Long Crendon

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.

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Citation:

'Long Crendon', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912), pp. 235-246. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp235-246 [accessed 17 June 2024].

. "Long Crendon", in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912) 235-246. British History Online, accessed June 17, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp235-246.

. "Long Crendon", An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South, (London, 1912). 235-246. British History Online. Web. 17 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/bucks/vol1/pp235-246.

In this section

69. LONG CRENDON.

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxii. S.W. (b)xxxii. S.E.)

Roman

b(i). Cemetery, at Cop Hill, N. of the church: Romano-British burials, with Samian urns, etc., were found in 1824 and Roman coins at a later date. There was probably a house or village near the site. On the S.E. is an old road known as Angle Way, possibly Roman. (Lipscomb, Hist. of Bucks, i., p. 212.)

Ecclesiastical

a(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, stands at the N.E. end of the village. It is built of limestone, both ashlar and rubble, and the roofs are covered with lead and with tiles. The head of a small 12th-century window is built into the W. wall, and the lower part of the N. and S. walls of the Nave, W. of the W. responds, is probably of that date, but in the 13th century the rest of the church was re-built. The Chancel was begun c. 1235, the Central Tower and North and South Transepts were built immediately afterwards, and c. 1265 North and South Aisles were added to the nave; c. 1335 the N. aisle was widened, the North Porch built and the N. transept remodelled. In the 15th century the S. transept was practically re-built, various windows were inserted and the South Porch was built; at the beginning of the 16th century the W. wall of the nave was reconstructed, the West Porch was added and the present upper stages of the tower were built. The S. transept was again altered c. 1626, and in 1632–3 the piers and arches of the tower were restored. In the 19th century the church was repaired, but no structural alterations were made.

The building is an interesting example of a cruciform church of the 13th century, and retains much detail of that date. Among the fittings the Dormer monument (see Plate, p. xxviii.) is especially worthy of note.

