High Wycombe

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.

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Citation:

, 'High Wycombe', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912) pp. 194-203. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp194-203 [accessed 21 May 2024].

. "High Wycombe", in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912) 194-203. British History Online, accessed May 21, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp194-203.

. "High Wycombe", An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912). 194-203. British History Online. Web. 21 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp194-203.

In this section

54. HIGH WYCOMBE.

(O.S. 6 in. xlvii. N.W.)

Roman

(1). Dwelling-house, in Great Penns Mead, about 5/8 mile S.E. of the church, was discovered in 1722–4, and partly excavated in 1863–4. It was built apparently round a large courtyard, with a porter's lodge on each side of the entrance. The rooms had floors of fine figured mosaic, hypocausts, painted wall-plaster, etc. The coins found indicate that the site was inhabited as early as the middle or end of the 2nd century. (E. J. Payne, Records of Bucks., iii., p. 16 (1870); Delafield's MSS., c. 1750, in the Bodleian Library, Gough, Bucks. 6, fo. 71.) Some antiquaries and the Ordnance Survey place a 'Roman Fortress' N.E. of the house, but no proof of it has been found, and the site is unfit for a Roman military work. Some red tesserae of a Roman floor were found about 100 yards N. of the house and may represent a dependent dwelling.

Condition—Structural remains underground.

Ecclesiastical

(2). Parish Church of All Saints, stands in the middle of the town. It is built of flint, with some stone and tiles, and in the N. wall of the N. aisle there is an attempt at chequer work; the tower is of ashlar. The parapets are plain and apparently modern, except that of the S. chapel, which is embattled. The dressings are of stone. The roof of the chancel is tiled; the other roofs are covered with lead. There was probably a 12th-century church on the site, consisting of chancel, nave, central tower and N. and S. transepts; c. 1275, the North Chapel, North and South Aisles and South Porch were added, the Nave, and probably also the Chancel, being lengthened at the same time, and the N. and S. transepts incorporated in the aisles. The South or Bower Chapel was built at some unknown period, possibly late in the 14th or early in the following century. About the middle of the 15th century the nave arcades were re-built, the clearstorey was added, and the walls of the aisles were heightened. The West Tower, which is built against the W. wall of the nave, was begun in the same century, but probably was not completed until a later date. At the beginning of the 16th century the arcades between the chapels and chancel were inserted, and the S. chapel was almost entirely re-built. In 1509–1510 the central tower was taken down, the easternmost bays of the nave arcades, with the two clear storey windows over each bay, were inserted, and the chancel arch was re-built; probably about the same time, the chancel was again lengthened, as the former E. window is said to have resembled the 16th-century windows in the S. chapel; the present window was inserted in 1873–5, when the interior of the building was restored; in 1887–9 the exterior was repaired, and nearly all the outer stonework renewed.

