An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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70. LOWER WINCHENDON.
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxvii. S.E. (b)xxxii. N.E.)
b(1). Parish Church of St. Nicholas, stands in the middle of the village, and is built of limestone rubble, with stone dressings, the nave being roughly plastered; the roofs of the chancel and porch are tiled, that of the nave is covered with lead. The earliest detail in the church is the chancel arch, which is of late 13th-century date; the Chancel and Nave appear to have been practically re-built before the middle of the 14th century, and the South Porch was added at the same time. The West Tower was begun about the middle of the 15th century, but was not finished until the end of the century; the windows of the nave were altered in the 15th century. In the 19th century the whole building was restored, and the chancel partly re-built.
Architectural Description — The Chancel (25½ ft. by 16 ft.) has a 14th-century E. window, re-set, and probably partly re-cut; it is of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two 14th-century windows, each of two trefoiled lights with three quatrefoils in a two-centred head; both the windows are apparently re-set, and partly restored. In the S. wall are two windows of mid 15th-century date, each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a four-centred head; between the windows is a small 14th-century doorway, with continuously chamfered jambs and much restored two-centred head. The late 13th-century chancel arch is of two chamfered orders, with a label in the nave; the jambs have half-octagonal pilasters with moulded capitals and bases, all much scraped. The Nave (52 ft. by 22½ ft.) has, in the N. wall, two late 15th-century windows, the eastern of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a four-centred head; the western of three cinque-foiled lights with pierced spandrels in a four-centred head; between the windows is a straight joint, apparently indicating the position of the N. doorway. In the S. wall are two late 15th-century windows; the eastern is similar to the second window in the N. wall, the western is of three cinque-foiled lights and tracery in a square head; the rear arch is moulded: between the windows is the 14th-century S. doorway, with continuously chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The West Tower is of two stages, with a half-octagonal stair-turret in the S.E. angle, and an embattled parapet. The 15th-century tower arch is of two chamfered orders, and the jambs have half-octagonal pilasters with moulded capitals. In the S. wall, opening into the stair-turret, is a doorway with a chamfered head. The 15th-century W. doorway has continuously moulded jambs and two-centred head enriched with four-leafed flowers; the external label has defaced head-stops: the W. window, of the same date as the doorway, is of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. The bell-chamber has late 15th-century windows of two obtuse pointed lights. The South Porch has an early 14th-century entrance archway with continuously moulded jambs and two-centred head, of two orders; at the apex of the gable is the base of a gable cross. In the E. and W. walls are single-light windows with trefoiled heads, of the same date as the archway. The Roof of the chancel has a 15th-century wall-plate.
Fittings—Bells: five, 2nd and 3rd by Ellis Knight, 1640, 5th by Ellis Knight, 1651, sanctus by Robert Atton, 1692. Brasses: In chancel—on N. side, (1) of a man, in complete plate armour, with gorget breastplate, besagues, taces, and leather gauntlets, etc., c. 1420, no inscription; (2) of a woman with veil head-dress and high-waisted fur-trimmed robe, early 15th-century, no inscription; on S. side, (3) of John Barton, alias John Bayle, 1487, and Margaret, his wife, date of her death not filled in, two figures—civilian in furred robe, upper part missing, woman in butterfly head-dress—with inscription. Chair: in the chancel, with carved back, mid 17th-century. Communion Table: with six turned legs, moulded rails, and turned balusters supporting small arcading, of c. 1640, restored at the top. Font: octagonal bowl, corners broached at the top, moulded base, 15th-century. Glass: in E. window of chancel, three small leaves, 15th-century: in tracery of N.W. window of chancel, leopard's head, foliage, and shield with arms of Stafford, 15th-century: in N.W. window of nave, fragments, yellow glass, late 15th-century: in tracery of S.W. window of nave, complete figure of St. Peter, with name, gold and brown line, fine work, late 15th-century: shield with arms—sable three boars' heads argent cut off at the neck, probably 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on S. wall, (1) tablet, with broken pediment, to Thomas Tyringham, 1629, and Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of—Sanders, 1638, with arms (illegible) and inscription; (2) tablet in moulded frame to Francis Tyringham, 1684, and Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of John Chelsham, 'Clerk of the Jewell House for King Charles the Martyr', 1682. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to Dorothy Tyringham, 1603; (2) to Thomas Tyringham, 1609; (3) to Elizabeth Tyringham, 1639. Piscina: in the chancel, with ogee head, defaced basin, 15th-century. Pulpit: hexagonal, with canopy and arcaded panels carved in low relief, c. 1630. Screen: in the nave, in an 18th-century pew, four small traceried panels, 16th-century. Seating: in the nave, ten plain open seats, early 16th-century, ends modern, front of one seat, 16th-century. Sedilia: in S.E. window of chancel, sill carried down low to form sedilia. Stoup: in porch, fragmentary remains.
b(2). Winchendon Priory, about 200 yards S.E. of the church, is a house of two storeys, built about the middle or in the second half of the 16th century, and apparently timber-framed, but covered with stucco, and much altered at the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century. The plan is of the half-H type, with the main block facing S.W., and the wings projecting towards the N.W. The present dining room in the central block was probably the hall, and formerly of one storey, now reduced in size and with an upper floor inserted in it. The S.W. front has in the upper storey two bay windows, with original moulded wood frames and mullions. On the S.E. side are two original chimney stacks, with separate shafts, ornamented with twist, double twist, fretty and other patterns in moulded brick. Interior:— The dining room is lined with early 17th-century panelling, and has, at the N.E. end, an original four-centred doorway with foliated spandrels, and the name 'John Danvers' carved on it. The stone mantelpiece is also original, and has a moulded frieze elaborately carved with grotesque subjects and foliage. The drawing room in the E. angle is lined with original linen panelling, and the fireplace has a plain moulded four-centred head, of stone. A quantity of 17th-century foreign glass was inserted in some of the windows, apparently in the 19th century.