Long Crendon Church

Architectural Description — The Chancel (29 ft. by 16 ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall are two wide lancet windows of the 13th century; the wall has an external offset at about half the height of the windows, of which the external jambs are of one chamfered order above the offset, and of two orders below it. In the S. wall are three windows of the same date and design as those on the N., but the sills of the first and third are cut down low; between the second and third windows is a doorway with chamfered jambs and square head, apparently original. The Central Tower (17 ft. square) is supported by four arches, part of the ground stage of the tower rises above the roofs of the other parts of the church, and is almost entirely faced with 16th-century ashlar, but some of the old wall remains; on the S. side are traces of the original steep-pitched roof of the transept; the two upper stages are built of roughly squared rubble; the embattled parapet is much restored, and at the N.W. angle is a stair-turret, the ground stage rectangular, and the upper stages octagonal. The E. arch, forming the chancel arch, is of three chamfered orders with a fourth order, on the W. side; the piers have half-octagonal pilasters and the bell-capitals are enriched with flower ornament; the date 1633 is carved on the S. pilaster, and the capitals were possibly re-cut at that time; the moulded bases are much restored. The N., S. and W. arches are each of three chamfered orders with moulded labels, and the piers have half-octagonal pilasters; on the E. pilaster of the S. arch is carved the date 1632: the E. capital of the N. arch is plain and of uncertain date; the other capitals are original, with moulded abaci and plain bells, but the E. capital of the S. arch is more heavily moulded than the rest; the bases vary slightly, but are original though much restored. In each wall of the second stage is a window of two cinque-foiled lights under a triangular head, and in each wall of the third stage are two windows each of two cinque-foiled lights with transom and tracery in a pointed head, all of the 16th century. The North Transept (24 ft. by 17 ft.) has diagonal buttresses against the N. wall, which is of the 14th century, and a plain parapet, added in the 15th century, when the walls were raised. In the E. wall are two 13th-century lancet windows, one now blocked. In the N. wall is a 14th-century window, of five cinque-foiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head; an external string-course carried over the window forms the label. In the W. wall is a 14th-century arch opening into the aisle, and S. of the arch is a 13th-century doorway with a shouldered head opening into the stair-turret of the tower. The South Transept (23½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has the S. and W. walls faced with ashlar, but the E. wall is mainly of rubble, and is very irregular near the junction with the chancel, where some 12th-century stones have been re-used. In the E. wall are two 17th-century windows, one of two, the other of three pointed lights, under a square head with an external label. In the S. wall is a large 15th-century window of four cinque-foiled lights and tracery, blocked by the Dormer monument (see Fittings). In the W. wall is a window of the same date and design as the S. window, but of three lights; N. of the window is the arch opening into the aisle. The Nave (40 ft. by 19 ft.) has a plain parapet of the 15th or 16th century. The N. and S. arcades are of the 13th century, and of two bays; the arches are of two chamfered orders with moulded labels; the column of the N. arcade has four clustered circular shafts, and all the responds have half columns of the same type; the column of the S. arcade is octagonal; all the capitals are of similar profile, with plain bells and deep moulded abaci, but vary slightly in detail. The W. doorway is of early 16th-century date, and has moulded jambs and head of two orders, the inner two-centred, the outer square; the W. window, also of early 16th-century date, is of five uncusped lights under a straight-sided four-centred head; on the mullions of the central light are small blocks with initials cut on them, only 'R' and 'E' are legible; the splay of the window is carried to the floor and is flanked by recesses with four-centred heads and stone benches; set in the wall above the W. window is the semi-circular head, cut from one stone, of a small 12th-century window. Traces of circular clearstorey windows, probably of the 13th century, are visible externally in the S. wall of the nave above the roof of the S. aisle. The North Aisle (15 ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, one window, of c. 1335, and of two trefoiled lights and tracery in a pointed head with a moulded external label; W. of the window is the N. doorway, also of c. 1335, and of one chamfered order with an external label. In the W. wall is a 14th-century window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a pointed head having a moulded external label. The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, one 15th-century window of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a four-centred head; further W. is the 13th-century S. doorway, which has a richly moulded head and shafted jambs; above it, visible externally, are some straight joints in the masonry, partly covered by the roof of the porch, and some short lengths of weather-course, indicating that in the 13th century there was a small gable over the doorway. In the W. wall is a 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head. The North Porch appears to have been partly re-built, but the entrance archway of two continuously chamfered orders is of the 14th century. The South Porch has a 15th-century entrance archway of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous, the inner resting on corbels. The West Porch is of early 16th-century date and has an entrance archway of two orders separated by a wide hollow; the inner order is two-centred, the outer square, and the spandrels have crude foliated ornament. In the N. and S. walls are small quatrefoil lights. The chancel has a steep-pitched Roof and a 15th-century moulded wall-plate; a plastered barrel ceiling has been inserted. In the N. transept are some 15th-century grotesque corbels. The roof of the S. transept has bracketed tie-beams with traceried spandrels; it is of the 15th century, but has been much restored. The roof of the nave retains some plain 16th-century work, considerably restored and altered. The roofs of the aisles incorporate much plain work of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Fittings—Bracket: on E. wall of chancel, moulded, 15th-century. Brasses and Indents. Brass: In N. transept—on E. wall, (1) of John Canon, 1460, and Agnes, his wife, 1468, figures of man in civilian dress, and woman in horned head-dress, three sons and eight daughters, with inscription. Indent: In nave—of brass (1). Communion Table and Rails: in S. transept, table with turned baluster legs, 17th-century, top modern; rails carved, with carved posts and turned balusters, c. 1640. Font: octagonal basin, with quatrefoil panels, angel heads round rim, octagonal stem, with lions and foliated ornament at foot, much defaced, late 14th-century. Lectern: of wood, with circular moulded post, late 17th-century, and deskshaped top, modern. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monument: In S. transept—against S. wall, of Sir John Dormer, 'one of the Lordes' of Crendon Manor, [?1626], and Jane, his wife, daughter of John Giffard of Chillington, 1605, recumbent figures of man in complete armour and woman in elaborate coif, ruff, longwaisted bodice, etc., set in round-headed recess with panelled soffit, under heavy entablature with obelisks and Tuscan columns, standing on high base; inscription at back and two shields with arms; in front of monument, heavy wrought iron railings. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Jane, wife of John Burnham, 1686; (2) to William Langbaine, 1672. Niche: for image, in N. aisle, with sub-cusped cinque-foiled head, crocketed and finialled label and flanking buttresses with pinnacles, 14th-century. Recess: for tomb, under N. window of N. transept, with chamfered head having remains of pierced cusping, moulded label, 14th-century. Screens: under N. arch of tower, with some remains of crude carving, 16th-century: in S. transept, divided into bays by fluted Doric pilasters, close lower panels, upper panels with turned balusters, and Doric entablature, late 17th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel—in E. jamb of middle window, in S. wall, mask-corbel, possibly for altar-beam, 14th-century: on N. wall, projecting at right angles, stone slab with chamfered angles, purpose uncertain.