The church is unusually interesting on account of its authenticated history, fine proportions and the excellent 13th-century work in the windows of the N. chapel and the aisles. Among the fittings a large chest, possibly of the 16th century, is especially noticeable.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (57 ft. by 20 ft., except the E. end, which is about 16 ft. wide) has a modern E. window. The 16th-century N. arcade is of four bays, with compound piers having moulded capitals and bases; the low four-centred arches are of two orders; at the W. end the outer order dies on to the wall, and the inner order stops on a moulded and carved corbel. The S. arcade is also of four bays and of similar detail to that of the N. arcade, but has slightly different capitals and bases. The two-centred chancel arch, of 1509, is of two orders; the jambs have chamfered edges and broach stops, and are possibly earlier stones re-used. The North Chapel (50½ ft. by 24 ft.) has a 16th-century E. window of five pointed lights under a two-centred segmental head. In the N. wall are four windows of the 13th century, but completely restored externally: the second from the E. is covered inside by a large monument; it resembles externally the first and third windows, which are each of two lights, with a cinque-foiled circle in a two-centred head; the mullions and jambs and the inner edges of the splays have small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the rear arches are also moulded; the fourth window is similar to the others, but the mullion and outer jambs have filleted rolls without capitals or bases, and the capitals of the inner jambs are carved: the early 14th-century arch opening into the N. aisle is of three moulded orders, with a moulded label on both sides, shafted jambs, and moulded capitals and bases. The South Chapel (46½ ft. by 24 ft.) has an E. window similar to that of the N. chapel, but less lofty. In the S. wall are four 16th-century windows each of four lights; the second window from the E. has been blocked for a monument. The arch opening into the S. aisle resembles the 16th-century arcades in the chancel, but the jambs are of two chamfered orders, without capitals. The Nave (113 ft. by 24 ft.) has N. and S. arcades of seven bays. The line of junction between the 15th and 16th-century work is visible on the short space of wall between the easternmost and second arches; the easternmost bay on each side is considerably wider than the others, and the moulded jambs have central shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the high two-centred arch is of two orders, and has a moulded label with modern stops; the other bays have compound piers similar to those in the chancel, but with slightly different capitals and bases; the four-centred moulded arches are of two orders, and have moulded labels with headstops; all the piers are partly restored. The clearstorey has on each side eight windows, all externally restored; the four 16th-century windows are each of two lights, with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the 15th-century windows are similar, but have sexfoils in the heads; all the windows are restored externally. The North Aisle (21 ft. wide, except the E. end, originally the transept, 23 ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, five windows of the 13th century, but with the external stonework entirely renewed; the large easternmost window, formerly the N. window of the transept, is of three pointed lights with modern tracery; the jambs and mullions have attached shafts with carved capitals and moulded bases: below it is a small doorway with a 13th-century rear arch and label: the four other windows, each of two lights with tracery, resemble the N.E. window of the N. chapel: the N. doorway has splayed inner jambs, a segmental rear arch and a moulded inner label with mask-stops, all of the 13th century; the external stonework is modern: near the W. end of the wall is a blocked doorway with a two-centred head, the springing line now only 3 ft. from the floor of the aisle; above it, on the W., is a similar doorway, and, on the E., a rectangular loop, also blocked, facing the interior of the church; these opened into a former N.W. chamber of two storeys, and are probably of the 13th century; between the upper doorway and the loop, outside, is a small square recess. A course of tiles, outside, shows where the wall was heightened in the 15th century. In the W. wall is a window of three pointed lights; the inner jambs, with attached shafts, are of the 13th century. On the N. wall, at the level of the sills and springing line of the windows, are moulded string-courses which are continued at a higher level on the W. wall. The South Aisle (21 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, at the E. end, a window of three lights, formerly the S. window of the transept, similar to that in the N. aisle; below the window is a modern doorway, and further W., high up in the wall, is a small trefoiled lancet of the 13th century, restored outside, which probably lighted a former rood-loft; beyond the lancet are five windows similar to the N.W. window of the N. chapel, but the second and fifth windows have been entirely restored and the others are externally modern: the 13th-century S. doorway has a two-centred outer arch of two moulded orders, and shafted jambs with carved capitals; the rear arch and inner label resemble those of the N. doorway; the outer jambs, except the capitals, have been restored: on the W., higher up in the wall, is a second doorway with a two-centred head, formerly opening into the parvise. The South Porch (11½ ft. square) is entirely modern outside; the interior is of the 13th century, and has on the E. and W. walls arcades of three trefoiled bays to carry the vaulting (see Roofs); the shafts are modern, but the heads and carved capitals are almost entirely original. The parvise has only modern detail. The West Tower (17½ ft. by 16½ ft.) is of three stages, with octagonal corner turrets and a modern parapet, under which is a string-course enriched with a band of quatrefoils: the lowest stage has a moulded plinth with square panels; those on the S. side contain quatrefoils, with shields in the middle The opening from the nave is in two parts; the eastern arch is formed by the stonework of the former 13th-century W. window, of which the jambs were carried down to the floor in the 15th century; the western arch is narrower, and has the springing line at a lower level than the other arch; it is two-centred and of two moulded orders; the moulded jambs have shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The 15th-century W. doorway has moulded jambs and a two-centred arch in a square head, with traceried spandrels containing shields. Only the inner quoins of the three-light W. window are old. The N., S. and W. walls of the second stage have each a small 15th-century window of two lights and tracery in a two-centred head. The four bell-chamber windows, also of the 15th century, are each of three transomed lights and tracery in a pointed head. The plain, low-pitched Roof of the N. chapel is probably of the 16th century; the S. chapel has a roof with moulded ties and principals, tracery above and below the ties, and plain corbels, probably of late 15th or early 16th-century date. The roof of the nave resembles that of the S. chapel, it is in eight bays, and is now covered with paint; the corbels are carved as shields, one shield charged with a crowned lion, and as angels holding shields, musical instruments, etc. The flat lean-to roofs of the aisles are of the 15th century, and have moulded principals and traceried spandrels; the corbels on the N. wall of the N. aisle are of plain wood; the others, carved with heads, are of stone, and some of them, in the S. aisle, retain traces of colour. The roofs of the former transepts are of similar character and date to those of the aisles; the line of the earlier steeppitched roofs is visible externally in the walls. The S. porch is covered by a quadripartite stone vault of the 13th century, with diagonal moulded ribs and a carved central boss.

