Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Ordinances of the Leathersellers.
21 Richard II. A.D. 1398. Letter-Book H. fol. cccxiii. (Norman French.)
These Articles (fn. 1) were by the Mayor and Aldermen ordered to be entered, on the 5th day of March, in the 21st year etc.—
"In the first place,—it is ordained that two or four men of the best and most sufficient in the said trade shall be chosen and sworn to keep, and survey the defaults of, the trade, and to present the same, from time to time, to the Mayor and Chamberlain for the time being.
"Also,—if any one in the trade, master or serving-man, shall be found to be rebellious or contumacious towards the said Masters, so chosen and sworn, so that they cannot make due search in the said trade, he shall incur the penalty and punishment heretofore in such cases ordained; that is to say, a fine in a sum of 6s. 8d.; of which sum 40 pence shall be paid to the Chamber, and 40 pence to the use of the trade.
"Also,—if any work in the trade shall be falsely and deceitfully made, in deceit of the common people, he who has so made the same shall pay 40 pence to the Chamber aforesaid, and 40 pence to the Masters of the said trade.
"Also,—that the said Masters, so chosen and sworn, together with a serjeant of the Chamber, shall have power to make search, as well upon those who are not of the same trade, as to points (fn. 2) and lanyers, (fn. 3) as upon those who are of their own trade.
"Also,—that no manner of shepeslether or calveslether shall be dyed after the manner of rolether; because that the said men and good folks have found great deceits in the same, and the common people are easily deceived thereby. If any person shall be found in default on this point, he shall pay 40 pence each time, that is to say, 20 pence to the said Chamber, and 20 pence to the use of the trade.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall send any manner of lanyers or points, that are made of roeslether or of dereslether, to be sold at the Evechepyng, or in hostels, or in secret or dark places, in deceit of the common people. And that every time that any one of the said trade shall be found in default as to this point, he shall pay 6s. 8d., that is to say, 40 pence to the Chamber, and 40 pence to the trade.
"Also,—that from henceforth no one shall set any man, child, or woman, to work in the same trade, if such person be not first bound apprentice, and enrolled, in the trade; their wives and children only excepted, according as the custom and ordinance of the said city do will and demand. And so often as any one shall be found in default in this point, he shall pay 40 shillings, that is to say, 20 shillings to the Chamber, and 20 shillings to the use of the trade.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall from henceforth work by night with hamour (fn. 4) or sheres, knife or file, at making points or lanyers, under the penalty of one noble, 40 pence of which shall be paid to the Chamber, and 40 pence to the use of the trade.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall make or work at points or lanyers, if he be not good and sufficient thereto. And that no one of the trade shall make points of dyed shepeslether, or of calveslether, in deceit of the people; on pain of paying 6s. 8d., so often as in such case any one shall be found in default; 40 pence of which shall be paid to the said Chamber, and 40 pence to the use of the trade.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall make points of roo (fn. 5) or of dere, if they are not duly tagged (fn. 6) and rounded, that is to say, of cours ware. (fn. 7) And further, no man shall make points of any manner of leather that is called filed ware, if the same be not good, stout, and filed, as well beneath as above, on pain of paying 20 shillings, so often as any one shall be found in default; 10 shillings of which shall be paid to the said Chamber, and 10 shillings to the use of the trade."
Charge of disloyalty against John Sewale.
21 Richard II. A.D. 1398. Letter-Book H. fol. cccxiv. (Latin.)
Richard, by the grace of God, etc., to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, greeting. We, desiring for certain reasons to be certified as to the cause for the taking and detention by you of John Sewale of Iseldone, (fn. 8) cartere, in our Gaol of Neugate, as it is said, do command you, that you, the aforesaid Mayor, do certify us thereupon in our Chancery distinctly and openly, under your Seal, without delay. Witness myself, at Westminster, the 28th day of April, in the 21st year of our reign."