Condition—Fairly good.

Secular

The village contains, in addition to the buildings noted below, many cottages built probably in the 17th century, but retaining little evidence of their date.

High Street, W. side from S. to N.

a(2). Cottage, now two tenements, is of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century. The lower part of the walls is of stone, the upper part of brick; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is original. One room has an open fireplace, and there are close-set beams in the ceilings.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(3). The Churchill Arms, is a two-storeyed house, built probably in the 17th century, of stone, now patched with brick. The roof is tiled. In front are two gables; the chimney stack is of old thin bricks. Inside the house is an open fireplace with a small square recess on each side, and the ceilings have chamfered beams.

Long Crendon, Plan Showing Positions of Monuments

Condition—Good; much altered.

a (4). Cottage, now two tenements, is of two storeys, one storey partly in the roof, built early in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, partly re-faced with modern brick and covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. One chimney is of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(5). The Golden Cross Inn, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century; the roofs are partly thatched and partly tiled. The plan, originally rectangular, is now L-shaped, an addition having been built at the E. end.

Condition—Good; much altered.

a(6). Cottage, now two tenements, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century. The walls are covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(7). Cottage, at the corner of Burt's Lane, is a 17th-century stone building of two storeys and of L-shaped plan; the roof is thatched. The two chimneys are of original brick.

Condition—Poor.

(For other buildings in the High Street, see Nos. 13–21 and 24–37.)

Burt's Lane, N.E. side

a(8–10). Cottages, three, all built in the 17th century. The southern and northern cottages are each of one storey and an attic; the walls are partly of stone, partly covered with plaster; the southern cottage has a thatched roof and a chimney of 17th-century brick; the northern cottage, now three tenements, has a tiled roof. The middle cottage is of two storeys; the walls are covered with plaster and repaired with brick; the roof is partly thatched, partly covered with corrugated iron; the chimney is of old thin bricks. Inside each cottage is a wide fireplace.

Condition—Of southern cottage, fairly good; of others, bad.

a(11). Cottage, of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, partly covered with plaster. The roof is thatched. One of the chimneys is original.

Condition—Fairly good.

S. side

a(12). Cottage, of two storeys, one partly in the roof, is built of brick on stone foundations and is of the 17th century. Some of the windows have old iron casements, and the chimney is original.

Condition—Fairly good.

High Street, W. side (cont.)

a(13). Cottage, now two tenements, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber on stone foundations and partly covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. Some of the windows have old iron casements and the chimney stack is of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(14). House, now a shop, is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone in the 17th century; the roof has been raised, and is partly thatched and partly tiled. The chimney stack is original and under it is a large, open fireplace. The ceilings have chamfered beams.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(15). Cottage, now two tenements, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, partly of brick and timber, partly of stone. The roof is thatched. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(16). The Eight Bells Inn, is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built in the 17th century; the walls are covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. The chimney stack is original.

Condition—Good.

a(17). Cottage, is of one storey and an attic, built of stone probably in the 17th century; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is of 17th-century brick, and one of the windows contains some old glass.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(18–19). House and Barn, were built probably in the 17th century, but the walls of the house have been re-faced with modern brick; the roof is tiled. The central chimney is of old thin bricks, and under it is a large open fireplace, partly blocked. The barn has a large gateway in the middle, covered only by the thatched roof; the lower part of the walls is of stone; the upper part of the S. half is weather-boarded, and the N. half is timber-framed, with brick filling, set partly in herringbone pattern.

Condition—Of house, good, much altered; of barn, good.