Fittings—Brasses: In S. chapel—on S. wall, (1) to Robert Kempe, 1621, inscription and verse; (2) to Margaret Trone, 1588, inscription, in black-letter; (3) to Margaret and Mary, the wives of John Lane, undated inscription and verse, 17th-century. Chest: in N. chapel, large, of oak, iron-bound lid in two sections, each with three locks, possibly 16th-century: smaller oak chest, dated 1687. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In S. aisle—on S. wall, (1) to Elizabeth, wife of Richard Roberts, 1689, marble, border of foliage and flowers, arms over it; (2) to Jacob Wheeler, shoemaker, 1621, inscription, in alabaster frame ornamented with foliage, the tools of a shoemaker's craft, and a shield bearing arms. In N. aisle—in blocked doorway at W. end of N. wall, (3) stone with a man's head carved in low relief, apparently part of a 17th-century monument. Floor-slabs: In S. chapel —(1) to Edmund Petty, 1661, and Ann O'Kelley, his daughter, 1691. In the tower— (2) dated 1689, name worn away. Plate: includes cup of 1671, cover paten of 1686, larger paten of 1684. Recesses: in N. wall of N. aisle, two; western, with two-centred moulded arch, label and block-stops, 13th-century; eastern, retains only half similar arch, apparently contemporary. Screens: at W. end of S. chapel, modern, incorporates fragments of 15th-century screen, with part of modern inscription to Rychard Redehode, Agnes his wife, their son William and Johan his wife, bearing the date 1468: in quire seats, eight octagonal pillars with carved capitals, possibly parts of former rood-screen, but four of them apparently modern. Seating: incorporated in modern quire seats and low screen in front of them, eight bench ends with poppy heads and tracery, of oak, late 15th or early 16th-century. Stoup: E. of S. doorway, remains of moulded jamb and three-centred arch in square head, probably early 16th-century. Miscellanea: in the chancel, two pieces of window tracery, 13th century, made up to form standard of modern credence: in recess in N. wall of N. aisle, two stones, 12th-century, both re-used in the 13th century and again in the 15th century.

Condition—Good; tower somewhat weatherworn.

Secular

(3). Mount, in the garden of Castle Hill House, on the slope of a hill overlooking the town, about 350 ft. above O.D. The work in its present state consists only of the mount which appears from its unusual form (a crescent) to have been partly destroyed. It is 30 ft. high and 128 ft. in diameter at its base. The summit is 17 ft. in diameter. In 1909 a passage was found under the house leading out beneath the garden in a S. or S.W. direction.

Condition—Imperfect.

(4). The Hospital of St. John the Baptist, ruins, in the grounds of the Grammar School, on the N. side of Easton Street (see below). The remains are probably those of the hall, with aisles, built c. 1180, chiefly of flint, with stone dressings; S.E. of the hall, a detached wall, built in the 13th century, of clunch with wide mortar joints, is probably part of the chapel. There is no roof. In 1550 the building was converted into a grammar-school, and when the new school was built in the 19th century the original remains were carefully preserved.

