An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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(O.S. 6 in. xxvii. N.W.)
(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, at the S.W. end of the village, is entirely covered with rough-cast, except the chancel and porch, which are of limestone rubble; the roofs are covered with lead, except the chancel, which is tiled. The date of the original building, which consisted probably of a chancel and aisleless Nave, is uncertain; the Chancel was re-built c. 1310, and about the middle of the 14th century the nave was lengthened, and North and South Aisles were added. During the first half of the 15th century the West Tower was built in the W. bay of the nave. In the 16th century windows were inserted in the aisles, and the South Porch was built. In the 19th century the church was restored and an Organ-Chamber added N. of the chancel.
The church is of especial interest on account of the unusual character of the 14th-century capitals of the second columns of the nave arcades (see Plate, p. xxiv.).
Architectural Description — The Chancel (26½ ft. by 18 ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall are two 15th-century windows, each of two trefoiled lights and tracery under a four-centred head, with an external label; between the windows is a modern arch opening into the organ-chamber. In the S. wall are two 15th-century windows, each of three lights of similar design to the N. windows; between them is a small doorway of the same date as the windows, with continuously moulded jambs and two-centred head; the external label is apparently 13th-century work re-set. The N. and S. walls, at the W. end, have each the rough opening of a squint from the aisle. The early 14th-century chancel arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous, the inner carried on circular engaged shafts with moulded circular capitals and bases. The Nave (42 ft. by 15 ft.) has 14th-century N. and S. arcades of four bays, the westernmost covered by the tower; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders, with a chamfered label on each side; the octagonal columns and semi-octagonal responds have moulded capitals of varied detail. In the N. arcade the E. respond has a modern capital; the first column has a plain bell-capital with a heavy moulded abacus; the capital of the second column is carved with the heads and shoulders of men in hooded capes, with liripipes; the plain overhanging bell-capital of the third column has an abacus enriched with a form of dog-tooth ornament, and is possibly a 13th-century capital re-used from a former arcade; the capital and base of the W. respond were defaced in building the tower; all the bases are of similar detail, and of considerable projection. The S. arcade resembles the N. arcade, but the two western arches are slightly lower than the others; the moulded capital of the E. respond is of unusual character, and the base is chamfered; the first column, with a plain bell-capital, is a restoration of the 15th century, and is much heavier than the others; the capital of the second column is carved in the same way as that on the N.; the third capital is ornamented with carved heads; the W. respond has a plain moulded bell-capital, and the base is defaced; all the other bases are of slight projection. Over the chancel arch, outside, at the apex of the E. gable, and rising above the plain parapet of the nave, is a small cot for the sanctus bell, apparently of the 15th century, with restored pinnacles and finial. The North Aisle (7 ft. wide) has an E. window of mid 14th-century date, and of three trefoiled lights with elaborate tracery in a two-centred head; the moulded external label has head-stops. In the N. wall are three windows, each of three lights with four-centred heads, under a flat lintel, apparently all of the 16th century, but of slightly different detail; the head and sill of the easternmost window do not fit the jambs, which are probably of earlier date: the 14th-century N. doorway, between the two western windows, is now blocked; it has jambs and two-centred head of one chamfered order, and an external label. The South Aisle (5½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, traces of the original S.W. angle of the chancel, before the aisle was built; the single-light E. window is of the 16th century; in the N. corner of the wall is the rough trefoiled opening of the 15th-century squint into the chancel, above it the wall is thinned. In the S. wall are three 16th-century windows, the easternmost of two lights, the second of three lights, and the third a single light, of similar design to those in the N. aisle; the 14th-century S. doorway, between the western windows, has continuously moulded jambs and two-centred head with an external label which has shield-shaped stops; further W., inside, is a 16th-century doorway opening into the staircase of the porch. The West Tower (9 ft. by 8½ ft.) is of two stages above the roof of the nave, and has square projecting buttresses at the angles, a circular S.W. staircase, and an embattled parapet; against the W. wall are the original 14th-century buttresses of the nave arcades. The three arches opening into the nave and aisles were all built in the second half of the 15th century, and are two-centred, of three chamfered orders, the outer continuous, the two inner orders resting on half-octagonal pilasters with moulded capitals. In the S.E. angle is the small doorway of the staircase. The 14th-century W. window was probably originally the W. window of the nave; it is of three trefoiled lights and tracery under a pointed head. The 15th-century windows of the bell-chamber are each of two trefoiled lights with a pierced double spandrel in a two-centred head; the detail is unusual. The South Porch is of two stages, with a plain parapet, and, in the S.W. corner, remains of a circular staircase built into the S. wall of the aisle. The 16th-century entrance archway is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the jambs have crudely moulded capitals and bases. In the low-pitched gable above the archway is a window with a round arch in a square-headed reveal. The Roof of the chancel is of the 15th century, and of hammer-beam construction, the brackets and wall-plates are embattled and moulded, the spandrels are solid, carved with various designs; the brackets rest on halfoctagonal corbels and the hammer-beams have moulded pendants. The 16th-century roof of the nave is low-pitched, of four bays with five trusses; the tie-beams, purlins and ridge are moulded; the three king-posts have curved braces, and the tie-beams have angle brackets; at the feet of the rafters are small wooden half-figures of angels, holding shields; some of the wings are broken away.