a(20). Cottage, now three tenements, is of one storey and an attic, probably of early 17th-century date. The walls are partly of stone, with some brick and timber, and partly covered with plaster. The roofs are thatched. Two chimneys are of 17th-century brick. Inside the building is an open fireplace with the original bread oven, and in one ceiling is a large rough beam.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(21). The Court House, W. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed, with filling of brick, probably not original; the foundations are of brick; the roof is tiled. The date of the building is uncertain, but there is no detail of earlier date than the 15th century. The plan is rectangular, constructed in five bays; the ground floor, originally divided into several rooms by transverse partitions, is now further sub-divided to form a dwelling-house. The upper storey projects in front and at the W. end, and forms one large room of four bays; the fifth bay forms a separate room, and appears to have been originally open from the ground floor to the roof, but an upper floor has been inserted in it. In front the lower storey is whitewashed; the projecting upper storey has arched braces to the timber-framing, and is supported on heavy beams. The gable at each end of the house has simple timber-framing; the W. gable projects, and the walls are whitewashed between the timbers. The chimney stack at the E. end has been re-built with old bricks. Interior:—On the ground floor, in the room at the E. end, is a wide fireplace, extending the width of the house, the head formed by a heavy moulded beam of the 16th century; on the S. side a circular brick oven projects externally. The framing of beams at the W. end of the house is elaborately arranged for the projection on two sides, with a diagonal joist and rafters at right angles to each other. On the first floor the hall has an open timber roof, with queen-post trusses and curved wall-braces; the intermediate trusses have braced collar-beams; both tie-beams and collar-beams are naturally cambered; the wind-braces are curved, the purlins and other timbers are plain.

Condition—Very good. The house is now under the care of the 'National Trust'.

a(22). Manor House, S.E. of the church, is of two storeys and an attic, built of stone rubble with brick quoins at the end of the 17th century, much altered and restored early in the 19th century. The roof is tiled, and hipped at the corners. The plan is square, pierced in the middle by a passage, with the main entrance at the N. end, and the staircase at the S. end. Both storeys were divided originally into four rooms, by cross walls containing fireplaces. The elevations are all plain and symmetrical, with a wooden cornice of classical design carried round the house without break. The E. wall is covered with stucco, and the windows have been altered. In the other walls the windows and doorways have plain flat architraves, apparently of brick, covered with plaster; the window frames are solid, with plain square mullions and transoms, and have iron casements with simple furniture. The attic is lighted by hipped dormer windows. Interior:—In a room on the ground floor is some panelling with large bolection moulding, probably original. The staircase, also probably original, has twisted balusters. In the cellar is a re-set door of c. 1600.

Condition—Very good.

a(23). Cottage, about 80 yards S. of the church, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, of timber and plaster on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

High Street, E. side

a(24). Cottage, of two storeys, probably of early 17th-century date. The walls are partly of stone, partly of timber and plaster; the roof is tiled. The upper storey projects slightly at the N. end of the W. front. The chimney is of old thin bricks, and under it is a large open fireplace.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(25). Cottages, a range of three, of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, partly covered with plaster, and patched with brick. The roof is thatched. The chimney is of old thin bricks. One room has an open fireplace and the timbers of the roof are visible in the attic.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(26). Cottage, of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built probably in the 17th century, of timber and plaster, on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is of thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(27). Cottage, in a side lane, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, and partly timber-framed with plaster filling, restored with modern brick. The roof is thatched. In front there are three gables.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(28). Cottage, S. of (27), is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, of stone and brick; an addition has been made at the S. end. The roof is thatched. Two of the chimneys are old.

Condition—Poor.

a(29). Thompson's Farm, is a building of two storeys and an attic, probably of early 17th-century date. The walls are timber-framed with brick filling; the roofs are partly tiled and partly thatched. A large chimney stack is built of old thin bricks, and under it is a wide, open fireplace. The ceilings have chamfered beams. A barn adjoins the house and is probably of the same date.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(30). Farmhouse, a two-storeyed building of brick and timber, probably of early 17th-century date, but re-fronted with modern brick; the roofs are tiled. At the back are twin gables and some of the windows are old. The chimney stack is of thin bricks. A large barn, built of stone, adjoins the N. end of the house.

Condition—Poor.

a(31). House, now two tenements, of two storeys. The walls have been entirely re-faced, and the only evidence of the date of the building is the chimney of 17th-century brick and a chamfered beam in the ceiling of the lower storey.

Condition—Good; much restored.

a(32). House, about 50 yards N.E. of the school, is a two-storeyed rectangular building, probably of mid 16th-century date, with a small square addition of c. 1600, probably a stair-turret, at the S.E. angle, and an 18th-century addition at each end. The original part of the house is rectangular, and built of brick and timber; the upper storey projects on the N.W. front, which has been re-faced with modern timber and plaster; the S.E. addition is of stone, with stone mullioned windows. The roofs are tiled. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks. On the ground floor there are two wide fireplaces, partly blocked, and one room has two richly moulded beams in the ceiling. The bracketed tie-beams of the roof are visible on the first floor.