The ruins are especially remarkable as those of a 12th-century building of great interest.

Architectural Description—The N.E. wall is of flint, but there is a fragment of stone with ashlar facing at the E. corner, and further N. a small brick recess, probably an oven of later date than the wall. Three columns of the N.W. arcade remain; the easternmost is octagonal, and is supported by a modern buttress; the plain capital has a moulded abacus, and the base has been restored: the second column is circular, and has a capital carved with small leaves, the remains of a moulded abacus, and a square, moulded base, much broken and restored: the third column is octagonal, and has a fluted capital and moulded abacus; the lower part is hidden by the rising ground; only the two easternmost arches remain, and one has been re-built recently; they are semi-circular, of one square order, the E. end of the E. arch springs from a corbel with shallow scallops. Of the S.E. arcade only two bays remain; they are similar to those on the N.W., but the capitals are of different detail, one has plain leaf ornament springing from the necking and the other richly carved foliage; the bases have been much restored. At the E. end of the hall, outside, are several fragments of moulded stone, including two small capitals for detached shafts, and two pieces of a small circular shaft, probably part of a doorway. The remaining wall of the chapel has two windows: the northern is a 13th-century lancet, and the other, of the 14th century, is of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the moulded external label has been restored with brick: at the N. end of the wall is one splay of another lancet. The two stone buttresses at the S.E. corner have been restored with 16th and 19th-century brick.

Condition—Ruinous, but well cared for and preserved.

Castle Street, N. side

(5). The Vicarage, N. of the church, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber, probably in the 16th century, partly re-built with brick in the 18th century. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped; only the shorter wing, at the back, retains the original timber-framing, with brick filling of later date. The N. end is gabled. The kitchen has a wide fireplace, partly filled in, and in the ceiling is a moulded beam with stopped ends, probably of the 16th century.

Condition—Good.

(6). The Chantry, W. of the vicarage, is a house of two storeys and an attic, built of brick and timber late in the 16th century, and refronted with brick in the 18th century; the roof is tiled. On the E. side, partly below the present ground-level, is an original window, over which is a small blind dormer, timber-framed, with filling of thin bricks. On the W. side is a small gable of late 16th-century brick, and, at the back, a timber-framed gable covered with cement. The central chimney stack is probably original, but has been restored above the roof. Interior:—There are plain oak joists in the ceilings, and a panelled door, of late 16th-century date, has two cock's head hinges; a modern door has similar hinges, and another door, of oak battens, has plain hinges. One side of the attic staircase is made up with panelling of late 16th-century date, and part of the handrail of the main staircase is original.

Condition—Good.

(7). Town House, is of three storeys, built of brick; the roofs are tiled. The front block, facing the street, is of the 18th century, but the block at the back, connected with the other by a covered passage on the E. side of a small courtyard, was built probably in the 16th or 17th century, and is gabled at the N. end. Interior:—The timbers of the floors and roof are original, and at the end of the passage is an oak battened door of late 16th or early 17th-century date.

High Wycombe, Plan Shewing Positions of Monuments Described

Condition—Good.

(8). The Priory, N. of the church, is of three storeys, built probably in the 16th century, enlarged and entirely re-faced with brick in the 19th century; the roof is tiled. Interior:— The entrance passage and a room on the W., formerly one room, have, in the ceiling, two 16th-century moulded oak beams, painted and varnished; the passage is lined with linenfold panelling of early 16th-century date, now varnished, and one door retains similar panels. Three rooms have painted panelling with bolection moulding, probably of late 17th or early 18th-century date, and the two staircases at the back of the house are of the same period, with square newels, turned balusters and moulded handrails.

Condition—Good.

(9). Cottages, a range of two storeys, in Noys Passage, on the S. side of the churchyard; the walls are of brick and timber; the roofs are tiled. Two cottages, at the E. end of the row, are of late 16th-century date; on the N. side the lower storey has been re-faced with modern brick; the projecting upper storey is original, and is supported on small brackets: the S. side is similar, but has been restored: the rectangular central chimney is of 16th-century brick, restored at the top. The other cottages are probably of the 17th century; they have been re-faced on the N. side, and have small dormer windows: on the S. side the upper storeys project and are original, the lower storeys are of modern brick. Original timbers are visible in some of the ceilings.