Fittings—Bells: five, 4th by Richard Keene, 1658. Brasses: (see Monuments.) Chair: in the chancel, the back ornamented with L-shaped and square panels cut out of solid board, carved rail at the top, curved arms and turned legs, early 17th-century. Chest: in W. tower, plain, with pin hinges, early mediæval, exact date uncertain. Font: circular bowl with acanthus ornament, moulded stem and base, late 12th-century. Glass: in tracery of E. window of N. aisle, fragments of architectural canopies, etc., figure with orb and hand raised in benediction, mid 14th-century, contemporary with the window. Monuments: In chancel—(1) rough altar tomb, in covering slab, brasses of Anne, wife of 'Mihill' Englishe, 1565, of Anne (Englishe), wife of John Gyfford, and her daughter Anne Neele, three figures, one that of a child, with two inscriptions and shield bearing arms. In the churchyard—W. of church, grave-stones, (2) to William Tepur, 1629; E. of porch, (3) to Edward Shelley, 1694. Piscinæ: in the chancel, with chamfered flat head, jambs with four-leafed flower ornament, no bowl, 14th-century, possibly re-set: in S. aisle, with flat chamfered head, jambs with broach-stops, quatrefoil bowl, probably 15th-century. Tiles: in floor of chancel, on N. side, mediæval, much worn. Miscellanea: wooden bier, with hinged handles, 17th-century.
Condition—Good, except roof of nave, which leaks, and some timbers show signs of rot.
(2). S.W. of Tetchwick Farm, 1½ miles N.E. of the church (see (19) below).
(3). S.W. of the church.
High Street, W. side
(4). The Five Bells Inn, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, of timber and brick on stone foundations; the S. wall has been re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched. One chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
(5). Cottage, formerly a farmhouse, about 100 yards N. of (4), is a 17th-century building of two storeys, timber-framed with brick filling, and partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched. Two chimney stacks are of old thin bricks. The walls of the dairy attached to the N. end of the cottage, but now in ruins, are also of timber and brick.
E. side, from S. to N.
(6). House, opposite (4), is of two storeys, and of late 17th-century date. The walls are of blue and red brick in Flemish bond; the roof is tiled. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
(7). Cottage, about 200 yards N. of the church, is of one storey, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed with plaster filling; the roof is thatched. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
(8). The White Hart Inn, is a 17th-century building of two storeys. The walls are of timber and brick, partly covered with plaster, partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched. The central chimney stack is of old thin bricks. On the ground floor are some chamfered ceiling-beams and a wide, open fireplace.
Piddington road, N. side
(9). D'Oyley's Farm, about 800 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are of stone, with two gables on the N. side; the roof is tiled. The chimney is of old thin bricks, and under it is a wide, open fireplace.
(10). Cottage, W. of (9), is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed with plaster and brick filling, partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched. The windows have iron frames, and the chimney stack is of old thin bricks, but has been restored.
(11). Petty's Farm, about 700 yards N. of the church, is a 17th-century building of two storeys, timber-framed with brick filling, partly re-faced with modern brick; at each end is an 18th-century addition; the roofs are tiled. The chimney stack has three square shafts, built of old thin bricks. Inside the house is a wide, open fireplace with a bread oven, and there are some chamfered beams in the ceilings.
(12). Cottage, up a side road opposite Petty's Farm, is of one storey and an attic. The walls have been entirely re-faced with modern brick, but the chimney stack is of 17th-century brick.
(13). House, about 700 yards N.E. of the church, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, of brick and timber on stone foundations; the roof is thatched. At the W. end is a modern addition.
(14). Cottage, S. of (13), is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed with plaster filling, partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched.
(15). House, now two tenements, formerly a farmhouse, 500 yards N.E. of the church, is a 17th-century building of two storeys. The walls are of stone; the roof is thatched. The chimney stacks are built of thin bricks. The windows and some of the doors are old.
(16). Cottage, about 400 yards N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of timber and brick in the 17th century, and partly re-faced with modern brick; the roof is thatched. Some of the windows and one chimney stack are old.
(17). Home Farm, about ¼ mile N.E. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic, partly timber-framed with brick filling, partly of modern brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century and subsequently enlarged. The original plan was T-shaped, with the central wing projecting towards the N.; a small wing was added at the S.W. angle of the cross wing in 1738, the date appearing on a dormer window, and low modern additions have been built on each side of the central wing. The cross wing has been re-faced with modern brick on the S. front; the E. and W. ends are gabled, and at the W. end is a large chimney stack, the lower part of stone, the upper part of modern brick. The N. end of the central wing has a gable, widened to include the modern additions, and an original chimney stack of brick, with V-shaped pilasters on two faces. Interior:—Some of the rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams, and between the kitchen and dairy is an early 16th-century door, brought from elsewhere; it is of oak, with moulded frame and twelve linenfold panels. A large fireplace in the W. chimney stack has been partly blocked. On the first floor are four panelled oak doors, all of the 17th century, but one of earlier date than the others.
(18). Farmhouse, about 3/8 mile N.E. of the church, is a long building, facing E.; the S. and narrower block was built c. 1650, of timber and brick, and the N. block early in the 18th century, of red and black bricks, with some timber-framing at the back. The roofs are tiled. The side walls of the older part have been heightened and the S. gable altered. The central chimney stack is original. Inside the house there are original ceiling-beams, and a wide fireplace, partly blocked.
(19). Tetchwick Farm, about 1½ miles N.E. of the church, is a two-storeyed stone building of late 17th-century date, partly covered with modern rough-cast; the roof is thatched. The original central chimney stack is of thin bricks. Inside the house is an open fireplace, partly blocked, and one door of moulded battens.
Marlow, Great and Little, see Great Marlow and Little Marlow.