Condition—Good; much restored.

a(33). House, now a dwelling and the Police Station, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of stone; the roof is thatched. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Good; much restored.

a(34). Cottage, probably of early 17th-century date, is of two storeys, timber-framed with plaster filling; the roof is thatched. Some of the windows are old, and one chimney is built of thin bricks.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(35). Cottage, about 60 yards S. of the school, is of two storeys, probably of early 17th-century date. The lower part of the walls is of stone, the upper part of timber and brick. The roof is thatched. The chimney stack has three square shafts set diagonally, built of old thin bricks; under it is an open fireplace.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(36). Cottages, a range of five, formerly malthouses, in Maltise Yard, are each of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. They were built probably in the 17th century, and are partly of brick and timber, partly of stone. The roofs are thatched.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(37). House, S. of the school, is a 17th-century rectangular building of two storeys, facing N.W., with a modern wing at each end. The walls are of stone, patched with brick at the back; the roof is tiled. Some of the windows of the older part of the building are original, and have moulded stone mullions and labels. The central chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Inside the house is a chamfered ceiling-beam.

Condition—The original building is now unoccupied and in very bad repair.

Frog Lane, S.E. side

a(38). House, a two-storeyed building of central chimney type, and probably of early 17th-century date. The walls are of brick, the lower part original, the upper part of later date, and at the back is some timber-framing; the roof is partly thatched and partly tiled. In front are three gabled half-dormer windows, and a window at the back has moulded wooden mullions.

Condition—Good; much altered and restored.

a(39). Cottage, of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, partly covered with plaster, and timber-framing is visible in the gables at the ends. The roof is thatched. Two chimneys are of thin bricks. On the ground floor is a large, open fireplace, partly blocked, and one room has stop-chamfered beams in the ceiling. At the back of the cottage, and probably contemporary with it, is a barn built of stone.

Condition—Good.

b(40). Long Crendon Manor, house, gatehouse and other outbuildings, at the W. end of the village. The House is of two storeys and an attic, timber-framed, with some brick facing, and almost entirely covered with rough-cast; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 15th century, and was apparently of the H type, with a large hall, of three bays, open to the roof, in the middle, and a two-storeyed wing, of shallow projection, at each end; the hall and the E. wing remain, but have been considerably altered; the hall is now the kitchen; the screens were probably at the E. end, but the alterations make this uncertain. In the second half of the 16th century the W. wing was replaced by a larger two-storeyed building, with a small staircase wing; c. 1600 it was probably further enlarged; the W. bay was cut off from the rest of the hall and a large chimney stack was inserted. Many alterations and additions were made in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the exterior walls were re-faced. The house and outbuildings partly enclose a forecourt on the S., entered through an archway in the gatehouse. S. Elevation:—The hall has a high-pitched roof with a low wall-plate and remains unaltered in shape; the 16th and 17th-century additions at the W. end have several gables, all much altered; the 16th-century building has a large chimney stack of brick with a stone base and octagonal shafts; built against the stack is the small gabled staircase wing. The chimney stacks of the mediæval part were re-built in the 19th century. The E. wing is gabled and has a half-hipped roof. N. Elevation:—Some dormer windows have been inserted in the roof of the hall; the W. wing appears to be entirely modern externally, except the chimney stacks on the W. side of the wing, which are similar to the S. stack.

Interior:—In the hall (now the kitchen) one truss of the original roof is visible, and has two cambered tie-beams, one above the other, the upper tie-beam with king-post and struts to the collar-beam, the lower with heavy angle braces, curiously moulded at the feet. On the W. side of the chimney stack inserted in the hall is a deep ingle nook, now much restored. In the E. wing one truss of the original roof remains and has a cambered tie-beam and rough angle braces. A room on the ground floor in the W. wing has two moulded cross-beams in the ceiling, and a 16th-century fireplace, with a four-centred head, the spandrels carved with blank shields and foliage; the doorway opening into the staircase has moulded jambs and four-centred head, with carved foliated spandrels, all of wood. In another room is a fireplace of c. 1600, with a straight-sided four-centred head. On the first floor is a plain 16th-century fireplace with a moulded four-centred head.

The Gatehouse was built probably at the same time as the house, and was originally of two storeys, but the upper floor has been removed. The walls are of stone; the roof is tiled. The three-centred arch in the S. wall was re-built, probably in the 18th century; above it is a blocked arch, apparently the relieving arch of a window. Over the gateway in the N. wall is a heavy beam, with remains of circular foiled ornament much weathered; on the same wall is a plain offset buttress; on the E. side is a small projection, which probably contained formerly a winding staircase; a small fragment of the spring of the groining remains. The other Outbuildings are of rougher character and later date than the gatehouse.