Condition—Fairly good.

Church Street, W. side, S. to N.

(10). House, at the corner of White Hart Street, formerly the Chequers Inn, now a shop, is of three storeys, apparently of mid 16th-century date, much restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. The walls are covered with 18th-century plaster; the roof is tiled. The S. side has original wood-mullioned windows on the upper floors. Inside the house, a well staircase, probably of the 16th century, reaches to the second floor and has square newels, with moulded pendants and ball tops, moulded balusters and plain handrail. The original timber-framing and oak floors remain in the upper storeys, also four panelled oak doors of late 16th or early 17th-century date.

Condition—Good.

The following houses (11–15) are probably part of the street which existed at the end of the 16th century; they are now shops, and have all been re-fronted with modern brick or covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled.

(11). House, No. 7, is of two storeys and an attic; the front has two gables, and on the N. side of the house is an original chimney stack of thin bricks. Interior:—Some old beams are visible, and on the walls of the kitchen is early 17th-century panelling, some of the panels in the frieze on one wall being carved; over the fireplace is some carved panelling of the 16th century.

(12). House, No. 8, is of two storeys and has one wide gable; the upper storey formerly projected, but has been under-built.

(13). House, No. 9, is of two storeys and an attic; in front are two gables, the upper storey formerly projected, and there is a curved bracket at the N. end. Two windows on the second floor appear to have original oak-mullioned frames.

(14). House, No. 10, is of two storeys; it has two gables and has been re-faced on the original lines.

(15). House, No. 12, is of three storeys; at each end of the building is an original chimney stack of thin bricks.

Condition—Good.

High Street, N. side

(16). House, No. 2, formerly the Wheatsheaf Inn, now a shop, is of three storeys, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, of brick and timber. The hipped roof is covered with tiles. In front the upper storeys project, but only the third storey is of the original material, the others have been re-faced. Interior:—The original timbers of the floors and roof are visible.

Condition—Good substantially, but some of the old woodwork has been charred by fire.

(17). The White House, No. 12, now a shop, is of three storeys, built in the 16th century; the walls are of brick, covered with modern plaster in front, and the whole building has been much restored; the roofs are tiled. The two chimney stacks, with square shafts set diagonally, are built of thin bricks. In the middle of the main block an archway opens into a yard at the back. Interior:—One door is of old studded battens. The newel staircase, and some timbers in the walls and ceilings are original. Two stone fireplaces have been removed to the Capital and Counties Bank; each fireplace has moulded stone jambs with moulded stops, a flat straight-sided arch with carved spandrels, and above it a carved fluted frieze, ornamented with Tudor roses, etc.

The E. wall of the yard is of old brick and timber, and on the N. a 16th-century outbuilding of two storeys is of thin bricks and has massive beams in the roof.

Condition—Good; much altered and repaired.

Easton Street, N. side, from W. to E.

(See also St. John's Hospital.)

(18). House, now two dwellings, Nos. 16 and 17, of two storeys and an attic, was built in the second half of the 16th century. The front is covered with plaster and paint, the back is of brick, chiefly modern. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped; the internal arrangement has been altered, but the central hall, with a room on each side of it, still remains. S. Elevation:—The ground floor has, on each side of the entrance, a bay window and a window of two lights, with moulded jambs, heads, mullions and transoms; at the E. end is a large gateway. The overhanging upper storey has windows similar to those on the ground floor, but heavy cornices have been added to the bay windows, and one window is without transoms. The attic has three gables, each containing a window of two lights. Many of the windows have iron casements with ornamental fastenings, and two lead rain-water pipes have moulded heads. The easternmost chimney stack has one hexagonal shaft between two octagonal shafts, all with moulded bases and capitals; another large stack, with three square shafts set diagonally, has been much restored; at the back of the house a smaller stack has square shafts, built of thin bricks.

