if any one of the said bakers should in future be found acting with such deceit, falsehood, and malice, he should stand upon the pillory for one whole day, and afterwards abjure the City, so as at no future time to return thereto.

It should also be known, that all the said bakers, were found with dough, and had dough hung about their necks upon the pillory; save and except John Brid (fn. 28) and Robert de Brokesbourne, with whom no such dough was found.

It should also be known, that the women aforesaid remained in the said Prison of Neugate, in the custody of the Sheriffs before mentioned.

Petition of the Hostelers and Haymongers of London, and Ordinance made thereon.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book E. fol. clxxix. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 29) On Saturday next after the Feast of St. Peter's Chains [1 August], in the first year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third, came the good men, the hostelers and haymongers of London, to the Guildhall, and, in presence of Richard de Betoigne, Mayor, Nicholas de Farndone, Hamon de Chigwelle, and other Aldermen, and of Roger Chauntecler and Richard de Rothyng, Sheriffs of London, and many others, commoners of the different Wards of the same city, there by summons assembled, presented to the same Mayor and Aldermen a certain petition, the tenor of which is as follows.—

(fn. 30) To the Mayor and to the Aldermen of the City of London, shew and make plaint the hostelers and the haymongers of the same city, for themselves and for all the commonalty; that whereas they used to buy hay to serve our Lord the King and the great people of the land, and the common folks coming and repairing unto the same city, to the great easing and profit of the said lords and of the people, and to live rightfully upon their gains, as they were wont, and ought, to do; there now come foreign folks, (fn. 31) and bring their hay from day to day by water in ships unto divers quays in the City; and whereas, according to the usage and franchise of the said city the said foreigners ought, and were wont, to sell their said hay upon the water, and not elsewhere; so far as they cannot sell it according to their own will, they now stow it away in houses, gardens, and other places, just as though they were free of the City; against the said franchise of the City, and to the great enhancing of such hay, and to the great damage of the [said] folks and of all the people.

"And also,—whereas foreign folks who bring hay by land, in carts, to the said city, according to the usage of such city ought to sell their said hay by the whole cartload, or by trusses, and that before the hour of None, on pain of forfeiture of such hay; the said foreigners now come, and bring their carts laden with dozens of small boteles, (fn. 32) powdered over with dust and other refuse, and sell it by retail, for halfpennies and ferthenges, and stay to sell it as well after None as before, at their own will; to the damage, and in deceit, of the people, and against the franchise of the City. As to the which things they pray for redress, for the common profit of the City, and of all the people. For if speedy remedy be not had thereto, those who are foreigners and strangers, who are charged nothing for making aids and contributions in the City, will be in better plight than those who are denizens and free of the City, and who have been charged, and are charged from day to day, towards making the same."

(fn. 33) Which petition having been read and understood, and certain matters considered in the same petition contained, and also, certain other reasons having been propounded and alleged, it was agreed that hay belonging to foreigners, coming to the said city by land or by water, should in future not be sold in the same city by boteles, but only wholesale by shiploads, or half shiploads, or quarter shiploads; as also, by cartloads, and fesses for horses, (fn. 34) to be carried by men and women upon their heads, as has heretofore should not stow away such hay, or land the same, before it has been sold, on pain of forfeiting the hay with which it has been should not stow away such hay, or land the same, before it has been sold, on pain of forfeiting the hay with which it has been done otherwise.

And to oversee and look to the same on land, there were chosen and appointed,—John de Petewardyn, Walter de Lyndewode, Thomas Sencler, and John le Longe; and Walter Overhee and Denis le Otemonger, by water.

Imprisonment of the Provost of Welles, and fine made for him by one of the Sheriffs of London.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book E. fol. clxxx. (Norman French.)

(fn. 35) "To all persons who these letters shall see or hear, Richard de Bettoyne, Mayor, the Aldermen, and all the Commonalty of the City of London, greeting. Be it known unto all of you, that whereas Master Robert de Haselshawe, Provost of Welles, was lately by us arrested and delivered unto Richard de Rothyng, one of the Sheriffs of the said city, by him safely to be kept, for certain offences by divers folks of the same city to the said Master Robert imputed, as having been by him against them committed; which same Master Robert, to have the love and good will of all the good folks of the same city, through John le Mynour, his vadlet, agreed to give to the same commonalty 100 pounds, saving to each person of the same city his action for personal trespass against him. And whereas the said Master Robert, without making payment of the said 100 pounds to the said commonalty, or making answer to any one as to such personal trespass aforesaid, has passed out of the custody of the said Sheriff; know ye that we, the aforesaid Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, have received from the said Richard de Rothyng, the Sheriff before-mentioned, for the said Master Robert, the 100 pounds sterling aforesaid: and by these our letters patent we do grant and do will, that the said Master Robert and all his people may from henceforth safely and surely come unto the said city, and remain among us, and depart when he shall please, without receiving any molestation, damage, grievance, or disturbance whatsoever: so nevertheless, that the said Master Robert shall be answerable to every one who shall think proper to make plaint against him by way of law. In witness whereof, we have made these our letters patent, sealed with our Common Seal. Given at London, the 18th day of September, in the first year of the reign of our Lord King Edward, after the Conquest the Third."

