An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)x. N.E. (b)x. S.E.)
b(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, in the middle of the village, is built of yellow limestone rubble, with some blocks of shelly oolite; the dressings are of oolite and limestone. The roofs are covered with lead, slate and tiles. The proportions of the Nave are probably those of the 12th-century nave; the North and South Aisles were added in the middle of the 13th century; in the first half of the 14th century they were apparently re-built, and the arcades heightened and partly re-cut; at the same time the chancel arch was re-built or re-cut, and the West Tower and a S. porch were added. In the 19th century the church was generally restored, and the Chancel and South Porch were completely re-built; the chancel is said to have been shortened.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (18 ft. by 15 ft.) has modern windows in the E. and S. walls. The 13th-century chancel arch was apparently re-built or re-cut in the 14th century, and is of two chamfered orders, with semi-octagonal pilasters; the capitals, with abaci, and the bases are moulded; on the W. side is a chamfered label. The Nave (47 ft. by 17 ft.) has 13th-century N. and S. arcades, altered in the 14th century, and each of four bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, having chamfered labels in the nave; the columns are of the same height and design as those of the chancel arch, and the 13th-century capitals are also similar, but have more elaborate abaci; those of the E. responds are continued from the chancel arch; the bases are moulded, some of them are of 14th-century design and similar to those of the chancel arch. The clearstorey has, on each side, four windows, all of the 17th century or later date, with square heads and wood lintels; above them, externally, are a few courses of late 17th-century brick. The North Aisle (11 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, an early 14th-century window of three trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern of two lights, and of the same date and design as that in the E. wall; the western window is also of the 14th century, and of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head: between the windows is the N. doorway, of which only the internal stonework is old. The South Aisle (11 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a modern window. In the S. wall are two windows of the same date and design as those opposite to them in the N. aisle: between the windows is the early 14th-century S. doorway, considerably restored; the jambs and two-centred head are of two continuously moulded orders, with a label. The West Tower (11 ft. by 10 ft.) is entirely of early 14th-century date. It is of two stages, the lower stage being of considerable height, with angle buttresses and a quarteroctagonal S.W. stair-turret. The two-centred tower arch is of two chamfered orders, which die into the walls; above it, opening into the nave, is a single trefoiled light. In the N. wall, high up, is a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the S.W. angle is the doorway of the stair-turret, with chamfered jambs and ogee head. The W. window is of two lights, and originally of the same design as the N.E. window of the N. aisle, but the cusps and part of the tracery have been cut away. The N., S. and W. walls of the bell-chamber have each a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; in the E. wall is a window of three uncusped lights with tracery in a two-centred head. The South Porch (7½ ft. by 7 ft.) has been completely re-built, but the entrance archway of early 14th-century date has been re-used and much restored; it is of the same detail as the S. doorway, but without a label.
Fittings—Bells: four, 1st by James Keene, 1640. Bracket: In S. aisle—in S.E. corner, square, with chamfered edges, partly broken. Brasses and Indents. In N. aisle—near E. end, of two figures, man in plate armour, with mail skirt, large knee-cops, shoulder guards, long sword hanging from belt, said to be Richard Ruthall, 1528, woman in long gown and pedimental head-dress, shield with arms, a cross engrailed between four martlets, a chief quarterly with two roses therein, impaling a fesse between three crescents, indents of groups of sons and daughters, three shields, and marginal inscription. Indent: In chancel—at N.E. corner, figure of priest in Mass vestments, and inscription plate. Chests: In N. aisle—at W. end, two, one long, plain, with ornamental iron bands, hasps for two padlocks, late 13th or early 14th-century; the other, small, plain, with fleur de lis strap-hinge on lid, possibly 17th-century. Door: In stair-turret —in lower doorway, of old battens with strap-hinges. Font: octagonal stem with moulding at the top, and stops at the bottom, 14th-century, bowl modern. Glass: In tower—in tracery of W. window, fragments, 14th-century. Locker: In S. aisle—in S.E. corner, small, deep, with chamfered jambs and head, possibly 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monument: In S. aisle—at E. end, coffin slab, with traces of cross flory on stepped base, probably 14th-century, much worn. Floor-slab: In chancel—partly under altarsteps, to George Goodman, rector of the parish, 1695. Panelling: In nave—on W. wall, twelve panels with moulded framing, styles and rails, in each panel a rose in a lozenge-shaped ornament, early 17th-century, probably from a pew. In S. aisle—on S. wall, near W. end, some panels, from seating, early 17th-century. Piscinae: In N. aisle—in E. wall, traces only, with drain hole. In S. aisle—at E. end of S. wall, with chamfered jambs, trefoiled head and sunk spandrels, 14th-century, basin modern. Poor-box: In S. aisle—near doorway, with carved border in front, and small strap-hinges, apparently 17th-century. Screens: Under chancel arch—upright timber at each end, N. upright with small squint in it, moulded principal mullions, and two panels with cinque-foiled heads and carved spandrels, 15th-century, the rest modern. In N. aisle—formerly enclosing E. end of aisle as chapel, lower part of screen, with chamfered main timbers, rail with mortises for upper part, S. post rebated for door, plain panels, 16th-century, chamfered strips covering joints of panels modern, except one original strip. Seating (see also Panelling): In nave—of almost all seats on N. side, and three seats on S. side, panelled backs with moulded rails, some of the ends and part of benches, early 17th-century, all partly restored and painted. Tiles: In N. aisle—at N. end, a few fragments. In S. aisle—at E. end, of various designs, one with a face and inscribed "Ricard' me fecit", probably late 14th or early 15th-century, much worn. Miscellanea: bier, of oak, with turned hinged handles, guilloche ornament on legs, shaped bracket supporting rail, incised inscription, recording names of churchwardens, etc., and dated 1651. In S. aisle—stone: 16½ in. square by 19 in. high, with chamfered angles and trefoil in sides, circular sinking at the top, date and use uncertain. In chancel—stools, four, each with turned legs and plain foot rails, top rail of one stool carved, of others shaped, 17th-century. In nave—in modern Litany desk, two foiled ogee heads of panels, with carved crockets and finials, from screen or bench end, early 15th-century, painted.
These buildings are all of the 17th century, and of two storeys; the walls generally are timber-framed, and some of them have wattle and daub filling. The roofs are tiled or thatched.
b(2). Cottage, 75 yards N.E. of the church. The plan is L-shaped, and the walls are partly of old thin bricks. The roof has been heightened, and a modern gable added on the E. side. Interior:—There are some original beams in the ceilings; an open fireplace has been partly blocked.
a(3). Cottage, 300 yards N.E. of the church. The central chimney stack is original. The filling in the walls is partly of modern brick.
a(4). House, formerly a farmhouse, now four tenements, 600 yards N.E. of the church. The original plan is rectangular, a modern wing has been added, making it L-shaped. The filling of the walls is entirely of brick. One chimney stack is original. Interior:—On the ground floor there are some open timber ceilings.
Condition—Of all the buildings, good.