Interior:—Many of the rooms have old beams in the ceilings and wide oak boards in the floors; some 17th-century panelling also remains. In the hall is a 16th-century fireplace with moulded stone jambs and a depressed straight-sided arch with carved spandrels; the overmantel, now painted, has three panels under semi-circular arches, which rest on fluted pilasters with moulded capitals and bases; in each panel is a raised lozenge. On the first floor is a fireplace similar to that in the hall, but the overmantel has two recesses with semi-circular arches, flanked by small fluted pilasters; above the fireplace and overmantel are cornices with dentil ornament. The upper part of the staircase is of early 17th-century date, and has square newels with chamfered edges, moulded handrails and turned balusters; the lower part is modern, but two pieces of 16th-century linenfold panelling are fixed in it.

Outbuildings:—E. of the house, and separated from it by a passage, is a long narrow building, now used as a coach-house, etc.; the walls are partly modern, partly of 17th-century timber and brick, restored. The roof has brackets, supporting the collar-beams, and curved wind-braces. The two-storeyed summer-house in the N.E. corner of the garden is of late 17th-century date. The walls are of brick, and on the S. and W. faces are pilasters of rubbed brick, which have moulded bases; the capitals and moulded cornice are enriched with egg-and-tongue ornament and modillions. In each of the walls is a window with an arch of rubbed brick; the window on the E. is now blocked. Interior:—The walls of the upper room are panelled, and on the ceiling is painted a compass with a needle which formerly registered the direction of the wind, and was worked by a vane on the roof.

The N. wall of the garden has two large gate piers of late 17th-century date; they are of rubbed brick, with moulded capitals, on which rest stone slabs; on the top of the wall, against each pier, is a carved brick scroll; there are two similar piers at the foot of a double flight of stone steps halfway down the garden.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(19). The Goat Inn, is a two-storeyed building of late 16th or early 17th-century date. In front the wall is covered with plaster and the upper storey projects; the other walls and the sides of a passage leading to the yard at the back show timber-framing with brick filling. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped. One chimney stack has grouped square shafts built of thin bricks, restored at the top. In the bar is a wide fireplace.

Condition—Good, much altered.

S. side, from E. to W.

(20–22). The Two Brewers Inn, and Houses now shops, Nos. 81 and 83, are each of two storeys and an attic, built probably early in the 17th century, but much restored and altered in the 19th century. The Inn is a small rectangular building; the lower storey is of brick and the upper storeys are plastered. At the E. end is a 17th-century chimney stack. Inside the house there are old beams, and the roof of the attic has curved wind-braces. On the first floor is a wide fireplace, partly filled in. Nos. 81 and 83 have each a large covered gateway opening into the yard at the back. No. 81 has been re-built almost entirely with modern brick, but has some old timbers at the back; the chimney stack is of early 17th-century brick. Inside the house there are original floor joists and oak boards, two original doors of oak battens, and another door made up of early 17th-century panelling; all the doors are painted. No. 83 has been less altered outside than the other two buildings; in front the upper storey and attic, originally projecting, are timber-framed and plastered; the back is gabled, and has timber-framed walls with brick filling, apparently original. The E. wall of the shop, forming the W. wall of the gateway of No. 81, has some early 17th-century oak panelling on both sides.

Condition—Fairly good.

St. Mary Street, E. side, from N. to S.

(23). Watermill and House, No. 1, consist of a group of buildings, partly of two storeys, partly of three. The walls have been re-faced almost entirely with modern brick; the roofs are tiled. The site is possibly that of one of the Wycombe mills mentioned in the Domesday Survey; many of the oak timbers in the floors, roofs, etc., are of early mediæval date, and appear to have been re-used when the present buildings were erected, probably in the 16th or 17th century. In front the S. half of the upper storey projects; it is timber-framed, and probably restored. The S. end of the house is gabled, and the upper storeys have old timber-framing with brick filling; a 17th-century oak door opens on to the roof of a lower building on the S. One chimney stack is of late 16th or early 17th-century brick. Inside the mill, a piece of oak, re-used as a bracket, bears part of a date in raised figures, 169–.

Condition—Good.

The following houses (24–31) were built at the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, and originally were timber-framed, but have been restored and altered. All the roofs are tiled.