Delivery by the Mayor and Aldermen of coffers and books lately belonging to Robert de Baldoke.

1 Edward III. A.D. 1327. Letter-Book E. fol. clxxiii. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 36) Our Lord, the King sent his writ to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City, of London, under his Privy Seal, in these words.—

(fn. 37) Edward, by the grace of God, King, of England, etc., to our well-beloved the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of our City of London, greeting. Of late, upon the shewing of our well-beloved Roger de Waltham, late Keeper of the Wardrobe of our most dear lord and father, whom may God assoil, we have been given to understand that among the goods and chattels which belonged to Master Robert de Baldoke, (fn. 38) and were found in the treasury of the Church of St. Paul, in London, after the arrival of ourselves and of our most dear lady and mother, four coffers, with books and other things touching his accounts for the time that he was Keeper of the said Wardrobe, and vestments and other property which he had in his keeping for our said lord and father, were taken and carried to the Guildhall in our said city, and there remain in your custody, as it is said; and we have commanded you by other our letters, to cause the same coffers and other goods and chattels to be delivered unto the said Roger, to the end that he might account by them for the time aforesaid; but as to the which nothing has been done, to the great falling in arrears of the same accounts, and the great loss of ourselves; at the which we do marvel. We do therefore again command you, that you cause to be delivered unto the said Roger the same coffers, together with the books, vestments, and other goods and chattels aforesaid, according to our first mandate; that so he may arrange his said account, and make answer unto us as to the said matters, in such manner as he is bound to do. Given under our Privy Seal, at Pontefract, the 20th day of November, in the first year of our reign."

(fn. 39) In virtue of which mandate, the said coffers were delivered in the Chamber unto the aforesaid Roger de Waltham, being under his seal, together with the other goods and chattels above-mentioned, there being present, Hamon de Chiggewelle, Mayor, Nicholas de Farndone, Henry de Sechford, Thomas de Leyre, and Anketin de Gisorz, Aldermen, and Andrew Horn, Chamberlain. Which coffers, goods, and chattels aforesaid, he caused to be carried away with him to his hostel.

Footnotes

  • 1. Or Pelterers. The Church, of St. Mary Axe was also called "St. Mary Pelliper," from a plot of ground near, where the Pellipers dressed their skins.
  • 2. Or rather, "set of furs."
  • 3. Fur made from some part of the skin of the hind.
  • 4. Fur of the back of the squirrel in spring.
  • 5. Or "stranlynge"; fur of the squirrel between Michaelmas and winter.
  • 6. Squirrel; of other kinds than those before named.
  • 7. semypurato.
  • 8. Or fripperer; a dealer in secondhand clothes and furniture.
  • 9. Boston.
  • 10. Stamford.
  • 11. batterie; in France, a set of metal "batterie de cuisine"." vessels for kitchen use, is still known as a
  • 12. In Latin.
  • 13. Makers of bits, and ornamental metal work for reins.
  • 14. In French.
  • 15. A day for making terms of reconciliation.
  • 16. The Deposition of St. Dunstan, 19 May, must be meant.
  • 17. Meaning, "gilders,"
  • 18. These, or similar words, seem to be required by the context.
  • 19. Coppersmiths; the lorimers in copper.
  • 20. malveiste.
  • 21. In Latin.
  • 22. The Portrayer.
  • 23. In French.
  • 24. The result of this petition is not stated.
  • 25. This account is referred to in the Liber Albus, fol. 289 a, apparently as having formerly appeared in one of the Letter-Books. It is no longer to be found there, but is here translated from the Assisa Panis, fol. 79 b, still preserved at Guildhall.
  • 26. A "moulding-boorde" is mentioned in M. Withals's Engl. and Latin Dictionary (a.d. 1634) three centuries later, as part of the furniture of a baker's shop.
  • 27. This name varies somewhat from that of the wife, previously given.
  • 28. This assertion, the reader will find, is contradicted in express terms, as to John Brid, by the previous context, page 163.
  • 29. In Latin.
  • 30. In French.
  • 31. Non-freemen.
  • 32. Or "bottles," small bundles. The word still survives in the well-known proverb.
  • 33. In Latin.
  • 34. Small trusses, but larger than the "bottles," mentioned above.
  • 35. The circumstances of this case, and the reasons for imprisonment of this ecclesiastical dignitary, are, unfortunately, not stated.
  • 36. In Latin.
  • 37. In French.
  • 38. An unworthy minister and favourite of Edward II., who had recently died miserably in Newgate.
  • 39. In Latin.