Condition—Good, much altered.

a(41). Cottage, S.W. of (40), is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century. The lower storey is of stone, the upper storey of timber and brick, and the E. end has been refaced with modern brick; the roof is tiled. On the N. front is a small oriel window with a moulded cornice and bracket; at the W. end is a chimney of 17th-century brick, and under it is a large open fireplace, partly blocked. In the ceilings are a few chamfered beams.

Condition—Good.

Bicester road, N. side

a(42). House, at the corner of the High Street, is a 17th-century building of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. The walls are covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is of thin bricks.

Condition—Good.

S. side

a(43). Cottage, now a bakehouse, is of one storey and an attic, probably of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The walls are of stone, timber and brick, and partly covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks, and under it is a large open fireplace.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(44–46). House and two Cottages, each of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The eastern cottage is of timber and plaster, on brick foundations; the roof is thatched; one of the chimneys and some of the windows are old. The house and the western cottage are of timber and brick, on stone foundations; the house, probably of earlier date than the cottage, has been re-fronted with modern brick, but has a large chimney of old thin bricks; the roofs are tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(47). Cottage, built in the 17th century, is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. The walls are of stone with some plaster, and at one end is a little brick and timber; the roof is thatched.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(48). Cottage, of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of stone, partly of timber and plaster, on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. Two of the chimneys are old.

Condition—Good.

a(49). House (see Plate, p. 30), standing back from the road, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. One chimney is original, and under it is an open fireplace.

Condition—Good, much restored.

a(50). House, of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, and partly timber-framed with brick filling, partly of brick on stone foundations, some of the brick being of the 18th and 19th centuries; the roof is tiled. The three chimneys are old, and under each is a large fireplace, one with the original chimney-corner seat and a recess at the side.

Condition—Good.

a(51). The Elms, is a two-storeyed house, built of stone, probably in the 17th century. The roof is thatched. One chimney is of old thin bricks, and one window has small moulded mullions of wood.

Condition—Good.

a(52). Cottage, now two tenements, is of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century. The walls are partly of brick and timber, partly covered with plaster, and are on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. Two chimneys are of 17th-century brick. Inside the cottage are two open fireplaces, one partly filled in, and some old ceiling-beams.

Condition—Poor.

a(53). The Angel Inn, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan, with the inner angle facing E., but the space between the wings is now enclosed. On the N.E. front the original wing is of brick, the later addition of stone, and both are gabled. At the back the wall is of brick, except at the W. end, where the lower part is of brick, the upper part timber-framed, with brick filling. The roofs are tiled. The chimneys and some of the windows are old. Inside the house are some chamfered ceiling-beams and an open fireplace.

Condition—Good; restored and altered.

a(54). Cottage, of two storeys, is probably of mid 17th-century date, with a later addition on the N.W. side. The walls are partly of stone, partly of timber and plaster on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. Some of the windows and the chimneys are old.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(55). Cottage, now four tenements, about 80 yards S.E. of the Crown Inn, is a 17th-century building of two storeys. The walls are on stone foundations and are covered with plaster; in the gables is visible some timber and brick. The roof is partly tiled and partly thatched. Some of the rooms have open fireplaces.

Condition—Poor.

a(56). The Hollington, two cottages, forms a rectangular building of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, and is of the 17th century. The walls are timber-framed on stone foundations; the filling is partly of plaster, partly of modern brick; the roof is thatched. Some of the windows have old iron casements.

Condition—Bad.

Lower End, S. side:

a(57). The Crown Inn, is a two-storeyed house, built probably late in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan, with a cellar under the main block. The walls are of stone, but the roof of the S.W. wing appears to have been raised, and the head of the gable is of brick and timber. The roofs are partly tiled, partly thatched. The main block has square-headed windows with moulded stone mullions, and some of the windows in the S.W. wing have iron casements and small moulded mullions of wood. One chimney is of old thin bricks, and under it is a large open fireplace; a second fireplace and some panelling on the ground floor are of late 17th-century date. On the first floor is a late 16th-century overmantel, of plaster, with three medallions, each containing, in low relief, the bust of a man wearing a morion.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(58). House, of two storeys, was built probably late in the 17th century, but the walls have been re-faced with modern brick, except the N.W. wall, which is of stone. An addition has been made on the E. side. The roof is tiled. The chimney is of old thin bricks, and some of the windows have iron casements. In one room is a wide open fireplace.