(24). House, now two cottages, Nos. 3 and 4, is a small rectangular building of two storeys, gabled at the N. and S. ends. The front is of brick.

(25). House, now two cottages, Nos. 11 and 12; the lower storey is of brick, the upper storey is covered with plaster, and gabled in front. On the N. side is a chimney stack built of thin bricks.

(26). House, now two cottages, Nos. 13 and 14, is of two storeys and an attic. In front the lower storey is of brick, the upper storey and attic are covered with plaster. The gabled N. end and the back show old timber-framing, and at the N. end is a large chimney stack built of thin bricks.

(27). House, now three cottages, Nos. 16, 17 and 18, is of two storeys and an attic. The plan is of half-H shape. In front two of the cottages are of brick; the lower storey of the third cottage is of brick, and the upper storey is plastered; at the back old timber-framing remains, with brick filling. One chimney stack is of thin bricks.

W. side, from S. to N.

(28). Cottages, two, adjoining, S. of the Horse and Jockey Inn, are each of two storeys; in front the lower storeys are of modern brick and the overhanging upper storeys are covered with plaster.

(29). House and The Horse and Jockey Inn, adjoining it, are each of two storeys, and modern in front; at the back the inn is of old timber and brick. Each building has a chimney stack of 17th-century brick, restored at the top.

(30). House, N. of the inn; in front the lower storey is of 17th-century brick; the plastered upper storey projects, and is supported at each end by a small bracket. Inside the house there are old beams in the ceilings, and the staircase has shaped flat balusters, now painted.

(31). Cottages, two, adjoining, N. of (30), are each of two storeys; the lower storey is of modern brick and the slightly projecting upper storey is plastered. The chimney stack, between the cottages, is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Of all the buildings, on the whole rather poor, but structurally sound.

(32). House, No. 39, is an 18th-century building, facing N., with a W. wing of mid 17th-century date, part of a former house. The wing is of two storeys, built of brick; the roof is tiled; the W. end is gabled and has an original chimney stack. Interior:—The ceilings and walls have old stop-chamfered beams, and in the kitchen is a wide fireplace.

Condition—Good.

(33–34). Cottages, a row, opposite the mill, were built probably late in the 17th century, but may be partly of earlier date; a Cottage behind the row is also of late 17th-century date. They are all of two storeys, built almost entirely of brick; the roofs are tiled. The five chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick. In the middle of the row is a passage with old timber and brick in the side walls and in the small gable at the back. The S. end of the detached cottage is of timber and brick, with a weather-boarded gable.

Condition—Good.

Paul's Row, W. side, from S. to N.

(35). House, now a shop, is of two storeys, and retains a late 15th-century doorway, but otherwise appears to have been built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. In front the lower storey is modern, and the overhanging upper storey is covered with plaster; the other walls are of brick and timber. The roof is tiled. The late 15th-century doorway opens into a passage at the E. end of the house; it has moulded oak jambs and four-centred head with carved spandrels, now painted and partly hidden by the shutters of the shop window. Inside the house there are old beams in the ceilings and walls. A workshop, at the back, is timber-framed, with brick filling, partly restored, and has a small square chimney stack, restored at the top.

Condition—Fairly good.

(36–38). The Royal Oak Inn, The Angel Inn, and a House next to it (formerly the Five Bells Inn), were all built late in the 16th century, but much altered in the 19th century. The Royal Oak, in front, is of three storeys, the first storey of modern brick, the second and overhanging third storeys covered with plaster. The back is of two storeys, built of brick and timber, partly plastered. One chimney stack is of thin bricks. The Angel Inn, of two storeys, has a modern front; the back is of brick and timber. Both inns have old beams in the ceilings. The House is of two storeys and an attic; in front the ground floor has a shop window, and the upper storey is plastered; the N. and S. walls show large timbers with brick filling; three square chimney stacks are built of thin bricks.

Condition—Good.

(39). House, next to the Swan Inn, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, is of two storeys and an attic. In front the lower storey has a shop window, the upper storey and the attic, which is gabled, are covered with plaster; the back is timber-framed with brick filling. In one room the constructional timbers are visible.

Condition—Good.

