An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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In this section
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xlvi. N.W. (b)xlvi. S.W. (c)xlvi. S.E. (d)li. N.W.)
d(1). Dwelling-house, N.W. of Yewden Manor Farm and W. of a large flint pit, at Mill End (see also (12–13) below), about 400 yards from the river Thames. Extensive foundations were noted in 1911, with Roman tiles, mosaic flooring, Samian and other pottery, and a 4th-century coin, on a site covering 1½–2 acres, partly under grass and partly arable.
Condition—The site is now being excavated.
d(2). Parish Church of St. Mary, stands in the village. The walls are of flint with limestone and chalk dressings; the roofs are tiled. A 12th-century church of cruciform plan appears to have existed, consisting of a Chancel, Nave, North and South Transepts, and a central tower; c. 1230 the N. transept was lengthened and an Aisle added to it on the E.-side; c. 1340 the Nave was re-built; probably a little later in the 14th century the chancel was lengthened, and the S. transept enlarged. The central tower was destroyed in 1703 and a W. tower built in 1721, when probably the 12th-century doorway now in the N. transept was moved from the W. wall of the nave. The Aisles of the Chancel, the North Vestry and South Porch are modern, and the West Tower was entirely re-built in the 19th century.
The late 14th-century piscina and sedilia are especially worthy of note; some oak panelling in the tower, said to be the end of a bedstead which belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, is a fine example of woodcarving of early 16th-century date.
Architectural Description — The Chancel (58 ft. by 20 ft.) has a 15th-century E. window of three lights and tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded external label; the jambs and mullions are moulded; below this, visible outside, is a blocked window of three square-headed lights, of clunch and probably of the 15th century. In the N. wall is a window of two lights with tracery in a two-centred head, all modern, except the rear arch and moulded internal label, of chalk, which are probably of the 14th century; a doorway opening into the vestry and an arcade of two bays into the N. aisle of the chancel are modern. In the S. wall are two windows similar to the N.E. window and also externally modern; over the sedilia is a 14th-century moulded string-course, and further W. a modern arcade of two bays opens into the S. aisle of the chancel. The chancel arch is modern. The North Aisle of the Chancel (12 ft. wide) is modern, except the W. half, which is formed by the N. transeptal aisle (see below). The South Aisle of the Chancel is modern, including the arch opening into the S. transept. The North Transept (27½ ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. arcade of two bays, built c. 1230; it is of chalk, and has pointed arches of two chamfered orders, a plain label and a circular middle pillar; the N. and S. responds have each a small half-round shaft with a moulded capital; the N. shaft is pointed at the lower end, and the W. angle of the S. respond is modern. The N. window is modern. In the N. half of the W. wall is an early 13th-century window of two lights with a trefoil in a pointed head, all of chalk; below the window, outside, is the outer stonework of a 12th-century doorway; the jambs have three-quarter round engaged shafts, moulded bases, carved capitals, grooved and chamfered abaci; the semi-circular arch is of one heavy roll moulding; all of limestone and probably of c. 1140; it was re-set in its present position when the modern heating chamber was built in the angle of the transept and the nave; the semi-circular rear arch and square inner jambs remain in the S. half of the wall. The North Transeptal Aisle (11½ ft. wide) has two modern windows in the N. half; the S. half is now incorporated with the N. aisle of the chancel. The South Transept (28 ft. by 20 ft.) has a S. window of four lights, an E. window and two W. windows each of two lights, all externally of modern limestone, and internally of chalk, some of which may be old material re-used and re-worked. The Nave (69½ ft. by 18 ft.) has, in the N. and S. walls, a modern arch opening into each transept; in both walls are two windows of c. 1340, each of two cinque-foiled lights with a sexfoil in a two-centred head, and moulded external and internal labels, all of limestone; below the window ledges is a 14th-century moulded string-course of chalk; the small N. doorway, near the W. end, is now blocked; it is of limestone, of c. 1340, and has chamfered jambs and pointed arch, with a moulded external label; the S. doorway, also of c. 1340, is of three moulded orders, with a moulded label, and above it is a small lancet of modern stone. The West Tower is of two stages and, with the tower arch, is modern. The Roof of the nave has one tie-beam, which is possibly old, the other timbers are modern.