Condition—Good.

a(59). Cottage, of two storeys, built of brick and timber on stone foundations in the 17th century; the roof is tiled. Two wide, open fireplaces remain, one partly blocked.

Condition—Good.

a(60). Cottage, now adjoining the George and Dragon Inn at the back and forming part of it, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century. The walls are of brick and timber; the roofs are thatched. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick, but has been repaired, and under it is a wide, open fireplace.

Condition—Poor.

N. side

a(61). House, of two storeys; the walls are partly covered with plaster, partly of brick on stone foundations; the roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped: the longer wing was built in the 17th century; the N. end is higher and probably of earlier date than the other part, and has a timber-framed gable on the S.; the other wing is modern. The two chimneys are of 17th-century brick. Some of the ceilings have old beams.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(62). House, now two tenements, is of L-shaped plan. The W. wing is of one storey and an attic, built of brick and timber on stone foundations, probably early in the 17th century. The S. wing is of two storeys and an attic, partly of stone, partly covered with modern rough-cast, and is probably of later date than the W. wing. The roofs are tiled. One room has an open fireplace, partly filled in, and the roof timbers are visible in the W. wing.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(63). Cottage, formerly three tenements, is of two storeys, built of stone in the 17th century. The roof is tiled. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks. The interior of the building was partly destroyed by fire about thirty years ago, but two open fireplaces remain.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(64). Cottage, of two storeys, built of timber and brick on stone foundations, probably early in the 17th century. There is an old brick chimney, now repaired, and under it is an open fireplace, partly blocked.

Condition—Fairly good.

a(65). The Mound (formerly Emmerton's Farm), house and stables, about ¾ mile W. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed, with modern or re-set brick filling, on stone foundations, and with some walls, now internal, of stone rubble. The roof is thatched. The building is probably partly mediæval, much altered and enlarged, considerable additions having been made on the S. In front are two original windows with plain chamfered frames, partly cut in the constructional timbers of the framework; one window has moulded wood mullions, inserted c. 1600; a third window of c. 1600, has a moulded frame and mullions. Interior:—In one room, in a wall of stone rubble, formerly external, is a wide opening, probably a doorway, of uncertain date, with a beam for the head, and crudely moulded jambs of stone; the fireplace has a similar opening and moulding of the same profile.

The Stables, formerly a cottage, S.E. of the house, are also probably of mediæval date, built of brick and timber, and much restored. The plan is rectangular, and the building probably contained only one room, open to the roof, of which the original trusses remain; a dividing floor was removed when the cottage was made into stables.

Condition—Very good; much altered.

a(66). Cottage, now two tenements, opposite the Crown Inn, is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built in the 17th century. The walls are of stone, except the N.W. end, which shows some brick and timber; the roof is thatched. One of the chimneys is of old thin bricks.

Condition—Good.

a(67). Cottage, opposite the Crown Inn, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber on stone foundations; the roof is thatched.

Condition—Good.

b(68). Notley Abbey, now a large farmhouse, about 1 mile E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of stone; the roofs are tiled. It comprises the remains of the monastic buildings of a house of Austin Canons, founded early in the 12th century, and has been much altered.

The remains form an interesting illustration of the monastic plan.

No definite trace is left of the Church which was on the N. side of the Cloister Garth and set at an angle considerably N. of E., but a line of masonry buried in the ground on the N. side of the farmyard may be the foundation of the S. wall of the nave or aisle of the nave. The East Range of the Abbey has completely disappeared, and the approximate site is now occupied by some farm buildings. A stone coffin, containing human remains, dug up N.E. of these buildings, probably indicates the site of the Chapter House. Of the South Range, containing the Frater and Warming-House, only the N. wall and part of the E. wall of the frater remain and are of mid 13th-century date; they are now incorporated in some of the farm buildings, of which the other walls are of uncertain date, possibly modern. The E. wall of the West Range, is also of the 13th century, and now forms the E. wall of a long wing of the house containing the kitchens and offices; at the N. end of this wall are traces of the doorway of the Outer Parlour; the other walls of this wing have been built since the dissolution of the monastery, and some of them are of modern construction. At right angles to the W. range, and projecting towards the W., is a long building of late 15th-century date with an early 16th-century wing at the W. end, projecting towards the S.; it was probably the Guest House, and now contains the principal rooms of the farmhouse. About 200 yards N.W. of these buildings is a large Dove-cot, apparently of mediæval date. The monastic buildings have been occupied since the dissolution, and have undergone a continuous process of alteration, patching and destruction. The recent work has been extensive, even the old foundations having been dug up in many places, and much evidence has been obliterated.