Answer of Richard Whityngtone, Mayor, and John Wodecok and William Askham, Sheriffs, of London.—
Before the coming of the writ of our Lord the King unto this paper annexed, John Sewale, in the said writ named, was taken and committed to the Prison of our Lord the King at Neugate, on the appeal of Richard Hawtyn, (fn. 9) of Gloucester, as is set forth in the following words.—
On Thursday next after the Feast of our Lord's Nativity, in the 21st year of the reign of King Richard the Second, Richard Hawtyn, of Gloucester, came to Neugate, in London, before Richard Whetyngtone, Mayor of the City of London, John Cokayn, Recorder of the same city, William Askham and John Wodecok, Sheriffs of the said city, and John Michel, Coroner in the City aforesaid, and appealed John Sewale, cartere, of Iseldone, because that he, the aforesaid John Sewale, on the 15th day of the month of September, in the 21st year of the reign of King Richard the Second, in the Church of St. Martin le Grand, in London, did say to Richard Hawtyn aforesaid, that there had been no peace or love in England since the present King of England became king; and in like manner, did further say that he is not the rightful king. And of the words aforesaid the said Richard Hawtyn appealed the same John Sewale before the said Mayor, Recorder, Sheriffs, and Coroner. And also, John Sewale was detained in the prison aforesaid for 40 marks, which John Neel, gardenere, recovered against him before Adam Bame, (fn. 10) late Mayor of the City of London, in a certain plea of trespass.
"And these are the reasons for the taking and detention of the said John Sewale in the prison aforesaid."
Ordinances of the Hurers.
22 Richard II. A.D. 1398. Letter-Book H. fol. cccxviii. (Norman French.)
ON the 20th day of August, in the 22nd year etc., the following Articles of the trade of Hurers (fn. 11) were by Richard Whityngtone, Mayor, and the Aldermen, ordered to be entered.—
In the first place,—that no one of the said trade shall scour a cappe or hure, or anything pertaining to scouryng, belonging to the said trade, in any open place: but they must do this in their own houses; seeing that some persons in the said trade have of late sent their apprentices and journeymen, as well children of tender age as others, down to the water of Thames and other exposed places, and amid horrible tempests, frosts, and snows, to the very great scandal, as well of the good folks of the said trade, as of the City aforesaid. And also, because that divers persons, and pages belonging to lords, when they take their horses down to the Thames, are oftentimes wrangling with their said apprentices and journeymen; and they are then on the point of killing one another, to the very great peril that seems likely to ensue therefrom.
And that no one of the said trade shall work upon any Feastday, or upon the Eve (fn. 12) of an Eve, or on any Saturday after the last peelle of Vespers rung at his Parish Church, on the pain thereon ordained.
And in order the mischiefs aforesaid utterly to avoid, by advice of the said Mayor and Aldermen, and by common assent of the said trade, it is ordained and agreed to, that every one who shall be found in default, or culpable in any of the points aforesaid, shall pay 2 shillings the first time, 3s. 4d. the second time, 6s. 8d. the third time, and on the fourth default, shall be adjudged to suffer pecuniary or bodily penalty, by award of the Mayor and Aldermen of the said city, for the time being; one half [of the penalty] to go to the use of the Chamber of the said city, and the other half to the use of the said trade."
Stock of a Jeweller's Shop, on Cornhulle.