Condition—Good; much altered.
The following buildings (3–7) are all of two storeys, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed, with wichert filling, except (7) which has some filling of 17th-century brick; (4) and (6) are partly restored with modern brick, and have tiled roofs; the other roofs are thatched.
b(3). Cottage, 50 yards E. of the church, on the E. side of the road to Barrack Hill. One chimney stack and some of the windows are old. On the ground floor a large chamfered beam runs the whole length of the ceiling and is supported by brackets; two rooms have each an open fireplace with an original oven.
b(4). Cottage, W. of (3), on the same side of the road. At each end of the N. front is a slightly projecting bay with a gable, and at the back is a similar bay and an addition of later date. The central chimney stack has three shafts built of thin bricks and some of the windows are old. The rooms on the ground floor have open fireplaces and chamfered ceiling-beams.
b(5). Cottage, now three tenements, 50 yards S.E. of the church, on the W. side of the road to Cannon's Hill. Two chimney stacks are of old thin bricks. On the ground floor there are chamfered beams in the ceilings.
b(6). Farmhouse, now several tenements, 350 yards S.W. of the church. On the ground floor, above an open fireplace, is a plaster overmantel decorated with a design of winged monsters, thistles, fleur-de-lis, etc., now partly restored. There are some old battened doors, and in the upper storey the trusses of the roof are visible.
b(7). Cottage, now three tenements, S.W. of (6). The plan was originally rectangular, but a modern addition makes it L-shaped. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks. On the ground floor are two open fireplaces and an open timber ceiling.
b(8). Baker's Farm, about ½ mile S.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, partly of brick, and partly timber-framed with brick filling; the roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, and the chimney stack is of old thin bricks. Inside the house is some 17th-century panelling above an open fireplace, and some of the chamfered beams in the ceilings are original.
b(9). House, formerly a farmhouse, 500 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys and of central chimney type. The walls are of brick and timber, now much covered with ivy; the roof is tiled. It was built probably c. 1676, as a small tablet in a gabled dormer on the S. front bears that date, but was considerably enlarged in the 18th century. On the ground floor is a moulded ceiling-beam and an open fireplace, partly blocked, has chimney-corner seats.
Condition—Good; much restored.
b(10). House, now two tenements, 300 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built in the middle of the 17th century. The walls are partly on stone foundations and timber-framed with original brick and wichert filling, and partly re-faced with brick; the brick filling in the gable at the N. end is of basket-work and herringbone pattern; the roof is tiled. An original chimney stack has three shafts, set diagonally. On the ground floor are two open fireplaces and chamfered beams are visible in the ceilings of both floors.
b(11). Cottage, 300 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built of timber and wichert in the 17th century, but subsequently enlarged and partly re-faced; the roof is thatched. One window is old. On the ground floor are some chamfered ceiling-beams and an open fireplace.
b(12). The Manor Farm, 50 yards S.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys, with attic and basement, built probably early in the 17th century, and subsequently altered and enlarged. The walls are chiefly of thin bricks, partly refaced with 18th-century brick; the S. front, timber-framed and with three gables, and part of the E. wall are covered with modern rough-cast. The plan consists of a rectangular block, with a N. wing projecting towards the E., and a S. wing projecting towards the W.; the S. half of the N. wing has been pulled down recently. The W. wing has, in the N. wall, on the first floor, a window containing some old glass; the dairy in the basement on the S.E. has, in the S. wall, a window with moulded brick mullions, and other windows have old iron casements. In the angle of the main block and the N. wing is an oak door, bearing the date 1620. There are two chimney stacks, each with three shafts, built of thin bricks and set diagonally; another stack is similar, but only two shafts remain. Two rooms on the ground floor have 17th-century panelling and on the first floor is an old battened door.
Some outbuildings S.W. of the house are also of the 17th century.
b(13). Winchendon Hill Farm, about 700 yards N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built probably in the 17th century. The walls are of stone, and, on the W. side, are three gabled dormer windows; the roof is tiled. Inside the house is some 17th-century panelling and an old door, said to have been brought from Eythrope. One room has a large open fireplace, partly blocked, and in the ceilings are stop-chamfered beams.
Condition—Good; much restored.
a(14). Marsh Farm, about ¾ mile N.N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic. The walls are of stone, except the N. wall and the head of a gable on the S. front, which are of thin bricks; in the gable is a tablet bearing the date 1687. The roof is tiled, and in front there are two gabled dormer windows. The plan is rectangular, with a projecting bay and an addition of later date at the back. One chimney is old, and under it is a wide, open fireplace, partly blocked. In the ceilings are some chamfered beams.
a(15). Muskhill Farm, about ½ mile N.W. of the church, is a house of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built probably late in the 17th century; the walls are of brick; the roof is tiled.