Fittings—Bells: six, 2nd and 3rd, by Ellis Knight, 1634, 6th, inscribed 'Ora Mente Pia Pro Nobis Virgo Maria', early 15th-century. Brasses: In N. transept—on N. wall, fragments on a board, (1) to Robert Scrop and Kateryne, his wife, 15— (date not completed), Latin inscription in black-letter and two shields, of Scrope quartering Tiptoft with a crescent for difference; on another board, below the first, (2) figure of woman kneeling before a desk, above her part of scroll with prayer in Latin, facing her, as though from another figure, second scroll with prayer, at base of board, third scroll, inscribed 'Jhu mercy', two small shields charged as above; brasses on both boards probably originally on one monument. In nave—on N. wall, at W. end, (3) to John Berde, 1492; on W. wall, N. side, (4) figures of a man and his two wives, c. 1630, on one plate; S. side, (5) small figures of civilian, with purse and string of long beads, and woman in horned head-dress, over them figures of four sons, inscription to Robert Doyley, 1617, and Anne, his wife, 1639; the dates, which were filled in after the rest of the inscription, are about a century later than the style of dress of figures. In tower—on N. wall, (6) shield of Scrope quartering Tiptoft, Badlesmere, Clare, Scrope of Masham and Nevill; on S. wall, (7) to John White and Alice, his wife, 1497; (8) to John Shipwash, 1457, and Joan, his wife; (9) to Ralph Scrope, rector of the parish, 1516; on W. wall, (10) of George Scroop, 1614, figure of a man and lower half of figure of a woman, with inscription; (11) to William Shypwasshe and Margery, his wife, late 15th-century, undated. Font (see Plate, p. xxvii.): cylindrical, sides carved with diamond-shaped panels containing floriated crosses and fleurs-de-lis, of coarse limestone, 12th-century. Monuments: In chancel—on N. side, (1) altar tomb in recess with flat four-centred arch in square head, spandrels containing shield and foliage, moulded jambs of two orders, flanked by octagonal shafts with moulded bases and double capitals, the lower capital continued as architrave across top of recess and surmounted by leaf-cresting, soffit of arch panelled; back of recess carved with foliated panels containing shields with arms, and rectangular panels with texts, on base of tomb three foliated panels containing shields with arms, all painted, colours not original; tomb and recess of grey limestone, probably late 15th-century. In N. aisle of chancel—on N. wall, (2) to Sir Cope D'Oyley, 1633, and Martha, his wife, 1618, large monument with alabaster figures of knight and lady, five sons, and five daughters, at back two shallow niches with inscriptions on black marble, on base two panels with inscriptions, and two shields bearing arms, the whole surmounted by projecting cornice and two allegorical figures. In N. transept—in recess in N. wall, (3) stone coffin; on W. wall, (4) to John Greene, of Ewden Manor and Greenland, 1687, and his son, 1688. In nave—on N. wall, (5) marble tablet to Francis Gregory, S.T.P. rector, 1682. In tower—on S. wall, (6) to Ralph Scrope, 1572; monument with small fluted shafts, Ionic capitals, carved frieze, moulded cornice, double pediment and shield with arms. Piscina: in the chancel, of chalk, with trefoiled ogee head and moulded label having crockets, finial and carved stops, c. 1360, basin modern. Plate: includes cup of 1635, and standing paten, probably of same date. Sedilia: in the chancel, three, of similar character to piscina, c. 1360. Miscellanea: standing in the tower, large piece of panelling, said to be the end of a bedstead which belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, consisting of eight panels elaborately carved with small figures, foliage and shields bearing arms, including those of Cardinal Wolsey surmounted by a cardinal's hat and the royal arms, and those of Bishop Fox of Winchester enclosed in a garter, early 16th-century.
d(3). The Manor House, 100 yards E. of the church, is of three storeys. The walls are of flint, with quoins and window dressings of brick, much covered with cement; the roofs are tiled. The old part of the house was built in 1604. The original plan was apparently of half-H shape, facing W., with a central porch in front and the wings extending towards the E. In the 19th century the house was restored and altered, the space between the wings enclosed, and additions were built on the N. and E.
W. Elevation:—The central porch is of two storeys, the lower storey modern; the upper storey is gabled and has an original window of three square-headed lights. The main building has three gables with moulded brick copings, and between the storeys are string-courses, also of moulded brick; the windows of the ground floor are modern; the first floor has four original windows with modern frames of wood; in each gable of the second floor is an original window of four lights. The S. Elevation has four gables, the easternmost being modern; under the westernmost gable are straight joints and quoins, from the ground to the second floor, showing that there was formerly a bay window of two storeys at this end; the space between the joints is now filled in with flint flush with the rest of the wall. At the level of the first and second floors are moulded string-courses, Two chimney stacks, with square shafts set diagonally, are original, but restored at the top. Between the three original gables are lead rainwater heads and pipes, probably contemporary. The E. Elevation is modern, except the gabled end of the original N. wing, which has a chimney stack, corbelled out with moulded brick at the level of the first floor; the shaft is modern. N. Elevation:—The third storey of the original building, with a parapet, is visible above the modern addition, and has two projecting chimney stacks, each with three shafts set diagonally. Interior:—Some original ceiling-beams remain, those in the upper rooms being encased. The mid 17th-century panelling in the hall containing the staircase was brought from a farmhouse in the neighbourhood.