White Hart Street, S. side

(40). Houses, a range of seven, at the E. end of the street, all now shops, originally formed part of the late 16th or early 17th-century buildings of the town. The first house, at the corner of Paul's Row, is of three storeys; it has been almost completely re-built with brick, but on the N. side has a moulded bressumer of late 16th-century date which is continued across the front of the next house to support the overhanging upper storey. The roof is tiled. The other buildings are each of two storeys and an attic; the overhanging upper storey and attic are timber-framed and covered with plaster. The roofs are tiled and contain dormer windows. Between Nos. 3 and 4 there is an original chimney stack built of thin bricks, with a V-shaped pilaster on the E. face.

Condition—Good.

(41). The White Hart Hotel, probably incorporates remains of the building which existed on the site in the 17th century. On the first floor, re-used in the back of a bench, is a piece of oak panelling of early 17th-century date.

Condition—Good.

Oxford Street

(42). House, on the S. side of the street, said to have been formerly the King's Head Inn, now five shops, Nos. 13–16, is a rectangular building of two storeys and an attic, of brick, and dated 1684; at the back are modern additions; the roofs are tiled. In front the lower storey is filled with modern shop windows, the upper storey is of red and blue bricks and has, in the middle, a small panel with the initials and date T.I.M. 1684; the attic is lighted by six dormer windows; at the W. end, leading to the yard at the back, is a passage with brick and timber in the side walls. At the back is a chimney stack, now covered with cement. Inside the house some plain beams are visible in the ceilings.

Condition—Good.

(43). Cottage, behind No. 12, is of two storeys, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, of brick and timber; the roof is tiled. The small chimney stack is of thin bricks.

Condition—Good.

(44). Lane's Almshouses, in Crendon Street, were founded in 1674 for two persons, and form a two-storeyed building of brick, with gabled ends. The roof is tiled. The central chimney stack, and the windows on the first floor, with plain oak mullions, are probably original.

Condition—Fairly good.

(45). Bassetsbury Manor House, about ¾ mile S.E. by E. of the church, is partly of two and partly of three storeys, built of brick, with some flint; the roofs are tiled. The present building incorporates the remains of a large 16th-century house of two storeys and an attic, and timber-framed; the walls appear to have been encased with brick about the middle of the 17th century, and later in the same century the floor-levels were altered, the walls heightened, and the upper storey made unusually high by having the attic space thrown into it. The plan is L-shaped, the wings extending towards the S. and E.; foundations are said to have been discovered which show that the original house extended further towards the S.

The N. Front is of red and black bricks, of c. 1660; the doorway in the middle is modern, above it are remains of an entablature with flat pilasters, and at the level of the first floor a flat string-course extends the whole length of the wall; in the upper storey are seven tall windows, of late 17th-century date, with oak mullions and two transoms; three of the windows retain original oak frames, but have been filled in with brick, the others have been altered to fit smaller modern frames; the wide eaves have wooden brackets, probably of the 18th century. The E. End of the E. wing is gabled, and has a late 16th-century chimney stack, which formerly projected, but the wall was made flush with it on the S. side c. 1660; on the N. side the later brickwork, with the string-course brought round from the N. front, stops at a straight joint near the chimney stack. The S. Side of the E. wing is of flint with brick dressings, probably of mid 17th-century date, and at the E. end the upper storey is divided by a second floor, and has two rows of small windows; on the ground floor a modern doorway takes the place of a former window; further W. is a window which shows, from its position inside, the alteration of the first floor level. The other elevations are modern, except the western part of the S. End of the S. wing; it was formerly an inner wall and the lower part is faced with cement, probably remaining as it was when inside the building; the chimney stack, of thin bricks, with four square shafts, set diagonally, is partly enclosed. Interior:— There are old beams in some of the floors and a little of the original timber-framing of the E. wall can be seen in the kitchen.

Condition—Good.

(46). Bassetsbury Mill, N.E. of the Manor House, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, of brick and timber, covered with plaster. The roof is tiled. The N. end is gabled, and has a chimney stack of 17th-century brick. The additional buildings at the S. end are modern.

Condition—Fairly good.