SOUTH RANGE

The barn and stable, which occupy part of the site of the Frater, form a range ridged from end to end, and measuring about 88 ft. by 29 ft., the frater having been of greater width; they are divided by a stone wall of uncertain date, possibly modern. The N. and E. walls of the range are of mid 13th-century date, the W. wall is probably on the old foundations of the W. wall of the frater; the S. wall is of uncertain date or modern, and has a large waggon-porch of stone. The N. wall has, in the middle, a modern waggon entrance and at each end a 13th-century arch, with moulded head and shafted jambs, now blocked; the eastern arch was the entrance to the warming-house; the western arch was probably the entrance to the screens of the frater, in both cases opening from the cloister; a string-course is carried along this wall and forms a label over the arches; the upper part of the wall has been re-built. The coach-house is a small rough structure of brick, built against the old N. and W. walls of the Warming-House; the W. wall, originally the E. wall of the frater, has in it a 14th-century doorway, now blocked and half buried in the ground, formerly the entrance to the cellar under the frater; above this doorway the wall projects, and is supported on what appears to be the rough springing of a vault. On the other side of the wall, inside the barn, and about 5 ft. above the level of the ground, is an offset, which indicates the floor level of the frater; considerably above the off-set, and a little under the level of the wall-plate, is a corbel table with eight richly moulded trefoiled arches; the corbels and spandrels are foliated; beyond the corbel table is some quoining, which possibly indicates an opening destroyed when the S. wall of the barn was built.

Cloister Garth

WEST RANGE

The kitchen wing of the farmhouse, which represents the W. range of the original buildings, has a gable on the S., the roof is ridged from end to end, and mitres with that of the guest-house. The W. wall is modern, but the S. wall is partly old. The N. wall is formed by part of the S. wall of the guest-house. The 13th-century E. wall, formerly the back of the West Cloister, has a string-course similar to that of the frater and towards the S. end of the wall is an old doorway with a heavily moulded head, over which the string-course is carried to form a label; towards the N. end are traces of a similar doorway, probably that of the Outer Parlour; the S. end of the wall has been much re-built. In a larder, at the N. end of the wing, is a 15th-century doorway, formerly opening into the guest-house, but now blocked.

THE GUEST HOUSE

On the ground floor the late 15th-century main wing is divided into a hall and dining-room by a modern wall. A modern staircase wing has been added on the N. The 16th-century wing has an hexagonal stair-turret at the N.W. angle and a large fireplace in the W. wall, beyond which is a small chamber, possibly a smoke chamber, now entered from a short wing projecting towards the W. from the S. end of the 16th-century wing. The roofs, which are gabled at the ends of the wings, are not original. The N. Elevation of the main wing has no original details, and is partly covered by the modern staircase wing, of which one wall is built on an old garden wall; in the N. wall of the 16th-century wing is an original window of two lights in two stages; the lights in the upper stage have pointed heads, but were formerly cusped; the lights in the lower stage are now square. The hexagonal stair-turret at the N.W. angle has an embattled parapet and small pointed windows. The S. Elevation has, in the main wing, four original windows, two on each floor; all of two cinque-foiled lights and somewhat crude tracery under square heads with labels; the doorway and porch are modern; the S. end of the 16th-century wing and of the smaller projecting wing has diagonal buttresses. The W. Elevation has a large chimney stack of stone, with re-built shafts of brick; the small chamber at the back of the fireplace, projecting from the stack, has small windows similar to those of the stair-turret. All the windows have been much repaired. Interior:— The first floor of the main wing is carried on heavy chamfered oak beams, and in a room on the first floor is an original fireplace with a four-centred head and foliated spandrels. On the ground floor of the 16th-century wing is a large modern fireplace carefully copied from the original fireplace in the main wing; the first floor is carried on moulded beams and wall-plates.

The Dove-cot is a large square building of stone. The roof is hipped and covered with tiles. The interior has short walls projecting from the outer walls, and all are set with nests, of which the total number is from four to five thousand.

Condition—The church and eastern range destroyed, some traces may remain underground; of the frater range, poor; of the western range, remains in good condition incorporated in modern building; of guest house, good, but altered and enlarged; of dove-cot, fairly good.