d(4). House, S. of the church, is of two storeys, built of flint and brick, probably early in the 17th century. The roof is tiled. The W. front has a central gable, of which the S. half is covered by a projecting chimney stack with two square shafts set diagonally, built of thin bricks. The ends of the house are gabled, and each has an old chimney.
d(5–6). Cottages, two adjoining, S. of the church and W. of the lych-gate, are each of two storeys and an attic, built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but re-fronted with modern brick; the other walls are timber-framed, with brick filling in the lower storey and plaster in the upper storey; at the back is some flint work. The roofs are tiled. The eastern cottage has an original central chimney stack.
d(7–9). Cottages, a range of three, S.E. of the church, are each of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century. The walls are of flint, with some original and some modern brick; the roof is tiled. The central chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
d(10). Burrow Farm, on high ground about 1 mile S.E. of the church, consists of a 16th-century house of two storeys, an attic and cellars, with a 17th-century addition of two storeys at the N. end, now forming a second dwelling. The 16th-century house, probably the remains of a larger building, is of flint, with brick dressings, and is square on plan. The 17th-century addition is timber-framed, with filling of brick which is partly modern at the back; the plan is rectangular, with a small one-storeyed projection at the back; on the W. front the upper storey projects, and the principal beams are supported by curved brackets. The 16th-century house has, on the W. front, a large gable at the S. end; the original entrance doorway, now disused, has a massive moulded oak frame; the door is also original, but modern wood has been attached to it to form panels; the window over it has a 16th-century moulded oak frame and mullion; the two lower storeys have each a window of three lights, and in the gable is a window of two lights, all with original chamfered brick openings and brick labels, but with modern frames. The S. end of the house has, on the ground floor, an original window of four lights with moulded frame, mullions and transom, and on the first floor is the chamfered brick opening and label of another window, now blocked. At the back there are three windows on each floor and one in the gable, all of two lights with brick openings similar to those on the W. front, but with original moulded frames and mullions and leaded panes. The chimney stack over the 16th-century N. end has a large square base; the four square shafts, set diagonally, have moulded caps, and are modern at the top. Inside the 16th-century house are two original fireplaces with moulded stone jambs and four-centred heads having plain shields and foliage in the spandrels. Three doorways have large moulded oak frames and some of the ceilings have moulded beams. A little late 16th or early 17th-century panelling remains, and a small recess on the first floor has a carved oak shutter. The staircase has an original central newel, but the steps are modern, except those from the first floor to the attic. The 17th-century addition has two fireplaces with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads covered with plaster.
A barn N.W. of the house, probably of late 16th-century date, is built almost entirely of flint with dressings of thin bricks; another barn, S. of the house, has old timber-framing, partly with brick filling, and partly weather-boarded.
d(11). House, near Burrow Farm, about 1 mile S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of timber and brick in the 17th century, now much restored. The roof is tiled. The original central chimney stack is of thin bricks.
Mill End (see also (1) above)
d(12). Yewden Manor, about a mile S. of the church, is a large house of two storeys and an attic, built probably early in the 17th century, but completely restored. All the walls and gables are covered with rough-cast; the roofs are tiled. Over the N.E. end are some large chimney stacks, two of which have square shafts set diagonally. The stables N.E. of the house have clunch and flint in one wall; the other walls are of late 17th-century brick.
d(13). House, part of the mill, 50 yards S.W. of Yewden Manor, is a small rectangular building of two storeys, timber-framed, with brick and plaster filling. It is of the 17th century, and has a modern addition at each end. The roof is tiled.