22 Richard II. A.D. 1398. Letter-Book H. fol. cccxviii. (Latin.)
William Caessewyk, William Coupere, Chaplain, and Bartholomew Neue, executors of Walter Pynchon, (fn. 13) citizen of London, and merchant, dwelling on Cornhulle, who was of late treacherously slain at Winchester, (fn. 14) brought here into Court divers jewels unto him belonging; which were appraised by Drew Barentyn (fn. 15) and John Doblere, goldsmiths, as follow.—
One royal chaplet, value 100l. One royal nowche, 100l. One fine ruby, 40l. Three rubies, 50 marks. Two rubies, 20l. Five rubies, 10 marks. One balass, 13s. 4d. Twenty-seven dyamandes on three buttons, (fn. 16) 100 marks. Two sapphires and two balasses, 10l. Fortysix rings and two small nowches of gold, 14l. One collar of gold, with a fawkone, (fn. 17) 10l. Eleven nowches and one hart, (fn. 18) in gold, 11l. One chaplet of pearls, 40s. Nineteen gold rings, 40l. One selle (fn. 19) of gold, 10l. Two nowches of gold, 32l. One tablet of gold, with a figure of cokylle, (fn. 20) 5l. One small box, with stones, 4 marks. One hart in gold, 33s. 4d. One pontifical ring, 40s. Thirty pearls, 20l. Two tabbletys (fn. 21) of gold, 8l. One mytre, 20l.
One silver ewer, weighing 12¾ ounces. Two white pieces, (fn. 22) with silver necks, (fn. 23) weighing 22 ounces. Two silver candelstikkes, weighing 9½ ounces. Two bikers (fn. 24) of silver gilt, weighing 29½ ounces. One other biker of silver gilt, weighing 16 ounces. One silver saltcellar, weighing 13½ ounces. Twenty-four silver spoons, weighing 23½ ounces. One silver paxbred, (fn. 25) weighing 6 ounces.
Amount of such ounces, 132¾ at 2s. 4d. per ounce, value thereof, 15l. 9s. 9d.
Sum total—600l. 3s. 6d.
Ordinances of Bakwellehalle. (fn. 26)
22 Richard II. A.D. 1398. Letter-Book H. fol. cccxxvii. (Norman French.)
By assent of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, of the City of London, it is ordered that no manner of person, foreigner or stranger, bringing woollen cloth to the said city for sale, shall house, shew, or sell the same, at any other place within the said city, or in the suburbs thereof, than at Bakwellehalle; which is by the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, thereunto especially appointed and assigned; on pain of forfeiture of all woollen cloth to the contrary hereof housed, shown, or sold. And that no person, foreigner or stranger, shall sell any manner of woollen cloth at the said Bakwellehalle, at any time in the week, except between eleven of the clocke before Noon on Thursday, and eleven of the clocke before Noon on Saturday; on pain of forfeiture of all cloth sold to the contrary hereof."
(fn. 27) "Whereas the foreign drapers bringing woollen cloths to the City of London for sale, do sell the same in divers hostelries in secret, where they make many disorderly and deceitful bargains, as well between foreigner and foreigner, as between foreigner and freeman, to the great scandal and damage of all the City, and against the franchises and liberties of the same, by the noble progenitors of our most dread Lord the King granted, and by the same our Lord the King of late confirmed, and against the customs of the said city; in order to avoid such disorderly and deceitful bargainings, and that the commons of the same city, and others unto it repairing, may have full notice where such cloths are for sale; and also, that our said Lord the King may be the better paid his custom and other duties upon the said cloths, Richard Whityngtone, Mayor, and the Aldermen, with the assent of the Commons of the said city, have ordained that every foreign draper, from whatsoever part he shall bring woollen cloths unto the said city to sell, shall take the same wholly to Bakwellehalle in the said city, and nowhere else within the franchise of the same city, on pain of forfeiture of all cloths that shall be otherwise housed; and that no foreign or alien merchant shall buy any such manner of cloths of such foreign drapers, otherwise than at the said place of Bakwellehalle, under the same penalty. And that the same foreign drapers shall make their show and sale of their said cloths on certain days, and at certain hours in the week, at the same place, according to the ancient custom, and not otherwise; that is to say, from Thursday at mid-day (fn. 28) until the same hour on the Saturday following, on pain of forfeiture of all cloth otherwise sold. And that the said foreign drapers from henceforth shall bring unto the said place no cloth for sale except whole cloths and half cloths, listed at both ends, on pain of forfeiting so much as shall be found made to the contrary.
"And this Ordinance shall begin to take effect on the Thursday next after the Feast of St. Matthew [21 September] now next to come, in the 23rd year (fn. 29) of the reign of King Richard the Second."