Condition—Fairly good; some of the plaster is falling off the walls.
d(14). House, formerly an inn, on the S. side of the main road to Henley, nearly 1 mile S.S.W. of the church, is a small building of two storeys. The walls are of brick, which appears to be partly of the 16th century, but the house was restored late in the 17th century, and there is a modern addition at the N. end. The roofs are tiled. One chimney stack with square shafts is of old thin bricks, and under it is a wide open fireplace. An outbuilding near the house is of flint with quoins of thin bricks.
b(15). Hutton's Farm, on high ground, about ½ mile E. of the church, is a two-storeyed building of flint and brick; the roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped; the N. or kitchen wing is probably of early 17th-century date, and has an original chimney stack; the E. wing is apparently modern, but the walls may be re-faced only, as there are old beams in the ceilings. The kitchen retains the original open timber ceiling.
c(16). Chisbridge Farm, about two miles N.E. of the church, is a house of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, and said to have been originally an inn. The walls are of flint with dressings of thin bricks; the roofs are tiled. The plan is T-shaped, with the cross wing facing N. and a modern addition in the S.E. angle between the wings. The cross wing has, on the S. side, an original projecting chimney stack with three square shafts set diagonally; a similar stack at the E. end has modern shafts; the middle wing has an old plain stack at the S. end. Some of the rooms have old ceiling-beams.
Skirmett, E. side of the road, from S. to N.
b(17). Inn, about 2 miles N. of the church, is a small rectangular building of two storeys, of late 17th-century date, with a modern wing at each end of the front. The original wall between the wings is gabled, and of flint and brick; the gabled N. end has some old timber and brick; the wall at the back has been re-faced. The roof is tiled. The original central chimney, of brick, has a sunk panel on one side.
b(18). House, of two storeys; the western half of the building is modern; the eastern half is of the 17th century, and partly of timber and brick, partly of flint with brick dressings; it has a square central chimney of thin bricks, and, at the N. end, a projecting chimney stack with a square shaft, of late 17th-century brick. The roof is tiled.
b(19–22). Cottages, four, each of two storeys, built in the 17th century. They retain some of the original timber-framing and brick filling, but have been much restored with modern brick; the roofs are tiled. The chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick, also partly restored.
a(23). Cottage, opposite the Crown Inn, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber on a flint plinth. The roof is tiled. At the N. end is an original projecting chimney stack of brick.
W. side, from S. to N.
a(24). The Crown Inn, is of two storeys, the upper storey in the roof, built in the 17th century, but much restored. The E. front is covered with rough-cast and has three gables, each with a leaded casement window, possibly original; the other walls are of flint with dressings of thin bricks. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the N. and E. One chimney stack is original and has square shafts. Some of the ceilings have old beams, and in two rooms are wide fireplaces, partly blocked.
a(25). Cottage, of two storeys, has a little 17th-century timber and brick at the back, but has been much restored. The roof is tiled. At the S. end is a chimney built of old thin bricks.
a(26). House, now two cottages, is a small two-storeyed building of early 17th-century date. The walls are of timber and brick; the roof is tiled. In front two small projecting windows in the upper storey rest on old wood brackets. At the N. end is an original projecting chimney stack with two square shafts, of brick.
a(27). Barn, at Poynetts, is of 17th-century brick and timber; the roof is tiled, and has queen-post trusses.
b(28). Goddard's Farm, about 3/8 mile E. of Skirmett, is a house of two storeys, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, of brick and timber, with some flint, considerably restored and altered in the 19th century. The roofs are tiled. At the S. end is a projecting chimney stack of original thin bricks. Inside the house are some old ceiling-beams, and a door under the modern stairs has some 16th-century linenfold panels. A small stable near the house has old brick filling in one wall; the other walls are weather-boarded.
Condition—Poor, and the upper part of the S. chimney is hidden by ivy.
a(29). House, now two cottages, at Frieth, 2½ miles N.N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built late in the 16th century, of brick and timber, with some flint, much restored with modern cement. The W. half of the S. front is entirely covered with cement, but the lower storey of the E. half is of flint with dressings of thin bricks; the upper storey is timber-framed, with brick filling partly in herringbone pattern. At the E. end is a small blocked window with chamfered jambs and mullion, covered with cement, and below the window a plain blocked doorway. A little original brick and timber remains at the back. On the N. side is an original chimney, of brick.
a(30). Farmhouse, now three cottages, 100 yards S.E. of Fingest Church, is of two storeys, built in the first half of the 17th century, and restored in the 19th century. The roofs are tiled. The plan is T-shaped, with the central wing projecting towards the S. The N. front and part of the E. and W. ends of the main block are of modern flint with brick dressings, but otherwise the walls are of original timber and brick. At the S. end is a large projecting chimney stack with grouped square shafts, of original brick. Some of the ceilings have large beams and exposed joists, and in one room a wide fireplace has chamfered jambs and four-centred head with a moulded brick label.
Some barns E. of the house are probably of the 17th century, and are timber-framed, with a little brick filling, and partly covered with weather-boarding.
Condition—Of house, good; of barns, fairly good.
Hampden, Great and Little, see Great and Little Hampden.